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T ABLE OF C ONTENT

Pages
Introduction
1
Objectives 2

Unit I THE SHAKING


3 Introduction and Objectives
4 About Earthquake
5 Definition of Earthquake
5 Causes of
Earthquake 6 What is a
Fault? 7
Reverse Faults 7
Normal Faults 8
Strike – Slip Faults
8
Tectonic Earthquakes 9
Volcanic Earthquakes 9
Self-Assessment Questions
10 Answers to the Self-Assessment Question
12 Bibliography
13
Unit II THE EFFECTS 14
Introduction and Objectives
15 Effects of Earthquake
16 Ground shaking and Landslides
16 Seismic seiches
17 Fire
18 Land Shifts
and scarps 18 Water
changes 18
Tsunami 19 Self-
Assessment Questions 20
Answers to the Self-Assessment Questions
21 Bibliography
22
Unit III MEASURING EARTHQUAKE 24
Introduction and Objectives
25 Seismograph
26 Seismic waves
26 Types of Seismic
Waves 27 Body
waves 27
Surface waves 27
Types of Body Waves 28
Primary waves
28 Secondary waves
28 Types of Surface Waves
29 L waves
29
Rayleigh waves 29
Determining the location of an Earthquake
30
Intensity vs. Magnitude 32

Self-Assessment Questions
33 Answers to the Self-Assessment Questions
34 Bibliography
35
Unit IV PREDICTING AND PREPARING FOR AN
EARTHQUAKE 36
Introduction and Objectives
37 Earthquake Predictions
38 Statistical Data
38 Seismic Gaps
38 Earthquake
Phenomena 39
Seismicity 39
Subsidence and Uplift 39
Water levels in wells 40
Geomagnetism
40 Strains
41 Radon content of ground
water 41 Animal Behavior
42
Earthquake Preparations
43
Before an earthquake 43
During an earthquake
45 After an earthquake
47
Self-Assessment Questions 49
Answers to the Self-Assessment Questions
50 Bibliography
51
Glossary
52