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Methods of estimation of multi

component formulations: A review

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Mr. S.J. Daharwal

As the mankind made his way through remote times and places, he was always followed by
disease and sickness from ill health. Thus originated drugs and medicines to cure it
and began evaluation of practice of pharmacy and pharmaceuticals.

Market is flooded with combination of drugs in various dosage forms1 (Table-1). The multi-

components formulations have gained a lot of importance nowadays due to greater patient

acceptability, increased potency, multiple action, fewer side effects and quicker relief 2.

There is a plethora of analysis of such formulations without prior separation. For the

estimation of multi-component formulation, the instrumental techniques, which are commonly

employed, are spectrophotometry, GLC, high performance thin layer chromatography

(HPTLC), HPLC etc. These methods are based upon the measurement of specific and

nonspecific physical properties of the substances.

Spectrophotometric multi-component analysis

Absorption spectroscopy is one of the most useful and widely used tools available to the

analyte for quantitative analysis. The relation between the concentration of analyte and the

amount of light absorbed is the basis of most analytical applications of molecular

spectroscopy. This method of analysis is gaining importance due to simple, rapid, precise,

highly accurate and less time consuming. Spectrophotometric multi-component analysis can

be applied where the spectra of drugs overlaps. In such cases of overlapping spectra,

simultaneous equation can be framed to obtain the concentration of individual component;

otherwise multi-component analysis can be applied on any degree of spectral overlap provided

that two or more spectra are not similar exactly. Some examples are listed in table-2.

The various spectroscopic techniques used for multi-component analysis are as


Simultaneous equation method (Vierodt’s method) 3

Concentration of several components present in the same mixture can be determined by

solving a set of simultaneous equation even if their spectra overlap. If Beer’s law is followed,

these equations are linier.

Two wavelength method3

The method can be used to calculate the concentration of component of interest found in a

mixture containing it along some unwanted interfering component. The absorption different

between two points on the mixture spectra is directly proportional to the concentration of the

component to be determined irrespective of the interfering component.

The absorption ratio method3

The absorbance ratio method is a modification of the simultaneous equation procedure. It

depends on the property that for a substance, which obeys Beer’s law at all wavelength, the

ratio of absorbance at any two wavelengths is constant value independent of concentration or

path length. e.g. Two dilutions of the same substance give the same absorbance ratio A1 / A2.

In the USP, this ratio is referred to as Q value. In the quantitative assay of two components in

admixture by the absorbance ratio method, absorbances are measured at two wavelengths.

One being the λ max of one of the components (λ2) and the other being a wavelength of equal

absorptivity of the two components (λ1), i.e., an iso-absorptive point.

Geometric correction method3

A number of the mathematical correction procedures have been developed which reduce or

eliminate the background irrelevant absorption that may be present in the samples of

biological origin. The simplest of this procedure is the three-point geometric procedure, which

may be applied if the irrelevant absorption is linier at the three wavelengths selected. This

procedure is simply algebraic calculations of what the baseline technique in infrared

spectrophotometry dose graphically.

Absorption factor method (Absorption correction method) 3

It is further modification of simultaneous equation method. Quantitative determination of one

drug is carried out by E (1%, 1 cm) value and quantitation of another drug is carried out by

subtraction absorption due to interfering drug using absorption factors.

Orthogonal polynomial method3

The technique of orthogonal polynomials is another mathematical correction procedure, which

involves complex calculation than the three-point correction procedure. The basis of the

method is that an absorption spectrum may be represented in terms of orthogonal functions.

Difference spectrophotometry3

Difference spectrophotometry provides a sensitive method for detecting small changes in the

environment of a chromophore or it can be used to demonstrate ionization of a chromophore

leading to identification and quantitation of various components in mixture. The essential

feature of difference spectrophotometric assay is that the measured value is the difference

absorbance (∆A) between two equimolar solutions of the analyte in different chemical forms,

which exhibits different spectral characteristics.

Derivative spectrophotometry3

Derivative spectrophotometry is useful means of resolving two overlapping spectra and

eliminating matrix interference due to an indistinct shoulder on side of an absorption bands. It

involves conversion of normal spectrum [A= f (λ)]to its first [dA/ dλ = f (λ)], second [d2A/ dλ2

= f (λ)]and higher derivatives spectra where the amplitude in the derivative spectrum is

proportional to the concentration of the analyte provided that Beer’s law is obeyed by the

fundamental spectrum.

Area under curve method4

In this method, the absorptivity values (ε1 and ε2) of each of the two drugs were determined at

the selected wavelength range. Total area under curve of a mixture at wavelength range is

equal to the sum of area under the individual component at that wavelength range. This

method is applicable when the λ max of the two components are reasonably dissimilar, the two

components do not interact chemically and both the component must be soluble in same


The methods deviated when overlapping of UV spectra of two drugs significantly and large

difference in labeled strength5. e. g. Tizanidine HCl 3.0 mg and nimesulide 100.0 mg per

tablet. The accuracy of the method depends upon nature of solvent, pH of solution,

temperature, high electrolyte concentration and the presence of interfering substances.

