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Ly ThuydtTam Duy

B6csiHd Ctrungni
(Cho hanh philc ldn dau thuong cila nhdn loai)

cANnANr,f rsuyfr mdi tdi drroc mdt ta, khi ta nhin rhdy iilIdc iinh si{ng til
Vfr tru bidn dQng khdng ngilng. Ddn Vi Vu Tru nh4 cdc ngdi sao hic ddm tdi. Cdn c6 hing ti ngAnhd (gal-
tC-bio, con ngr/di, gia itinh, xd h6i, qudc gia, thd gidi axies) tudng tu trong vfr tru.
cfing bidn kh6ng ngilng. TAM DUY gdm Duy Lf, Duy Gii thuydt cho ring cilc ngdn hi tlrroc thinh hinh til
V{t, Duy Tdm t6c d6ng trdn m6i Don Vi V[ Tru cfrng mdt diim bui mi vi khi n<lng(dust-horgase) quay rA't
li6n tuc rhay ddi. MOr khi dat drl<rcqu6n binh TAM nhanh.Cric ng6i sao til <t6dtfOcthinh hinh do sri'chrit
DUX don vi v[ rru phdt tridn didu hda. dat duOc hanh cia trong h/c ldm ciic khdi bui vd khi n6ng kdt chit
phfc; bit quAn binh TAM DUY s€ drra ddn xiio tr6n, (CONTRACTON).Srt kdt chic niy drradin sri'c6p rao
khd dau, hriy di6t. Sdng thudn theo qudn binh bidn ra sfc n6ng d trung rAm cfia khdi vit cht't d6, cao tldn
d6ngTAM DUY, lo)i ngudi s6 dat dUochanh phfc, rhd dd ldm xiy ra phin fng nguydn tri' (nuclearreaction)
gidi s6 binh y6n. tiic dung tr6n kh6i cnat ttri hydrogen.Ctic phrin ri'ng
nay lai tao ra ndng lrrongthdp siing ciic ngdi sao.
vU TRU vi vAN vAr Khodng 4500 rri€u nim rrufdc,Thdi DtrOngH6 cfrng
Ngudngdc: drrocthinh hinh nhu vdy. Diim bui mi vi khdi cna'tkni
Vfr tru vd van vdt tU ddu ddn'l Ngohi nidm tin ThUdng quay rt't nhanhdtrdi sri'chrit cria trong ldc ctia khdi chd't
Dd (God) hay Di'ng Tao H5a (Creator) rao ra vfr rru vi niy, rdi cd dong thdnh mdr trdi, ciic hlnh tinh vi rriii
van vdt, <tiy v5n cdn li bi mdr gh6 gtlm cfia v[ rru. ddt. Khdi ctrt't khi hydrogen, chidm ddn 3/4 kh6'i cht'r
Lric trrrdc, ngrrdi ra tin rlng rrrii dd't bdng phing vi cta mit trdi, dti khd nang tao ndng lrrgng,do phdn ri'ng
mit trdi li thdn (god) nhu ddn tdc Ai Cap, Hy Lap <ld nguydn tr?luc, tldt n6ng mar rrdi cho cd ddn l0 ri nam
sing bili. Khodng nim 400 trudc Thi6n Chria , tridt gia sau.
Hy Lap Anaxagorasnhdn ra rang mit trdi lh m6t vdt Trrli tld't tdn mdt ngly dd ru quay xung quanhvA ron
ldn chf'khdng phdi ln thdn vd c6 dudng kinh khoing m6t ndm dd quay xung quanh mdr trdi. Mht trdi phdi
35 dim. Tu tudng ndy cria 6ng tli ngudc lai vdi nidm tdn mQt thiing dd tr-rquay xung quanh minh vd tdn
tin t6n giiio, <li lim 6ng bi day kh6i Athens.Ddn khoing 225 ndm dd quay m6t vdng xung quanh trung tim
nim 150.sau Thi6n Chria , nhi thi€n vdn hoc Ptolemy
cfia Girii Ngdn Hi.
