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Sofia Monzon

Bi-Literacy Strategies for Second Language Learners

Dr. Gomez, Summer 2014, UST

Project # 4: Transformational/Critical Literacy Activity
Paulo Freire in 1970 conceptualized Critical Literacy as the model that views readers as
active participants in the reading process and invites them to move beyond passively accepting
texts message, to question, examine, or dispute the power relations that exist between readers
and authors. It focuses on issues of power and promotes reflection, transformation, and action
(Stambler, 2013). Critical Literacy is in short, the ability to read any text in an active and
reflective way to better comprehend power, inequality, and injustice (Coffey, 2014). In the
actuality, teachers also play an important role in the delivery and understanding of information
that affect the students on an economic, social, and cultural level. Traditional literacy used to
focus on the reproduction of the social patterns that reflected the reality of a social and economic
group. Critical literacy on the other hand, focuses on the analysis of literature in a more realistic
way, in which students are able to enjoy, examine, dissect, and assess the text according to their
own reality.
The activity that follows this is a Read Aloud with Accountable Talk using the Critical
Literacy approach. This activity includes the four phases of what Alma Flor Ada refers to as the
creative reading act (Wink, 2002): descriptive, personal interpretation, critical analysis, and
creative action phase. Although every phase seems to be independent from one another, it is
important to note that sometimes they overlap or happen simultaneously.

Sofia Monzon
Bi-Literacy Strategies for Second Language Learners
Dr. Gomez, Summer 2014, UST

Sleeping Ugly
Reading-Aloud with Accountable Talk
Critical Literacy Activity

Text: Sleeping Ugly, written by Jane Yolen, 1997, a Fractured Fairy Tale
Objectives: Compare traditional Fairy Tale to Fracture Fairy Tale
Make personal connections
Analyze characters decisions bases on the characters traits
Understand how ones actions have repercussions for oneself
and others
Model fluent reading
Before Reading

Building Background Knowledge: The teacher will ask the students to
share what they know about the fairy tale Sleeping Beauty. The teacher
will recall the information on chart paper. Also, the teacher will ask the
students to share what they know already about fractured fairy tales and
to give some examples of them.

Introduce the book: The teacher will begin by adding that an element of
the fairy tales is for the readers to learn a lesson from the outcome. The
teacher will introduce the book by explain that Sleeping Ugly is a
fractured fairy tale from Sleeping Beauty. The teacher will give a brief
summary of the main characters and setting of the story.

Introduce the Purpose: The teacher will explain that todays reading will
be based on the critical literacy principles, and hence, the discussion will
be more about the characters behaviors, traits, and feelings.

Sofia Monzon
Bi-Literacy Strategies for Second Language Learners
Dr. Gomez, Summer 2014, UST
During Reading

1. Descriptive Phase: During this phase, the text is shared by
the teacher, where the knowledge of the new text is the main goal.

Teacher Reading: The teacher reads aloud with voice and fluency, but
focuses on the process of thinking aloud. Also, the teacher will give the
opportunity for students to share with partners their thoughts about
specific situations in the story or questions posted by the teacher. Also,
teacher stops and checks for basic understanding on a regular basis.

Teacher Questioning: Who are the main characters? When/Where is this
happening? What does Misarella/Plain Jane/Jojo mean by ________?

After Reading

2. Personal Interpretation Phase: During this phase, the
students make personal connections with the new information.

Discussion: After the teacher finishes reading the book, the teacher will
initiate critical discussion.

Teacher Questioning: What do you think about Misarella, Plain Jane, Jojo?
Why? Do they remind you of something? Do their behaviors remind you of
something? Have you ever experienced this? How does this story relate to

3. Critical Analysis Phase: After the basic comprehension
and the creation of connections with the text, students in this phase
reflect critically, make inferences, and analyze the text.

Teacher Questioning: What did you learn from Misarella/Plain
Jane/Jojos behaviors? How do you think their actions made others feel?
Explain why? Why do you think that the author makes Misarella end up like
Sofia Monzon
Bi-Literacy Strategies for Second Language Learners
Dr. Gomez, Summer 2014, UST
that? What is the purpose of the author to write this story? Do you think
that this story applies to our reality? How? Explain.


4. Creative Action Phase: During this last phase, students
apply the concepts and knowledge theyve learned into real life situations.

Teacher questioning: What can we do to differ from Misarellas behavior?
How can we help the elderly? How can we help people that are less
fortunate than us? Is there anybody that you know that had a similar life
with Plain Jane?

Activities: After discussing and agreeing on some projects, for instance, a
trip to a Senior Living Home to bring basic things can be planned. Another
activity could be one in which the students create a list of behaviors that
children should display towards other people in specific situations, then
act them out.

Sofia Monzon
Bi-Literacy Strategies for Second Language Learners
Dr. Gomez, Summer 2014, UST

Coffey, H. (2014). Critical Literacy. Retrieved from
Stambler, L. (2013). Critical literacy. Literacies for the Digital Age to Teach in the K-12
Classroom. [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from
Wink, J. (2002). California Reading Association Literacy Brings the World to You! Retrieved