TENSE

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE. The simple present tense consists of the base form of the verb (work, go) with s or es add for the third person singular (works, goes) Verbs ending in ss, sh, ch, x and o add es for the third person singular. Pass Mix passes mixes wash washes teach teaches go goes

Verbs ending in a consonant + y change the y into I and add ess: Try tries carry carries In all other cases s alone is added: Sit sits laugh laughs It is formed by : Subject +V1 Subject (third person singular) + First form of the verb + s or es.

Uses of simple present tense:
1. For actions that happen again and again: I take milk every morning He goes to church on Sundays . For general facts ie, statements of what was true in the past , is true at present and will be true in the future. The sun rises in the east. 3. The earth moves round the Sun

2.

When we are quoting from books, notices … The notice says,” No parking” Krishna says,”………

4. To tell about past events in a dramatic way. Now king Paurus leads his army and attack Alexander 5. In commentaries of games: Sanjay Kicks the ball to the middle of the field Sachin hits a century.

2 6. In newspaper headlines to describe a past event President resigns (The president resigned)

Lali Mathew M.A.MEd 9810312549 27492907

7. In exclamatory sentences beginning with here and there, to express what is actually taking place in the present. Here comes the bus There she goes.

8. When we are talking about a future action, usually an official programme or timetable. We go to Bombay nest week. They leave for London by the next mail. 9. It is used, instead of the simple future tense, in clauses of condition. I shall wait till you finish your lunch. If it rains we shall get wet.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE Formed by subject +is ,am, are +Vi + ing. USES 1. For an actin going on at the time of speaking. She is singing (now) 2. The boys are playing hockey/

For a temporary action which may not be actually happening at the time of speaking . I am, reading David Copperfield. (But I am not reading at this moment)

3.

For an action that is planned or arranged to take place in the near future. I am going to the cinema tonight. My uncle is arriving tomorrow.

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Exceptions: Certain verbs on account of their meaning , are not usually put in the
continuous form. They are normally only used in the simple present and simple past tense. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Verbs of senses like see, hear, smell Verbs of feeling like want , wish, desire, like, love , dislike hate Verbs of thinking like think, suppose , know, understand , believe, agree, remember, forget. Verbs of possession like possess, have, own, belong to, Verbs of appearing like appear, look , seem Verbs of cost, weight , be, fit, contain, consists of, depend on , include

Some verbs can be used in the present continuous with a change of meaning: I am tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt. We are thinking of going to Banglore or our holidays (consider the idea of ) SYNTHESIS OF SIMPLE PRESENT AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE. The present continuous is usually used for action that are going on at the time of speaking . The simple present is mainly used to talk about action which happen again and again , or all the time or at any time . The water is boiling, shall I make tea? Water boils at 100C The simple present usually shows that action has happened several times in the past ,that is likely to happen again the future. The following adverbials are used with the simple present. A B often, always, sometimes, usually generally……placed before the verb He often comes to my house. She usually sits at this desk Daily, everyday, month,week, at noon….placed at the end of the sentence We go to Ooty every year. I play tennis twice a week.

The simple present is used for action that happen over a longer period of time I learn English at school He works in a bank.

4 Present continuous is used to talk about an actions that are happening for a limited period of time but may not actually happening at the moment of speaking. I am learning German at evening classes this year. Ramesh is working in a bank Present continuous may be used with always to talk about something that happens too often. My father is always forgetting things .You are always making excuses. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Continuous or Simple Present tense 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Don’t disturb me : I (read). He often (read) detective stories. The sun (shine) during the day. The milkman (knock) at the door at six every morning. Listen! Somebody (knock) at the door. We can’t go out because it (rain). We (wait) for it to stop. Rahim (do) homework now. He usually (do) homework at night. Vinod generally (sit) at the back but today he (sit) at the front. I (see) nothing in front of me. The house over there (belong) to Mr.Raman. Wait a minute, please. The telephone (ring). Out club (hold) a meeting once a month. She (sew) very well and that is what she (do) now. Turn off the tap, please. You (waste) the water in the tank. I (think) you (know) French. He (have) five daughters. In France people (drive) on the right. My sister (sit) beside me. She (want) to help. The man who (talk) to Vinay at the moment (speak) live languages. We usually (play) badminton but today we (play) tennis. I (wait) to see him at once, but he (have) lunch. We (work) hard because the examination (come). This bag (cost) twenty rupees. I (taste) the curry to see if it is all right. This carry (taste) wonderful. It (rain) a lot in this part of the country. They (live) in a rented house at the moment. Lali Mathew M.A.M.Ed Sheeshmahal Apartment D. A. 654 9810312549 27492907

5 PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.
Formed by Subject + have /has +V3 Uses 1. To indicate completed activities in the immediate past . a. He has jut gone out . 2. It has just struck ten.