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC):

This technique is based on the same method of separation as classical column

chromatography. i.e. adsorption, partition, ion exchange and gel permeation but it differ from

column chromatography, in that mobile phase is pumped through the packed column under

high pressure. The technique is most widely used for all the analytical separation technique

due to its sensitivity, its ready adaptability to accumulate quantitative determinations, its

suitability for separating nonvolatile species or thermally fragile ones. In normal HPLC, polar

solids such as silica gel; alumina (Al2O3) or porous glass beads and non-polar mobile phase

such as heptane, octane or chloroform are used but if the opposite case holds, it is called as

reversed phase HPLC. Some examples are listed in table-3 and 4

High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC):

The principle is based on plane chromatography. The mobile phase normally is driven by

capillary action. The prominent advantages of this technique includes possibilities of

separating of up to 70 samples and standard simultaneously on a single plate leading to high

throughout, low cost analogs and the ability to construct calibration curves from standard

chromatography under the same condition as the sample. Analyzing a sample by use of

multiple separation steps and static post chromatographic detection procedures with various

universal and specific visualization regents that are possible because all the sample

components are stored on the layer without the chance of loss. Some examples are listed in


Gas chromatography (GC):

GC is one of the most extensively used separation technique in which separation is

accomplished by partitioning solute between a mobile gas phase and stationary phase, either

days and analysts. Analytical method validation has been performed according to ICH guidelines. Ruggedness studies has been carried out for different parameters i. accuracy. precision. different equipment etc. The results shall be compared with the method. Validation of methods6: Validation by definition is an act of providing that any process. desired detection and quantitation limits and any other important performance criteria. It builds a degree of confidence not only for the developer but also to the user. specificity and reproducibility of sample applications.A X 100 / S Where T = Total amount of drug estimated A= Amount contributed by formulation S = Amount of pure drug added. When extended to an analytical procedure. using different regent.1M NaOH) and mild oxidizing condition (3% H2O2) for 24 hr at 50 C. method. Also heat (60C) and U. The scope of method should include different equipment and locations where the method will be run. Some examples are listed in table-6. The formula used for calculating recovery of pure drug is Percentage recovery = T .1 M HCl). Validation of analytical method should follow a well documented procedure beginning with the definition of the scope of the method and its validation criteria and including the compounds and matrices.V. The methods were validated in terms of linearity. activity. The chief requirement is same degrees of stability at the temperature necessary to maintain the substance in gas state.liquid or solid. exposure for 24 hr will be carried out on the sample. in same or different laboratories. . system or analyst performs as expected under given set of conditions. It will ensure commitment to quality of products and services.e. material. The stress conditions applied are acidic (0. Accuracy of the method is certain on the basis of recovery studies performed by the standard addition method. The stability indicating ability of the method has been investigated by deliberately degrading the sample preparation. Precision of analytical method is expressed as SD and RSD of series of measurement by replicate estimation of drug. alkalis (0. The linearity of the method was investigated by serially diluting the stock solutions of drugs and measured values. equipment. depending upon the application it means that a method works reproducibility when carried out by a same or different person.

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204. B. Kale U. Pharm. Indian Drugs. 535-538. E. 65(4). Vasudevan M. 2003. Ravishankar S. and Sahajia B.. Through 55th Indian Pharmaceutical Congress Scientific Abstract.HPLC’. ‘ Microgram determination of glipiozide and metformine HCl in pharmceutical preparation by HPLC method’. 315-318. 1(3). S. 2003. 2003. Sci.. P. 39(8).. and Shukla I. Shah R. Ravibabu T. and Rao M. N. ‘Simultaneous determination of nimuselide and chlorzoxazone in pharmaceutical dosage form by RP.J. J.. 65(3). Indian Drugs. 2002. 214. S. 2002.. Zarapkar S.HPLC’. Indian Drugs. 40(7). 207. Satishkumar M... P. Indian Drugs. ‘RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of nimesulide and Tizanidine HCl in tablet’. P. Kale U. Naidu K. Nagoji K. ‘Simultaneous RP-HPLC estimation of nimesulide and diclofenic sodium’. S. 397- 400.. 35(12). K and Kanyawar N. and Ankalkope P.. C.. B. B. and Wanjari D. prothionamide and pyrizinamide in pharmaceutical dosage form by RP-HPLC’.. 213.E. 2003/ GP-16.HPLC. Kirankumar M. S. 205. 37(10).. . Pharm. 585-588. 215. 2000. ‘RP. ‘Simultaneous estimation of glipizide and metformine in pharmaceutical dosage form by RP. 87-89.. 407-409.HPLC’. R. 748-753. Shinde V. N. and Bhandari N. Naidu K.. 2000. Indian Drugs. 212. . Indian Drugs. 37(12). 37(8). ‘Simultaneous estimation of lasartan potassium and hydrochlothiazide in pharmaceutical dosage form by RP-HPLC’. 2003. Sci. 211. Indian J. Vijayasrinivas S. S. Indian Drugs. 39(10).. 536-540. and Nanjan M. Gaikwad N. Duby A. Halkar U.. 206.. 2000. ‘Simultaneous estimation of methocarbamol and nimuselide in pharmaceutical dosage forms form by RP. 386- 389. Zarapkar S. Indian J. 209. 208. 469-473..203. Halkar U. Indian Drugs. Through 55th Indian Pharmaceutical Congress Scientific Abstract. 2003/ G-5. Kulkarni S. M and Raman B. ‘Simultaneous estimation of lomefloxacine HCl. V. R.. 210.. N. S. Kulkarni S. 1998.. 38(10). ‘Simultaneous determination of norfloxacin and ornidazole in pharmaceutical dosage form by RP-HPLC’.HPLC determination of ofloxacin and tinidazole in tablet’.. ‘Simultaneous estimation of methocarbamol. and Kayawar N. and Shingare M. K. ibuprofen and paracetamol by RP-HPLC’. Raman B. 2001. ‘Simultaneous estimation of metformine HCl and pigglitazone in combined dosage form by RP-HPLC’. ‘Simultaneous determination of nicotinic acid and meclozine HCl in tablet by RP. 446-449. The Pharma Review. and Shingare M.

