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Sustaining Employee Interest
Compensation Management It can be defined as the financial and non financial rewards provided by an employer for the time, skills and the effort made available by the employee in fulfilling job requirements aimed at achieving organizational objectives. It is an activity by which organizations evaluate the contributions of employees in order to distribute fairly, direct and indirect monetary and non monetary rewards within the organization s ability and legal regulations. Wage vs. Salary Wage refers to hourly rate or daily rate of pay It is the most frequently used pay basis for production and maintenance employees (blue collar workers ) Salary refers to a weekly, monthly or yearly rate of pay . It is used for clerical, professional, sales and management employees. Forms of compensation Pay: It is the basic compensation an employee receives usually as a wage or salary Incentive: it is the compensation that rewards an employee for efforts beyond normal performance expectations. Bonus, commission, and profit sharing plans are incentives Benefit: It is additional compensation to an employee as part of organizational membership. Health insurance, pension, vacation pay are benefits. Purpose of an effective compensation system Attract potential job applicants Retain present employees Ensure equity Reward desired behaviour Maintain cost effectiveness Comply with legal regulations, provide flexibility and administrative efficiency Reinforce and define structure Criteria for effectiveness of compensation Adequate Equitable Balanced Cost effective Secure Incentive providing Acceptable to the employee Factors influencing compensation External factors: Government legislation, economy, labor market, trade unions. Internal factors: organization s ability to pay, employee needs, job requirements, organization culture, organizational strategy, cultural diversity.
Phases of compensation management Job analysis Job evaluation Wage and salary surveys Pay structuring Job evaluation It is a systematic process of determining the relative worth of jobs within an organization. The purpose is to rank jobs within a hierarchy that reflects the relative importance or worth of each job in an organization. Since it is subjective it is conducted by specialists called a job evaluation committee. Objectives of job evaluation To establish a systematic and formal structure of jobs based on their worth to the organization To justify an existing pay structure or to develop one that provides for internal equity To provide a basis for negotiating pay rates when a firm bargains collectively with union To develop a basis for merit pay programs To comply with equal pay programs Job evaluation methods 1. Job ranking or ordering method 2. Job grading or classification 3. Point rating method 4. Factor comparison 1. Job ranking It is inexpensive, simple, fast and used in small organizations. It involves ranking the jobs in the order of their importance from lowest to highest. The job is judged as a whole and its place is determined in the job hierarchy by comparing it with other jobs and arranging them in order of importance. The job analyst ranks the whole job on the basis of just one factor like difficulty or value than considering other critical factors in the job. The methods used are Card sorting and paired comparison method. It is highly subjective, unreliable, and can be easily manipulated. a. Card sorting It uses job descriptions written on small cards. The job evaluator places the cards in order from jobs of least value to jobs of most value. b. Paired comparison Each job is compared with all other jobs. The job valued more than all other jobs being considered will receive the highest score and rank 2. Job grading It is more sophisticated than job ranking. It is a non quantitative job evaluation technique that compares the whole job with a predetermined standard. It can be applied to wide variety of jobs it is commonly used in managerial and scientific or engineering jobs. It is simple & inexpensive to implement. It consists of three steps: establishment of job classes, definition of each grade, and classification of individual jobs. But it is very subjective & rigid. 3. Point rating method It is most widely and frequently used method. It consists of assigning point values for previously determined compensable factors and adding them to arrive at the overall worth of
the job. It is a quantitative method for establishing pay relationships and developing a wage structure. The following steps are followed in applying the point method: Select compensable job factors: Compensable factors are those job dimensions or requirements that will be the basis for paying the employee. The factors which are common to all jobs are selected and defined like skill, effort, experience etc. Divide factors into degrees: The chosen factors are divided into degrees that describe the extent to which the factor exist in the given job. Allot weights (points) to factors and degrees Rate jobs on each factor and totalling point 4. Factor comparison method It is a quantitative ranking method. It is used for evaluating white collar professional and managerial positions. point method uses degrees or points for each factor to measure jobs whereas factor comparison uses bench mark jobs and money values on factors Steps: Select key jobs or benchmark jobs.- benchmark jobs are those that are found in many organizations and have relatively stable job content They also have to be jobs for which the prevailing wage rates are known Rank benchmark jobs Allocate monetary values to the compensable factors Set up the factor comparison scale Evaluate non key jobs It is the step by step formal evaluation method. It is very cumbersome, lacks flexibility, difficult to explain to employees. Wage & salary surveys A pay survey is a collection of data on compensation rates for workers performing similar jobs in organizations. It provides information on how employers compensate similar jobs and skills in an organization's labor market. It enables an organization to maintain external equity. Thus job evaluation helps maintain internal equity and pay surveys provide information to help ensure external equity. Pay structuring It is the process whereby the information obtained from the job evaluation is combined with the information obtained from pay surveys to establish a pay structure. It is also known as pricing jobs. It includes two activities: 1. Establishing appropriate pay level for each job. 2. Establishing pay grades (grouping different pay levels into a structure) Wage curves The pay level for any job reflects its relative or absolute worth. The job evaluation information and pay survey information are combined through the use of a graph called a wage curve or scatter gram. Wage structure is a pay scale showing ranges of pay within each grade. Broad banding It is the process of collapsing multiple salary grades and ranges into a few wide levels known as bands. Using this approach entry level employees with minimum qualification start at the minimum range, instead of annual increase, the movement through these ranges depends on performance.
