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EMERGING TRENDS IN

MANUFACTURING

P K MISHRA
Emeritus Professor
MECHANICAL ENGG. DEPARTMENT
GOVT. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, PUNE
STATEGIC ISSUES

INTRODUCTION
India’s GDP is about USD 480 (998) billion per year.
India’s exports of I.T. would be about USD 12 billion in 2003-2004,
~ 2.5% of India’s GDP.

Therefore, I.T. is NOT everything!


Software & I.T (worldwide) ~ USD 530 billion/year.
Manufacturing (worldwide) ~ USD 9600 billion/year. 18 times of I.T
Tourism & Travel (worldwide) ~ USD 3700 billion/ year. 7 times of I.T.
Health Care (worldwide) ~ USD 2700 billion/ year. 5 times of I.T.
Education (worldwide) ~ USD 2500 billion/ year. 5 times of I.T.

The Business areas on Mfg, TT, HC, & Education are


18, 7, 5 & 5 times, the size of I.T., respectively.
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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
THE MOST IMPORTANT SOLUTION

The only way to ensure high standards of living,


which leads to a high quality of life for our nation
is to develop support and maintain an active, to
bring in innovations in manufacturing industries.

WORLD CLASS MANUFACTURING OPERATES


GLOBALLY

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
PROBLEMS to SOLVE

• Population growth.
• Declining natural resources.
• The products possesses more functions feature with and needs
fewer discrete components (Mechatronics approach).
• The component parts would be of more complex in shape, utilizing
improved materials and processes for higher precision and quality.
• The manufacturing systems would then be more complex, are to be
simplified to adopt more variables to control, with better flow and
integration of information for higher accuracy, surface integrity and
ecological conditions.
• The processes need to be efficiently designed to meet the above
requirements removing the drawbacks of the conventional
practices.
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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
SOME STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS
TO REACH THE POPULATION

¾ MINITURIZATION (Energy efficient & Reduction of material cost)


¾ NEWER MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT (Sustainable materials &
higher strength/weight ratio)
¾ IMPROVED PORTABILITY (Reduction of transport cost)
¾ IMPROVED AUTOMATION & COMPUTER COMAPTIBILTY
(Help the unskilled workers)

¾ INTERDISCIPLINARY & MULTISCALE DESIGN APPROACH

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
MEMS / MS COMPONENTS

ENCODERS/GEARS/
MICROWAVE GUID MICRO ANTENNAS MOTOR STAMPINGS MICRO HEATSINKS

MICRO HEAT
MICRO MILLED CHANNELS RATCHET Tunable RF MEMS Inductor EXCHANGERS

TOP 30 MEMS MEMS Market 2007-


MANUFACTURERS 2012
MICRO SYSTEMS
SMART SENSORS
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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
OBJECTIVE

Precision engineering
Microengineering
& extendable to
Nanotechnologies

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
MICRO – MESSO MACHINING SCALE

Ref: John Shanahan, Trends in Micro Machining Technologies

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Professor Emeritus
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ABSTRACT

“The most startling advances have their


origin at the boundaries of the specialties,
where the techniques developed in one field
are applied with fertile effect, to the subject
matter of another... If this cross-fertilization
dwindles, the rate of scientific advance will
almost surely dwindle as well, and so any
thing that encourages cross-fertilization is all
to the good…”, said the great Philosopher,
Isaac Asimov.