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Anal. Technol.. Combinations Use 1 Ciprofloxacin and phenyl ephedrine HCl Eye 2 Atropine and chloremphenicol Eye 3 Diclofenac and gentamycin Eye 4 Tropicamide and phenylephine HCl Eye 5 Phenylephine HCl. 121-124. 249. 40(6). 246. Menthol and Camphor Eye 6 Chloramphinicol. 2003. and Kaul N. R. pseudoephedrine and dextromethorphan in capsule dosage forms’. 247. 565-578. Liq.243.. 1017-1024. 245. Biomed. ‘Simultaneous determination of codeine and ethyl morphine HCl in tablet formulation using liquid chromatography’.. ‘Simultaneous determination of benazepril HCl and hydrochlorthaizide by micro. 2000. 2001... J. 248. 1999. J. Mahadik K. A... ‘Determination of fluoxetine. Singh D.. beclamethasone and lignocain Eye . ‘Simultaneous estimation of oxybenzone and octylmethoxy cinnamate by GLC’. Biomed. 200-206. Panderi I. 2000. Pharm..based liquid chromatography ’. V... clotrimazole.26 (1). 2000. and Llerena M. Anal. Relat. J. 1999. clotrimazole.. 40(11)... Degin T. and Gangwal S. Trivedi P. phenyltoloxamine and related products’... and Anna A. E. Chromatogr. ‘HPTLC method for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine besylate and benazepril HCl tablets’..38(5). ‘Liquied chromatographic estimation of diclofenic sodium and chlorzoxazone from tablet’. 42(493). Gawri N. salicylamide. Xu X.. East. 645-648. J. fluvoxamine and clomipramine in pharmaceutical formulation by capillary gas chromatography ’.21 (5). Pharm. 340-344. 23(4). Berzas. Liq. ‘Simultaneous HPTLC estimation of trifluoperazine HCl. and Burykafsar K. T.. 1-13. trihexylphenidyl HCl and chlorpromazine HCl in tablet dosage form’. 251. 43(505).. 15-21. Chrmatogrp. Pharm.. 23(1). ‘MEKC determination of guaifenesin . ‘Simultaneous HPLC analysis of acetaminophen. Relat. 139-140.. Indian Drugs. 2003. J. and Santha A. Chromatogr. Akay C. Singh R.. Aggarwal H. V. K. J. Indian Drugs. Table 1: Combination formulations used for therapies S. B. No. Pharm. Naphazoline HCl. Parissi and Poulou M. Aukunuru J. Nevodo. Vaidhyalingam V. 244. Kampella U.. 250. Betagri G. beclamethasone and lignocain Eye 7 Gentamycin. 2000.. Technol. Xiao-Lui and Stewart J. East. J. J. Sci.

Psudeoephedrine HCl andDextromethorphen System Respiratory 21 Terfinidine andDextromethorphen System Respiratory 22 Bromohexine HCl and guaiphenesin and Salbutamol and Menthol System Respiratory 23 Ambroxol and guaiphenesin and Salbutamol and Menthol System Respiratory 24 Lorotadine and Psudeoephdrine HCl System Respiratory 25 Ambroxol and Psudeoephdrine HCl System Respiratory 26 Terfinidine. 9 Clonidine and Hydrochlorthaizide CVS 10 Clonidine and Chlorthalidone CVS 11 Reserpine and Dihyrallzine CVS 12 Reserpine and Dihyrallzineand Hydrochlorthaizide CVS 13 Atenolol and Chlorthalidone CVS 14 Atenolol and Alprazolam CVS 16 Isosorbide mononitrate and Aspirin CVS 17 Tranexamic acid and mefenamic acid Coagulant 18 Ticlopidine HCl and Aspirin Anticoagulant 19 Clopidogrel and Aspirin Anticoagulant Respiratory 20 Triprolidine HCl. Neomycine and Econozole Topical Antifungal 34 Phenylbutazone. Neomycine and Clotrimazole Topical Antifungal 32 Beclomethasone. Psudeoephdrine HCl System Topical 28 Neomycin. Propylphenazone and Paracetamol NSAID 35 Indomethacin and Paracetamol NSAID 36 Diclofenic sodium. Bacitracin and Sufacetamide intiinfective 29 Tolnaftate. gentamycine and Clotrimazole Topical Antifungal 33 Beclomethasone. Serratiopeptidase and Paracetamol NSAID . Chlorhexidine and Salicylic acid Topical Antifungal 30 Quiniodochlor and Hydrocortison Topical Antifungal 31 Beclomethasone. 8 Phenylephrine HCl and Naphazoline HCl and Menthol and Chlorbutol Nasal Prep.