Rewards A reward can be anything that attracts the worker s attention and stimulates him to work. Rewards can be categorized as intrinsic verse extrinsic, financial verses non financial, performance based verses membership based rewards. Intrinsic rewards: They are self administered rewards that are associated with the job itself. It is the personal satisfaction that one derives from doing the job. E.g. opportunities for personal growth, more responsibility, greater job freedom, participation in decision making. The technique of job rotation, job enrichment, flexible time, shorter work weeks can offer intrinsic rewards. Extrinsic rewards: They include all those rewards an employee gets from sources other than the job itself. It includes money promotions, benefits. They are external to the job and are distributed by management. They are independent of the intrinsic rewards the employee obtains from the work itself. Financial rewards: They include basic salary, performance bonuses, retirement benefits, etc. Non-financial rewards: They are all the rewards that an employee gets other than financial rewards. They do not increase the financial position. Instead they make the employee s life better on the job, preferred lunch timings, impressive job titles, preferred office location, social gatherings etc. are some of the non-financial rewards. They motivate the employee and can enhance their performance. Performance based rewards: The rewards that an organization allocates based on performance criteria. They are exemplified by use of commissions, group bonuses, etc. Membership based rewards: the rewards that an organization allocates based on membership criteria. e.g. profit sharing, fringe benefits, cost of living expenses etc.They are generally extended irrespective of individual performance. Incentives An incentive is a compensation that rewards an employee for his performance beyond normal performance expectation. Incentive compensation is also called performance based pay or payment by results. The incentive plans can be individual, group, or organizational. Individual incentive: Reward system tied to the performance of an individual employee are called individual incentive plans. Popular individual incentive plans are piece rate, - straight piece rate ( no of units *piece rate for one unit), differential piece rate ( two rates are established- one up to the standard and another when employees exceed the standard. smaller piece rate up to the standard and higher piece rate when he exceeds the standard) Standard hour plans: Productivity standard is measured in terms of time units than output units. Commission plans (sales incentive): A commission is compensation computed as percentage of sales in units or rupees. It can be straight commission or bonus .In straight commission sales representative receives a percentage of the value of sales made. In combination plans, he is paid a basic salary plus a commission on sales.