To express past action whose time is not given and not definite. I have never known him to angry. Mr. Hari has been to Japan To describe past events when we think of more of their effect in the present than of the action itself. I have cut my finger (and it is bleeding now) 4. I have finished my work.

3.

To denote an action beginning at some tome in the past and continuing up to the present moment. He has been ill since last week. We have lived here for ten years.

5.

The present perfect is used with adverbials like already, before, ever, never, yet, so far, up to now for an indefinite action that happened in a period leading up to the present time The following verbs can be used with the present perfect: just , often, never, ever, so far, till now, yet already sine, for

SIMPLE PAST TENSE
Formed by subject + second form of the verb USES 1. To indicate an action completed in the past. She left school last year. I received his letter a week ago

6 2. 3. It is often used to tell story. It is used for past habits. She studied many hours daily. He always carried an umbrella SYNTHESIS OF SIMPLE PAST AND PRESENT PERFECT TENSE Simple past reports a past action without any reference to the present moment . The present perfect links up a past action with the present. I read Gulliver’s Travels two months ago I have read Gulliver’s Travels . We lived her for ten years (We still live here) We lived here for ten years (we no longer live here) Simple past is often used with past time adverbials like yesterday, three months ago, in august in 2006. The present perfect is never used with past time adverbials. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple past or the Present Perfect Tense (whichever you think is correct) : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. We (see) him at the theatre last night. I (finish) the job; look at it ! Mr. Green just (leave this town. I (buy) this watch on Monday. My brother (get) up at 7 o’clock. We already (see) the exhibition We (see) the exhibition last Sunday. I never (speak) to her. They (break) the machine, as you can see. My aunt (come) to see us a few days ago. He (empty) the tin; here it is. Last week I (go) to the cinema twice. I (meet) him three times so far. She (read) that book and can tell you about it. Do you know whether Mr.Ali Khan (return) yet ? Betty (go) out at ten o’clock. I’m sure I (meet) him before. He (die) at 8.30 this morning. I (injure) my foot, so I can’t play in the match. You look very upset. What (happen)?

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PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Formed by subject + have been /has been + present participle Uses: 1. Shows that an action began in the past and is still continuing. We often use this tense in a question with How long…? Or with “since or for”. It is also used with phrases like “all day” , “all morning , “all afternoon” How long have you been learning English? It has been raining all day. Since is used with a point of time : since 8 O clock, sine last month, sine 2000 For is used with a period of time : for three hours, for several years, for a long time. 2. Also used for an action already completed . The result of the action happen or are noticed in the present. I’m tired. I have been playing tennis Put the verbs in brackets in to present perfect continuous tense and fill in the blanks with since or for: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Miss Smith (teach in the school …….1980. I (read) this book ….six days . We (sit )here…..half an hour. It (rain )……last night. The girl (stud y) ….two hours. she ( practise) the piano ….5 0clock Suresh (suffer) from typhoid….last week I (use) this typewriter …seven years. Tom (work) hard. …breakfast. The phone (ring) ….five minutes.

Lali Mathew M.A.M.Ed 9810312549 2792907

8 PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
Formed by subject + was/were +vi +ing. Uses 1. Used to denote an action going on at some time in the past. The time of the action may or may not be indicated. We were listening to the radio all evening. It was getting darker. 2. This tense is also used, with always, continually etc. for persistent habits in the past. She was always grumbling SYNTHESSIS OF PAST CONTINUOUS AND SIMPLE PAST. The past continuous tense is very often used in combination with the simple past tense. It shows that an action was continuing at a time when a new , shorter action happened. The simple past is used for the new action. The verb in the past continuous tense may come either before or after the verb in the simple past tense. We were watching T.V when he came in. I met him while I was going to the office. I lost my pen when I was playing football. Supply the correct Past Tense of the verbs in brackets: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. It (rain) when I (leave) the office. He (work) in Iran when his father (die). I (see) your uncle while I (go) to school. The boy (fall) down while he (run). I (meet) Rajiv when he (cross) the bridge, As I (talk) to Edith, the telephone (ring). While I (stand) at the bus-stop, you (pass) me on your bicycle. The accident (happen) while they (come) down the hill. When the telegram (arrive), I (pack) a suitcase. The light (go) out while I (read). I (drop) my watch while I (wind) it. Padma (play) the piano when we (return). She (watch) TV when I (call). When he (knock) at the door, Mary (read). She (cook) the dinner when the baby (fall) off the cradle. He knocked at the door while I (sleep).