C NSAID 46 Glucosamine. Paracetamol and Caffine NSAID 44 Glucosamine and Methylsulfonylmethane NSAID 45 Glucosamine and Vit. Megnesium trisilicate and Paracetamol NSAID 39 Meloxicam and Paracetamol NSAID 40 Nimusilide and Serratiopeptidase NSAID 41 Nimusilide. Dextropropoxyphen HCl and Paracetamol NSAID 38 Diclofenic sodium. Nimusilide and Paracetamol NSAID 60 Tizanidine and Mefanamic acid NSAID 61 Tizanidine and Refecoxib NSAID 62 Ampicillin and Sulbactum Antiinfective 64 Amoxycillin and Bromhexine / Ambroxal Antiinfective 68 Cephalexin and Bromhexine / Ambroxal Antiinfective 69 Cephalexin and Carbocisteine Antiinfective 71 Cephadroxil and Probencid Antiinfective 74 Cephuroxime and Serratiopeptidase Antiinfective 75 Cefixime trihydrate and Lactic acid bacillus Antiinfective 76 Cefoperazone sodium and Sulbactum sodium Antiinfective 77 Erythromycine and Bromohexine Antiinfective .37 Diclofenic sodium. Methyl salicylate and Methnol NSAID 49 Diclofenic sodium. Paracetamol and Caffeine NSAID 53 Carisoprodol and Ibuprofen NSAID 55 Ibuprofen. Diclofenic sodium and Paracetamol NSAID 59 Tizanidine. Vit. Methocarbamol and Paracetamol NSAID 50 Methocarbamol and Ibuprofen NSAID 52 Carisoprodol. C and calcium carbonate NSAID 47 Glucosamine and Chondroitin NSAID 48 IbuprofenandMephenesin. Dextropropoxyphen HCl and Paracetamol NSAID 42 Ibuprofen and Dextropropoxyphen HCl NSAID 43 Propyphenazone. Chloroxazone and Paracetamol NSAID 56 Tizanidine and Nimusilide NSAID 57 Tizanidine and Diclofenic sodium NSAID 58 Tizanidine.

Rifampicin and Vit B6 Anti T B 85 INH . Rifampicin and Pyridoxine Anti T B 86 INH and Ethembutol Anti T B 87 INHandEthembutol and Rifampicin Anti T B 88 INHandRifampicin and Vit B6and Pyrazinamide Anti T B 89 Tinidazole and doxicycline Antiprotozoal 90 Metrinidazole and Diloxamide Antiprotozoal 91 Tinidazole and doxicyclineand Tetracycline Antiprotozoal 92 Ornidazole and Ciprofloxacin Antiprotozoal 93 Diethylcarbamazine and Chlorphenaramine maleate Antiprotozoal 94 Sulphamethzole and Pyrimethamine Antimalarial 95 Chloroquine and Primaquine Antimalarial 96 Stavudine and Lamivudine Antimalarial 97 Zidovudine and Lamivudine Antimalarial 98 Zidovudine and Lamivudineand Navirpine Antimalarial 99 Stavadine and Lamivudineand Navirpine Antimalarial 100 Ethinyloestradiol and Methyltestosterone Endocrine System 101 Ethinyloestradiol and Desogestrol Endocrine System 102 Gliclazide and Chromium Antidibetics 103 Chlorpropamide and Phenformine Antidibetics 104 Metformineand Glibenclamide Antidibetics 105 MetformineandGlipizideand Polynicotinate Antidibetics 106 MetformineandGlimepride Antidibetics 107 MetformineandRosiglitozone Antidibetics 108 MetformineandPioglitozone Antidibetics 109 Glimepride and Rosiglitazone Antidibetics . 78 Roxithromycine and Bromohexine/ Ambroxol Antiinfective 79 Roxithromycine and Serratiopeptidase Antiinfective 80 Oxytetracycline and Lidocain Antiinfective 81 INH and Vit B6 Anti T B 82 INH and Thaiacetazone Anti T B 83 INH and Rifampicin Anti T B 84 INH.

