linear (along road, river, coast) Disperse e.g. farming Nucleated –road junction & river confluence 4. Planned, e.g.

Housing scheme factors 1. Low-lying, 2. Hilly/mt 3. Water sources 4. Defence Patterns RURAL Case study

Places where people live, interact & carry out activity What?

Site/location: near resources, defence, shelter site(lagoon, straits & off-shore islands Situation: relationship site +surrounding Settlement

Central Place theory


Models Linear settlement P. Malaysia 2. Sector model: Hoyt, American city, 1933. Zone 1: CBD Zone 2: Industry Zone 3: Low income Zone 3: Middle income Zone 4: High income * High income residential area away from industry. Sector-along route



Case study : BSB

1. Concentric model: -Burgess, Chicago city 1920. Caracteristics: Land use highest at centre, high land rent, high rise building, Zone 1: CBD Zone 2: Transition Zone 3: Low class R. Zone 4:High class R Zone 5: Commuter

Multiple-nuclei model Ullman and Haris 1: CBD 2: industry 3: Low income 4: Middle income 5: High income 6: Outlying business district *not start from centre but subsidiary centres.

CBD: Central Business District Characteristics: 1. Tall building 2. expensive Lack entertainment

Low order servicessmall market, threshold & low range Vice versa.

1. Housing (shanty town) 2. Transport (traffic jam) 3. Pollution (Air. Land and sea) 4. Water supply

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