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The act of working out the form of some thing (as by marking a
sketch or out line or plan )
2. What is design interpretation?
Design interpretation means to interpret or under stand the
3. Introduction to pressure vessel
Several types of euipment! which are used in the chemical!
petrochemical fertili"er industries are described bellow.
(n all this euipment pressure vessel is a basic and generally used in
all above types of industries.
#ressure vessel are usually spherical or cylindrical with domed ends. They
are provide with openings or no""les with facilities for marking threaded
or flanged )oints. *arious methods are used for supporting the vessel.
4. Definition of vessel
+ container or structural envelope in which material are processed! or
5. Definition of pressure vessel
+ container or structural envelope in which material are processed!
treated! or stored which has been designed to operate at pressure above
1, #si are knows as pressure vessel.
6. Which codes used make design of pressure vessel?
*arious code reference which is used for design and construction of
pressure vessel are as below.
+S-& sec viii div.1
7. Wh designing is re!uired for pressure vessel?
The selection of the types of vessel based primarily upon the fictional
service of the vessel. The functional service reuirements impose
certain operating conditions such as temperature! pressure! dimensional
limitation and various loads.
(f the vessel is not designed properly the vessel may be fail in service.
The design of most structure is based on formulas. 3ormula may be
used form any relative code4standards so the value derived form that
formula is reliable.
0. Wh necessar design of pressure vessel?
(f vessel is not designed properly5 the vessel may be fail in service.
3ailure may be occur in one or more manners such by the plastic
deformation resulting form e%cessive stress! or by elastic instability.
". What parameter affect the failure of vessel?
3ailure may also result form corrosion! wear or fatigue. Design of the
vessel to protect against such as failures involve the consideration of
these factors and the physical properties of the materials.
(f the vessel is not properly designed then chances of failure is more
because we don5t know what is the ma%imum operating pressure and
temperature. 6e don5t know about ma%imum load! pressure or
temperature carrying capacities of the vessel.
12 . #tresses in pressure vessel
#ressure vessel are sub)ected to various loading which e%ert stresses
of different intensities in the vessel components.
The various stresses! which are generating during working and service
time! are tabulated below.
$$. %oading on pressure vessel
6eight of vessel itself.
Static reaction form piping other vessels! attached euipment!
support such as lugs! saddles! rings! legs! skirts and internals.
7yclic and dynamic reactions due to wind pressure! seismic
(mpact reactions such as those due to fluid shock.
Temperature gradients and differential thermal e%pansion
$2. What is components of design pressure vessel?
The part which is common in any pressure vessel are described below
• $ead or cover
• 'einforcement pad
The above parts are common parts of the pressure vessel. The all
above parts of the vessel reuires designing before fabrication.
Some useful formula and calculation described in ne%t topic.
$3. Design of shell
Shell is a ma)or components of vessel. Shells are made form sheet or
plate. Seamless or welded pipe may be also used.
There is two types of shell
1. 7ylindrical shell
/. Spherical shell
:enerally a cylindrical shell is mostly used for construction of pressure
$4. #tresses in clindrical shell
;niform internal or e%ternal pressure includes in the longitudinal
seam a unit stress two times larger then in the circumferential seam because
of the geometry of the cylinder.
$5. Design of shell under internal presser
Thickness of cylindrical shell in terms of inside dimension or
(code reference +S-& sec. *iii div.1 ;: /< )
6hen thickness dose not e%ceed one half or the inside radius! p
dose not e%ceed 2.90, se the following formula shall apply.
T = >c.a.
$6.design of various tpe of dish end.
#ressure vessel reuires closer at ends. 6hich is attained by using
various dish ends. There are various aspects for selection of type head like
volume inside head @ space available above vessel at site. The various
types of dished ends widely used are describe bellow.
+s shown! this type of head consists of profile generated by two
different circles having crown radius @ knuckle radius. :enerally these
types of heads are used for low thick vessel.
The reuired thickness of a tori spherical head for the case in which
the knuckle radios is ?B of the inside crown radius! shall be determined by
T = > c.a.
T = minimum reuired thickness of head after forming! inch
# = internal design pressure #si
C= inside spherical or crown radius! inch
$6. 'llipsoidal head
These types of head consists of /D1 ellipse profile as shown in figure. These
types of heads are widely used in pressure vessel.
The thickness of the /D1 ellipsoidal defined will be determined with the help
of given formula.
T = >c.a.
/se E 2./p
D= inside diameter of the head 4 inside length of the ma)or a%is.
$7. (emispherical head
+s name implies the profile of this type head is half of sphere. These types
of head have throughout constant radius that allows ma%imum volume for
reaction gases. This is also a widely used head especially for high thick
vessel like reactors. Thickness of the hemispherical head shall be determined
with the help of following formula.
T = > c.a.
/se E 2./ p
$".conical head and sections )*ithout transition knuckle
The reuired thickness of conical heads or conical shell sections shall be
determined with the help of given formula.
T = > c. +.
/cosa(se E 2.? p)
2+. &oriconical heads
The reuired thickness of the Tori conical dished end shall be
determined by the following formula
+ = one half of the included angle of the cone
T = > c.a.
/cosa (se E 2.? p)
6here di = /cos aF at the center line of the head
2$. Design of no,,le
+ssembly of pipe or forging to flange is called no""le.
22. &pes of no,,le
-adial no,,leD a no""le! which is perpendicular to base of the shell or
dished end lies on the orientation line is called radial no""le.
.ffset no,,le D a no""le! which is similar to radial no""le but offset form
orientation line ! is called as offset no""le.
&angential no,,le D a no""le! which is on any tangential line of the shell!
is called tangential no""le.
/ngular no,,le D a no""le! which is at an angle form the reference line! is
called as angular no""le.
23.supports for vessel
*essel have to be supported by different methods. *ertical vessel is
supported by bracket! column and saddle support hori"ontal vessels. The
choice of the type of supports depends on the
• $eight and diameter of the vessel!
• +vailable floor space!
• Cocation of vessel
Types of supports which are commonly used
• Skirt supports
• Saddle supports
• 1racket or lug supports
• Ceg supports
24. What is design of skirt supports ?
Tall vertical vessels are usually supported by cylindrical shell or skirts.
The skirts are welded to the bottom dished head! or outside of the shell.
+ bearing plate is attached to the bottom of the skirts. This plate is made to
rest on concrete foundation and is securely anchored to the foundation by
means of anchor bolts in concrete prevent over turning form the moments
induced by wind or seismic loads.
The bearing plate is in the form of rolled angle or a single flat ring with or
25. Design of saddle supports
$ori"ontal cylindrical vessel are supported on saddles. Theses are placed
as two positions.