ampicillin and cloxacillin Antiinfective 15 10 Ampicillin and cloxacillin Antiinfective 16 11 Aspirin compound tablet NSAID 17 12 Aspirin. caffeine and codeine phosphate NSAID 7 2 Acrivastine and pseudo ephedrine HCl Respiratory System 8 3 Ambroxol HCl and cetrizine Respiratory System 9 4 Amiloride. No.2 List of multi-component formulation estimated by UV-visible spectrophotometer with respective reported references. Sr. diphenhydronon HCl and 18 guaiphenesin Respiratory System 24 . hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol CVS 10 5 Amlodipine besylate and enalapril maleate CVS 11 6 Amlodipine besylate and lisinopril CVS 12 7 Amlodipine besytale and lisinopril CVS 13 8 Amoxycillin and probencid Antiinfective 14 9 Amoxycillin. acetaminophen and ascorbic acid NSAID 18 13 Atenolol and nefedipine CVS 19 14 Benazepril and amlodipine besylate CVS 20 15 Benazepril and hydrochlorthiazide CVS 21 16 Benhexol HCl and trifluperazine HCl Respiratory System 22 17 Bromohexine HCl and pseudo ephedrine HCl Respiratory System 23 Bromohexin HCl. NO.110 GlimeprideandPioglitozone Antidibetics 111 Simvastin and Nicotinic acid Hypolipid 112 Atrovastine and Aspirin Hypolipid 113 Eicosapentacnoic acid and Decosahexaenoic acid Hypolipid Eicosapentacnoic acid and Decosahexaenoic acidand A-tocopreryl 114 acetated Hypolipid Drugs used in 115 Ibuprofen and colchicine gout Allergy & 116 Chlorphenaramine maleateand Trithioparamethoxy phenyl propene Immunology 117 Lidocain and Prilocain Anaesthetics Table. 1 Acetyl salicylic acid. Combination of drugs Therapeutic Use Ref.

diclofenic sodium and paracetamol NSAID 36 31 Chlordiazepoxide and clindinium bromide Antipsycotic 37 32 Chloroxazone and paracetamol NSAID 38 33 Chlorthalidone and spironolactone CVS 39 34 Chlorzoxasone and nimesulide NSAID 40 35 Chlorzoxazone and nimusalide NSAID 41 36 Chlorzoxazone and nimuselide NSAID 42 37 Cinnarizine and domperidone GIT 43 Dextromethorphen hydrobromide and Bromohexine 38 HCl Respiratory System 44 39 Diazepam and pyridoxine Antipsycotic 45 40 Diclofenic sodium. riboflavin and pyridoxal Multivitamine 54 . dextromethorphen hydrobromide 20 and chlorphenaramine malate Respiratory System 26 21 Captopril and hydrochlorthiazid CVS 27 22 Captopril and hydrochlorthiazide CVS 28 23 Cefadoxil and ambroxal Antiinfective 29 24 Cefelexin and probencid Antiinfective 30 25 Cefuroxime axetil and probencid Antiinfective 31 26 Cehpalexine and probencid Antiinfective 32 27 Cetrizine and pseudoephedrine HCl Respiratory System 33 Chloramphinicol and dexamethasone sodium 28 phosphate Antiinfective 34 29 Chloraxazone and paracetamol NSAID 35 30 Cloraxazone. thiamine.19 Bromohexine HCl and pseudo ephedrine HCl Respiratory System 25 Bromohexine HCl. paracetamol and chlormerzonone NSAID 46 41 Diloxamide furoate and tinidazole Antiinfective 47 42 Dilxamide furoate and tinidazole Antiinfective 48 43 Dipyryone and caffeine 49 44 Doclofenic sodium and paracetamol NSAID 50 45 Domperidon and omeprazole GIT 51 46 Dopamine and ephedrine Antipsycotic 52 47 Ethniyl estradiol and levonorgestral Endocrine System 53 48 Folic acid.

49 Gliclazide and metformin HCl Antidibetics 55 50 Glipizide and metformine Antidibetics 56 51 Hydrochlorothiazide and lasarton potassium CVS 57 52 Hydrochlorothiazide and metoprolol CVS 58 Hydrochlorthiazide and amiloride HCl or with 53 spironolactone CVS 59 54 Ibuprofen and chlorzoxane NSAID 60 55 Ibuprofen and methocarbamol NSAID 61 56 Imipramine HCl and Diazepam Antidepressant 62 57 Letofylline and theophylline Respiratory System 63 58 Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide CVS 64 59 Losarton potassium and amlodipine CVS 65 60 Losarton potassium and hydrochlorthiazide CVS 66 61 Mebendazole and pyrantel pomate Antiinfective 67 62 Meclozine HCl and nicotinic acid Antidebetics 68 63 Medazepam and hyoscine butylbromide 69 64 Mefenamic acid and paracetamol NSAID 70 65 Melatonin-pyridoxine Endocrine System 71 66 Metoprolol and hydrothiazide Antidibetics 72 67 Metranidazole and nalidix acid Antiinfective 73 68 Metronidazole and norfloxacin Antiinfective 74 69 Nalidixic acid and metronidazole Antiinfective 75 70 Nalidixic acid and metronidazole Antiinfective 76 71 Nimesulide and chlorzaxasone NSAID 77 72 Nimesulide and chlorzaxasone NSAID 78 73 Nimesulide and diclofenic sodium NSAID 79 74 Nimesulide and tizanidine HCl NSAID 80 75 Norfloxacin and tinidazole Antiinfective 81 76 Norfloxacin and tinidazole Antiinfective 82 77 Norfloxacin and tinidazole Antiinfective 83 Noscopine. chlorphenaramine maleate and ephedrine 78 HCl Respiratory System 84 .

