543 views

Uploaded by logicvirus

Fatigue anf Fracture

- Rockets and Missiles
- Unit 5 Fatigue and fracture
- AE2030 - fatigue and fracture
- Fatigue 2marks n 16 marks
- AE2027-QB.doc
- Gate aerospace notes .pdf
- Fatigue and Fracture
- AE2403-LP
- BEST STUDY MATERIAL FOR AEROSPACE ENGINEERING GATE
- Aircraft Design Project - 150 seater passenger aircraft
- Ae2401 Avionics Anna University Question Bank
- AE6007 FAF
- Experimental Stress Analysis- Photo Elastic- Strain Measurement- Britlle Coating- Hani Aziz Ameen
- AE-2035-QB as
- Fatigue Theory Chapter2
- UNIT I Avionics
- AERO ENGINE REPAIR
- AE-2028
- Fatique and Fracture
- Airframe Maintenance and Repair

You are on page 1of 32

1

INTRODUCTION

Fracture mechanics is the study of mechanical behavior of

cracked material subjected to an applied load

Fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly

applied loads.

The process of progressive localized permanent structural

changes occurring in a material subjected to conditions that

produce fluctuating stresses at some point or points and that

may culminate in cracks or complete fracture after a

sufficient number of fluctuations.

2

WHY STRUCTURES FAIL?

The cause of most structural failures generally falls

into one of the following categories:

Negligence during design, construction, or operation of

the structure.

Application of a new design or material, which produces

an unexpected (and undesirable) result.

3

Common causes of Failure are:

Yielding critical loading point

Deflection beyond a certain stage

Buckling

Fatigue

Fracture

Creep

Environmental Degradation

Resonance

Impact

Wear

4

Fracture mechanisms

Ductile fracture

Accompanied by significant plastic deformation

Brittle fracture

Little or no plastic deformation

Catastrophic

Usually strain is < 5%.

5

Brittle vs Ductile Materials

6

FRACTURE MECHANICS

Study of crack propagation in bodies

Methodology used to aid in selecting materials

and designing components to minimize the

possibility of fracture.

It begins with the assumption that all real

materials contain cracks of some sizeeven if

only submicroscopically

Based on three types of displacement modes

7

3 Modes of Crack Propagation

8

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS

Fracture toughness is a property which describes the ability of a

material containing a crack to resist fracture, and is one of the most

important properties of any material for many design applications. The

linear-elastic fracture toughness of a material is determined from the

stress intensity factor (K) at which a thin crack in the material begins to

grow.

In fracture mechanics, one does not attempt to evaluate an effective

stress concentration, rather a stress intensity factor K

After obtaining K, it is compared with a limiting value of K that is

necessary for crack propagation in that material, called K

c

The limiting value K

c

is characteristic of the material and is called fracture

toughness

9

10

11

Fatigue Failure- Mechanism

A fatigue failure begins with a small crack; the initial

crack may be so minute and can not be detected. The

crack usually develops at a point of localized stress

concentration like discontinuity in the material, such as

a change in cross section, a keyway or a hole.

Once a crack is initiated, the stress concentration

effect become greater and the crack propagates.

Consequently the stressed area decreases in size, the

stress increase in magnitude and the crack propagates

more rapidly.

Until finally, the remaining area is unable to sustain the

load and the component fails suddenly. Thus fatigue

loading results in sudden, unwarned failure.

12

Four Different Stages of Fatigue Failure

Crack initiation at points of stress concentration

Crack growth

Crack propagation

Final rupture

13

Factors Influencing Fatigue

Loading

Geometry

Material

Manufacturing

Environment

14

Stress Concentration Factor

Stress concentration factor (K

t

), is a dimensionless

factor which is used to quantify how concentrated the

stress is in a material. It is defined as the ratio of the

highest stress in the element to the nominal stress

(reference stress )

15

Characteristics of stress-concentration factors:

Function of the geometry or shape of the part, but

not its size or material

Function of the type of loading applied to the part

(axial, bending or torsional)

Function of the specific geometric stress raiser in

the part (such as fillet radius, notch, or hole)

Always defined with respect to a particular

nominal stress

Typically assumes a linear elastic, homogeneous,

isotropic material

16

Stress Concentration Factor

17

Fatigue Stress Concentration

The existence of irregularities or discontinuities, such as

holes, grooves, or notches, in a part increase the

magnitude of stresses significantly in the immediate

vicinity of the discontinuity .

