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2starter

2starter

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Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Motor Starters _________________________________________________________________________________

Three-Phase A.C. Motor Starters AIM Understand the principle of operation of motor starters LEARNING OUTCOMES • • • • • Explain the working principle of operation of direct-on-line starter, star-delta starter and the auto-transformer starter and reasons for their use. Read and interpret electrical drawings of the above starters. Explain the effect of starting large motors with direct-on-line starters on generator terminal voltage. Explain why a motor designed for delta-connected windings must not be connected so that the motor runs star-connected. Detect and rectify faults implanted in motor starters.

OVERVIEW This lesson provides students with an understanding of the principle of operation of three different types 3-phase a.c. motor starter circuits.

Direct-on-line Starter - Principle of Operation ___________________________________________________________________ PTM / Jul 2002 25 SP /
SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Motor Starters _________________________________________________________________________________

With reference to the circuit diagram of Figure 1, the operation of the direct-on-line starter is explained below : 1) 2) When the circuit breaker 52 is switched on, electrical power is supplied to the transformer and the lamp WL will light up. When start push button S1 is pressed, contactor coil 88 is energised. Main contact 88 closes and the motor runs. Holding contact 88a1 is also closed to keep the motor running continuously. Auxiliary contact 88a2 closes and this lights up indicator lamp GL. To stop the motor, press push button S2. This will de-energize contractor coil 88 which causes main contact 88 to open thus stopping the motor. Also holding contact 88a1 will open and lamp GL goes off as contact 88a2 opens. S5 and S4 are remote start / stop buttons. Thermal overload relay 51 protects the motor from overloading.

3)

4) 5)

Direct-on-line starters is the most commonly used, the most usual consideration being whether the generator and the distribution system can withstand the starting current. In the case of loads with high inertia (eg. oil separators) the starting time may also 88 51 be a factor. The starting current is 5 - 8 times the full load current and the heating of windings 2 S is 25 - 64 times normal due to I R effect. Furthermore, at the instant of starting, 52 there is not windage and radiation.

R

M

T A long starting period may result in overheating. Representative starting periods
may be 15 seconds for a 1.5 kW motor and 25 seconds for a 30 kW motor with an initial starting current of not more than 6 times full load current. For these reasons, it is desirable not to make repeated successive starts without intervening periods of cooling.
440 / 220 V , 15 V 3A 3A
WL

10 A

51b

X

88a1

88a2
G L

S1
___________________________________________________________________ PTM / Jul 2002 26 SP /
SMA

S2

S4

S5

88

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Motor Starters _________________________________________________________________________________

Figure 1 Star-Delta Starter Both ends of each phase of the stator windings are brought out and connected to the starter, which on the first step connects them in delta and then in star. In the starting position, the voltage across each phase windings is 58% of the line voltage, i.e.
VL with consequent reduction in starting current. It is 1/3 the starting 3

current had it been in delta.

___________________________________________________________________ PTM / Jul 2002 27 SP /
SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Motor Starters _________________________________________________________________________________
Thermal Overload Protection L1

R S T
Circuit Breaker

U V W

X Y Z

88

U V
L2

X Y Z
Z U

R S T
52

L3

W
U

51
Z X Y W V

88-1
W Y V X

Figure 2
10 A 10 A

6

Operation of Star-Delta Starter 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) At starting contactor L 2 closes and time delay (not shown) is energised. 6
4X Line contactor L1 88 closes next. 6 19T 88-1

Motor starts on reduced voltage due to star connection of motor windings. At the end of time delay period, star contactor L2 opens.
88-1 19T 6

88

Immediately afterwards, contactor L3 closes.
440 / 220 - 15 V Motor now runs on full voltage and on delta connections. 3A

88-1

WL

X
51b

4X

3A

88-1
GL

3-O ___________________________________________________________________

PTM / Jul 2002 SMA
4X 3C

28

SP /

4X 19T

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Motor Starters _________________________________________________________________________________

Figure 3 Principle of Operation With reference to the circuit of Figure 3, the operation of the star-delta starter is explained below : ___________________________________________________________________ PTM / Jul 2002 29 SP /
SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Motor Starters _________________________________________________________________________________

a) When the circuit breaker 52 is switched on, electrical power will be supplied to the transformer and the WL lamp will be lighted up. b) To start the motor, push-button 3C is depressed and contactor coil 4X is energised. This will close normally-open contact 4X in the transformer primary circuit and energising contactor coil 6. In the mean time normally-open contact 4X in the transformer secondary circuit will also close thus energising timedelay contactor coil 19T. c) When contactor coil 6 is energised: i) Main contacts 6 in the main motor circuit will close to form the star connection. ii) Normally-open auxiliary contact 6 will also close thus energising contactor coil 88. iii) Normally-closed contact 6 will open to act as an electrical interlock preventing contactor coil 88-1 from being energised. d) When contactor coil 88 is energised: i) Main contacts 88 in the main motor circuit will close and the motor begins to run in star connection. ii) Normally-open auxiliary contact 88 will also close acting as a holding contact. e) After the pre-set time delay : i) Normally-closed contact 19T will open thus de-energising contactor coil 6. This causes the star-connection to open and the normally-closed contact 6 to close back. f) When contactor coil 88-1 is energised : i) It will close the main motor circuit contacts 88-1; thus the motor now runs in the delta connection. ii) Holding contact 88-1 will also close. iii) Normally-open auxiliary contact 88-1 closes to light up the GL lamp. iv) Normally-closed contact 88-1 will open to prevent contactor coil 6 from energising thus acting as an electrical interlock. g) To stop the motor, depress push-button 3-0. h) Protective devices installed in the circuit are thermal overload relay 51 and fuses. Effect of Full Voltage Starting and Reduced Voltage Starting 1) With full voltage starting, as used in direct-on-line starters, very large ___________________________________________________________________ PTM / Jul 2002 30 SP /
SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Motor Starters _________________________________________________________________________________

