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In the following course we will examine communication by electrical signals. In the past message have been carried by  Runners  Carrierpigeons  Drum beats  Torches The examples of electronic communication are  Teleshopping  Telebanking .

Transmitter 4. Receiver 6. Output Transducer . Source 2. Channel 5. Input Transducer 3.Communication System A communication system is based on the following components 1.

Input Transducer: If the data is non-electrical then we require a device which should convert this data into electrical waveform referred to as baseband signal or message signal. The device which performs this is called the input transducer.1. 2. etc.Source: The device which originates a message or data is called a source for example human voice. . a television picture.

The examples of the channel are  Wire  coaxial cable  a waveguide  an optical fiber  a radio link.Transmitter: The transmitter modifies the baseband signal for efficient transmission 4. .Channel: The channel is a medium through which the transmitter output is sent.3.

6.Output Transducer:  it converts the electrical signal to its original form. The task of the receiver is to extract a message from a distorted and noisy signal at the channel output.Receiver: The receiver is a device which reprocesses the signal received from the channel by undoing the signal modifications at the transmitter and the channel. .5.

Transmitted Received Output Signal Signal Signal Input Output message Input Output Message Transmitter channel Receiver transducer Transducer Distortion and noise . .

There are two classifications of noise  1.Noise  Any unwanted signal is called noise. and diffusion etc.  Noise is one of the basic factors that sets limit on the rate of transmission.Internal Noise  With proper care external noise can be minimized or even eliminated. .External Noise  2.  Internal noise results from thermal motion of electrons in conductors. random emission. proper care can reduce the internal noise but can never eliminate it.

Analog messages are characterized by data whose value varies over a continuous range. Regenerative Repeaters: .Analog and Digital Messages Digital message are constructed with a finite number of symbols.