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
PROCESS INACCURACY IN CONVENTIONAL
MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS

• THERMAL DEFORMATIONS
• DEFLECTION DUE TO COMPLIANCE OF THE
MACHINE-TOOL SYSTEM
• ERROR DUE TO LOCATION AND FIXTURING
• TOOL WEAR
• FORCED VIBRATION AND CHATTER
• CLAMPING AND SETTING ERROR

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Professor Emeritus
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ACCURACY/PRECISION

ACHIEVABLE DEPENDING ON MACHINE-TOOLS


KINEMATIC STRUCTURE

• PERFECT KINEMATICS REFERENCE


• PERFECT KINEMATIC PAIRS (e.g. CONSTANT
CLEARANCE)
• NOISE AND VIBRATION (INTERNAL & EXTERNAL)
• INACCURACY IN MOTION MEASUREMENTS

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Professor Emeritus
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THE SOLUTIONS

BRING IN THE INNOVATIVE CHANGES TO THE


EXISTING (TRADITIONAL) PRACTICES to
¾ Sustain productivity with increased strength of work
material
¾ Maintain productivity with components with desired
shape, accuracy and surface integrity
¾ Improve the capability of integration, automations and
decreasing their sophistication

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Professor Emeritus
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PROBABLE SOLUTIONS

MECHANICAL
ELECTRICAL CHEMICAL

MAGNETIC

RAW MATERIAL
OPTICAL

FINISHED JOB

MICROWAVE
NUCLEAR

Deformation, D = K En T
Where, K = material constant
E = the supply energy
n = coupling coefficient

Nontraditional Energy Approach to


Manufacturing
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Professor Emeritus
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COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO APPROACHES
ENERGY
LOSS
DEFORMED
TOOL SURFACE
(MACHINED)

WORK

CUTTING
VELOCITY Solution for approach

CONVETIONAL • Micro Mechanics


UNCONVETIONAL
• Micro Energy
Transfer
ENERGY
SOURCE
REFLECTION REFLECTION Deformation, D = K En T
Where, K = material constant
E = the supply energy
n = coupling coefficient

WORK
DEFORMATION
TRANSMITION
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Professor Emeritus
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MICRO IN A MACRO-MACHINE

Micro Components machined in a 4-axix CNC WEDM in


Microsystems Engineering lab of Mechanical Engineering Dept., CoE, Pune

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FOR HIGHER PRECISION AND ACCURACY

¾ Low-stress condition (clamping, deformation etc.)


or complete elimination on the job
¾ Vibration free operation, and
¾ Elimination / minimization of errors in tool path
motion for the generation mechanism/s with
the principles of zero play between the perfect
kinetic references and kinematic pairs.

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
EASE OF NONCONVENTIONAL ENERGY FORM

ƒ Non-contact type
ƒ Easy application
ƒ Surface Integrity energy dependent
ƒ Low inertial system
ƒ Remote application of energy
ƒ Micro to Macro to Bulk Mfg.

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Professor Emeritus
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ADVANTAGES

¾ ENERGY SAVING
¾ TAILORED SURFACE
¾ EASY HYBRIDIZATION
¾ IMPROVED SURFACE INTEGRITY
¾ LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION
¾ PROCESSING SPEED

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Professor Emeritus
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MICRO FORMING

CASTING FORMING

INJECTION STAMPING

VACUUM CASTING LASER FORMING

ELECTROFORMING

Electrohydro FORMING

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Professor Emeritus
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ADDITIVE & SUBSTRACTIVE PROCESSES
MACHINING GENERATIVE
(Subtractive) (Addition or Creation)
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY
Laser Assisted CVD
LIGA & SLIGA
Micro Stereolithography
Diamond Milling
MicroAJM Electro Deposition
MicroUSM
Micro Plasma Spraying
MicroECM
EB Deposition
LASER Micromachining
FDM using ECD
PLASMA Micromachining
EB Micromachining
DRY ETCHING

LASER/EB/ED/PLASMA for Micro Heat-treatment/alloying/cladding/welding


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MICRO ETCHING/DEPOSTION WITH SACRIFICIAL
LAYERS

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MICRO PATTERNING
Micro-patterns and casting systems
Micro Electroforming, a powerful technique to produce
Micro metallic parts(e.g. microchannels) as a stand-
alone process or
Hybridization (e.g. LIGA & SLIGA).