Fatigue failure mostly originates from such places. Hence

its effect must be accounted and normally a fatigue stress-

concentration factor K

f

is applied when designing against

fatigue, even if the materials behavior is ductile .

18

Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor (K

f

)

Miscellaneous-effect factor (K

e

)

19

Notch Sensitivity (q)

The value of q usually lies between 0 and 1.

If q=0, K

f

=1 and this indicates no notch sensitivity.

If however q=1, then K

f

= K

t

and this indicates full

notch sensitivity.

A measure of the reduction in strength of a metal caused by

the presence of a notch

20

21

STRESS-LIFE DIAGRAM(Wohler S-N Curves)

Typical S-N curves for ferrous and non-ferrous metals.

Steel, Ti. etc

Al, Cu alloy,

Mg, etc.,

22

Endurance Limit / Fatigue Limit

The fatigue life reduces with respect to increase in

stress range and at a limiting value of stress, the

curve flattens off. The point at which the S-N curve

flattens off is called the endurance limit.

Certain materials have a fatigue limit or endurance

limit which represents a stress level below which the

material does not fail and can be cycled infinitely.

23

Unlike steels, most nonferrous metals and alloys (Al, Mg,

Cu alloy, etc.,) do not have a fatigue limit i.e. S-N curve

continues to fall steadily with decreasing stress, though at

a decreasing rate.

Thus, fatigue will ultimately occur regardless of the

magnitude of the applied stress. Fatigue response of these

materials is specified for a number of stress cycles,

normally 10

7

, and is known as fatigue strength.

An effective endurance limit for these materials is

sometimes defined as the stress that causes failure at

1x10

8

to 5x10

8

.

24

Metal fatigue is a significant engineering problem

because it can occur due to repeated or cyclic

stresses below the static yield strength, unexpected

and catastrophic failure of a vital structural part may

occur and rack initiation may start at discontinuities

in highly stressed regions of the component.

Fatigue failure may be due to discontinuities such as

inadequate design, improper maintenance and so

forth.

25

Fatigue failure can be prevented by

Avoiding sharp surfaces caused by punching, stamping,

shearing.

Preventing the development of surface discontinuities during

processing.

Reducing or eliminating tensile residual stresses caused by

manufacturing.

Avoiding assembling errors, improper maintenance,

manufacturing defects, design errors

Using proper material and heat treatment procedures

Environmental Effects.

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

Goodman experimental observation are quite closer

for brittle materials, but it is conservative for ductile

alloys. For compressive mean stress, however it is non-

conservative . To circumvent this problem, one may

assume that compressive mean stress provide no

beneficial effect on fatigue life.

Gerber generally good for ductile material for mean

tensile stress. But this does not distinguish between the

fatigue life for tensile and compressive mean stresses.

Soderberg provides a conservative estimation of

fatigue life for most engineering alloys

- Rockets and MissilesUploaded bymgskumar
- Unit 5 Fatigue and fractureUploaded byShiva
- AE2030 - fatigue and fractureUploaded byArun Raja K K
- Fatigue 2marks n 16 marksUploaded byAdrian James
- AE2027-QB.docUploaded byAero Gopal
- Gate aerospace notes .pdfUploaded bySiva Charan
- Fatigue and FractureUploaded byabdelbagi taha
- AE2403-LPUploaded byarnoldking
- BEST STUDY MATERIAL FOR AEROSPACE ENGINEERING GATEUploaded byAbrar Nizami
- Aircraft Design Project - 150 seater passenger aircraftUploaded bysonusingh7867
- Ae2401 Avionics Anna University Question BankUploaded bySaraswathi Asirvatham
- AE6007 FAFUploaded byYokesvaran K
- Experimental Stress Analysis- Photo Elastic- Strain Measurement- Britlle Coating- Hani Aziz AmeenUploaded byHani Aziz Ameen
- AE-2035-QB asUploaded bykumaraero
- Fatigue Theory Chapter2Uploaded byg_365402239
- UNIT I AvionicsUploaded bySaraswathi Asirvatham
- AERO ENGINE REPAIRUploaded byAnonymous 8pCXXs
- AE-2028Uploaded byHari Krishnan C
- Fatique and FractureUploaded bygokul1101
- Airframe Maintenance and RepairUploaded byaerohod
- IVth(7th sem) year Question bank-B.E AeronauticalUploaded byRaamaChandiran
- Ae2027 Amr Unit 1Uploaded byaerohod
- Gate Text BooksUploaded byShabas Lukkumanil Hakkim
- Avionics NotesUploaded byDevi Rajendran
- Wind TunneL 2 MarK and 16 MarK With AnsweRUploaded byaeroheroz
- CFD [AE2402] Question BankUploaded byaeroacademic
- Avionics NotesUploaded byRajeshkumar Baskaran
- r05412111 Rockets and MissilesUploaded bycoool_imran
- AE2353 Wind Tunnel Techniques Anna University question bankUploaded byArchana Chuchima
- Unit 4 AvionicsUploaded byVignesh Moorthy

