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MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES

1 B

UNIT # 8
TYPES GOVERNOR
OF
GOVERNOR
1-Centrefugal GOVERNOR
It consists of two balls of mass which are
attached to the mass as shown in figure.

ARM

SPINDL
FLY-BALL
E

FLY-BALL
S

LINK

SLEEVE

S

THROTTLE VALVE
BAVEL GEAR

These balls are known as governor balls and fly balls. The balls revolve with
a spindle which is driven by the engine through bevel gears. The upper end
of the arm are pivoted to the spindle, so that the balls may rise up or fall
down as the revolve about the vertical axis. The arms connected by the links
to a sleeve which is keyed to the spindle. This sleeve revolves with the

MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES
2
spindle but can slide up and down. The balls and sleeve rises when the
spindle speed increases and falls when the speed decreases. In order to limit
the travel of a sleeve in up word and down word directions, two stops s,s are
provided on the spindle. The sleeve is connected by a ball crank lever to a
throttle valve. The supply of working fluids decreases when the sleeve rises
and increases when falls.
When the load on the engine increases the engine and governor speed
decreases. This results in the decreases of centrifugal forces on the balls.
Hence the ball move in words and the sleeve moves down words. The down
word movement of the sleeve operates a throttle valve at the other end of the
ball crank lever to increase the supply of working fluid and thus the engine
speed is increased. In this case the extra power output is provided to balance
the increased load.
When the load on the engine decreases, the engine of the g speed
increase which results in the increase of centrifugal force on the balls. Thus
the balls move outward and the sleeve rise upwards. This upwards
movement of the sleeve reduces the supply of working fluid and hence the
speed is decreased. In this case the power output is reduced.

WATT GOVERNOR
The simplest form of centrifugal governor is Watt g is
shown in figure.

It is basically a conical pendulum with links attached to a sleeve of
negligible mass. The arms of governor may be connected to the spindle is
following for three ways.
1. The pivot ‘P’ may be on spindle axis as shown in the figure (a).
2. The pivot ‘P’ may be offset from the spindle axis and the arms
when produced intersect at ‘O’ as in figure ‘b’.
The point ‘P’ may be offset but the arms cross the axis at ‘o’ as shown in
figure ‘c’.

h1= 895 / N h1=895 / 60 h1= 0.m.81/(2πN/ 60) [9.MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 3 Let .m.81/(2πN/ 60) ] h = 895 / N m [9.81 m/s ] h = 9.p.p. Now the balls in equilibrium under the action of 1. QUESTION # 1 Calculate the vertical height of a watt governor . Tension of arm (T) 3. links and the sleeve are negligible as compared to the weight of the balls.008 m Ans. It is the assumed that the weight of the arms.h2 = 0. . Centrifugal force (fc) 2.m.also . Weight of ball (w) Taking moment about “O” Fc × h = w × r m w r × h = mg × r w ×h=g h=g/w [w = 2πN/ 60] [g = 9.81 / (4 × 9. When it rotates at 60 r.240 = 0. Find the change in vertical height when its speed increases to 61 r.m. m = Mass of ball W = Weight of ball T = Tension in arm r = Radius fc = Centrifugal force h = Height of governor w = Angular velocity N = Spindle r.248 – 0.p.240 mm Change vertical height = h1.248 mm h2= 895 / (61) h2= 0.p.8696 N/ 3600)] N = Spindle r.

Thos additional down word force increases the speed of revolution required to enable the ball to rise to any predetermined level . . h = Height of governor in meters. w = Angular speed of balls in rad. The load moves up and down the central spindle. / sec. Let m = Mass of each ball in kg.MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 4 PORTER GOVERNOR The porter governor is a modification of a watt governor with central load attached to the sleeve as shown below. = 2πN/ 60 rad. = Mg r = Radius of rotation in meters. Consider the force acting on one – half of the governor as shown below. w or mg = Weight of each ball in Newton = mg M = Weight of central load in kg. / sec Fc = Centrifugal force acting on each ball in Newton = mw r T1 = Tension in the arm in Newton .