Individual bonus It is an additional one off reward for high performance. It is a discretionary payment. it may be based on variety of performance measures like achievement of specific objectives, performance ratings, etc. Group and organizational incentive plans This provides rewards to all employees in a work unit department, division or organization. They are designed to promote cooperation and coordinated efforts within the group or organization. They are applicable in situations where jobs are interdependent, cooperation is needed to complete a task, and the measurement of individual output is difficult. Specific objectives are, foster productivity, increase commitment, and encourage employee participation. The most common organization wise incentive plans are gain sharing plans, profit sharing plans, employee share ownership plans, suggestion systems. Gain sharing is a type of group incentive in which a portion of the gains the organization realizes from group effort is shared with the group. Profit sharing plans distribute a portion of organizational profit to the employees. ESOP is a stock bonus plan where by employees gain ownership in the organization for which they work. A suggestion system is an incentive scheme under which employees receive rewards for useful ideas on cost reduction improving product quality, and organizational effectiveness. Employee benefits A benefit is an additional compensation given to an employee as a reward for organizational membership. Incentives are linked to performance whereas benefits are linked to employment. Employee benefits are membership based, non financial rewards offered to attract and retain employees. Different terms are used for benefits like fringe, wage supplements, perks, extra wages, hidden payroll, sub wages etc. Types Security benefits Retirement benefits Health care benefits Financial and other insurance benefits Social and recreational benefits Time off benefits Security benefit: Offer protection and security to employees. Some are mandatory from govt. whereas others are given voluntarily given by management. They include: workers compensation, unemployment compensation, social security. Retirement benefits: Retirement policies, pre retirement counselling, health care benefit Pension: Pension plan can be contributory or non contributory. Pension plans can pay benefits as a defined benefit plan where employer makes an annual payment to employees pension account or a defined pension plan where an employee is promised a pension amount based on age and service. Pension plan features are portability which allows employees to move their pension benefit from one employer to another. Vesting is the right of the employee to receive benefits from their pension plans. Health care benefits
Financial and other insurance benefits: company provided house or car, purchase discounts, moving expenses, educational assistance. Life insurance, travel insurance, vehicle insurance etc. Social benefits: Food service, counselling services, picnics, parties etc. Time off benefits: Vacation, holiday leave, paid sick leave, paid lunch breaks and rest periods.
Executive Remuneration Many organizations especially large ones administer compensation, somewhat differently than compensation for lower employees. An executive is someone in the top two levels of an organization like president, vice-president, or CEO. Objectives Matching the overall performance of the organization over a period of time with the compensation paid to the executives. Ensuring that the overall compensation given to the executives is competitive with the compensation packages in other firms that may employ them. Components of Remuneration Executive compensation plans Executive Salary Bonus & stock options Perks Golden parachute Salary: It is the first component of executive remuneration. It is determined through job evaluation & serves as a basis for other types of benefits. In order to pay the executives for their capabilities & for what they can do, executives are offered hefty incentives & attractive perks. Bonus: This type of incentive is usually annual & based on performance. Executives deserve bonus because they have much more opportunity to influence organizational success than non managerial staff. Stock options: If bonus is a short term benefit stock options are long term benefits offered to executives. They are attractive to shareholders too. Perks: Perks constitute a major source of income to the executives. Perks take care of all possible needs. They are rarely required to spend money from their pockets. Their holidays, servants, bills are taken care of by the company. Golden Parachute: It is a special type of benefit available to executives. It is a financial protection plan. It provides security and protection to executives who may be affected if their firms are acquired by other firms. Typically employment contracts are written to give special compensation to executives if they are negatively affected in an acquisition or merger.
These parachutes provide either a better salary or a guaranteed position in a newly created option i.e. merger or acquisition. These plans encourage the executives to stay with the company and fight the hostile takeover rather than to leave the company. Special features of Executive Remuneration It can not be compared to the wage and salary schemes meant for other employees They are denied the privilege of having unionized strength. Executives often prompt the workers to go on a strike as they can not participate or initiate a strike. Secrecy is maintained in respect of executive remuneration as no two executives in the same grade in private sector receive the same pay. Executive pay is not supposed to be based on individual s performance measure but rather on unit. This is because an executive s own performance is assumed to be directly reflected in measures of corporate performance. It is subject to statutory ceilings. Justification for paying more Executives have intrinsic worth and hence command hefty premiums. They are always in short supply. As against the shortages the demand for the executives is overgrowing. If one has to attract talent they have to pay heavily. Retaining high calibre people is more difficult than attracting them. If pay is not competent there will always be people to hijack them. They must be motivated for better performance. Money motivates people & executives are no exception. Salaries & perks enjoyed by executives across the globe are beyond anybody s comprehension. The compensation also has to be globalized. The organizations need the services of the people who have good brain power. Expectations of the people in general have gone up. An executive s salary and perks are not the same as a worker. To a worker wage is a means of a living. For executives financial reward is a symbol of social prestige & social class position. The compelling reason to pay more to the executives is to eliminate or minimize corruption.