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PAST PERFECT TENSE.
Formed by Subject +had + V3 It describes an action completed before a certain moment in the past. I met him in New Delhi in 1990.I had seen him last five years before. SYNTHESIS OF SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PERFECT TENSE. When we talk of two past actions, we use the past perfect tense for the action that happened first and the simple past tense for what happened later. The sun had risen when I got up. Before we got there , most of the guests had arrived. Supply the correct past tense (Simple past or Past perfect ) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. He (sell) all the cakes before we (get )there. He (open)the door after I (knock) for the second time. We (go) to Mary’s house, but she (go)out. Soon after they (finish) breakfast , they (run)out to play. After we (have) our lesson, we (go)to the cinema. Before we (go )to the theatre the play (start) Ramesh (learn ) Urdu before he (arrive) in Pakistan. I (meet) them before I (go) a furlong. I (feel) very tired , because I (walk) six miles. I (wait) until he (finish) his lunch.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE.
Formed by Subject + had been +present participle. Used for an action that began before a certain point in the past and was still going on. It mainly indicates that an action had been in progress when something else happened. He had been driving a car for two days when had an accident. He said he had been waiting for the last half hour.

10 THE FUTURE TIME REFERENCE.
1. The simple continuous tense : We use the present continuous tense to talk about a plan programme or arrangement in the near future. It express a definite future plan. I am meeting Peter at seven in this evening. They are going to Patna tomorrow. 2. Simple present tense: for a plan or arrangement in the future. It often suggests a fixed official programme or timetable, rather than an informal plan for a private purpose. The Chief minister arrives here on 12th. When do the school holidays begin? 2. The simple future tense: is often used for pure future ie. Future, which is not coloured with intention, arrangement or likelihood. I will be fifteen next Monday. She will know the answer. 3. When future is coloured with intention, the going to form (be going to + base form of the verb) is preferred. I’m going to sell my bike. Where are you going to stay? 4. Future continuous tense : It is preferred when then action is faily certain to happen. He will be meeting us at the theatre. I expect. We’ll be staying here till Sunday Future continuous is also used for actions that will begin before a certain time in the future and end after it. When I get home , my children will be sleeping. We will be witnessing the cricket match at this time tomorrow. 5. Future perfect tense: To express an action by a certain future time . By this time tomorrow I will have finished the job. She will have left before you go to see her. Lali Mathew M.A.M.Ed Sheeshmahal Apartment D.A.564 9810312549 2792907

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TENSE IN CONDITIONLALS
Conditionals have two parts: if clause and the main clause. If you try again you will succeed. There are three kinds of conditionals. Each contains a different tense pattern and expresses a different shade of meaning.

OPEN CONDITION:
The simple present is used in the if-clause and will, shall, can, may + plain infinitive in the main clause. If he works hard he will get a first class. If I see him I’ll give him a lift. If you leave before nine you can catch the train

IMPROBABLE OR UNREAL CONDITION:
The simple past is used in the if-clause and would, could, should, might + plain infinitive is used in the main clause. If he works hard he would get a first class. If I were you I wouldn’t do that. If I flew we could get there in time.

UNFULFILLED CONDITION:
The past perfect is used in the if-clause and would, could, should, might + have + past participle used in the main clause. If he worked hard he would have got a first class. If we had had more rain our crops would have grown better. If I hadn’t been careful I might have met with and accident. Lali Mathew M.A.M.Ed Sheeshmahal Apartment D.A.564 9810312549 2792907

12 Supple the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. If I go to school late the teacher (punish) me. The boy would be sick if he (eat) all those chocolates. If you (ask) me I would have told you the whole story. I will come and see you if I (be) free. If I knew her name I (tell) you. What would you do if your house (be) on fire? The accident would not have happened if you (be) a little careful. If I (have) luck with the papers I will pass the exam. If he had taken my advice he (not be) in trouble. If you (fall) into the river you would be drowned. If I see him, I could have saved him from drowning. If you (hit) the dog it may bite you. What you (do) if somebody stoles your bicycle? If you (not touch) the vase, it wouldn’t have fallen. If you (travel) without a ticket you might be put in jail. You could have met him if you (start) early. He’ll ring us up if he (have) time. We (miss) the train if we hadn’t taken a taxi. If I (not see) it, I couldn’t have believed it. If I (be) you I (buy) a new one.

AGREEMENT OF THE VERB WITH THE SUBJECT SEQUENCE OF TENSE CONCORD
I am busy You are clever He is late They are here. These four sentences contain the same verb (be) and the same tense (simple present) But the verb forms is not the same in all the sentences. Am is used after I, are after you and they ,and is after he. That is different verb forms are used with different subjects. A verb must agree with its subject in number and person. That is if the subject is in the singular number, the verb also must be in singular and if it is in the plural…….