3or large thin wall vessel or vessels under vacuum! it is necessary to provides
The location of the saddle supports should be eual form the centerline of the
vessel or eual distance form the tan line of the both side of vessel
26. Design of 0racket or lug tpe supports
These type can be easily fabricated form the plate and attach with the
vessel wall with minimum welding length. They are made to rest on short
columns or on beams of a structure depending on the elevation reuired.
They can be easily leveled.
1racket supports are most suitable for vessel with thick walls.
The main loads on the brackets supports are the dead weight of the vessel
with its content and the wind load.
27. Design of leg supports
Structural sections such as angle! channels can be directly welded to the
pressure vessel shell to form vertical legs the legs is attached to the vessel by
This type of support is use for small vessels. Several local stresses are
produced at the connection of the support to the vessel wall.
2".Which sm0ol indicates seam num0er?
3+.Which sm0ol indicates item num0er ?
3$.Which sm0ol indicates no,,le ?
32.What is full form of 1.2 ?
1H- means Ibill of materialJ
33.Which details indicates in 1.2 ?
(tem number! material description! which material used in )ob! shell
plate thickness! width! item identification! etc.
34.Which sm0ol indicates elevation ?
35.Which is surface finish sm0ol ?
36.Which sm0ol indicates machining after *elding ?
37. What is full form of 2.3 ?
-H7 means I material of construction I.
34. Which details indicates in 2.3 ?
-aterials of head and shell! forging! fitting! no""le necks! skirt shell!
base ring4anchors chair! internal clips pressure bolting! non
pressure bolding! e%ternal gaskets etc. +ll material specification is
given in -H7
3". What is tpes of dra*ing si,e ?
Si"e Cength (mm) 6idth (mm)
+A /G< /12
+9 A/2 /G<
+/ ,GA A/2
+1 0A2 ,GA
+2 100 0A2
4+. &pes of dra*ing line?
7ontinuous line! discontinuous line! thin line!
4$. &pes of machining sm0ol
42. Which is dra*ing pro5ection method ?
1 st angle
'.h.s.view plan l.h.s.view
'.h.s.view plan l.h.s.view
43. Descri0e minimum thickness of shell or head ?
The thick ness after forming and without for corrosion of any shell or
head sub)ect to pressure shall not less than K (? mm) for carbon
and low alloy steel. Hr 140 inch (9./) for stainless steel and non.ferrous
44. Descri0e the selection of material thickness ?
The selected thickness of material shell be such that the forming! heat
treatment! and other fabrication processes will not reduce the thickness
of the material at any point below the minimum value reuired by the
45.descri0e the corrosion allo*ance in design formula ?
The dimensional symbols used in all design formulas thought out the
division represent dimensions in the corroded condition.
46.descri0e the lodes ?
(nternal and e%ternal pressure including static head. 6eight of vessel and
normal contents under operating or test conditions. Superimposed loads!
such as other vessel operating euipment! insulation! corrosion resistance
or erosion resistant lining and piping. 6ind loads! snow loads and
47.*h corrosion allo*ance is re!uired in shell plates.
*essel and part there of sub)ect to loss of metal by corrosion ! erosion !
mechanical abrasions or other environmental effect shall have provisions
made for such loss during the design or specified life of the vessel by a
suitable increase in or addition tool a thickness of the base metal over that
determined by the design formula or stress analysis.
44.*h corrosion allo*ance is re!uired in shell plate ?
-aterial added an included for these losses need not be of the same
thickness for all parts of the vessel. (f different rates of attack are e%cepted
for the various parts. 8o additional thickness need be provided when
previous e%perience in like service as soon that corrosion does not occur
or is of only a superficial nature .
4". Wh re!uired lining in the shell ?
7orrosion resistance or abrasion resistance lining are these not integrally
attach to the vessel wall. They are intermittently attach or not attach at all .
(n either case! such lining shell not be given any credit when calculating
the thickness of the vessel wall.
5+.defination of the design pressure.
Design pressure is the pressure at the top of the vessel and which together
with the applicable co incident( metal.) Temperature is stamped on the
name plate. The pressure at the top of the vessel is also the basis for the
pressure setting of the pressure relief device protecting the vessel.
5$.defination of the design temperature?
The temperature used in the design shall be based on the actual metal
temperature e%pected under operating condition for the part considered at
the designated coincident pressure.
52.definition of the operating pressure?
The operating pressure is the pressure at the top of the vessel at which
it normally operators. The operating pressure shall not e%ceed the design
pressure and is usually kept at a suitable level bellow it to prevent the
freuent opening of the pressure relieving devices.
53.defination of the test pressure ?
The test pressure is the pressure to be applied at the top of the vessel
during the test . This pressure >any pressure due to static head at any point
under consideration is used in the applicable formula to check the vessel
under test condition.
54.*hich details gives in title 0lock ?
Stage inspection name! scale! department name! pro)ect name @ number!
drawing number! revision! client name! manufacturer name! file name etc.
55.*hich dra*ing method used in dra*ing generall?
3irst angle drawing method.
56.*hich sm0ol indicates clad restoration?
57.*hich sm0ol indicates overla ?
54.*hich sm0ol indicates revision?
5".*hich data indicates in design data?
Design @ construction code! design pressure! design temperature!
operating pressure @ temperature! hydro test temperature! corrosion
allowance! radiography! )oint efficiency! seismic code! wind data code is 0<,
specific gravity! post weld hest treatment etc.
6+.*hat is the o05ective of stress analsis ?
1. To ensure that the in piping components in the system are within
/. To solves dynamic problems developed due to mechanical vibration!
fluid hammer! pulsation! relief valves! etc.
6$.*hat are the steps involved in stress analsis ?
1.identify the potential loads that the piping system would encounter
during the life of the plant
/.relate each of these loads to the stresses and strains developed
9.get the cumulative effect of the potential loads in the system
A.deside the allowable limits the system can withstand with failure as per
,.after the systems is designed to ensure that the stresses are within safe
62.*hat are the different tpes of stresses that ma get generated *ithin
pipe during normal operation ?
+%ial stresses (tensile 4 compressive)! shear stresses! radial stresses! hoops
63. (o* are the loads classified in stress analsis package ?
a. Sustained loads! b. Hccasion loads! c. Displacement loads
64. What are the source of sustained loads generated in piping sstem ?
a. #ressure b. Dead weight of pipe and attachments
Sustained load is calculated as
6eight of pipe with fluid > pressure load > load due to springs
6 > p1
65. (o* do ou calculate the operating load ?
6 > p1 > t1
T1. load due to thermal e%pansion.
66. 6ive some e7ample for occasional loads.
6ind! wave! earthuake
67. 2ention some of primar loads.
Dead weight! pressure! forces due to relief or blow down! force due to
water hammer effects.
64.*hat is the /#2' code follo*ed for design of piping sstems in
process piping ?