pyrizinamide and isoniazide Antiinfective 103 98 Rifampicin. pyrizinamide and isoniazide Antiinfective 102 97 Rifampicin. dexbrompheniramine 92 melete and loratadine Respiratory System 98 93 Pseudo mefanamic acid and paracetamol NSAID 99 94 Pyridoxal . pyrizinamide and isoniazide Antiinfective 104 99 Rifampicin and isoniazide Antiinfective 105 100 Rifampicin and isoniazide Antiinfective 106 101 Rifampicin and isoniazide Antiinfective 107 102 Rifampicin and isoniazide Antiinfective 108 103 Salbutamol and Bromohexine HCl Respiratory System 109 104 Salbutamol and etofyllin Respiratory System 110 105 Salbutamol and thiophyline Respiratory System 111 106 Secnidazole and lansoprozole Antiinfective 112 107 Secobarbital sodium and amobarbital sodium Antipsycotic 113 . chlorphenaramine malate and 86 dextromethorphen hydrobromide Respiratory System 92 87 Propranolol HCl and hydrochlorthiazide CVS 93 88 Propranolol HCl-diazepam CVS 94 89 Pseudo ephedrine HCl and ibuprofen NSAID 95 Pseudo ephedrine HCl. pyridoxamine and pyridoxic acid Multivitamine 100 95 Pyridoxine HCl and metformin HCl Antidebetics 101 96 Rifampicin. dextromethorphen 91 hydrobromide and chlorphenaramine malate Respiratory System 97 Pseudo ephedrine sulphate. 79 Oflaxacine and tinidazole Antiinfective 85 80 Pantoprozole and domperidone GIT 86 81 Paracetamol and chlorzaxasone NSAID 87 82 Paracetamol and mefenamic acid NSAID 88 83 Paracetamol and nemuselide NSAID 89 84 Pefloxacine and metrinidazole Antiinfective 90 Phynyl propanalamine. chlorphenaramine and 85 Bromohexine HCl Respiratory System 91 Phynyl propanalamine. and dextromethorphen 90 hydrobromide Respiratory System 96 Pseudo ephedrine HCl.

NO. bromohexine HCL and 113 guaiphenesin Respiratory System 119 114 Tinidazole and clotrimazole Antiinfective 120 115 Tinidazole and norfloxacin Antiinfective 121 116 Tinidazole and ofloxacine Antiinfective 122 117 Tinidazole. Sr. No. dextrapropoxyphen and 1 oxyphenbutaszone Respiratory System 139 . Acetaminophen. 108 Spiranolatone and frusemide Diuretics 114 Spironalactne with hydrochlorthaizide and 109 spironalactne with frusemide Diuretics 115 110 Sulfamethoxazole Antiinfective 116 111 Sulfaquinozaline. doloxanide furoate and furazolidone Antiinfective 123 118 Tinidazole. Combination of drugs Therapeutic Use Ref. furazolidine and diloxamide furate Antiinfective 124 119 Triamterene and hydrochlorthiazide CVS 125 120 Trianidine and ibuprofen NSAID 126 121 Trimethoprim and norfloxacin Antiinfective 127 122 Tripolidine HCl and pseudoephedrine HCl Respiratory System 128 123 Triprolidine HCl and phenyl propalamine HCl Respiratory System 129 124 Triprolidine HCl and Pseudoephedrine HCl Respiratory System 130 125 Pseudoephedrine HCl and cetrizine Respiratory System 131 126 Nimusalide and paracetamol NSAID 132 127 Pseudoephedrine HCl and cetrizine Respiratory System 133 128 Nimusalide and diclofenic sodium NSAID 134 129 Gliclazide and rasiglitazone Antidebetics 135 130 Ornidaole and norfloxacine Antiinfective 136 131 Metformine HCl and glinepride Antidebetics 137 132 Amoxicillin trihyderate and metrinidazole Antiinfective 138 Table-3 List of multi-component formulation estimated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with respective reported references. sulfamethzine and pyrimethamine Antiinfective 117 112 Terbutaline sulfate and guaiphenesin Respiratory System 118 Terbutaline sulfate.