Standard Injection With Ultrasonic Assist


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Professor Emeritus
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ELECTROFORMING

¾ Precision electroforming
is the process whereby a
metal object is built-up,
atom-by-atom, onto a
contoured surface called a
mandrel..

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Professor Emeritus
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APPLICATONS
Some examples:
¾ CD and DVD masters, and
¾ Special lens molds.
¾Reproduce contours of electroforming mandrels to tolerances
exceeding ± 0.05 micron.
• Solidscape, Inc.,
• USA PPC 3200s from Schultheiss GmbH, West Germany-
high temperature casting unit up to 21000C,
• Battenfeld Microsystem50 [8] from UK MIG, for medical and
MEMS devices,
• Bradford/Rondol Micromoulding In-Line Compounder,

•Rondol High-Force Micro-Injection Moulding Machine,

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Professor Emeritus
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HOT EMBOSSING

¾ A low-cost methods
¾ For high volume production of micro-compts. and systems.

Embossing Embossed PMMA.


tool, reactively high accuracy
etched silicon replica

Embossing of Microparts [Geiger M et al]

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Professor Emeritus
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PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY

Powerful method in MEMS/MS technology

START ► WORKPIECE BLANK


CLEAN WORKPIECE

PHOTO RESIST COAT

NEGATIVE ON BOTH SIDES


& EXPOSED TO ENERGY
THROUGH
MASK FORMATION WHEN
DEVELOPED ON REMOVAL OF
ENERGY
NEGATIVE
BEAM
ON ETCHING

ON MASK REMOVAL
(DESTRIPPING)

FINISH ► WORKPIECE

Basic Scheme of Photolithography


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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
RESOLUTION IN PATTERN GENERATION

Pattern Generation: contact/projection printing or pattern-generator,


Metal coated to fill the voids,
Inspected and repaired. Then the
Resist is stripped to leave the chromium pattern on the surface
Etching (micromachining).
Resolution of Pattern depends
For Proximity and Contact Printing:
resolution = λ (gap between mask and resist + resist thickness)
where, λ is the wave length of illuminating radiation.
For Projection Printing:

resolution = (Ka λ) / (NA); depth of focus = (Kb λ / (NA)2

where, process constants, Ka and Kb are ~ 0.75 and ~ 0.5 respectively


NA is the numerical aperture of the optical system

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
RESOLUTION INCREASE
UV
DUV (Excimer Lasers: 248 nm and 193 nm)
Electron Beam
X-ray

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
X-RAY LITHOGRAPHY

Scheme of X-ray Lithography


A Gear and inclined Slots machined by X-ray
(Craig F., MTU)
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Professor Emeritus
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LIGA (Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung)

Micro Injection Moulding


- Final stage of LIGA

Increased Mask Thickens allow


other micromanufacturing Components manufactured by
methods for higher aspect ratio LIGA (Craig F., MTU)

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SLIGA sacrificial LIGA

SLIGA sacrificial LIGA for moving parts

Moving Gear
from Barkley

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
A RATCHET-PAWL MICROSYSTEMS

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
MECHANICAL MICROMILLING
Micro mill of components, features down to 50-100 microns,
¾ Aspect ratio 3-10 for non-ferrous materials, and 1-2 for ferrous materials
Cutting tools: double or multi flute, manufactured by EB or IB machining

Micro mill (Northwestern Univ.)

Flute machining
Spiral milled groove (Craig F, MTU)
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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
A MICRO MILLING SYSTEM IN OPERATION
& THEIR EFFECTS ON ROUGHNESS

MILLING METALS MILLING PMMA

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
APPLICATION OF MICROMACHINING

• Medical Components
• Micro Molds
• Electronic Tooling
• MEMS (Micro-Electrical-Mechanical-
System)
• Fluidic Circuits
• Micro-Valves

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
SYSTEMATIC INNOVATION and
TECHNICAL CREATIVITY
WOULD DEFINITELY BRING IN
ECONOMIC STABILITY