current surges of 6 - 8 times full load current occurs. 2) With starting of large motors using direct-on-line starters, large voltage dip takes place. This voltage disturbance may result in malfunction of other electrical equipment connected to the supply. Reduced-voltage starters, such as the star-delta starter or the autotransformer starter, are used to start large motors, eg cargo pumps and bow thrusters. With star-delta starters, the applied voltage is reduced to
1 3

3)

4)

of the line

voltage at start. If this is done, both starting torque and starting current are reduced to 1/3 of what the would have been had the motor been switched direct-oline from the main. 5) Torque is proportional to V2, so if the voltage is reduced to value it follows that the starting torque will be reduced to ( its normal starting value.
R S T

1 3 1 3

of its normal )2 , ie
1 of 3

88-2

51

6)

For example, suppose a squirrel cage motor is such that if switched on to the mains it develops 90% of its normal full load torque and takes 6 times its normal full load current from the mains. On star-delta starting, it would 89 develop 90/3 ie. 30% of its normal full load torque and takes 6/3 times its normal full load current.
65 % 10 A 6 88-1 19T 4X 19T 88-2X 6 88-2

MOTOR

88-2

88-1

6
88-1

6

88-2 Auto-Transformer Starter 440 / 220 - 15 V 3A WL 4X 51b

X
3-C

GL 88-2X

___________________________________________________________________ 19T PTM / Jul 2002 31 SP /
SMA
3-O Q P 4X

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Motor Starters _________________________________________________________________________________

Figure 4 Principle of Operation With reference to the circuit diagram of figure 4, the operation of the autotransformer starter is explained below : a) When the circuit breaker 89 is switched on, the transformer will be energised and the lamp WL will be lighted up. To start the motor push button 3C is depressed and coil 4X is energised. This causes: i) the holding contact 4X for 3C to be closed, ii) the time-delay contactor coil 19T to be energised, iii) contact 4X in the transformer primary circuit to be closed. b) When the contact 4X in the transformer primary circuit is closed contactor coil 6 will be energised causing: ___________________________________________________________________ PTM / Jul 2002 32 SP /
SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Motor Starters _________________________________________________________________________________

i) the auto-transformer main contacts 6 to close, ii) normally-closed interlocking contact 6 to open thus preventing coil 88-2 to be energised, iii) normally-open contact 6 to close thus energising coil 88-1, which in turn closes the main auto-transformer contacts 88-1, and the motor runs with the auto-transformer connected. c) After the set time delay, contactor 19T will: i) open the normally-closed contact 19T thus de-energising contactor coil 6 and this causes contactor coil 88-1 to be de-energised as well, and therefore disconnecting the auto-transformer from the motor main supply lines. ii) return normally-closed contact 6 to the closed position, iii) close normally-open contact 19T thus energising contactor coil 88-2 and 88-2X d) When contactor coil 88-2 is energised; i) main contacts 88-2 will close and the motor runs direct-on-line, ii) normally-closed contact 88-2 will open acting as an interlock to prevent coil 6 from being energised. e) When contactor coil 88-2 is energised, its normally-open contact 88-2 will be closed and this lights up indicator lamp GL. f) To stop the motor, depress stop-button 3-0. g) Push-buttons P & Q are remote start/stop buttons.

A simplified Auto-transformer motor starter

___________________________________________________________________ PTM / Jul 2002 33 SP /
SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Motor Starters _________________________________________________________________________________

Closed to start Opened to run

Transformer

Opened to start Closed to run

Squirrel cage induction motor

Figure 5

Limitation of direct-on-line starting ___________________________________________________________________ PTM / Jul 2002 34 SP /
SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Motor Starters _________________________________________________________________________________

When very large motors are started direct-on-line, they cause a disturbance of voltage (voltage dip) on the supply lines due to the large starting current surge. The ability of the alternators to recover from voltage dip determine the size of large, direct-on-line starting induction motors. A motor design for delta connected windings must not be connected so that the motor runs star connected. If the motor is designed to run in delta but is star-connected, then on full load each stator winding will be carrying an overload of 1.73 X rated line current. This will cause overheating because of the I2R effect. The motor will run 3 times hotter since the line current will be normal. Thermal overload protection will not operate to protect the motor from overheating and eventual burnt out.

___________________________________________________________________ PTM / Jul 2002 35 SP /
SMA

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