6". While *elding of pipe trunion to pipe8reinforcement pad ou have to
put a hole or leave some portion of *elding *h ?
3or venting of hot gas which may get generated due to welding
7+.*hat should 0e the radius of long radius el0o*?
7$. 9ormall *here do *e use the follo*ing ?
&ccentric reducers @ concentric reducers
1.eccentric reducer = pump suction to avoid cavitations! to maintain
elevation in rack
/.concentric reducers = pump discharge! vertical pipe line et
72. What do ou mean 0 9:#( ?
8et positive suction head.
73.*hat is the thum0 rule to calculate current re!uired for *elding ?
7urrent(amp) = L diameter of electrode (mm) FA2M >/2
74.*hat is the thum0 rule to calculate spanner si,e for given 0olt ?
1., F diameter of the bolt.
75.*hich piping items *ill ou drop do*n 0efore conducting flushing
and hdro test ?
+nsD item like control valve! orifice plates! rot meters! safety valve!
thermo wells are dropped or replaced with temporary spool hydro test.
76. Wh do *e provide a dampner in the piping of reciprocating
&o take care of pulsation.
77. Wh do *e provide full 0ore valve in connecting pipeline of
launcher8 receiver ?
74.*hat is the astm code for the follo*ing ?
1.cs pipe = a12? gr.b
/.cs fitting =a /9A gr. 6pb4wpbw
9.cs flanges = a12,
9. +s pipe = a 99, gr. #14p11
7". Which parameters *ill u check during checking piping isometrics ?
1ill of material! pipe routing wrt gad! supporting arrangement! details of
insulation! hydro test pressure! painting specs! and provision of vent and
drains at appropriate location.
4+. What is the ansi8/#2' dimensional standard for steel flange ;
4$.ho* can flanges 0e classified 0ased on facing ?
3lat face! raised face! tongue and groove! ring type )oint
42. What do mean 0 aarh ?
+rithmetic average roughness height.
43.*hich are the different tpes of gaskets ?
3ull face! spiral wound! octagonal ring type! metal )acketed and inside bolt
44.*hat should 0e the relative hardness 0et*een thert5 gasket and flange
3or a rt) flange! the )oin ring should have a 92.A2 vickers hardness less
than that of the mating face of flange.
45.from *hich side of pipe *ill ou take a 0ranch connection ?
6hen fluid is gas! air or steam and cryogenic service E to#side.
6hen fluid is liuid E bottom side.
46.*h don<t *e take a 0ranch for crogenic service from 0ottom side
though the fluid is in li!uid state ?
There is the chance of ice formation during normal operation and since ice
flow from the bottom of the pipe it will block the branch pipe connection.
47. What is the /#2' code follo*ed for design of piping sstems in
:ipings )-efineries ; 3hemical Industries=?
88. What do ou mean 0 follo*ing items?
(. )(SC1.A22 ii) (S-1.?22 iii) (S$1.9,2 iv) (S-7.922 v) (SN1.1,2 vi)
*ii)(S-1.A,2 viii)(S61.A22 i%) (SN7./22 %) (SC7.9,2 %ii) (S-7./,2
(. (ndian STD light weight beam! 6eb si"e E A22
(i. (ndian STD medium weight beam! 6eb si"e E ?22
(ii. (ndian STD O$5 beam! 6eb si"e E 9,2
(v. (ndian STD medium weight channel! 6eb si"e E922
*. (ndian STD )unior beam! 6eb si"e E 1,2
*i. (ndian STD light weight beam! 6eb si"e E /22
*ii. (ndian STD medium weight beam! 6eb si"e E A,2
*iii. (ndian STD wide flange beam! 6eb si"e E A22
(%. (ndian STD )unior channel! 6eb si"e E /22
P. (ndian STD light weight channel! 6eb si"e E 9,2
Pi. (ndian STD medium weight channel! 6eb si"e E /,2
4". What is this item?
(. (S+.122P122P1/ ii) (S+.02P,2P12 iii)(SCT.122P122
(. &ual angle si"e 122%1/ T$Q
(i. ;neual angle si"e 02%,2%12 T$Q
(ii. (ndian STD light weight tee bar si"e 122%122
"+. What is the difference 0et*een stu0 in and stu0 on 0ranches?
#ketch. Which one is preferred?
3or branching of one si"e lesser of run pipe! Stub Hn is preferred. 3or other
Cess than one si"e of run pipe stub in is preferred. The Design is based on
+8S( 1 91.9
"$. What is the difference 0et*een :ipe and &u0e?
/ns> #ipe is identified by 81 and thickness is defined by Schedule whereas
(dentified by HD.
"2. ?rom *hich si,e on*ards 91 of pipe is e!ual to .D of :ipe?
/ns> 3rom the si"e 1AJ and onwards 81 = HD of pipe.
"3. Write do*n the outside diameter of follo*ing pipe?
(. 9 inch ii) ? inch iii) 12 inch iv) 1A inch
(. 9 inch = 00.Gmm ii)? inch = 1?0./0mm
(ii) 12 inch = /<9.2?mm iv) 1A inch = 9,, mm(HD= Si"e P /,.A)
"4. What is the difference 0et*een machine 0olt and stud 0olt?
-achine bolt has a head on one side and nut on other side but stud bolt have
"5. What is solu0le dam?
Soluble dam is a water.soluble material used for restricting the purging gas
"6. While *elding of pipe trunion to pipe8reinforcement pad ou have to
put a hole.r leave some portion of *elding *h?
3or venting of hot gas which may get generated due to welding
"7. What do ou mean 0 follo*ing tpe of *elding
(. S-+6 ii)T(:
(i. S-+6 = S$(&CD&D -&T+C +'7 6&CD(8:.iii. T(: = T;8:ST&8
(8T&' :+S 6&CD(8:
"4. ?ind out the elevation of marked point @/<
&levation of marked point O+5 is 122.2,2
"". What should 0e the radius of long radius el0o*?
1.,D (6here IDJ is the diameter of the pipe)
$++. 9ormall *here do *e use the follo*ing?
(. &ccentric reducers ii)7oncentric reducers
(. &ccentric reducers = #ump suction to avoid 7avitation! To maintain
elevation (1H#) in
(i. 7oncentric reducers = #ump discharge! vertical pipeline etc.
$+$.3oncentric reducer is used in pump suction. )Aes 8 9o=. '7plain.
8o. +ir pockets may form if concentric reducer is used at pump suction!
which results in
7avitation! and cause damage to #ump. To avoid this problem! &ccentric
3lat Side ;p (3S;)is used in #ump Suction.
$+2. What do ou mean 0 3avitation in :ump?
+ pump is designed to handle liuid! not vapour. *apour forms if the
pressure in the
#ump falls below the liuid5s vapour pressure . The vapour pressure occurs
right at the
(mpeller inlet where a sharp pressure drop occurs. The impeller rapidly
builds up the
#ressure which collapses vapour bubbles causing cavitation and damage .