d Alexandria tuy€n b6'trrii da'r le vdt b61di dOng,li
Ddn khoiin 3000-4000tri6u nim trddc, khi v6 triii
trungt6m cria vfr tru; mdt trdi, mit trdng,cdc hinh tinh
dit da ngudi, ddi s6'ngbXt ddu xu6't hiQn tr6n triii tt6i,
vi cic ngdi sao quay chung quanh triii dd'[ . Mdi <ldn
khdi sr/ bang doi sdng don gii{n cria mQt td'bio nhu vi
nam 1543,nhi thi6n van hoc Copernicus6 Polandx6c
tring vi rong r€u. Nhfrng sinh vdt don girin <lAuti6n
nhdn ring mdt trdi mdi li trung tam cria Thrii Duong
vdi m6t td bio di bidn h6a thinh nhrlngsinh vdt vdi
H6, trrii tlt't ve cdc hinh tinh quay chung quanh mdr
nhidu td bio, gifr nhrlng chfc vu khdc nhau vd ri6u
trdi. hda, sinh sdn, di ttdng vi cim giiic ttd ghi nhdn nhflng
Gid tlAy, ta cdn bidt mat trdi cfing chi li mdt ng6i sao bidn chuldn cria m6i tntdng. VOttich htu lai cfia nhf,ng
trong khodng hdn 100 ti ngdi sao. Ciic ng6i sao niy rl6ng vAt sinh ra trong rhdi tidn sfr, rrlc li thdi k! trudc
tao thinh Giii NgAn-Hn(Milky Way Galaxy),xu6'thi6n khi lodi ngrrdi bdt ttdu bidt ghi ch6p, drldc tim tht'y qua
vio khoring 10-15 ti ndm tildc. Anh siing til ciic ngdi
' cdc dia didm v6t h5a thach (fossile), rir rdc nhi6u noi
sao phii tli xuy6n qua hing 100.000ndm 6nh siing tr6n trdi itdt gi6p c6c nhi nghidn crfu, blng phrrdng
l

Tap Chi Kidn Thfc end TfrOng DANVIET- T r ang18 j


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I
philpquangtuyen (radioactivedating)vd nhfrngphuOng tlia cdu.
phddng khric, ghi nh6n drloc khorin thdi gian sinh v6t
hi6n hfru trong qria khf. Ve rt dd,,h<j c6 thd ph6ng Thuy€t bi€h hria
doiin duoc sr/bien chuydncia sinhv6t. d vii ndi, nhf,ng \Ao khodngnlm 1700-1800,CharlesDarwin 6 Anh
vdt tich niy c6 rhd lA nhfrnggi ldu lai ril nhfrngsinh vdt vd nhfrng ngUdi di tntdc 6ng tld nghidn cri'u vd dua ra
chi co m6t td bio vio khorin 3000 tri6u nim rrddc. thuydt bidn h6a (theory of evolution), tim crich gii{i
Ciic sinh vdt tidn sr?ndy cdng ldn ddn itdn hic cdn phdi thich tidn trinh niy.
c6xtltlng song dd ndng rld,c6 v6 cri'ngdd che th6n vd Darwin nh{n ilinh ring, cing mdt gdc sinh vdt, sinh
xudi hi6n vio khodn 400-600rri6u ndm trudc nhrJci{ vdt ndo c5 hinh thd, hodc khd nang thich nghi vdi clidu
e h d n gh a n . ki6n cfia m6i tnldng thi sinh vAt rt6 sdng s6t, riSp ruc
Ddn khi cdy cdi moc drrdcrr€n mat cl6't,sinh vdt bdt sinh sin Ad trru truydn, sinh vdt nlo kh6ng thich nghi
ddu di chuydn tt nudc vio bd vdi srr xuAi hi6n cria thi bi chdt. Thriy td cfia gidng hrtu cao cd 6 ptri Chdu c6
gi6ng sinh vdt c6 thd sdng ci 6 du6 nddc v) tr€n bd thd sinh ra nhfrngct;n huu kh6ng giong nhau,c6 con
(amphibians). Gidng sinh vdt niy cd hinh thd gidng c6 cd dei, c6 con c6 cd ngdn. d nhfrngndi chi c6 cAy
cii, nhrtngco chdn Ad Ai AOngdudc rr6n bd, c6 phdi cao nhd d Phi Ch6u, Ioai hrruc6 cd Oalc6 thd an 16d
hA'pthu dddc dddng khi d trong nrldc vd trong khdng dot cdy cao n€n sdng s6t, loai hrructi cd ngdn khdng
khi. Nhrtng sinh vat niy di di chuydn dudc rren bd, an dudc 16,c|y d cdy cao ndn kh6ng thd sdng s6t. Nhrr
nhung phrii xudng nudc dd dd trf'ng. vdy, m6i tnldng chon loc su sdng cdn cfia loai sinh vdr
Den khodng300 tri6u nim rrudc,lodi bdsdtxu6i hi6n. ndo thich nghi vdi m6i trudng (the survivalof the fir
Loai n)y li bidn thAn cfia loai sinh vAt s6'ngci dudi test)vi loai huu c6 cd dei tidp ruc sinhsiinOtjtrrutruydn.