The following two methods are important from subject point of view . Tension in arms. T2 cos β = W / 2 T2 cos β = Mg / 2 T2 = Mg / 2 cos β (1) Again considering the equilibrium of forces acting on ‘B’. Resolving the forces vertically. IV. 1.Mg / 2 . 1. tan β / tanα Substituting. There are several ways of determining the relation between the height of governor (h) and the angular speed of the balls (w).tan β (3) Dividing eg (3) by eg (2). α = Angle of inclination of the arm to the vertical. T1 cosα = T2 cos β + W T1 cosα = mg + Mg / 2 (2) Resolving the forces horizontally . T1 sinα = Fc . . T1 sinα + T2 sin β = Fc T1 sinα = Mg / 2 cos β .Mg / 2 .MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 5 T2 = Tension in the link in Newton . Centrifugal force. Method of relation of forces: Considering the equilibrium of forces acting at ‘D’ we have. II. Method of relation of forces. 2.tan β T1 cosα = mg + Mg / 2 (mg + Mg / 2) tanα = Fc – Mg / 2. The ‘B’is in equilibrium under the action of the following forces.tan β = Fc T1 sinα = Fc . sin β = Fc T1 sinα + Mg / 2 . tan β mg + Mg / 2 = Fc / tanα . I. III. Weight of the ball. Instantaneous centre method. Tension in the link. β = Angle of inclination of the link to the vertical.Mg / 2 .

44 N / 3600 = [m + M / 2 (1 + q)] / m × 9. tanα = r / h mg + Mg / 2 = m . tanα = tan β q = tanα / tan β = 1 There equation (5) be comes.Mg / 2 .w .h [m + M / 2 (1 + 2)g] / m . Find the minimum and maximum speed and range of speed of the governor.Mg / 2 .h .w .w h = [m + M / 2 (1 + q)] / m = g / w (4) w = [m + M / 2 (1 + q)] / m × g / h (2πN/ 60) = [m + M / 2 (1 + q)] / m × g / h 39.w .h / m . Each ball has a mass of 5kg and the mass of load on the sleeve is 15kg.w = m .h / r . N = [m + M ] / m × 895 / h (6) QUESTION # 2 A porter governor has equal arms each 250 mm long and pivoted on the axis of rotation.81 / h 3600 × 39. q mg + Mg / 2 + Mg / 2 . q = m .44 N = [m + M / 2 (1 + q)] / m × 895 / h N = [m + M / 2] / m × 895 / h (5) When the length of arms are equal to the length and the points ‘P’ and ‘D’ lie on the same vertical line then .44 N = [m + M / 2 (1 + q)] / m × 35316 / h 39.MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 6 tan β / tanα = q .44 = [m + M / 2 (1 + q)] / m × 35316 / h × 39.w .44 N / 3600 = [m + M / 2 (1 + q)] / m × 9. the radius of rotation of the ball is 150 mm.h mg + Mg / 2(1 + q) = m .81 / h × 3600 39.w . .r. q mg + Mg / 2 = m .44 N / 29.r. When the governor being to lift and 200 mm when the governor is at maximum speed.

m.25 m m = 5kg M = 15 kg r1 = 150 mm = 0.15 (N2) = 4 × 5966.15m r2 = 200 mm = 0.p.2 (N1) = 4 × 4475 N1 = √ 17900 N1 = 133.79 .5 – 133.p.MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 7 BP = BD = 250 mm =0.67 N2 = 154. Range of increase of speed = N2 .(200) h2 = 150 mm h2 = 0.(150) h1 = 200 mm h1 = 0.N1 = 154.67 N2 = √ 23866.15 m (N1) = m + M / m × 895 / h1 h1 = √ (250) .15 m (N2) = m + M / m × 895 / h2 (N2) = 5 + 15 / 5 × 895 / 0.2 m (N1) = m + M / m × 895 / h1 (N1) = 5 + 15 / 5 × 895 / 0.79 r.5 r.m. For maximum speed (N2) = m + M / m × 895 / h2 h2 = √ (250) .2m For minimum speed when r1 = BG = 0.

