# Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept.

Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Refraction Matrix
Refraction

Matrix optics
h1 h2

Translation T l ti Refraction R f ti

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Refraction Matrix
Gauss s Gauss’s formula for refraction at a single surface:

Example
n1=1 γ R n2=1.62 ? γ`=?

n1 n 2 − n1 n + = 2 o R i
γ h i

β+
γ`

n1 n2 = o i

R=+5cm

h h γ = ⇒o= γ o h h γ′= ⇒i = i γ′

o

⎡1 β ⎤ ⎡n1γ ⎤ ⎡n2 γ ′⎤ ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎢ h ⎥ = ⎢ h ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
β ( β=(n2-n1)/R=(1.62-1)/(+0.05)=12.4 m-1 ) ( )( ) 60=0.01047

β+

{ 0+h = h

n1γ + βh = n2 γ ′

n1γ n2 = h h

⎡1 β ⎤ ⎡n1γ ⎤ ⎡n 2 γ ′⎤ ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎢ h ⎥ = ⎢ h ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

⎡1 β ⎤ R=⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 1 ⎦

Refraction Matrix

⎡1 12.4⎤ ⎡1(−0.01047)⎤ ⎡(1.62)γ ′⎤ ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0.02 ⎥ 0.02 ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣
γ`=+50

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Translation Matrix
h1 h1 d h2 γ` h2 d

Example
• Consider a Pl C id Plano-convex l lens of n=1.5 f 15 and cente thickness 6mm. The convex surface has radius of 2.5 cm and is facing the incident light . Determine the system matrix
R1=2.5 cm R2=∞ D= 0.06 cm n1=1.5

∆h=h1-h2 = d tan γ` = d γ` h γ γ

h1 − h2 = dγ ′ h h −d + 1 = 2 n2 n2γ ′ n2γ ′ h1 − h 2 = d γ ′
h1 h2 −d + = n2 n 2γ ′ n 2γ ′

{− d n γ ′ + h = h
n2
2 1

n 2 γ ′ + 0 × h1 = n 2 γ ′
2

Solution: R1 T R2

S=[R2][T][R1] matrix system
⎡1 S =⎢ ⎣0

β 2 ⎤⎡ 1

⎡ 1 ⎢ d ⎢− ⎣ n2

0⎤ ⎡ n ⎤ ⎡ n ⎤ 2 ⎥ 2 1⎥ ⎢ h ⎥ = ⎢ h ⎥ ⎦⎣ 1 ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎦
Translation Matrix

⎥⎢ d 1 ⎦ ⎢− ⎣ n

0 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎦⎣

β1 ⎤
1⎥ ⎦

β1=(n2-n1)/R=(1.5-1)/0.025=+20 m-1 β2=(1-1 5)/∞ =0 (1 1.5)/∞ 0
0⎤ ⎡1 20⎤ ⎡ 1 20 ⎤ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 S=⎢ ⎥ ⎢− 0.006 1⎥ ⎢0 1 ⎥ = ⎢− 0.004 0.92⎥ ⎥⎣ ⎣0 1⎦ ⎢ 1.5 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

⎡ 1 T =⎢ d ⎢− ⎣ n

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Do the system matrix is correct?
• • To h k h T check the result of system matrix, calculate the d l f i l l h determinate: i Multiplying the elements on the rightward arrow and subtracting the p product of the elements on the leftwards arrow

Matrix of a optical system
R1 T1 T1 R2 T2 R3 T3 R4 R5 T4 T5 R6

20 ⎤ ⎡ 1 S=⎢ ⎥ ⎣− 0.004 0.92⎦
(1X0.92)-(20x-0.004)=0.92+0.08=1 )( )

[ ] [S]= [R6][T5][R5][T4][R4][T3][R3][T2][R2][T1][R1]
⎡1 β ⎤ R=⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 1 ⎦

The result should be unity, as indeed it is

⎡ 1 T =⎢ d ⎢− ⎣ n

0⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎦

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

n f E1 = − 1 a n f E2 = 3 a

Cardinal points
a1 fv1 fE1
V1 H1 H1 V2

Theory of cardinal points(1) • o.s
⎡b ⎢d ⎣ a⎤ c⎥ ⎦
y [B] l1 1 [M] k u u` n` y y` [B`]

n

1− b V1 H 1 = n1 ( ) a c −1 V 2 H 2 = n3 ( ) a

[N] = [B`][M][B] [B ][M][B]
f v1 = a1 = − f v2 bn1 a cn = a2 = 3 a
⎡u ′ ⎤ ⎡ N11 ⎢ y ′⎥ = ⎢ N ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 21 N12 ⎤ ⎡u ⎤ ⎡ 1 = N 22 ⎥ ⎢ y ⎥ ⎢− l k ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ′ 0⎤ ⎡ M 11 1⎥ ⎢ M 21 ⎦⎣ M 12 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎡ u ⎤ ⎥ ⎢− (l ) 1⎥ ⎢ y ⎥ M 22 ⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎦⎣ ⎦

b f E1 = −[(− n1 ) + V1 H 1 ] a cn f E 2 = +[ 3 + V1 H 1 ] a

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Theory of cardinal p y points(2) ( )
front vertex focal length. (F.V.F.L.)
⎡u ′ ⎤ ⎡ N11 ⎢ y ′⎥ = ⎢ N ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 21 N12 ⎤ ⎡u ⎤ N 22 ⎥ ⎢ y ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦

