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Four Fold
Article: Theres Only Ethics
By: Rushworth M. Kidder
Theme: Ethics is essential to survival in the 21
century. Such ideas as business, medical, or legal
ethics do not exist. There is only ethics, which need to apply in all ways and across the board in all
aspect of your life both professionally and personally.
Assertion 1: e will not survive the 21
!. with
ethics of 2"
Assertion : e are not in good shape to
promote the change to the 21
Assertion !: Ethical relativism. There are no
absolutes, no common values and no set of moral
ideas that can be shared. Ethics are situational,
negotiable, fluid and personal.
Key "oints:
# The point$ the scale of our technology is
leveraging out ethics in ways we have never seen
in the past.
% &ew phenomenon
# 'll rises in structure to apex % one or two
decision ma(ers ) their conscience directly
determines the use of the system.
# !hernobyl small to scale of 21
# Something significant must change.
# See some indicators$ *""+ increase in stories
with word ,ethic-
# *. to now /"+ public say important moral
#'re we doing anything about it0
# Tal(ing to the people managing our pension we
see cheaters, corruption and deceit as ways to get
# There is no authority of truth beyond myself.
hose fault0 The (ids0
# 's( who should impose values on a child0
12ound wallet3
# 4uestion then$ ho-s ethics do we teach0
# e no longer believe in absolutes and
constants. 15 disagree3
# Exception$ stealing0
# Teachers0 hat are their roles0
# 6ust recogni7e that there is a set of core values
that should be taught8888
#9efinition of Ethics 1$ :;bedience to the
# ;ur choice is to be regulated or to regulate
ourselves. 1Li(e being a parent=no rules until
needed or child can-t regulate themselves3
# 9efinition 2$ >attle of right vs. wrong ) This is
clear and easy but what happens when it is right
vs. right0
= 5nteresting to thin( that there is no such thing
as business, medical, or legal ethics, there is only
ethics. This ma(es sense. 1" commandments0
This could answer the ?uestion of whose ethics
we teach.
='s teachers this is doable however parents,
district and @rovince would need buy in.
Something needs to be done.
= The choice is to be regulated or regulate our
selves. This 5 say to my children every day. Aou
have no rules until you need help regulating
= ;ur ethics then must apply in all ways and
across the board in all aspect of your life both
professional and personal. Even when the
waitress forgot to include the wine on your bill
and it would have saved us lots of money.
= ' strong ethic foundation will help when
battling decisions between right and right..
Four Fold
Article: Resolution "rinci$les
By: Rushworth M. Kidder
Theme: Tough choices. 9uc(ed or addressed we have tough choices we faced daily but it is our
principle that will drive the decision we ma(e. Bsing three principles for resolving dilemmas along
with articulating the reasoning the developed logic will yield a result.
Key "oints:
=Cournalism gone wrong, highly dangerous ;D
impels constructive change0
=Editor (nows community vs. covering stories
with impartiality=Truth %s. &oy'lty
=@rocess begins with gathering information
=Then see( alternatives that might point around
the dilemma
=&ow time for moral principle to guide
Three @rinciples for resolving dilemmas$
1. 9o what-s best for the greater number of
people 1end-s based thin(ing3
2. 2ollow you highest sense of principle
1rule=based thin(ing3
E. 9o what you want other to do to you
1care=based thin(ing3
;ften we use one more than others
=5f forced to articulate the reasoning, will used
logic developed from one of the @rinciples.
End()'sed thin*in+: ,Btilitarianism- 1result of
action not motive behind action3
='ssesses the conse?uences or ends of the action
=!onse?uentialism$ right and wrong can be
determined by assessing conse?uences or
='ct utilitarianism 1what action maximi7es good3
and rule utilitarianism 1rule that will bring
greatest benefit3
=>oth wedded, to assessment of conse?uences$
what happens will eventually present right
=!onsider both$ the greatest good and the
greatest number )humans not good at either8
'lways unforeseen conse?uences8
@roblem$ 5neffective sometimes ie$ babies for
Rule()'sed thin*in+: 9oes not as( about
outcomes but rather about obligation in
performing it.
=!ategorical imperative$ universal principles of
action ;D an action done from duty
=>ased on the ethical principle used to determine
what to do not the outcome
='ct in accordance to whatever law we would
li(e everyone to follow
@roblem$ 5mpossibly strict ie$ (eep all promises
vs prevent (illing
=2ocus is not on the conse?uence but on the rule
,'re()'sed thin*in+: Folden ruleG do un to
=5magine yourself as an obHect rather than the
agent. !onsult your own feelings as to result.
=Sets limits to actions and encourages to promote
the interest of others.
@roblem$ too simplistic to be a supreme moral
principle and some difficulty in determining the
most relevant ,other-.
=Truth vs. loyalty how do we choose0
= >eing properly informed is so important or you
loo( li(e the 'SSB6ED8
=There are three principles for resolvingG whether
end=based 1result3, rule=based 1the rule3 or care=
based 1interest of other3 thin(ing, can facilitate
decision ma(ing which will be very useful. 1@ut
up to be seen in office83
=e tend to favor one methodology so reflecting
is important. Trying it home has proven
= hen presented with a right vs. right dilemma
wor(ing through each of the three principles and
articulating the reasoning will facilitate the