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GIKPKC7 94107 The Real Number System Page 1

Introduction
3/2/98

Natural
Whole Numbers = Cardinal (N)
Integers (J) 0,1,3,4,etc. Zero
Rational (Q)
The Real Decimals Negative
Number System Fractions
Irrational (I)
Surds

Complex Numbers
Unreal Number System

Terms:
Quadatic Degree is 2 E.g. 2x2  3x + 3
Linear Degree is 1 E.g. 3x  8
Monic Leading coefficient is 1 E.g. x3  2x + 3
Degree The leading terms power 3 E.g. x3  2x + 3
Conjugate a+b & a–b
  Alpha
  Beta
  Delta
  Gamma
  Epsilon
  Pi
  Theta
  Rho
  Lambda
  Sigma
  Omega
 Infinity

Radian:
 The angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc equal in length to the radius
of the circle.
Equation: Circumference (360) = 2. rad
Proof:
C(360) = 2..r units
2..r
C(360) = rad
r

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= 2. rad
Irrational - Surds
3/2/98
3
Top  Numerator Bottom  Denominator
4

Remember: a2 = 9  a =  9

Properties:
(1) c a  d b = c.d a.b

a a
(2) =
b b

(3)  a = a
2

Rationalise the Denominator:


3
E.g. (1) Rationalise the denominator of
5
3 3 5
A So, = 
5 5 5
3 5
=
5

2 3 5
E.g. (2) Rationalise the denominator of
3 4 2
2 3 5 2 3 5 3 4 2
A So, = 
3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2

=
 
2 3  5 3 4 2 
 29

Irrationals on the Number Line:

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2 3

0 1 2

Rationals – Fractions & Decimals


4/2/98
Decimals:
Terminating
1
E.g. = 0.25
4
1
= 0.125
8

Recurring
1
E.g. = 0.333…
3
1 = 0.142857142857…
7

Changing Recurring Decimals to Fractions:


E.g. Change 0.111… to a fraction

A n = 0.111… …(1)
10n = 1.111… …(2)Note:
(2) – (1) One recurring number = 10n
9n = 1 Two recurring numbers = 100n
1 Three recurring numbers = 1000n
n= Etc.
9

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Index Laws
5/2/98

(1) nm  nn = nm + n

(2) nm ÷ nn = nm  n

(3) (nm)n = nm.n

(4) n0 = 1

a
na  n 
(5) = 
ba  b 

1
(6) a1 =
a

(7) n½ = n

(8) m
a
n =  m
n a
or n
ma

1 n
(9) a
=
n a

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Factorising
9/2/98
Quadratics:
E.g. x2 + 4.x + 3

A So, a+b=4
And, a.b = 3
 (x + 1)(x + 3)

Completing the Square


Equation: a2  2ab + b2 = (a  b)2

2
b
Add   to complete the square on: a2 + b.a
2

The Quadratic Formula


 b  b 2  4.a .c
Equation: x
2.a
Proof:
a.x2 + b.x + c = 0
b.x c = 0
x2  
a a
2 2
2 b.x  b  c  b 
x      
a  2.a  a  2.a 
2 2
 b   b  c
x    
 2.a   2.a  a
2
 b  b 2  4.a .c
x  
 2.a  4.a 2
b  b 2  4.a .c
x 
2.a 2.a
 b  b 2  4.a .c
x
2.a

Perfect Squares:
Equation: (a – b)2 = a2 – 2.a.b + b2
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Equation: (a + b)2 = a2 + 2.a.b + b2

Difference of Two Squares:


Equation: a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b)

Equation: a2 – 1 = (a –1)(a + 1)

Sum and Differences of Two Cubes:


Equation: a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a² – a.b + b²)

Proof:
(a + b)(a2 – a.b + b2) = a3 – a2.b + a.b2 + a2.b + b3
= a3 + b3

Equation: a3 – b3 = (a – b)(a2 + a.b + b2)

Proof:
(a – b)(a2 + a.b + b2) = a3 + a2.b + a.b2 – a2.b – a.b2 – b3
= a3 – b3

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Simultaneous Equations
17/2/97
Equations with Two Unknowns Variables:
E.g. y = x2 …(1)
y=x+2 …(2)
Sub (1) into (2)
x2 = x + 2
x2 – x – 2 = 0
(x – 2)(x + 1) = 0
x–2=0 x+1=0
x=2 & x=–1
Sub x = 2 & x = – 1 into (2)
y=2+2 y=–1+2
y=4 & y=1
 x=2 & x=–1
y=4 & y=1

Equations with Three Unknown Variables:


E.g. a–b+c=7 …(1)
a + 2.b – c = –4 …(2)
3.a – b – c = 3 …(3)
(1) + (2)
2.a + b = 3 …(4)
(1) + (3)
4.a – 2.b = 10 …(5)
(4)  2
4.a + 2.b = 6 …(6)
(5) – (6)
– 4.b = 4
b=–1
Sub b = – 1 into (4)
2.a – 1 =3
2.a = 4
a=2
Sub b = – 1 & a = 2 into (1)
2 – (– 1) + c = 7
2+c=7
c=4
 a=2
b=–1
c=4

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Inequalities
19/2/98
 The inequality sign reverses when  or ÷ by a negative.
 Never write E.g. 4 > x > 5 (write x < 4 & x > 5), only E.g. 4 < x < 5.
E.g. (1) Solve for x 3.x + 1  19

A 3.x  18
0
x6

E.g. (2) Solve for x 3.y – 4 > 5.y + 12

A – 2.y – 4 > 12
– 2.y > 16
y<–8 8 0

Inequalities where the Denominator is the Pronumeral:


 Find want doesn’t work.
 Solve as if it were a normal equation. Or use Method 2
 Check whether inside/outside works.
Method 1
1
E.g. 4
x

A Here, x  0
Also, 1 = 4.x
1
Test, x =
8
4>8 
Test, x =  1
1<4 
Test, x = 1
1<4 
 x<0&x>¼

2 2¾

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Absolute Values
20/2/98
 All ways check answers, because they are not always right.
 When you have absolute values on both sides of the equal or inequalities sign, there’s
no need to do four possible solutions, two is enough.

Definition:
a = a E.g. 5 = 5
– a= a E.g. – 5 = 5

Alternatively
If a > 0, then a = a E.g. 3 = 3
If a < 0, then a = – a E.g. – 3 = – (– 3)
If a = 0, then a = 0 =3

Properties:
 a.b= a  b E.g. – 3  2 = – 3  2
– 6 = 3  2
6=6
 a2 = a2 E.g. – 5 = – 52
2

52 = – 52
 a + b a + b E.g. – 3 + 5 – 3 + 5
2  3 + 5
28

Involving Absolute Valves:


 If, a < 3 Then, –3 < a < 3
E.g. x  2 5
–5x–25
–3  x  7
 If, a > 3 Then, a < –3 & a > 3
E.g. Solve for xx – 2 5

A x–25 & – (x – 2)  5
x7 x–25
x–3 & x7

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