Theory of cardinal points(3)
Afocal system
u ′ = N 11u + N 12 y y ′ = N 21u + N 22 y
If N12 = 0 u`= N11u If u`=0 → u = 0 afocal system u`=0 u`=0 0 u=0 o.s

u ′ = N 11u + N 12 y y ′ = N 21u + N 22 y
Conditions: If N11 = 0 u` = N11u + N12 y= N12 y y=0 o.s

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Theory of cardinal points(4)
• Conjugated points C j t d i t

Theory of cardinal points(5)
• For conjugated point condition: N21=0

u ′ = N 11u + N 12 y y ′ = N 21u + N 22 y
If : N21 = 0 y`=N22y Back vertex focal length If: N22=0 y`=N21u ` N u=0→ y`=0

y y

o.s

y`

⎡ N 11 ⎢N ⎣ 21

( M 11 + M 12 l1 ) N 12 ⎤ ⎡ ⎥ = ⎢− l ′ ( M + M l ) + M + M N 22 ⎦ ⎣ k 11 12 1 21 22

⎤ ′ (−l k M 12 + M 22 )⎥ ⎦ M 12

′ − l k ( M 11 + M 12 l1 ) + M 21 + M 22 = 0
U=0 o.s os y =0 y`=0

M 22 l1 + M 21 M 12 l1 + M 11 ′ M − M 11l k l1 = 21 ′ M 12 l k − M 22 ′ lk =

Relationship between object and image distance until optical y system

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Theory of cardinal points(6)
• When N21=0, we also have
u ′ = N 11u + N 12 y y ′ = N 21u + N 22 y
⎡ M + M 12 l1 M 12 ⎤ N = ⎢ 11 N 22 ⎥ 0 ⎦ ⎣ det N = 1 -l k M12 +M22 l` 1 1 = = M 11 + M 12 l1 N 22 M t so ⎡ 1 N = ⎢Mt ⎢ ⎣ 0 [det N = ⎤ M 12 ⎥ ⎥ Mt ⎦ 1 × M t − M 12 × 0 = 1 Mt

Theory of cardinal points(7)
• For i i l l F principal plans Mt=1, so 1
H1 H2

′ M t = M 22 − M 12 l k = 1 ′ lk = M 22 − 1 c −1 ⇔ V2 H 2 = M 12 a

0

y`= N21u + N22y Mt= y`/y = N22 = -l`k M12 +M22

1 = M 11 − M 12 l1 = 1 Mt l1 = 1 − M 11 1− b ⇔ V1 H 1 = M 12 a

⎡b ⎢ ⎣d

a⎤ ⎡M ⇔ ⎢ 11 c⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M 21

M 12 ⎤ M 22 ⎥ ⎦

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

Theory of cardinal points(8)
• F.V.F.L FVFL N11=0 0

Matrix of a optical system containing objects(1)
• Simple optical system
Inter vergence n1
⎡1 β ⎤ ⎡n γ ⎤ ⎡n γ ′⎤ ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎢ h ⎥ = ⎢ h ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ n n n nγ V= = = = h L o h
1 2

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

M 11 + M 12 l1 = 0 M −b l1 = F .V .F .L. = − 11 ⇔ M 12 a
⎡b ⎢ ⎣d a⎤ ⎡ M 11 ⎥ ⇔ ⎢M c⎦ ⎣ 21 M 12 ⎤ M 22 ⎥ ⎦

n2

γ

B.V.F.L B VFL

N22=0. 0

− l k M 12 + M 22 = 0 lk =
M 22 M 12

c a

1 × h 1 ⎡1 β ⎤ ⎡ n γ ⎤ 1 ⎡ n γ ′ ⎤ = h ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎢ h ⎥ h ⎢ h ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ n γ ⎤ ⎡ n γ ′⎤ ⎡1 β ⎤ ⎢ h ⎥ ⎢ h ⎥ ⎡1 β ⎤ ⎡V ⎤ ⎡V ′⎤ ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎢ h ⎥ = ⎢ h ⎥ ⇔ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ = ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ h ⎦ ⎣ h ⎦ V V′ [S ]⎡ ⎤ = ⎡ ⎤ ⎢1⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
1 2 1 1

Matrix system

[S ]⎡ ⎢

V ⎤ ⎡V ′⎤ = 1⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
Exit vergence

Matrix of a optical system containing objects(2)
• Complex optical system C l i l

Dr. G. Mirjalili Physics Dept. Yazd University

n1 object o

V V` o.s i n2 image

⎡V ⎤ ⎡V ′⎤ [S ]⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎦

V = n1/o V `= n2/i