+voided by maintaining sufficient 8#S$.
(7avitation implies cavities or holes in the fluid we are pumping. These holes
1e described as bubbles! so cavitation is really about the formation of
bubbles and their
7ollapse. 1ubbles form when ever liuid boils. (t can be avoided by
$+3. What do ou mean 0 9:#(? (o* do ou calculate it?
6.# &C. I+J
9 R #ipe
Slope 1D122.NPSH: Net Positive Suction Head. NPSH is the pressure
available at the pump suction
+fter vapor pressure is subtracted.
(t is calculated as D Static head > surface pressure head . the vapor pressure of
#roduct . the friction losses in the piping! valves and fittings.
(t thus reflects the amount of head loss that the pump can sustain internally
*apor pressure is reached.
$+4. What is the /#&2 code for the follo*ing?
(. 7S pipe ii) 7S fittings iii)7S flanges iv)+S pipe #,4#11 v)7ast 7S *alves
(. 7S pipe = +12? :r.1
(i. 7S fittings = +/9A :r.6#146#16
(ii. 7S flanges = +12,
(v. +S pipe = +99, :r #14#11
*. 7ast 7S *alves = +/1? :r.671
$+5. What is the thum0 rule to calculate spanner si,e for given 0olt?
1., % diameter of 1olt
$+6. What is the thum0 rule to calculate 3urrent re!uired for Welding?
7urrent (+mp) = L Diameter of &lectrode (mm) P A2M > /2
$+7. What is steam tracing? (o* do *e decide the location of ##2 ;
Steam Tracing is a process which is used to prevent the fluid passing through
a #rocess line from free"ing by keeping the temperature high enough for free
flow of fluid +nd thus maintaining pumpability.SS- and 7'- are generally
located 90- ma% for open system and /A - ma% for 7losed system when we
use C# Steam up to 9., kg4s cm. +s a heating media.
$+4. Which piping items *ill ou drop do*n 0efore conducting ?lushing
/ns> (tems like 7ontrol *alve! Hrifice plates! 'otameters! safety valves !
+re dropped or replaced with temporary spools before hydro test.
$+". Wh do *e provide a Dampner in the :iping of -eciprocating
/ns> To take care of #ulsation.
$$+.Wh do *e provide ?ull 1ore Balve in connecting pipeline of
/ns> 3or #igging.
$$$. Which parameters *ill u check during checking :iping Isometrics?
/ns> 1ill of -aterial! #ipe 'outing wrt :+D! Supporting arrangement !
(nsulation! hydro test pressure! painting specs and provision of *ent and
$$2. What is the /9#I8/#2' dimensional standard for steel flanges ;
$$3. (o* can flanges 0e classified 0ased on facing?
+. 3lat 3ace b. 'aised 3ace c. Tongue and groove d. 'ing type )oint
$$4. What do ou mean 0 //-( )?lange ?inish=?
/ns> +rithmetic +verage 'oughness $eight.
$$5. Which are the different tpes of 6askets?
/ns> 3ull 3ace! Spiral 6ound! Hctagonal 'ing Type! -etal Nacketed and
$$6. What should 0e the relative hardness 0et*een the -&C gasket and
+nsD 3or a 'TN flange ! the )oint ring should have a 92.A2 *ickers hardness
That of the mating face of flange.( 1rinnel hardness for 'TN groove shall be
-ore than the corresponding gasket hardness)
$$7. ?rom *hich side of pipe *ill ou take a 0ranch connection?
/ns> 6hen 3luid is :as! +ir or Steam and 7ryogenic Service E To#side.
6hen 3luid is Ciuid E 1ottom Side.
$$4. Wh don<t *e take a 0ranch for 3rogenic #ervice from 0ottom
side though the ?luid is in li!uid state?
/ns> There is the chance of (ce formation during normal operation and since
3rom the bottom of the pipe it will block the branch pipe connection.
$$". Wh do *e provide Drip %eg in #team %ine?
/ns> To remove 7ondensate when there is a rise in the pipe along the flow
6e do not provide the drip leg in steam line! the condensate which forms
inside the pipe
6ill result in 6ater $ammer effect causing damage to piping system.
$2+. (o* do ou support an small si,e (D:'8:B3 ):lastic= pipe?
/ns> (t should be supported continuously by using channel or +ngle so that
8ot Sag or fall from the sleeper4rack due to uneven e%pansion because of $ot
$2$. Wh do *e provide (igh :oint Bent )(:B= and %o* :oint Drain
)%:D= in piping?
/ns> $#* E for removing +ir during $ydro.test..C#D E for draining water
after conducting $ydro.test.
$22. Which standard and codes *ill ou refer *hile designing the
/ns> 3ollowing are the codes and standards E
S +S-& S&7 ( D 'ules for construction of #ower 1oilers.
S +S-& S&7 *((( D 'ules for construction of #ressure *essels.
S +S-& 1 91.1 D #ower #iping
S +S-& 1 91.9 D #rocess #iping
S +S-& 1 91.A D #ipeline Transportation system for liuid hydrocarbon and
S +#( '# ,/2 D Si"ing selection and installation of #ressure 'elieving
Devices in refineries
S +#( Std ?12 D 7entrifugal #umps for #etroleum! $eavy Duty 7hemical and
:as (ndustry Services.
S +8S(48&-+ S- /9 D Steam Turbines for -echanical Drive Services.
S +#( Std ?1< D 7entrifugal 7ompressor for #etroleum! 7hemical and :as
S &N-+ D &%pansion Noints -anufacturer5s +ssociation.
S H(SD E 110 D Cayout for Hil and :as (nstallations.
S (1' D (ndian 1oiler 'egulations.
S 8+7& -' E 21<, D Sulfide Stress 7racking 'esistant -etallic -aterials
S 8+7& -' E 2/0A D &valuation of #ipeline and #ressure *essel Steel for
'esistance to $ydrogen (nduced 7racking.
S 8+7& T- E 21<< D Caboratory Testing of -etals for 'esistance to Sulfide
7racking in $/S &nvironment.
$23. What do ou mean 0 I1- and Which lines comes under I1-
/ns> (1'D (ndian 1oiler 'egulation +ct.
Steam lines with conditions listed bellow comes under (1' purview E
S Cines for which design pressure is 9., kg4s cm and above.
S Cine si"e above 12J having design pressure 1.2 kg4s cm and above.
S 1oiler feed water lines to steam generator! condensate lines to steam
generator and 3lash drum.
$24. What are Weldolet and #ockolet? /nd *here the are used?
/ns> 6eldolet and Sockolet are basically self reinforced fittings.