ndclc vd tr6n bd, nhdng loai bd siit c6 rhd d6 tnlng 13 Xem ra, loai hrru da bidn hda til loai huu ngdn cd den
tr6n dd-t,c6 v6 cri'ngbao quanhgirip loii bd si{t c6 thd loai hrru cao cd.
<'rtr€n ddt tau mir cd rhd kh6ng bi kh6. Vi rhd loai bd srit Bidn h6a li mdt tidn trinh thay tldi tr) tir gidp sinh vAt
c6 thd sdng l6u tr6n rtA'rlidn. c6 thd sdng s6t va rhich nghi vcli nhfrngthay ddi cfia
Lorii khring long (dinosaurs)cIng thu6c loai bd siit, mdi trudngtr6n dia cdu. M6t loai sinh vArsinhsiin ddn
xu6i hi6n vio khoiin 300 tri6u ndm rnfdc. Khring long dd du thila (overpopulation), ddn lric thuc phdm kh6ng
lir loai sinh vAt ldn nhA'tsdng trdn dia cdu, nhdngc[ng cdn dfi, didu ki6n vd thdi tidt thay ddi, loai sinhvdr n)o
c6 loai khilnglongnh6 bangcd congi, c6 loai di chuydn c6 co thd vd hinh dilng nh6 hdn, in it hon, rhich nghi
chAmnhdngc6 loai di chuydn rA'tnhanh.Loai tdn nhdi hon sC sdng s6t. Moi sinh vdt d6u phrii liOn tuc t"ranh
(brachiosaurs) cao khodn80 feet, dn toin thuc vdt. Loai ctd'udd sdng s6t. NhrTngsinh v6t (living things)gdm
dn thit li Tyrannosaurus Rex. Ddn khodng 180 tri6u tl6ng vAt hay thrfc v6t nio kh6ng thich nghi hay bidn
nam trddc, trong thdi kj' JurassicPark,m6t loai khring h6a duoc thi bi diet chring. Nhrrng Darwin kh6ng girii
long bi& bay xuA'thi6n, bidn h6a ddn ddn ddn lodi chim thich dr/ocld rai sao thfiy rti cfia ldai hdu E Phi ChAutai
sau niy Ddn khoiing 70 tri€u nirn trddc, loii khring sinh ra nhrlng con huu kh6ng gidng nhau, c6 con cd
Iong bien mAi, ctl rhd la do di€u ki6n m6i trudng rhay ddi, c6 con cd ngin,
d6i, khdng cdn dfi thrlc vAt ldm thri'cdn cho loii sinh Darwin cflng dd nhdn x6t drtdc su thay ddi cria nhtrng
vAt khdng ld ndy nrfa.Loii bd srit nh6 hon c6 thd sdng dic tinh cfiasinhvAt khi nhf,ngdac tinh ndy dUdctruydn
s6t drtOccho ddn ngiy.nay nhU ria, ci{ sAl, rdn, thdn xudng th6 hC sinh vflt con chdu, nhdngDarwin kh6ng
lin. rdn mdi. hidu tai sao.