THANKS

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Professor Emeritus
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A FLEXIBLE CONCEPT IN
MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

THERMAL PROCESSING
OF MATERIALS

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
FUNDAMENTALS OF LASER PROCESSING

Where,

E = K v ρ Cp (Ed τp )n E = energy requirement to raise the material to


processing temperature for volume, V
ρ = density of the material
Ed= energy density
τp = pulse width or interaction time
Cp= Specific heat of material
K, n are constants dependent on material and energy

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
THERMAL ENERGY & MATERIAL INTERACTION

SOLID STATE PROCESSING:


HEAT TREATMENT, ZONE REFINING etc
E = Vρ Cp (Tp – T)
LIQUID STATE PROCESSING:
MELTING, WELDING, ALLOYING, CLADDING etc

E = Vρ[ Cp (Tm – T) + L + Cp’(Tp + Tm)]


VAPOUR STATE PROCESSING:
MACHINING & COATING

E = Vρ[ Cp (Tm – T) + Lm + Cp’(Tp + Tm)] + Lv ]

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2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
THERMAL GRADIENT SURFACE PROCESSING

(a) Temperature rise with interaction time

(b) Pulse definition

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MODES OF PROCESSING MATERIALS

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2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
CAPABILITIES OF THERMAL PROCESSING

LAM

ELM

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
FLEXIBLE THERMAL PROCESSING

Processing Specific Energy Power Density Interaction Time


(J/cm2) (W/cm2) (Sec)

Shock Hardening 10-102 108-109 10-8-10-6

Glazing 1-10 106-107 10-6-10-4

Machining 103-104 105-106 10-5-10-3

Welding 103-104 105-106 10-2-10-4

Trans-formation 104-105 104-105 10-1-10


Hardening

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
ENERGY COUPLING COEFFICIENT

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
HOW PRECISION CAN BE ACHIEVED?

FOR HIGHER PRECISION AND ACCURACY


¾ Low-stress condition (clamping, deformation etc.) or
complete elimination on the job
¾ Vibration free operation, and
¾ Elimination / minimization of errors in tool path motion
for the generation mechanism/s with the principles of
zero play between the perfect kinetic references and
kinematic pairs.

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 45
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
THE USE OF NONCONVENTIONAL ENERGY FORM

ƒ Non-contact type
ƒ Easy application
ƒ Surface Integrity energy dependent
ƒ Low inertial system
ƒ Remote application of energy
ƒ Micro to Macro to Bulk Mfg.

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 46
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
ADVANTAGES OF NONCONVENTIONAL PROCESSING

¾ ENERGY SAVING
¾ TAILORED SURFACE
¾ EASY HYBRIDIZATION
¾ IMPROVED SURFACE INTEGRITY
¾ LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION
¾ PROCESSING SPEED

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
COMPARISON OF MICROMACHINING PROCESSES

RESOLUTION SURFACE
PROCESS µm ROUGHNESS, µm SIDE EFFECTS

MECHANICAL 100 6.3 – 1.6 Burr require


polishing
Electrode wire,
EDM 100 4.75 – 1.6 rough finish, slow
and unclean process
CHEMICAL ETCHING 250 6.3 – 1.6 Undercut
Synchrotron source
LIGA 5 1–2 and expensive
Nd – YAG LASER 50 1 Redeposition
Recast layer, aspect
EXCIMER LASER 5 > 1 (nm range) ratios
High power ranges,
Ti – SAPPHIRE Ultra <1 nm range may require vacuum
fast LASER
environment

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
REFLECTION DAMAGING TECHNIQUE

Or USE OF ABSORPTION COATINGS

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
LASER PROCESSING CAPABILITIES

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
LASER CUTTING

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
LASER WELDING
(Courtesy: Control Vision Inc.)

