History of Creative Arts & Design
Submitted to: Miss Asma Khan Submitted by:

Fatima Fayyaz Haider Anwar Mutahir Hafeez Sara Liaqat
Dated: 10-12-2007

2006-PID-09 2006-PID-20 2006-PID-22 2006-PID-05

Sultanate Period (13th - 18th Century)
Establishment of Sultanate Caliphate:
 The Ghurid Qutb al-Din Aybak was the first sultan of Delhi beginning a long line of Turkish rulers over various parts of North India.  This was the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate period; it was the foundation dynasty of the period and together with some later dynasties it was called Delhi Sultanate or Sultanate Period.  Qutub-ud-din Aybak declared himself the Sultan after the death of his master, Muhammed of Ghur.  After his death a power struggle broke out and Malik Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, Qutub-ud-din Aybak's son-in-law succeeded to the throne.  Iltutmish (1210-35) and Balban (1266-87) were among the dynasty's most illustrious rulers.  The "Deccan" (derived from Dakshina) is a geographical term that refers to the plateau in south central India still ruled by Hindu kings when the first Muslim sultanates of India were established in Delhi. The Khaljis (1290– 1320) and the Tughluqs (1320–1414) after them both tried to conquer the Deccan but were ultimately unsuccessful.  This period ends with the conquest by the Mughals in 1526.

Art of sultanate period:
Sultans in Delhi were most interested in Architecture. However a lot more work is done in Calligraphy and Manuscript illustrations. Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II (r. 1580–1627), a poet, calligrapher, and musician himself, was the dynasty's greatest patron of the arts. He attracted artisans, writers, and thinkers from all over the Islamic world to his court, and during his reign the city became the most important center of painting in the Deccan. So-called bidri work adapted motifs from many sources—textiles, jewelry, and architectural ornament—in order to satisfy the varying and changing tastes of patrons in many parts of India. Different combined motifs are representative of the rich mix of traditions in the Deccan  Painting:  Painting was popular at all times in the various dynasties of sultanate period  These paintings were treated distinctively with vivid palette and somewhat fantastic backgrounds.  Rulers were portrayed in intimate moments, strolling through gardens or relaxing with a lover.  Book art:  Manuscript illustrations were dominant among the sultans.

 Metalwork:  The city of Bidar is famed for a metalworking technique, invented there. So-called bidri ware is cast from an alloy of zinc mixed with copper, tin, and lead and inlaid with silver or brass. It is then covered with a mud paste, which turns the base metal black, highlighting the color and sheen of the inlaid metal.

Art Examples:
1.      Coin of Shams-Ud-Din Iltutmish: Era: 1210 AD - 1235 AD Location: India Material: Silver Technique: Forging Symbolism: Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right.  Art style: Abstract and calligraphic  Inscription: “Shams al-dunya wa'l din Abu'l Muzaffar Iltutmish al-Sultan” 2. Page from a dispersed manuscript of the Shahnama (Book of Kings):  Era: ca. 1430–35  Location: India  Material: Ink, colors, and paper  Technique: gilded paper  Dimension: H. 7 13/16 in. (19.8 cm), W. 7 1/8 in. (18 cm)  Symbolism: This painting illustrates a passage from the great Persian epic history. It shows the dramatic confrontation between the hero Bizhan and the brave half-brother of the Iranian king Kay Khusrau, in the moments after each protagonist had slain his opponent's horse.  Art style: Preference for abstract patterns  Feature: The Sultanate features of this painting include the almost square format and the use of scale for dramatic effect. 3. Architectural Ensemble from a Jain Meeting Hall:  Era: Last quarter of 16th century  Location: India, Gujarat  Material: Teak with traces of color

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Technique: Carving Dimension: H. (approx.) 15 ft. (4.58 m) Symbolism: The carvings symbolize the splendors of the celestial realms Art style: Floral motifs, abstract patterns and figural representation. Feature: At the center of the dome is a large pendant covered with flower designs.

Fountain: Era: 17th century Location: India, Deccan Material: Bronze Technique: Cast Dimension: H. 38 1/2 in. (97.7 cm), W. 25 1/2 in. (67.7 cm), Diam. 36 11/16 in. (93.2 cm)  Symbolism: The fountain closely symbolizes Deccani architecture, in which turban-topped minarets, corner pillars, ornamental finials, and staggered pavilions display similar voluptuous and organic forms.  Art style: Floral motifs and abstractness. Huqqa base: Era: Last quarter of 17th century Location: India, Deccan Material: Alloy with brass Technique: Inlaid Dimension: H. 6 7/8 in. (17.5 cm), D. 6 1/2 in. (16.5 cm)  Art style: Abstract floral motifs with rim based design.  Description:  Smoking became so popular during the seventeenth century in India that artists diverted their attention to this side and thus produced admiring artworks like this one huqqa base.  A luxurious effect is shown in it by the use of gold with black background. 5.      ----------------------------------------

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