Loai d6ng vAt c6 vri vi m6u n6ng xu6'thi6n vdo khodn Phriidoi tldn nh8ngkhrim phri vd di truy.in,khdi.ddu
65 tri6u ndm trddc, sau khi cr{c khring long bidn mt't. til Mendel, cho tdi vd sau ndy, nhAn x6t cria Darwin
Ei€u ki6n mdi trrrdngcria dia cdu thich hdp, nhi6u loai mdi c6 thd drr<rcgiii thich m6t cdch khoa hoc: Trong
ddng vAt c6 vri phdt tridn. Ld ddng vdt c6 mdu n6ng va m6itdbao co b0 phdnnh6 goi ld nhAntli truydn{chrom-
c6 l6ng bao phri cd thd,d0ngvAt cd vri d€ thich nghi osome)nam trongnhAncfia td beo. M6i nhendi truydn
vdi m6i tnJdngn6ng lanh . Loii dQngvAt niy gdm loai c6 v0 sd ddn vi di truy6n {genes} c61 tao hda hoc li
g4m nhdm,cdn trDng,ngrla,khi, vrJdn,dd nhdn (apes). DNA {Deoxyribonucleicacid). NhrI vdy, DNA li cfi'u
Vh cudi cing, kho6n 5 tri6u nIm trtldc, til loai dfr nhdn tao h6a hoc cfia ddn vi di truy6n, cria nhdn di truy6n.
niy, lodi ngr/di il6 bidn h6a cho ddn ngdy nay. Thay itdi cdu t4o cfia DNA tri'cli thay edi cau mo cia
Vay ld trdi qua 3000-4000tri0u nim, til m6t <t6mbui ddn vi di truydn, cria nhin di truydn tltra <ldnsu thay
khdng ld, m4t trdi, trili dat da dudc tao ra, vi tring vi adi tintr cna'tai truydn xudng thd he con chdu.
rong rdu vdi ddi s0'ngcria mdt td bio ila xua't hiOn.Til Don vi di truydn gens cd thd thay Odi ca'u tao hda
d6, rong r6u bidn h6a ddn thinh cdy c6, sinh v6t mdt td hoc DNA (mutation) vi didu ki6n cfia m6i tntdng nhrl
bio nhrr vi trDng ndy il6 bidn thinh moi ddng vdt tr6n ciic ch6'thod hgc hay quang tuydn v.v hay cfrng c6 thd

l'ap Chf Kidn Thtrc Phd Tndng D A N V I F T - T r a n g2 0


thay ctdi vi tri phdi hdp (recombination).Nhu vdy, thay mdt ciich qudn binh, hda hdp: Thuc vdt phoi hop nang
Odi-Oonvi di truydn c6 thd tao ra nhfrngsinh vit d thd lddng cfia iinh'siing mat trdi vdi thi{n khi (Co2) trong
h€ con chiiu khr{c nhau m6t khi nhtng tlon vi di truydn khOng khi, ch6't alnn Arrongvi nrldc tt ddt dd tao ra
niy thay ddi vd cA'utao hay vi tri phdi hdp. T6m lai, stf thri'c an cho thtlc vdt. Thuc vAt lai nhd ra drrdng khi
ptrdi hop cfia nhdn di truydn vi srJchgn lgc cria m6i (Oxygen) cAn thidt cho stl h6 hn'pcfia <l$ngvdt ' DOng
trudng dd dda <ldnsu hi6n htru cfia mu6n loii sinh v4t vdt phdi hop dttOngkhi vdi cht't dinh drrdng til thr/c vd^t
(living things), gdm dQng vat ciing nhrr thtr.c v{t trong ua e^Ong uai U,ac Jd tuo ra chdt dinh drrdngcho cd.thd'
v[ tru. Cclthd iai th6i ra thiln khi cdn thidt cho thttc vAt' Eiy li,
ta thA'yvdt ch6't(DU de drrocbien h6a theo nhfrngqui
Tam duy: luAt (DL) vdi muc clichtinh thdn hddngthi6n ( DT) mdt
Xem ra thuydt bidn h6a cia Darwin c6 16 gi6i thich ciich qudn binh cho srr sdng cria sinh vdt' Ndng nhi6u
dudc sr.lthdnh hinh vi bidn h6a cfia mu6n loii tt mdt quii, nr-ldcnhidu quri, ch6'tdinh dr/dngnhidu quri, t6'tci
ddm bui mi cho tldn srr xui't hiQnctia van v4t. NhtI v6y deu Otruddn srr xiio trQnhay hfiy di6t tlili sdngcria sinh
v0 trq khdi ddu dudc tao bdi vit chdt (Duy Vat = DV var.