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
LASER SINTERING

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
LASER FLEXIBLE MATERIAL PROCESSING

Laser Surface Hardening Accelerated Laser Assisted


of C.I. at 15 mm/s Speed Etching of Silicon within 12 ms

5kW Nd-YAG PULSED LASER CNC WORKSTATION


RETROFITTED AT IIT KHARAGPUR

Continuous Ni/Cr alloying of steel


at 1.0 mm/s with CO2 Laser

120W CO2 CW LASER CNC WORKSTATION


Selective Laser Sintering for
MICROMACHINING by CW DEVELOPED AT IIT KHARAGPUR Metal Build-up Rapidly From
CO2 Laser at 0.5 mm/s Speed
Iron & Graphite Powers
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Professor Emeritus
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LASER FORMING
(Ref: Rearden et al, Laser Group, Univ Liverpool, UK)

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
BEAM FOCUSABILITY

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
LASER BEAM FOCUSABILITY

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
EFFECT OF WAVELENGTH & BEAM DIAMETER
ON SPOT SIZE


w 2 = fθ 1 =
πw1

From this approximation:


w2, spot size is smaller for
lower λ
higher w1, laser beam diameter
(Beam Expander)

Where, w1 = Ds and w2 = Di

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
USE OF BEAM EXPANDER

EFFECTS OF BEAM EXPANDER ON PROPAGATION


OF GAUSSIAN BEAM

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
BEAM SHAPING

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2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
EFFECT OF PULSE WIDTH ON MACHINING
SIZE OR SPOT-DIAMETER

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
PATTERN GENERATION:
Contact/projection printing or pattern-generator
• Metal coated to fill the voids,
• Inspected and repaired. Then the
• Resist is stripped to leave the chromium pattern on the surface
• Etching (micromachining).
• Resolution of Pattern depends
For Proximity and Contact Printing:
resolution = λ (gap between mask and resist + resist thickness)
where, λ is the wave length of illuminating radiation.
For Projection Printing:
resolution = (Ka λ) / (NA); depth of focus = (Kb λ / (NA)2
where, process constants, Ka and Kb are ~ 0.75 and ~ 0.5 respectively
NA is the numerical aperture of the optical system

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
LASER SPECTRUM

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
EFFECT OF LASER PARAMETERS ON MACHINING
PROCESS

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
A LASER MICROMACHINING SYSTEM

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
EXCIMER & CO2 LASER BASED MFG. WORKSTATION
EXCIMER LASER HEAD
(KrF-248nm, 650mJ/pulse, BEAM DELIVERY
25 ns pulse width) SYSTEMS

3-AXIS
GANTRY TYPE
CNC TABLE

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Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
EXCIMER LASER MACHINING

60 x 60 micron square hole

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 67
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
EXCIMER LASER MULTIPLE MACHINING

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 68
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
LASER TEXTURING (Si)
(Ref: Dr. P Saha & A Das)

Etch
Boundary
120 µm 120 µm

300 µm

Etched Surface(Mid)

120µm
120 µm

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 69
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
STEERABILTY OF LASER BEAM

TWO COMPUTER CONTROLLED MIRRORS CAN SWEEP


THE FOCUSSED BEAM TO WRITE ON THE WORK-PIECE

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 70
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
CHARACHERISTICS OF FEMTOSECON LASER
MICROMACHING

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 71
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
LASER CUTTING TECHNIQUES

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 72
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
EFFECT OF ULTRASHORT PULSES

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 73
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
AN APPLICATION

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 74
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
STENT MATERIALS DEVELOPEMNT

Courtesy of SCHUESSLER AD MEDS

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 75
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
A FIBER LASER BASED MANUFACTURING CENTER
DEVELOPED AT COE, PUNE

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 76
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune
“It’s impossible to fail totally if you dare to try”
said Robert H Schuller

THANKS

Refreshers Course on MTMM P K MISHRA


At VJTI, Mumbai PKM- MMfg 77
Professor Emeritus
2/15/2009 Dept. of Mech Engg, CoE Pune