caffeine and prophyphenazone NSAID 167 . phnyl praopalamine HCL and 10 Chlorphenaramine meleate Respiratory System 148 11 Caffeine and paracetamol NSAID 149 12 Ceprofloxacin and tinidazole Antiinfective 150 13 Ciprofloxacin HCl and tinadazole Antiinfective 151 14 Ciprofloxacin HCl and tinidazole Antiinfective 152 Codeine phosphate. pseudoephedrine HCl and 22 dextromethorphen hydrobromide Respiratory System 160 23 Hydrochlorthaizide and losartan potassium CVS 161 24 Ibuprofen and dextromethorphen HCl NSAID 162 25 Lavnivudine and zidovudine Antiinfective 163 26 Metranidazole. paracetamol and chlormerzonone NSAID 155 18 Diloxanide furoate and tinidazole Antiinfective 156 19 Ethniyl estradiol and levonorgestral Endocrine System 157 20 Frusimide and spironolactone CVS 158 21 Guaifenesin and codeine phosphate Respiratory System 159 Guaifenesine.butalbital NSAID 145 8 Bromohexine HCl and Cephalexine Respiratory System 146 Bromohexine HCl and methyl and propyl hydroxybenzote and determianation dextromethorphen 9 hydrobromide Respiratory System 147 Bromohexine HCl. clotimazole and chlorhexidne acetate Antiinfective 164 27 Nimuselide and camplofine NSAID 165 28 Norfloxacin and metranidazole Antiinfective 166 29 Paracetamol.butalbital and acetaminophen 7 -caffeine. ephedrine HCl and 15 chlorphenaramine maleate Respiratory System 153 16 Dextromethorphen and pseudo ephedrine Respiratory System 154 17 Diclofenic sodium. 2 Amilodipin and atenolol CVS 140 3 Amitriptyline HCl and chlordiozepoxide Antidepressant 141 4 Amlodipine and benazepril CVS 142 5 Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid Antiinfective 143 6 Anti-histaminic multi component Respiratory System 144 Aspirin-caffeine.

Paracetamol. E. Sr. paracetamol 15 and caffeine Respiratory System 193 . probencid and tinidazole Antiinfective 183 6 Ampicilline and probencid Antiinfective 184 7 Cefazoline and cefotoxime Antiinfective 185 8 Cefelexine and trimethoprim Antiinfective 186 9 Ceprofloxacine and arnidazole Antiinfective 187 10 Cetrizine and pseudo ephedrine HCl Respiratory System 188 Chlophenaramine meleate. chlorphenaramine maleate. and D3 Multivitamine 178 Table-4 List of multi-component formulation estimated by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with respective reported references. 30 phenylepherine and caffeine NSAID 168 31 Propylphenazone and ketoprophen 169 Pyridoxine HCl. NO. Combination of drugs Therapeutic Use Ref. bromohexine and guaiphenesine Respiratory System 173 36 Terbutaline. No 1 Amlodipine and benazepril CVS 179 2 Amlodipine and losarton potassium CVS 180 3 Amoxicillin and clavulanate Antiinfective 181 4 Amoxycillin and clavulanate potessium Antiinfective 182 5 Amoxycillin. phenylepherine HCl and 11 caffeine and acetaminophen Respiratory System 189 12 Cinnarizine and domperidone GIT 190 13 Ciprofloxacin and tinadazole Antiinfective 191 14 Codine phosphate and chlorphenaramine maleate Respiratory System 192 Codine phosphate. nephazoline nitrate. chlorpheniramine 32 meleate and panthenol Respiratory System 170 33 Sodium cromoglycate and salbutamol sulfate Respiratory System 171 34 Terbutaline sulfate and guaiphenesin Respiratory System 172 35 Terbutaline. guaiphenesin and ambroxol Respiratory System 174 37 Theophylline and Phenobarbital Antipsycotic 175 38 Thiophylline and guaifenesin Respiratory System 176 39 Trihexyphenidyl HCl and chlorpromazine HCl Respiratory System 177 40 Vitamin A. doxylamine succinate.

ibuprofen and paracetamol NSAID 208 31 Nicotinic acid and meclozine HCl 209 32 Nimesulide and diclofenic sodium NSAID 210 33 Nimesulide and Tizanidine HCl NSAID 211 34 Nimuselide and chlorzoxazone NSAID 212 35 Norfloxacin and ornidazole Antiinfective 213 36 Ofloxacin and tinidazole Antiinfective 214 37 Ornidaole and ofloxacine Antiinfective 215 38 Paracetamol and Chlormezonon NSAID 216 39 Paracetamol and nimesulide NSAID 217 40 Paracetamol. Dextropropoxyphen HCl. cetrizine diHCl and 42 acetaminophen Respiratory System 220 43 Picglitazone and metformine Antidebetics 221 44 Pseudoephedrine HCl and loratidine HCl Respiratory System 222 Pseudoephedrine HCl. prothionamide and pyrizinamide 205 28 Metformine HCl and pigglitazone Antidibetics 206 29 Methocarbamol and nimuselide NSAID 207 30 Methocarbamol. p-chlrophenol and thymol Respiratory System 195 18 Domperidon and omeprazole GIT 196 19 Doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine HCl GIT 197 20 Fexofenadine HCl and pseudoephedrine sulphate Respiratory System 198 21 Flucanozole. diclofenic sodium and 16 paracetamol Respiratory System 194 17 Domamethasone. dextromethorphen 45 hydrobromide and triprolidone HCl Respiratory System 223 . metranidazole and choramphinicol Antiinfective 199 22 Gilendsmine and metformineHCl Antidibetics 200 23 Gliclazide and metformine HCl Antidibetics 201 24 Glipiozide and metformine HCl Antidibetics 202 25 Glipizide and metformine Antidibetics 203 26 Lasartan potassium and hydrochlothiazide CVS 204 27 Lomefloxacine HCl. ibuprophen and methocarbamol NSAID 218 41 Paracetomol and nemuselide NSAID 219 Phenylpropanolamine HCl.