)cfia diim bui mi, r6i tien ttdn sU thinh hinh cria mOt Ngodi ra, qudn binh TAM DUY kh6ng phrii li quA-n
sinh vit cfrng bdi vdt chdi, rdi tt tt6 bi6n h6a thdnh Uintrcd ctinhmd li6n tuc thay ddi- Nrrdcli6n tuc chuydn
mudn loii Ad tnicn nghi vdi nhf,ng nhu cdu thay ddi ctQng,cht't dinh dddng li6n tuc ddi thay' ciic ph6n ri'ng
cria mdi trddng,thuc phdm,khi hiu , c0ng lai bdi <li6u sinn nOa li6n tuc phoi hclp vrli iinh niing mdt trdi tao
ki€n vdt chd'tcria m6i tnlilng. V{y ydu td quydt dinh srr ch6'tdinh drldng cho thrlc vdt' thrrc vAt li€n tuc tdng
thdnh hinh vi bidn h6a cfla v[ tru vd van vdt li ydu td trudng.M6iph{i c6 khoin 3 ti td bio trongco thd-chdt,
vdt chit (DV). va dd-ngthdi cti khoin 3 ti td bio khric sinh ra dd thay
Ydu td thri'hai inh hrrdngsrr thinh hinh' bidn h6a vd thd. Thd mtli bidt sinh vA.tvi v[ tru bien ddng li€n tuc,
sinh hoat cria vfr tru, van vdt ld ydu td luAt cfia v[ tru nhrlng 6 b{t cft thdi didm n)o, nhflng bidn d6ng niy
(Duy Ly = DL). Ndm 1500'sNewton khrlm ludt vd lu6n lu6n drldc quAn binh bdi TAM DUY
trong ldc tiic il6ng trong vfr tru vi moi vdt trdn trdi dAi' Mdt khi TAM DUY khdng dtlclcquAnbinh,d(r lir luc
Sd bidn h6a cria sinh vdt c[ng chiu inh hudngcria ludt c6 bidn <10ngtrong v[ tru, cti thi6n tai' cci binh hoan'
cli truydn dd thay adi aon vi di truydn gene' DNA' Ci{c MOt khi cdct€ bdo sinhsdnhdn dQn.luAtsinhvdt (DL)
sinh vdt sinh sdng,tang tnldng theo luAt sinh h6a, dinh khdngcdn khi ndng kidm so:it td bio sinh sin' m6t khi
dddng, h6ht'p. ti6u thu, bei tidt' sinh siq. Khiim ph6 su sinh sdn hdn ddn ndy dua ddn su xiio tr6n cria cd
nhrn! quy luAt ndy ld khdm phri vfr tru, mang lai kidn thd, khdng ahladen mdt muc dich hrrtlngthi6n (DT)'
thri'ccho nhAn loai. Kidn thri'ccria nhdn loai thit mdnh dd ld b0nhung thd. Ndng qud nhi6ulim chet cAy c6'
m6ng,nhungbi mAt cria v[ tru v6n cdn li bi mQt'Ngiy mrla quii nhidu sinh ra lut l6i.
nio, loii ngrrdic6 thd khdm phd hdt nhfng tlinh luAt Trong khoin 2 tri6u sinh vit tr0n dra cdu' chi cti loii
cria vfr tru thi ngiy il6 bi m{t cria v[ tru mdi kh6ng cdn ngudi li loii thdng minh nh6't.Loii ngrrrricti thd ciii
l) bi m6t. Bidt sfc con ngrliti c6 thd dat atdn ngdy dti thi6n qudn binh lAM DUY cria v[ tru vd van vAt' M6t
hay khOng'l khi khdm ph:i ra dd<lcluAt (DL) vd sr/ chi ph6i vd cct
idu td ttrrrUa chi phdi vii tru vd van vdt ld ydu td Duy c6'ucria iinh sring,con ngriili cti thd tdch rcJic:lc phdn ttr
" cria 6nh sdng ra nhi6u loai tia silng khdc nhau vi i{p
tdm (DT). Ddi sdn! cria sinh vQt trdn trdi tld't dd xuA't (ch khtic
hi6n nhrr dA dudc an bdy, dtrdc cung c6'p nhf,ng nhu dung hi6u ning cria cdc tia sdng vlo cilc lcii
cAucAnthidt cho tldi sdngnhrr6nh sdngmdt trdi' nudc, nhultng tia LaserAd adt chiiy hay dd gidi phdu'Kh6m
phrl rluoc6m thanhc6 thd truydnqua giAy kim khi' con
drrdngkhi, chdt drrdngkhi, ch6'tdinh drldng'Srran biy
chan chfa tinh thudng.Anh sdng mdt trdi dd dem lai ngrrdic6 thd dnng giAy kim khi ndy truydn Am thanh
ngu6n nlng lrrong cho van v{t, cdn cho cdc phin ri'ng Ad Otng trong di€n thoai- Khi con ngr/dikhiim phii ra
,inn nOu (photosynthesis), girip thuc vat tang trudng' luAt cia Am thanh truy€nqua cdc lin sdngv0 tuydn'
Thidu nrrdckh6ng sinh vit nio c6 thd sdng s6t' Thidu con ngrldi iip dung dd truydn Am thanhqua cdc lln
s6ng v6 tuYdnndY.