Your Passion Will Define Your Limit…..Strive for more

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1. Some times a verb is wrongly made to agree with a noun near to it instead of its own subject. The knowledge of many things, are good (wrong) The knowledge of many things is good (right) 2. Two or more singular subjects are connected by and usually take a plural verb. Hari and Ram are here. He and his friends have arrived. 3. If two singular nouns refer to the same person or thing, the verb must be singular. My friend and benefactor has come The orator and statesman is dead. 4. If two subjects together express one idea the verb must be singular. Bread and butter is a wholesome food. Horse and carriage is at the door. Slow and steady wins the race. 5. If the singular subjects are preceded by each and every the verb must be singular. Every boy and girl was steady. Each day and each hour brings duty. 6. Two or more singular subjects connected by or , nor , either ..or . nether ..or taker a verb in the singular. Nor nook or corner was left unexplored. Neither he nor I was there. Neither Rama nor his sister was there. 7. When the subjects joined by or, nor, are of different number, the verb must be plural and the plural subject must be placed next to the verb. Rama and his brothers have done this . Either the boy or his parents have erred. 8. When the subjects joined by or , nor are of different person, the verb agrees in person with the one nearest to it. Either he or I am mistaken. Neither you nor he is to blame.

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9. When subjects differing in number or person, or both are connected by and, the verb must always be in plural. He and I are well My father and I have lived here five years. You and he are birds of the same feather. 10. Collective nouns takes a singular verb when the collection is thought of as a whole; a plural verb when the individuals of which it is composed are thought of : The council has chosen its president. The fleet has set sail. The committee was agreed on the main question. 11. Some nouns, which are plural in form, but singular in meaning, take a singular verb. According to the present market rate twelve dozen cost rupees one hundred. 12. When a plural noun comes between a singular subject and its verb, the verb is often wrongly made to agree with the nearest plural noun instead of with the real subject. Each of the sisters is clever Neither of the men was very tall The quality of the mangoes was not good. 13. Words joined to a singular subject by “with”, together with, in addition to or as well as etc. are parenthetical and therefore do not affect the number of the verb. The chief with all his men was massacred. The governor, with his aide-de-camp, has arrived. Justice as well as mercy, allows it. 14. The verb “to be” takes the same case after it as before it. I knew that boy to be he. He said unto them; It is I.; be not afraid – The Bible. 15. When the subject of the verb is a relative pronoun care should be taken to see that the verb agrees in number and person with the antecedent of the relative. You, who are my friend, should not worry me. She is one of the best mothers that have ever lived. Lali Mathew M.A.M.Ed Sheeshmahal Apartment D.A.564 9810312549 2792907

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16. We use singular verb after a noun phrase of amount or measurement. Fifteen minutes is allowed to each speaker Rs. 255 seems a lot of money for a shirt. 20 kilometers is a long way to walk.

17.The following nouns ending in “s” count as singular and therefore take singular verb.
News :, Subjects like politics, economics, physics mathematics. Some proper nouns like Naples, Athens, Wales …. Some diseases like measles, mumps, rickets. Plural titles of books like :Gulliver’s Travel is an enjoyable book. 18. When the subject is one of + plural noun, the verb should be singular , to agree with one . One of my brothers lives in England.

Choose the correct verb forms:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. The police (has, have ) arrested the thief. Physics (is, are) his main subject. Your spectacles (is, are) on the table. There (is, are) some people outside Neither Kapil nor his wife (was, were) at home My trousers (is, are) getting too small round the waist Thirty rupees (is, are) not much for all the trouble we have taken Some of them are standing ; see that all the audience (is, are) seated. My scissors (is, are) lost. There (seem, seems) to be many differences between the two parties The Prime Minister, with the Minister for External Affairs and the Minister for Finance, (has left, have left) for America. The Woodlanders (is, are) going to resign. Here (is, are) the news. More than one minister (is, are) going to resign There (is, are) plenty of pins in the drawer. Neither the manager nor the workers (was, were) present.

Your Passion Will Define Your Limit…..Strive for more

Supply a Verb in agreement with its Subject. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Two and two ____ four. There ____many objections to such a plan. Death or disgrace ___ before him. Neither his father nor his mother ___ alive. Te difficulty of obtaining pure milk and ghee____. Iron as well as gold ___ found in India. The meeting ___ chosen a president. Bread and butter ___ wholesome food. The public ___ requested not to walk on the grass. The notorious daco with his followers ___ escaped. Forty yards ___ a good distance. The great poet and novelist ___ dead. Not one of you ___ done his work properly. Each of the boys ___ rewarded. The accountant and the cashier ___ absconded. The Chief with his followers ___ present there. No news ___ good news Extravagance as well as parsimony ___ to be avoided. A good man and useful citizen ___ passed away. Man’s happiness or misery ___ in a great measure in his own hands.

Your Passion Will Define Your Limit…..Strive for more

Lali Mathew M.A.M.Ed Sheeshmahal Apartment D.A.564 9810312549 2792907

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