Career A career is a series of jobs or positions held throughout an individual s working life. It is a pattern of work related experiences like positions, duties, decisions etc and activities over a span of person s work life. It represents an organized path taken by individual across time and space. Individual career: It is a sequence of work related experiences in which a person participates during the span of a work life. Organization career: It is relatively standard set of roles to be performed which interacts with the flow of individuals within an organization. Career Management It is a joint activity between the organization and the individual that identifies the individual s needs, abilities and goals and the organization s job demands and job rewards. Successful career management requires the efforts of both the individual and the organization.
Career management can be defined as an ongoing process in which an individual: Gathers information about himself and the world of work. Develops an accurate picture of his talents, interests, values, alternative occupations, etc. Develops realistic career goals based on information. Develops and implement a strategy designed to achieve the goal Obtains feedback regarding the effectiveness of the strategy and the relevance of the goals. Components of career management: career planning and career development Career Management = Career Planning + Career Development Career planning It is the process by which one selects career goals and path to these goals. Career goals are the future positions one strives to reach as part of a career. Career path is sequential pattern of jobs that forms one s career. It can be defined as a process by which the employees obtain knowledge about themselves and the information about the working environment and then making an effort to achieve a proper match. It provides an answer to employee s question as to where he or she will be in the organization after 5-10 years or what the prospects of advancing or growing are in the organization. Organization centered career planning It focuses on jobs and on constructing career paths that provide for the logical progression of people between jobs. These career paths represent ladders that each individual can climb to advance in organizations. Identify future organizational staffing needs Plan career ladders Assess individual potential and training needs Match organizational needs with individual abilities Audit and develop a career system for the organization Individual centered career planning It focuses on individuals than jobs. People s goals and skills are the focus of analysis. Such analysis might consider situations both within an outside the organization that can expand an employee s capability. Identify personal abilities and interests Plan life and work goals Assess alternative career path inside and outside an organization Notice changes in interests and goals as career and life stage changes Career development It is an ongoing process by which individual progress through a series of stages each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues themes or tasks. It is the formal structured activity offered by an organization for its members for the purpose of increasing their awareness, knowledge affecting the direction and progression of their careers. It should attempt to match individual abilities and aspirations with the needs of the organization. Develop people for the long term needs of the organization and address the dynamic changes that will take place over time.
Organizational Purpose of career management Assures needed talent Develops promotable talent Lowers turnover Taps employee potential Attracts and retains high talent Reduces obsolescence Reduces employee frustration Enhances cultural diversity Improves organizational goodwill Individual purpose of career management They result in increased responsibility, mobility and acquisition of new skills. They help an individual to adjust to significant life and career changes. They increase job satisfaction, involvement, exposure, and visibility. They provide better understanding of self and the organization. It improves the quality of working life. Career stages John van Maanen and Edgar H Schein have identified 5 career stages that every individual comes across during his career. They are: 1. Exploration stage 2. Establishment stage 3. Mid career (Advancement stage) 4. Late career stage (Maintenance stage) 5. Decline stage (Disengagement Stage) 1. Exploration stage: This stage usually the period from age15 to 20 years during which a person explores various occupational alternatives attempting to match them with his interests and abilities. In the pre work career exploration stage people examine their needs and personal goals and evaluate the alternatives and the educational choices available. They rely on their family members advice to determine their direction. It is influenced by school & friends. 2. Establishment stage: It begins with individual s entry into world of work socialization on the job, recognition for effective work, possible promotions and transfers, etc. This lasts approximately from ages 25-35. Job expectation from new employee often exceed reality causing feeling of underutilization 3. Mid Career or Advancement (Later adulthood: 35-45 years): This is characterized by upward movement in the organization. The individual is not so concerned with fitting in the organization as with moving up in the organization. Those who are successful realize job satisfaction and self fulfilment. Many remain in this period for a long period. The less successful never reach the advancement stage but instead move to the next stage. 4. Late career or maintenance (Middle age: 45-65 years): This stage begins when people detect the cues that they are nearing the limit of their advancement, their careers are beginning to level off, and their need to compete is declining. In this stage Individuals are no longer learning about their jobs nor expected to outdo levels of performance from previous years. But they seek other means of personal gratification like helping younger employees, or engaging in social service.