6eldolet is used for 1utt weld branch connection where standard tee is not
+vailable due to si"e restrictions and the piping is of critical 4 high pressure
Sockolet is used for socket welding branch connection! which reuire
$25. What is the 2.3 for #uperheated high pressure #team %ines?
/ns> + 99, :r # ( 4 # ((
7omposition D 2., -o(#1) 41./, B 7r.., -o(#11)
$26. What is the normal upstream and do*nstream straight length of
+nswer D ;pstream . 1,D Downstream . ,D
$27. What are the essential data re!uired for the preparation of
+ns D 1)#3D and #@(D /. #ro)ect Design data 9. &uipment Si"es @
$24. What are the various statutor re!uirements to 0e considered
State (ndustrial Development 7orporation (S(D7)
7entral 4 State &nviromental #ollution 7ontrol 1oards (#71S)
State &lectricity 1oards
7hief 7ontroller of &%plosives (77H&)
Static @ #ressure *essel 'ules (S-#*)
Tariff +dvisory 7ommittee
7hief (nspector of 1oilers (7(1)
Hil (ndustry Directorate (H(SD)
3ood and Drug +dministartion (3D+)
-inistry of &nvironment and 3orest (moef)
$2". What do ou mean 0 3omposite ?lange?
The flange that is made up of more than one -H7 is called a 7omposite
+. Cap Noint 3langes (nsert 3langes are a specialty in the arena of pipe si"e
flanges and consist of two parts . the insert and the flange ring. The flange
ring is the outer part of the insert flange +ssembly! containing the bolt holes.
The two piece construction of the insert flange also offers the economy of
matching the (nsert material to the process pipe (usually some corrosion
resistant alloy) while the Huter flange ring may be manufactured from steel.
6hen the environment re uires the3lange ring to be made of some alloy the
rotating feature is still maintained.
1. '3 flanges with 'aised of one -H7 and rest of the flange with different
7. '3 blind flange with an overlay of G2412 7uni for Sea water service.
$3+. What do ou mean 0 Insulated Coint?
/ns> (nsulating Noints are a prefabricated! non Separable union used to
isolate specific sections of
#ipelines to prevent corrosion caused by stray &lectrical currents or
interference from other #ipelines and power transmission cables.
$3$. What are Insulating 6asket Dits?
/ns> (nsulation gasket kits are designed to combat the effects of corrosion
often found (n flanged pipe systems. :alvanic corrosion between dissimilar
metal flanges (flow of 7urrents) ! flange insulation associated with cathodic
protection of underground piping +re also the places where (nsulating gasket
kits are used. (t consists of :asket 8eoprene faced #henolic 4:lass
&po%y(:12) (nsulation sleeve 'einforced #henolic48ylon4#olyethylene4
(nsulation washer 'einforced #henolic48ylon4#olyethylene4(:12)
#lated 6asher &lectro plated steel washer
$32. What is the min. Distance to 0e maintained 0et*een t*o *elds in a
The rule of thumb is that the minimum distance between ad)acent butt welds
is 1D. (f 8ot! it is never closer than 1.14/T. This is supposedly to prevent the
overlap of $+U s. -inimum spacing of circumferential welds between
centrelines shall not be less than A Times the pipe wall thickness or /, mm
whichever is greater.
$33. What are the different hardness tests carried out?
1rinell $ardness Test
'ockwell $ardness test
*icker $ardness Test
$34. What is the relation 0et*een 1rinell (ardness 9o and -ock*ell
// $'7 ('ockwell $ardness) = /90 1$8 (1rinell $ardness 8o)
#iping which is recogni"ed as providing the most ;niform application of
heat to the process! as well +s maintaining the most uniform processing
Temperatures where steam tracing is not capable of -aintaining the
temperature of fluid constant. ;sually used for molten sulphur! #olymers
$35.During fa0rication ou o0served that one small crack has appeared
on a freshplateE *hat tpe of measure ou *ill take to o0tain desired
!ualit *ith minimum*astage?
/ns*er>3irst identify the e%act length of crack by D# test. Drill on the end
point to resist further7rack. 'emove the crack portion by cutting the strip.
$36. I#.2'&-I3 >.i.
6hat are the fittings reuired for fabrication of the isometric.
(i. 3ind out the length of pipe reuired.
(ii. Do )oint numbering and show the following things in the isometric.
+) Shop )oint
1) 3ield )oint
7) Spool no
&C >12A/02 &C >129,92
S / (87$ &C1H6 E A8HS
S / (87$ 68'3 3C+8:& E /8HS
S / (87$ :+T& *+C*& E 18H
S / % 1 (87$ 7H87. '&D;7&' E 18H
S 1 (87$ &C1H6 G2 D&: E 1 8H
S / (87$ #(#& . A./12 -T'S
S 1 (87$ #(#& E 1.A/A -T'S
$37. Descri0e different tpes of destructive and nonFdestructive tests?
D&ST';7T(*& T&STD 1end test! Tensile test! (mpact test! and $ardness
8H8.D&ST';7T(*& T&STD D#T! -#T! 'adiography and ultrasonic test
$34. What is mean 0 @:W(&<? Wh it is re!uired?
I#HST 6&CD $&+T T'&+T-&8TJ This is done to remove residual stress
left in the Noint which may cause brittle fracture.
$3". What is the minimum thickness of pipe that re!uires stress relieving
to 0eDone as per 13$.3?
/ns> 1G mm thk.
$4+. What is the difference 0et*een &hermostatic and &hermodnamic
/ns> Thermostatic Trap is actuated by Temp differential and is economic at
steam #ressure less than ? #S(. (t is operated by the movement of liuid filled
bellows or by 1imetal element which may get damaged by 6ater $ammer.
Thermodynamic traps are most suited to applications where the pressure
downstream Hf trap is always less than about V the upstream pressure. These
are suitable for #ressure higher than 0 #S(. 6ater hammer doesn5t affect it.
$4$. What is the 3ode for #our #ervice?
/ns> 7ode for Sour Service is 8+7& (8+7& -' E 21<,)
9/3'> 8ational +ssociation of 7orrosion &ngineers.
$42. (o* much should 0e the pressure for (droF&est?
/ns> $ydrotest pressure should be calculated as follow e%cecpt as provided
1. 1., Times of Design #ressure.
& 9101A22 1J line./. 3or a design temperature above the test temperature!
minimum test pressure can
1e calculated asD
#t = ( 1., P # P St ) 4 S
-inimum Test #ressure.
# D (nternal design pressure.
StD +llowable stress at test temperature.
S D +llowable stress as design temperature.
( see S& in table +.1 or S in table 1.14/49).
9. (f a test pressure as per above would produce a stress in e%cess of the yield
Strength at test temp. The test pressure may be reduced to ma%imum pressure
8ot e%ceed the yield strength at test temp.
