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AE2030

FATIGUE AND FRACTURE


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INTRODUCTION
Fracture mechanics is the study of mechanical behavior of
cracked material subjected to an applied load
Fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly
applied loads.
The process of progressive localized permanent structural
changes occurring in a material subjected to conditions that
produce fluctuating stresses at some point or points and that
may culminate in cracks or complete fracture after a
sufficient number of fluctuations.
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WHY STRUCTURES FAIL?
The cause of most structural failures generally falls
into one of the following categories:
Negligence during design, construction, or operation of
the structure.
Application of a new design or material, which produces
an unexpected (and undesirable) result.
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Common causes of Failure are:
Yielding critical loading point
Deflection beyond a certain stage
Buckling
Fatigue
Fracture
Creep
Environmental Degradation
Resonance
Impact
Wear
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Fracture mechanisms
Ductile fracture
Accompanied by significant plastic deformation
Brittle fracture
Little or no plastic deformation
Catastrophic
Usually strain is < 5%.
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Brittle vs Ductile Materials
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FRACTURE MECHANICS
Study of crack propagation in bodies
Methodology used to aid in selecting materials
and designing components to minimize the
possibility of fracture.
It begins with the assumption that all real
materials contain cracks of some sizeeven if
only submicroscopically
Based on three types of displacement modes
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3 Modes of Crack Propagation


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FRACTURE TOUGHNESS
Fracture toughness is a property which describes the ability of a
material containing a crack to resist fracture, and is one of the most
important properties of any material for many design applications. The
linear-elastic fracture toughness of a material is determined from the
stress intensity factor (K) at which a thin crack in the material begins to
grow.
In fracture mechanics, one does not attempt to evaluate an effective
stress concentration, rather a stress intensity factor K
After obtaining K, it is compared with a limiting value of K that is
necessary for crack propagation in that material, called K
c
The limiting value K
c
is characteristic of the material and is called fracture
toughness
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Fatigue Failure- Mechanism
A fatigue failure begins with a small crack; the initial
crack may be so minute and can not be detected. The
crack usually develops at a point of localized stress
concentration like discontinuity in the material, such as
a change in cross section, a keyway or a hole.
Once a crack is initiated, the stress concentration
effect become greater and the crack propagates.
Consequently the stressed area decreases in size, the
stress increase in magnitude and the crack propagates
more rapidly.
Until finally, the remaining area is unable to sustain the
load and the component fails suddenly. Thus fatigue
loading results in sudden, unwarned failure.
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Four Different Stages of Fatigue Failure
Crack initiation at points of stress concentration
Crack growth
Crack propagation
Final rupture
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Factors Influencing Fatigue
Loading
Geometry
Material
Manufacturing
Environment


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Stress Concentration Factor
Stress concentration factor (K
t
), is a dimensionless
factor which is used to quantify how concentrated the
stress is in a material. It is defined as the ratio of the
highest stress in the element to the nominal stress
(reference stress )



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Characteristics of stress-concentration factors:
Function of the geometry or shape of the part, but
not its size or material
Function of the type of loading applied to the part
(axial, bending or torsional)
Function of the specific geometric stress raiser in
the part (such as fillet radius, notch, or hole)
Always defined with respect to a particular
nominal stress
Typically assumes a linear elastic, homogeneous,
isotropic material


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Stress Concentration Factor

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Fatigue Stress Concentration
The existence of irregularities or discontinuities, such as
holes, grooves, or notches, in a part increase the
magnitude of stresses significantly in the immediate
vicinity of the discontinuity .
Fatigue failure mostly originates from such places. Hence
its effect must be accounted and normally a fatigue stress-
concentration factor K
f
is applied when designing against
fatigue, even if the materials behavior is ductile .

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Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor (K
f
)
Miscellaneous-effect factor (K
e
)
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Notch Sensitivity (q)
The value of q usually lies between 0 and 1.
If q=0, K
f
=1 and this indicates no notch sensitivity.
If however q=1, then K
f
= K
t
and this indicates full
notch sensitivity.
A measure of the reduction in strength of a metal caused by
the presence of a notch

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STRESS-LIFE DIAGRAM(Wohler S-N Curves)
Typical S-N curves for ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
Steel, Ti. etc
Al, Cu alloy,
Mg, etc.,
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Endurance Limit / Fatigue Limit
The fatigue life reduces with respect to increase in
stress range and at a limiting value of stress, the
curve flattens off. The point at which the S-N curve
flattens off is called the endurance limit.
Certain materials have a fatigue limit or endurance
limit which represents a stress level below which the
material does not fail and can be cycled infinitely.
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Unlike steels, most nonferrous metals and alloys (Al, Mg,
Cu alloy, etc.,) do not have a fatigue limit i.e. S-N curve
continues to fall steadily with decreasing stress, though at
a decreasing rate.
Thus, fatigue will ultimately occur regardless of the
magnitude of the applied stress. Fatigue response of these
materials is specified for a number of stress cycles,
normally 10
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, and is known as fatigue strength.
An effective endurance limit for these materials is
sometimes defined as the stress that causes failure at
1x10
8
to 5x10
8
.

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Metal fatigue is a significant engineering problem
because it can occur due to repeated or cyclic
stresses below the static yield strength, unexpected
and catastrophic failure of a vital structural part may
occur and rack initiation may start at discontinuities
in highly stressed regions of the component.
Fatigue failure may be due to discontinuities such as
inadequate design, improper maintenance and so
forth.
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Fatigue failure can be prevented by
Avoiding sharp surfaces caused by punching, stamping,
shearing.
Preventing the development of surface discontinuities during
processing.
Reducing or eliminating tensile residual stresses caused by
manufacturing.
Avoiding assembling errors, improper maintenance,
manufacturing defects, design errors
Using proper material and heat treatment procedures
Environmental Effects.
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Goodman experimental observation are quite closer
for brittle materials, but it is conservative for ductile
alloys. For compressive mean stress, however it is non-
conservative . To circumvent this problem, one may
assume that compressive mean stress provide no
beneficial effect on fatigue life.
Gerber generally good for ductile material for mean
tensile stress. But this does not distinguish between the
fatigue life for tensile and compressive mean stresses.
Soderberg provides a conservative estimation of
fatigue life for most engineering alloys