5. Decline or Disengagement (Old age: 65years onwards): It is the final stage in one s career usually marked by retirement. It may occur at various ages depending on his success in previous stages. Those who are not very successful may begin to disengage after they reach a mid career crisis in the fifties. Successful employees may continue to be active and make productive contributions to the organization. Career choices and career anchors The most important decision a person makes is what career he should undertake. The correct career choice is very critical because the best career choice offers the best match between what you want and what you need. It can be defined in the context of an individual s preferences, orientation and aspirations as well as economic conditions, sociological factors like family and friends. Over the past decades many theories of career management have been formulated to explain how individuals choose careers. One of the most widely used approaches to guide choice is the theory by John Holland. He suggests that the choice of career is an expression of personality and not a random event. He suggests that what a person accomplishes and derives from a career depends on the congruence between his personality and the job environment. He has identified 6 personality types and says that each person shows a degree of similarity to one of these types. The more one resembles any given type the more likely one is to display some of the behaviours and traits associated with that type. He uses a hexagon called as Holland s hexagon to illustrate the closeness and distance between the six personality types. The closer the two orientations are the more similar are the personality types. Holland s six personality types: 1. Realistic: Prefers realistic careers like craftsman, farming etc. He values concrete things like money, & personal characteristics like status & power. 2. Investigative: Prefers investigative careers in engineering, psychology, etc. He has a high regard for scientific knowledge. 3. Artistic: Prefers career in art like dramatist. He regards himself as creative non confirmative, independent organized and blessed with verbal and artistic skills. 4. Social: Prefers socially oriented careers and avoids realistic ones. He places high priority on social and ethical matters. 5. Enterprising: Prefers careers which demand enterprising nature like banker, estate agent etc. he regards himself as aggressive, popular, blessed with leadership and communication skills 6. Conventional: Prefers conventional careers like typing, record keeping. He regards himself as conforming and orderly and has high regards for achievement in business. He claims that adjacent types like realistic-investigative, social-enterprising are similar whereas non adjacent types like realistic-social & artistic-conventional are dissimilar. He concludes that if a person s predominant and secondary orientations are similar he will make the process of choosing the career relatively easier. Dissimilar orientations may result in a difficulty in choosing a career.
Career Anchors They are the pivots around which a person s career swings. It is the concern or the value that a person will not give up if a choice has to be made. It is found that certain attitudes developed during the early stages of individual s career guide people throughout their career. They anchor an individual t his one or more careers. Edgar Schein has identified 8 career anchors:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Technical or functional competence Managerial competence Autonomy or independence Security/stability Entrepreneurial ability Lifestyle Sense of service/dedication to cause Challenge
Organizational career development programs Career counselling Career pathing Career information systems Management development Training Steps to achieve individual career development 1. Identify and organize your skills, interests, work related needs and values. 2. Convert these inventories into general career fields and specific career goals. 3. Test these possibilities against the realities of the organization or the job market.
Mentoring The process of offering independent advice to a person in the work situation for the specific purpose of improving the person s job performance and to enhance the growth prospects of the person. It relates to mental & emotional support & guidance usually done by a senior person in the organization. It is a relationship between an experienced employee & a junior employee that helps the junior with effective socialization by sharing information gained through experience with the organization. Developmental Roles Teacher - Trainer Shares knowledge and skills Counsellor Provides space to ventilate feelings, helps resolve personal & interpersonal issues & advices Coach Works on job performance/skills, analyses & judges according to set norms & values
Mentor Identifies learning objectives, supports, encourages & helps to progress, and deal with obstacles/problems Mentoring is distinct from coaching S. No 1 2 3 4 5 Mentoring Broad Long-term Level-distant Cross-functional Providing guidance Coaching Job specific Short-term Level-close Same-function Giving advice