A. (f the test pressure of piping e%ceeds the vessel pressure and it is not
considered #racticable to isolate piping from vessel! the piping and vessel
may be tested together +t test pressure of the vessel when approved by
owner and provided the test pressure 3or vessel is not less than 11,B of
piping design pressure ad)usted for temperature as #er point no /.
$43. (o* do ou calculate the pipe spacing?
+nsD #ipe Spacing (mm) = ( Do > Dt ) 4 / > /,mm > Thickness of (nsulation
6hereD D2 D HD of Small si"e #ipe (mm).
Dt D HD of 3lange of Carge si"e #ipe (mm).
$44. (o* do ou calculate the *idth of :ipe rack?
+nsD 6 = ( f P n P s ) > + > 1.
? > Safety 3actor
= 1., if pipes are counted from #3D.
= 1./ if pipes are counted from #@(d.
9 > number of lines in the densest area up to si"e A,2
= 922 mm ( estimated average spacing )
= //, mm ( if lines are smaller than /,2 81 )
/ > +dditional 6idth for E
S Cines larger than A,2 81.
S 3or instrument cable tray 4 duct.
S 3or &lectrical cable tray.
# > 922 mm (estimated average spacing)
D //, mm (if lines are smaller than /,2 81)
1 > future provision.= /2B of (f P n P s) > +
$45. Which fluid is used in (eat '7changer in shell side and tu0e side?
/ns> :enerally corrosive fluid is used from the tube side (as tube can be
easily 'eplaced) and cleaner fluid is used from shell side. Sometimes $ot
fluid is also used 3rom the shell side.
$46. What is -enold<s num0er and *hat is the value of -enold<s
num0er uptoWhich the flo* is laminar?
/ns> (t5s a dimensionless number to classify the nature of flow.
6hereD 'e D 'aynold5s no.
D D diameter of #ipe.
* D average velocity of fluid.
3low is laminar upto 'e=/122
$47. What are 6landless :iston Balves. Where these are used?
/ns>:landless piston valves are maintenance free valves used in the steam
$44. (o* do ou carr out 'stimation?
$. Input from 1id>.S
#@(d! Cine list! Temperature! #ressure.
S Hverall #lant Cayout and #iping corridor plan.
S Scope of work and the Specifications for the Nob.
S Specifications for materials like #-S and *-S.
2. Balue /ddition>.S
(tems like *alves! 3langes! Speciality items! 'educers can be estimated from
S Cength of #ipes! &lbows! 6idth of #ipe 'ack can be estimated by referring
#@(d +nd Hverall #lot #lan.
S 8o of Tires (on rack) can be estimated by referring the spacing reuired for
pipes +nd also the space available.
S -TH for Steam Traps! *alves (for *ent and drain) can be calculated by
using Thumb 'ules.
(dro &est %oads> 7an be estimated by assuming all the #ipes (on a grid)
&%cept some bigger si"e lines filled with 6ater.
S /ctual .perating %oads> :as lines to be considered as empty and rest of
the lines To be considered as filled with the 3luid (which they are suppose to
carry in Hperating condition).
&he loads *hich ever is higher from a0ove t*o cases should 0e referred
$44. What is the o05ective of stress analsis?
1. To ensure that the stresses in piping components in the system are within
/. To solve dynamic problems developed due to mechanical vibration! fluid
$ammer! pulsation! relief valves! etc
9. To solve problems associated due to higher or lower operating temperature
such +s a) Displacement stress range b) 8o""le loading on connected
euipments c) #ipe Displacements d) Coads @ moments on supporting
$4". What are the steps involved in stress analsis )or an stress package
1. (dentify the potential loads that the piping system would encounter during
Hf the plant
/. 'elate each of these loads to the stresses and strains developed
9. :et the cumulative effect of the potential loads in the system
A. Decide the allowable limits the system can withstand without failure as per
,. +fter the system is designed to ensure that the stresses are within safe
$5+. What are the different tpes of stresses that ma get generated
*ithin pipe During normal operation?
/ns> +%ial Stresses (Tensile 4 7ompressive)! Shear Stresses! 'adial Stresses!
$5$. (o* are the loads classified in stress analsis package?
/ns > a. Sustained Coads /. Hccasional Coads 9. Displacement Coads (Self
limiting Stresses due to thermal effects) 6hat are the (nputs for stress
analysis of a piping system () #ipe Si"e ii) 3luid Temperature iii) #ipe
(v)Design pressure v)(nsulation Thickness
*i)Specific gravity vii)3riction coeff. *iii) -odel
$52.What are the sources of sustained loads generated in piping sstem?
/ns a. #ressure b. Dead weight of #ipe and attachments Sustained load is
calculated as6eight of #ipe with 3luid > #ressure load > Coad due to springs
$52. (o* do ou calculate the operating load?
T1 E Coad due to thermal e%pansion
$53. 6ive some '7amples for occasional %oads.
6ind! wave @ earthuake
$54. 2ention some of :rimar %oads )(ave their origin in force=
Dead 6eight! #ressure! forces due to relief or blowdown! force due to water
$55. 2ention some of secondar %oads )(ave origin in displacement=
3orce on piping due to tank settlement *essel no""le moving up due to
e%pansion of vessel #ipe e%pansion or contraction *ibration due to rotational
$56. What is the failure theor su0scri0ed under /#2' 13$.3?
(i) -a%imum principal stress theory ('ankines Theory)
$57. What are the tpes of failures encountered in :iping?
+nswer D 1. 7atastrophic 3ailure /. 3atigue 3ailure
$54. #elect the failure stress range for fatigue failure due to thermal
e7pansion as:er 13$.3
(ii) 2.<0 Sh
(iii) (1./, Sc>2./,Sh)f
/ns*er > )III=
Sc and Sh E1asic +llowable material stress in cold @ hot condtions
3 .... is the stress range reduction factor(1 for <222 cycles
$5". What is desired life ccle for :iping in operation?
/ns> Desired life cycle for #iping in operation is /2 Xears (<222 7ycles).
The normal no. Hf cycles for which the displacement or thermal stresses are
Designed is<222 cycles
$6+. (o* do ou calculate the stress developed due to thermal
Stress developed = & % e4C
& E Xoung5s -odulus
&. (ncrease in length due to thermal e%pansion
C E Hriginal Cength of the pipe
$6$. (o* do ou calculate the thermal e7pansion in a pipe?
C. Cength of pipe
$62. What do ou mean 0 #tress Intensit ?actor )#I?=? 6ive some
Stress (ntensity 3actor (S(3) is the ratio of ma%imum stress intensity to
normal stress. (t (s used as safe factor to account for the effect of localised
stress on piping under 'espective loading. (n piping it is applied to welds!
fittings! branch connections etc 6here stress concentration and possible
fatigue failure may occur. &gD S(3 for 'educer and 6eldneck 3lange D 1.2
S(3 for socket weld flange D 1.9.