drrdngkhi, thidu chdt dinh drldng, kh6ng sinh vdt ndo
ciing cfrngchfrad{ng tinh thudng' {na* pte ua hidu ddclccd c6'ucia vdt chai (DVJ'
c6 thd t6n tai. Ddn c1d't
f]
ddt cung cdp chdt dinh drrdng,cung c6'p nrrdc' li m6i .on ngoJi.6 thd thay adi ci cd c6'uvAt chdt <lii'Hidu
thd
ill aoq.lo cA'unguy6nift.,iu vAt chd't'con ngrrdic6
':, trudng cho sinh vdt sinh sdng vi ting tn/dng' Nhin k! nang ltrdngnguy:n
lr:
vdt ttr"y aei co c6'Jd6, ,uo ra ngudn
d g6c canh nio, mdi rudng ndo cfra ttdi sdng sinh 11
tt/
cO sric manh kinh khring Od ad dt)ng trong nguy6n
^u6n loai,,u cfrng thdy ydu td tinh thrrong,hrrdngthi6n'
$*
vit l{c.
Ta cdn th6'y ln ba ydu td niy, luit vfr tru (DL)'
-..h

ti: vU tru vi van vit MOt khi con ngrrdi bidt r{p dung ludt vfr tru
(DL) cho
chat (DV), tinh thdn (DT) chi phdi
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o A r uv r E r- T r a n g 2 2
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m6t c6ng ich khiic, vi bi6t thay ddi co cdu v{t chft
(DV) cria v[ tru, dr/dng nhi€n con ngrrdi dd thay ddi
lu6n ydu td tinh thdn (DT) li6n h6, lim cho ddn vi v[
rru niy hfru ich hdn, hoin hdo hon.
V0 tru bi6n tl6ng kh6ng ngilng. DOnvi vrl tru nguy6n
tfi, te beo, con ngrrdi,giatlintr,xd hQi,qudcgia,rhd gidi
cfrng bidn dQng khdng ngirng,
TAM DUY gdm, Duy ly'(DL), Duy v{t (DV), Duy
t6m (DT), tiic d6ng tr6n m6i ddn vi cfing ti6n tuc thay
adi.vtor khi dat dtroc quin binh TAM DUY, don vi vii
tru phat tridn didu hda, hanh phrfc,bii quin binh TAM
DUY s€ tttrad5n xdo trOnkhd dau, hriy di6t. SdngthuAn
theo quAn binh TAM DUY, loni ngudi sE dat drrochanh
phfc, thd gi<li sE binh ydn.
Trong cd gdng lim cii thi6n qudn binh TAM DUY
tiic ddng trdn m5i ddn vi.sinh vdt cria v[ tru dd ldm cho
m6i trrrdng phong phri hon, it binh hoan hdn, nhidu
thrrc phdm hdn, loai ngrrdi tti tao ra nhfng tinh trang
bd't qurin binh TAM DUY, dua tl€n nhfng xdo tr6n,
nhfrngtrAn chi€n Djr srit ddm mriu, nhfrngdau thrrong
tri6n mi6n.
Ta sd tuAn tr,rnghi€n crlu inh hrrdngcria quAn binh
TAM DUY qua tidn trinh tidn h6a td thriy td cta loii
ngrrdi cho tldn hdm nay, dd tt d6 c6 thd nit ra tlugc kdt
luAn hfu ich cho trrdnglai, cho nhf,ng ngiy thiing, thd
k! hay ni6n kf kd tidp. -a