Why Mentoring Encourages knowledge sharing Both parties Develop Encourages teamwork Addresses specific issues or skills Supplements on-the-job training Promotes leadership development Mentoring Functions Career Functions Exposure/Visibility Coaching Protection Challenging Assignments Psychosocial Functions Role Modelling Acceptance/Confirmation Counselling Friendship Global Findings 75% executives said mentoring played a key role in their career ASTD Survey of CEO s states that one of the top three factors in their career was mentoring ..Account Temps survey 96% executives said that mentoring is an important developmental tool Account Temps survey Mentoring programs have been proven to improve retention by 20-30% ASTD 71% of Fortune 500 companies use mentoring to make learning occur in their organizations (1996) On 11 job essential skills, mentee s increased skills by an average of 61% through successful mentoring Mentoring Environment 1. Interpersonal chemistry is important Sense of mutual comfort and equality With self-confident people - differences may in fact provide learning experience 2. Need for ground rules & shared expectations How, when, where to meet and specific terms for review and evaluation
3. Friendship can get in way of objectivity Can be ended by either party for any reason No explanations/justifications required Types of Mentoring 1. Situational Mentoring Short, isolated episodes Often casual, one-time events Responsive to current needs of protégé and/or present situation A mentor-initiated intervention 2. Informal Mentoring Voluntary Loosely structured, flexible Protégé revealed needs Mentor may have more than one role in relationship with protégé (supervision, parent, friend) 3. Formal Mentoring Programs Driven by organizational needs A method for matching mentors with (or assigned to) protégé Of fixed duration and based on goal achievement What Mentoring is not a guarantee of advancement an unlimited resource on tap a job locating service a means of bypassing supervisors a mechanism for providing favouritism or unfair advantage a way of working outside the system Mentoring Responsibilities Protégé Task Defining and re-defining the problem Managing the problem Asking specific questions Taking note of learning points Mentors Task Understanding Challenging Resourceful Seeking progress report Responding to queries Mentor Competencies Trustworthy and open High Integrity Active listener Catalyst for learning Commitment builder Enthusiasm to share
Characteristics of a Protégé Protégé do Work competently Exhibit enthusiasm Demonstrate high potential Are open towards feedback and learning Protégé don t Represent disadvantage groups Represent problem employees Possess only job skills Successful protégé demonstrate certain competencies Communicate openly and clearly with mentor Share information, viewpoints, and feelings Question, debate and discuss issues Set goals and assess skills, strengths, weakness Don't hide mistakes - discuss and learn from them Accept help and constructive criticism Aim not to please, but to learn Committed to expanding their capabilities Process of mentoring It involves 4 phases: 1. Initiation: 6 months - 1 year time during which relationship gets started and begins to have importance to both of them. 2. Cultivation: 2-5 years during which the range of career and psychosocial functions expand to a maximum. 3. Separation: A period of 6 months to 2 years after a significant change in the structural role relationship and in the emotional experience of the relationship. 4. Redefinition: An indefinite period after separation phase during which time the relationship is ended or takes on significantly different characteristics making it a more peer like friendship. Successful mentors are those who teach by example provide challenging goals, set high standards for those under their supervision and show confidence in their subordinates. They tend to be superior performers themselves. They provide support and feedback to their subordinates and are effective in delegating because they let subordinates do what is expected, give assistance when needed and leave them alone when they are working Benefits to Mentors Exposure to new and different thinking styles, knowledge and perspectives Honing own leadership skills Occasion to reflect on important issues, own skills and work practices Added incentive for staying aware of current issues in the field Personal satisfaction in sharing experiences Pride in mentee's accomplishment Recognition by peers Increased self worth through contributions to profession and organization
Protégé s Benefits Guidance and encouragement (or challenge) Exposure to the decision-making and leadership styles of seniors Access to organizational knowledge and networking opportunities Expanded knowledge of skills and practices Increased sense of safety while learning More focused development Higher visibility Effective Sounding board for venting emotions, views and feelings Individualized learning - one on one Increased access to challenging opportunities and responsibilities More Career resilience Opportunity to discuss issues with a respected practitioner Honest and constructive feedback Increased self-confidence and heightened career aspirations Benefits for Organisation Employees with broader perspectives Commitment to developing & retaining leaders Provide support to isolated individuals Transfer of knowledge and Sharing of values Motivating and effective workplace Promote and support cultural changes Safety valve for changing environments Facilitates socialization into organization Provide support for use of new technologies Facilitate better communication And the pitfalls It has a tendency to perpetuate the current managerial styles and practices in the organization. Mentor may tend to familiarize his own work habits and beliefs even though they may be faulty. It heavily relies on the mentor s ability to be a good mentor which he may or may not necessarily be. Pairing pitfalls Seniority/age factor; gender differences Personality clashes; different wavelengths One person too pushy/too retiring Communication pitfalls Difficulty in breaking ice Lack of open and honest feedback; confidentiality Practical (administrative) pitfalls Failure to establish a framework Time management issues Changes in circumstances of mentor or mentee
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