$63. Which is the 3riteria for :ipe #upporting?
/ns> 3ollowing are the points which should be taken into account for proper
S Coad of bare pipe > fluid > insulation ( if any ).
S Coad of bare pipe > waterfill.
S Coad of valves and online euipment and instrument.
S Thermal loads during operation.
S Steam out condition! if applicable.
S 6ind loads for piping at higher elevation! if reuired.
S 3orced vibration due to pulsating flow.
1are pipe with si"e above 1/J shall be supported with #ad or Shoe
$64. What is the 0asic span of supports for 2G86G8$+G824G pipe.
1asic Span is ,.,m 4 Gm 4 11.,m 4 1,m respectively.
$65. (o* do *e decide the anchor 8 cross guide and guide for offsite rack
+nchor is provided to restrict all the a%ial and rotational movements of #ipe!
whereas 7ross :uide is provided to restrict displacements of #ipe along with
the a%is #erpendicular to it5s centreline and :uide is provided to restrict the
longitudinal -ovements of pipes along with it5s a%is.
$66. What are the things to 0e taken care of *hile doing pump piping?
#ipe strain may distort euipment alignment! so welding should be done in
such a way That the tension in the euipment flange is minimised
$67. What is the #team out condition?
/ns> $ydrocarbon lines are usually sub)ected to Steam Hut condition and
designed +nd anlysed at low pressure steam design temperature (should be
minimum 102 Degree 7) or design temp. 6hichever is more . Cines having
negative design temp. (s +nalysed for both conditions seperately.
$64. Where do ou provide /nchor and #lotted #upport of (eat
/ns> +nchor support of $eat e%changer is provided on the side from which
Tube 1undle will be pulled out for the purpose of -aintenance work also it
is based on the :rowth of the connecting piping as e%changer should grow
with the piping.
$6". What do ou mean 0 (oop #tresses and ho* do ou calculate it?
/ns> Stresses which are generated circumferancially due to the action of
(nternal#ressure of pipe are called as $oop Stress. (t is calculated by
$oop Stress (Sh) = #do 4 At
6here # = 3orce +cting from (nside.
Do = HD of #ipe.
T= #ipe Thickness.
$7+. (o* does (oop #tress affect the sstem?
/ns> +s per membrane theory for pressure design of cylinder! as long as
hoop stress (s less than yield stress of -oc! the design is safe. $oop stress
induced by thermal #ressure is twice the a%ial stress (SC). This is widely
used for pressure thickness
7alculation for pressure vessel.
$7$. What is the design standard follo*ed for the calculation of
allo*a0le forces 82oments in no,,les of centrifugal compressor ; #team
3or strain sensitive euipment piping to be routed and supported to limit
no""le Coadings and moments in euipment within allowable limits
furnished by respective *endors or in absence of vendor data +#(
,?24?124?1,4?/14??1 @ 8&-+ S-/9.
8&-+ E S- /9 ('eferred by +#( ?1<) is used for compressor @ steam
$72. What is the mill tolerence to 0e considered for the thickness of pipe
during#tress analsis as per /#2' 13$?
/ns*er > 1/.,B
$73. What is the purpose of providing 6raphite :ads in supports 0elo*
/ns*er > To reduce the friction factor. The co.efficient of friction for
:raphite #ads is 2.1
.$74. (o* is piping to &ank inlet no,,le is supported and *h?
/ns> #iping to Tank 8o""le is supported with Spring type support (first
support from 8o""le) in order to make the 8o""le safe from the loads which
occurs due to the Displacement of pipe (thermal e%pansion of pipe 4 tank
material! tank settlement etc).
$75. What are the t*o tpes of fle7i0le spring hangers?
1. 7onstant Spring and /. *ariable Spring
$7". What is the difference 0et*een Baria0le #pring (anger and
/ns> *ariables use coiled springs to support a load and allow movement.
'esistance of the coil to a load changes during compression! which is why
these devices +re called TvariablesT. 7onstant Spring $anger provides
constant support force for #ipes and euipment sub)ected to vertical
movement due to thermal e%pansion at Cocations where maintaining a
constant stress is critical. This constant resistance is +chieved by having two
moment arms pivoted about a common point. The load is Suspended from
one of these arms! and a spring is attached to the other. 6ith an +ppropriate
choice of moment arms and spring properties! a resisting force can be
#rovided that is nearly independent of position. 7onstant support hangers are
principally used to support pipes and euipment Sub)ected to vertical
movement due to thermal e%pansion at locations where transfer of Stress to
other supports or euipment can be critical. The ma%imum recommended
*ariation according to -SS standard from the operating load is /,B for
variable spring $angers. (f the variation e%ceeds /,B! a constant support
hanger should be used.
The constant resistance to a load is achieved by combining a spring coil with
a cam 6hich rotates about a main pivot point. The cam is designed such that
the distances 3rom the main pivot changes to compensate for the variable
resistance during 7ompression of the coil. The -SS standard provides for a
tolerance of ?B in the 7onstant load through the travel range. 7onstant
support hangers are designed per -SS! +8S(! and +S-& standards.
The si"ing of constants primarily depends on the total travel and load.
$4+. (o* much should 0e the difference 0et*een the load *hich *ill 0e
taken 0varia0le #pring (anger during 3old and (ot condition of :ipe?
/ns> (t should be -a%imum /,B of Coad for which Spring is designed.
$4$. Differentiate 0et*een static load and dnamic load.
/ns> + piping system may respond far differently to a dynamic load than it
would to a Static Coad of the same magnitude. Static loads are those which
are applied slowly enough That the system has time to react and internally
distribute the loads! thus remaining in &uilibrium. (n euilibrium! all forces
and moments are resolved (i.e.! the sum of the 3orces and moments are "ero)!
and the pipe does not move. 6ith a dynamic load]a load which changes
uickly with time]the piping system may 8ot have time to internally
distribute the loads! so forces and moments are not always 'esolved]
resulting in unbalanced loads! and therefore pipe movement. Since the sum
Hf forces and moments are not necessarily eual to "ero! the internally
induced loads 7an be different]either higher or lower]than the applied
$42. 6ive different tpes of dnamic loads *ith e7ample
1. 'andom E 6ind! &arthuake./. $armonic E &uipment *ibration!
#ulsation! +coustic *ibration (mpulse E 3luid $ammer! relief valve opening!
$43. What is Dnamic /nalsis and *h it is used?
+nsD Dynamic analysis is performed for all two phase lines in order to ensure
that the Cine supported is safe from vibrations loads which may occur during
normal operation as 6ell as in start up or any upset condition.(Diesel mi%ed
with hydrogen in D$DT process)
$44. What is W-3 $+7 8 W-3 2"7?