- Me 1401 - Finite Element Analysis 2Marks with answersUploaded byMak
- Solid MechanicsUploaded bylogicvirus
- Unicorn Insurance2016Uploaded bylogicvirus
- Upsc Ese SyllapusUploaded bylogicvirus
- Assignment 2Uploaded bylogicvirus
- Seminar 3rd YearUploaded bylogicvirus
- Iqac Monthly ReportUploaded bylogicvirus
- Monitoring Report TutorialUploaded bylogicvirus
- Timoshenko, S. P., 1921, On the correction factor for shear of the differential equation for transverse vibrations of bars of uniform cross-sectioUploaded bylogicvirus
- Curriculum & Syllabi of 3rd to 8th Sem for B.E.aero SNSCT AutonomousUploaded bylogicvirus
- 2012-16 araUploaded bylogicvirus
- 1dfsUploaded bylogicvirus
- Me217strength of Materials l t p cUploaded bylogicvirus
- Moc of Air and NitrogenUploaded bylogicvirus
- Mft-II Lab ManualUploaded byதியாகராஜன் அரிதாஸ்
- Conternt Beyond SyllabusUploaded bylogicvirus
- FM QpUploaded bylogicvirus
- Engineering Drawing multiple choice questionUploaded bylogicvirus
- 1 IntroductionUploaded bylogicvirus
- syllabus R2013.pdfUploaded bylogeshboy007
- fea pptUploaded bylogicvirus
- Wind Turbine DesignUploaded bylogicvirus
- Basic Autopilot SystemsUploaded bySamarendu Baul
- Copy of 10.1.1.88Uploaded bylogicvirus

- 2353073 Pinned Base Plates 8Uploaded bypawkom
- 11. Column Stability SupportsUploaded byAdron Lim
- Proof StressUploaded byAmandeep Kamboj
- TensileUploaded byTharinya Sellathurai
- Development LengthUploaded byatac101
- A. Pressure Vessel - LectureUploaded bymol_kres
- PERFORMANCE-BASED DESIGN seminarUploaded byJose Maria Geda
- Presentation to concrete structuresUploaded byDr-Samy Akil MohamedFawzy
- Danish School at Tandalianwala Faisalabad 10.03.2016Uploaded bySyed Adnan Aqib
- Geotechnical Policies & Procedures Manual_Chapt 11Uploaded byAnonymous rQKN6vV
- Lecture 14 2 Lab 5 Strain MeasurementUploaded byJoanna Simmons
- Lec 2_tall Building Criteria and Loading-2003Uploaded byJibonGhoshPritom
- Delamination Prediction in Composite Laminates Under Low-Velocity ImpactUploaded bykhayat
- Stress Analysis ManualUploaded byangelseven6
- Text (4).pdfUploaded byAnonymous D5s00DdU
- 1_Getco_132kv_sub_Atul_Back_side_1_Valsad.pdfUploaded byvaibhav
- Pile Cap Design 6Pile (2)Uploaded byAnkit Ghildiyal
- EASC1081 1710 Week 3 Tutorial Problems and Solutions (1)Uploaded byBishwajit Chowdhury
- Effective stress in soils, concrete and rocks - Skempton 1961.pdfUploaded byperryli92
- Footing Design F1Uploaded byUrmi Panchal
- BSEP-SMF.xlsxUploaded byNEO
- Trawl Gear InterferenceUploaded byMohammad Abdolalipoor
- Lab Manual Mechanic of Materials SEM 2 20132014Uploaded bysaruwatari michiyo
- A 226973Uploaded byjejep4p4p4
- Patterns in Recurrence 23-27Uploaded byArie Setiawan
- Earthquake Resistant DesignUploaded byyeswanthr
- Consolidation testUploaded bySailesh Rajbhandari
- Effective Lengths.pdfUploaded bymgonelli14
- chapter 1.pptUploaded byyihienew
- Models.sme.Large Deformation BeamUploaded byAlireza Azarioon