NO. Sr. salicylamide. trihexylphenidyl HCl and 10 chlorpromazine HCl Respiratory System 243 11 Amlodipin and benazepril HCl CVS 244 Table-6 List of multi-component formulation estimated by gas chromatography (GC) with respective reported references. diclofenic and paracetamol NSAID 232 55 Simvastine and nicotinic acid Multivitamine 233 Table-5 List of multi-component formulation estimated by reversed phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) with respective reported references. NO. phenyltoloxamine NSAID 245 2 Benazepril HCl and hydrochlorthaizide CVS 246 . No.methionone Endocrine System 239 7 Methocarbamol and nimesulide NSAID 240 8 Paracetamol and mefanamic acid NSAID 241 9 Pseudoephedrine sulphate and laratadine Respiratory System 242 Rifluoperazine HCl. 46 Pyrantel pomoate and mebendazole Antiinfective 224 47 Ramipril and amlodipine CVS 225 48 Ramipril and hydrochlorothiazide CVS 226 49 Ranitidine HCl and domperidom GIT 227 50 Sertraline and alprozalam Antipsycotic 228 51 Tinidazole and furozolidine Antiinfective 229 52 Tizanidine and nimesulide NSAID 230 53 Triamterene and xipamide 231 54 Trianidine. Combination of drugs Therapeutic Use Ref. 1 Cephalexin acid cefadoxil Antiinfective 234 2 Cinnarzine and domperidon maleate GIT 235 3 Gliclazide and metformine HCl Antidibetics 236 4 Gidazide and rosiglitazone Antidibetics 237 5 Lignocaine and phenylephrine HCl Respiratory System 238 6 L-lysine HCl and DL. 1 Acetaminophen. No. Sr. Combination of drugs Therapeutic Use Ref.

G. Daharwal did his masters degree from Dept. (India) E- mail:daharwalresearch@rediffmail. Raipur. Raipur. R. S. Gopal Garg has nearly 2 years of research and teaching experience. Raipur. Presently. (C. S. of Pharmacy. His research interest extends from analytical methods. Gour Mr. Saraf and Swarnlata Saraf * Mr.) . He is a hard working researcher. G. He has over 12 publications to his credit published in international and national journals.J. 3 Codeine and ethyl morphine HCl Respiratory System 247 4 Diclofenic sodium and chlorzoxazone NSAID 248 5 Fluoxetine. Pt. Mr . of Pharmacy. Daharwal*. S. SAGAR. of Nagpur University.G. Saudagar. 492 010. Ravishankar Shukla University. Dr. he is working as a Lecturer at Institute of Pharmacy Pt. His research interest extends from Analytical technique to phytochemical estimation. (C.) Institute of Pharmacy. Drug synthesis and computer added drug designing. Daharwal has nearly 15 years of research and teaching experience. Garg. he is working as a Lecturer at Institute of pharmacy Pt. fluvoxamine and clomipramine Antipsycotic 249 6 Guaifenesin. Garg did his masters degree from Dept. He is a hard working researcher . Ravishankar Shukla University. B. pseudoephedrine and dextromethorphan Respiratory System 250 7 Oxybenzone and octylmethoxy cinnamate Antiinfective 251 About Authors S. Ravishankar Shukla University. Mr. H. Presently. J. He has over 7 publications to his credit published in international and national journals.

Her research interest extends from Herbal Cosmetics to transdermal drug delivery (Iontiphoresis). Dr. level. She has over 40 publications to her credit published in international and national journals.G. S. Saraf has nearly 17 years of research and teaching experience at U. His research interest extends from analytical methods. Dr. R.APTI and ISTE. Saudagar has nearly 10 years of research and teaching experience. Gour University.G. New Drug Delivery Systems for biological therapeutic agents. Raipur . SAGAR. Gour University. Ravishankar Shukla University.) Saraf did her doctoral research at the Dept. of Pharmacy.Raipur. (Mrs. She is a leading scientist and well-known in the field of herbal Cosmetics. B. He has delivered invited lectures and chaired many sessions in several National Conferences and Symposia in India. of SGSITS Indore. (C. Presently. Prof. (C. H.G. He is a leading scientist and well-known academician . Raipur.) Reviews . New Drug Delivery Systems with biotechnology bias. His research interest extends from Herbal Cosmetics to Herbal drug standardization Modern analytical techniques. (in press). and P. Presently She is working as a Reader at Institute of pharmacy Pt. E-mail: shailendrasaraf@rediffmail. of Pharmacy. S. Ravishankar Shukla University.(C. Mr Saudagar did his masters degree from Dept. Drug synthesis.Mr. of Pharmacy.G. H. She is an active member of IPA . He has authored 1 books. SAGAR. S.). Saraf did his doctoral research at the Dept. he is Professor and Director Institute of pharmacy and Dean. He has over 50 research publications to his credit published in international and national journals. Presently. Ravishankar Shukla University . Dr. Swarnlata Saraf has nearly 14 years of research and teaching experience. he is working as a Lecturer at Institute of Pharmacy Pt. (Mrs). Faculty of Technology. in press. Prof.). Pt. She has Co-authored 1 books. He has over 5 publications to his credit published in international and national journals.

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