/ns> Cocalised stresses at 8o""le to Shell is calculated by 6'7 12< 4 /G<
and these 7omputed stress values shall be limited in accordance with +S-&
Sec *((( for #ressure *essels.
$45. (o* to get the ?oundation %oads?
/ns> 3oundation Coads for pipe rack should include the loads of #ipes!
7able Trays +nd (nstrumentation duct at that location and also the design
load for future tier shall be 3ull load of the most heavily loaded tier in
addition to all other wind4seismic4fraction and #iping thermal loads for future
Coad of pipes filled with water( Cargest of $
3ase E During hydrotesting
dead 6eight(wt4m P piperack spacing) of pipes > / E9 ma%imum si"e pipes
filled with water
3ase E +ctual commissioned condition e%cept the gas lines ) > #roportionate
wt of &%tra space reuired by client (normal 92B) > Coad of 1 heavily
loaded tier > &lectrical 7ables > (nstrument duct > :uide load for ,2B of
:uide Coad = 2.9P(Dead wt of pipes at including water)
The ma%imum induced thermal loads on the +nchor at the battery limit shall
be limited To 3 in kg ^= 1,2 P 81 of pipe in inches ((t should be ^/ tonnes)
- in Qgm ^=<, P 81 of pipe in inches.
$ori"ontal Coad = 2.9 P (Dead wt of pipes including water)
This load is used for designing of foundation bolts.
3oundation loads for any vessel having agitator mounted on top should
contain weightHf tank at operating or design condition (whichever is more)
plus /2B of it for dynamicCoading.
$46. What is the ma7imum e7pansion a0sor0ed in loops in normal
$47. What is the limiting factor in deciding the length of the spool in
/ns> 3orce e%erted by dissimilar e%pansion of inner pipe = 3orce e%erted by
dissimilar &%pansion of )acket pipe The stress developed due to this should
be within limits as per +8S( 191.9 (+lso fabrication constraints)
$44. What is the factor to 0e checked concerning the e7pansion of header
attached&o air cooler piping?
/ns> *endor drawing to be checked to see how much movement is permitted
to 7ompensate line e%pansion. To accommodate the diff. &%pansion between
inlet and Hutlet (The inlet temperature _The outlet temperature) offset can be
built in to outlet #iping to compensate for diff.e%pansion..Since the tubes are
of floating design the no""le flange is of 1,2` and loads transferred +re to be
kept minimum.Since the tubes are of floating design! the no""le flange is
1,2`. Coad of the no""le to1e kept minimum.
$4". What is the ma7imum no. .f cell no,,les connected to a single
header of air3ooler piping header in normal practice?
/ns> Si% nos.
$"+. What is fluid hammer and ho* it is generated?
/ns> 6hen the flow of fluid through a system is suddenly halted at one
point! through *alve closure or a pump trip! the fluid in the remainder of the
system cannot be stopped (nstantaneously as well. +s fluid continues to flow
into the area of stoppage (upstream Hf the valve or pump)! the fluid
compresses! causing a high pressure situation at that #oint. Cikewise! on the
other side of the restriction! the fluid moves away from the Stoppage point!
creating a low pressure (vacuum) situation at that location. 3luid at the 8e%t
elbow or closure along the pipeline is still at the original operating pressure!
'esulting in an unbalanced pressure force acting on the valve seat or the
elbow. The fluid continues to flow! compressing (or decompressing) fluid
further away from The point of flow stoppage! thus causing the leading edge
of the pressure pulse to move Through the line. +s the pulse moves past the
first elbow! the pressure is now euali"ed +t each end of the pipe run!
leading to a balanced (i.e.! "ero) pressure load on the first #ipe leg. $owever
the unbalanced pressure! by passing the elbow! has now shifted to The
second leg. The unbalanced pressure load will continue to rise and fall in
Cegs as the pressure pulse travels back to the source (or forward to the sink).
The ramp ;p time of the profile roughly coincides with the elapsed time
from full flow To low flow! such as the closing time of the valve or trip time
of the pump. Since the Ceading edge of the pressure pulse is not e%pected to
change as the pulse travels Through the system! the ramp down time is the
same. The duration of the load from (nitiation through the beginning of the
down ramp is eual to the time reuired for the #ressure pulse to travel the
length of the pipe leg.
$"4. What is the purpose of e7pansion 0ello*s?
/ns> &%pansion bellows are used absorb a%ial compression or e%tension!
lateral shear Hr angular torsion developed in the pipes (specially near
$"5. What should 0e the material of shoes for supporting /# pipes ;
/ns> (f 7S shoes are used #ad in contact with the pipe to be of +lloy steel to
avoid Dissimilar welding at pipe. To avoid alloy steel welding and dissimilar
welding fabricated 7lamps either of 7S or SS can be used.
$"6. What is the allo*a0le stress range for 3# pipes.
/ns> /2<2 kg4cm
$"7. What are s*a 0races?
/ns> Sway 1races are essentially a double.acting spring! housed in a
canister. ;nlike *ariable effort supports! Sway 1races are not intended to
carry the weight of pipeworka Their purpose is to limit undesirable
movement. Sway 1races act like a rigid strut until a Small preload is reached!
whereafter the restraining force increases in proportion to the +pplied
deflection. Fig. 1.;ndesirable movement can occur due to many phenomena!
such as wind loading! Sympathetic vibration! rapid valve closure! relief
valves opening! two phase flow or &arthuake. (t may be necessary to limit
this type of deflection to prevent the :eneration of unacceptable stresses and
The Sway 1race is a cost.effective means of limiting pipework deflection. (t
should be 8oted however that it does provide some resistance to the thermal
movement of the #ipework and care should be taken when specifying to
ensure that this is acceptable. (nstallation of Sway 1races will have the effect
of raising the fundamental freuency of *ibration of a pipework systema this
is likely to reduce undesirable deflections. Sway 1races are often used to
solve unforeseen problems of resonant vibration. 3or Situations where the
resistance to thermal movement provided by Sway 1races is ;nacceptable!
you are referred to #ipe Supports Cimited5s range of hydraulic snubbers
$"". In an offsite pipe rack change in direction during analsis it is
found t*o/d5acent pipes are having une!ual e7pansion *ith the inner
pipe having 5+ cm&hermal e7pansion. What can 0e done to eliminate
collision during hot condition.
/ns> ;se 7old #ull techniue. 7alculate the thermal e%pansion of the inside
pipe! cut an &ual length form the elbow )oint and then reweld with a shorter
length to take care of &%pansion in hot condition.
2++. What are the Insulation material used for piping sstems.
1. 3ibrous E 'ock @ :lass 6ool
/. 'igid . 7alcium silicate! #olyisocyanurate! cellular :lass
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