m.67 N2 =√ 41766.15 m (N2) = m + M / m × 895 / h2 (N2) = 5 + 30 / 5 × 895 / 0.69 .p.2 m (N1) = 5 + 30 / 5 × 895 / 0. The radius of rotation of ball is 150 mm when the sleeve being to rise and reaches a value of 200 mm maximum speed. (N1) = m + M / m × 895 / h1 h1 = √ (250) . Determine how the speed range is modified.(150) h1 = 200 mm h1 = 0. If the friction of the sleeve is equivalent of 20N load of the sleeve.71 r. (N2) = m + M / m × 895 / h2 h2 = √ (250) .m.2 (N1) = 7 × 4475 N1 = √ 31325 N1 = 176.(200) h2 = 150 mm h2 = 0. Determine the speed of governor. The mass of each ball is 5kg and mass of the central sleeve is 30kg.98 r.p. Question # 3 The arms of porter governor are each 250 mm long and pivoted on the governor axis.MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 8 = 20.15 (N2) = 7 × 5966.

Modified range of speed of governor = N2 .7 (N2) = 7.p.p.p. (N2) = mg + (Mg + F) / mg × 895 / h2 ∴[ For maximum position Friction show be positive] (N2) = 5 × 9.81 + (30 × 9.05 + 274.m.N1 = 204.20) / 5 × 9.12 – 171.m.05 × 4475 (N1) = 6.p.05 × 5966.8 r.81 + 20) / 5 × 9.N1 = 210.m. .12 r.4 × 5966.m. taking friction in to account.98 = 27.3 / 49.3 / 49.81 × 895 / 0.81 + (30 × 9.8 = 38. The mass of the central load is 15kg.36 – 176. F = 20 N (N1) = mg + (Mg – F) / mg × 895 / h1 [ For minimum position Friction show be Minus] (N1) = 5 × 9. the upper and lower arms are 200 mm and 250 mm respectively and pivoted on the axis of rotation.37 r.6 × 4475 N1 = √ 29535 N1 = 171.05 + 274.MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 9 N2 = 204. Range increase speed = N2 .p. When . the arms of each ball is 2kg and friction of the sleeve together with resistance of the operating gear is equal to a load of 24N at the sleeve.81 .38 r. If the linking inclination of the upper arms to the vertical to the 30 degree and 40 degree.05 + 314.58 N2 = 210.05 × 4475 (N1) = 49. Question # 4 In an engine governor of porter type.3 / 49.81 × 895 / 0.15 (N2) = 49.m.2 (N1) = 49. Find range of speed of governor.7 N2 = √44153.36 r.

MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 10 BP = 200 mm = 0.25 m M = 15kg m = 2kg F = 24 N α1 = 30° α2 = 40° Range of speed of governor = n – n = ? For minimum position (N1) = mg + (Mg – F / 2)(1 + q) / mg × 895 / h1 r1 = BG = BP sin30° r1 = 200 × 0.1)² √(DG)² = √0.01 DG =√ 0.(BG)² (DG)² = (0.2 m BD = 250 mm =0.5774 tanβ1 = ? (BD)² = (BG)² + (DG)² (DG)² = (BD)² .0525 DG = 0.(0.250)² .1732 m q1 = tanβ1 / tanα1 tanα1 = tan 30° = 0.0625 – 0.1 m h1 = BP cos 30° h1 = 200 × h1 = 0.5 r1 =100 mm r1 = 0.2291 m tanβ1 = r1 / DG .

64 r2 = 0.839 tanβ2 = r2 / DG tanβ2 = 0.4364 / 0.1732 (N1) = [19.p.4364 q1 = tanβ1 / tanα1 q1 = 0.(0.596 / 0.8] / 19.2 × 0.MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 11 tanβ1 = 0.753)] / 19.5} (1.0625 – 0.153 m (BD)² = (BG)² + (DG)² (DG)² = (BD)² .128 m h2 = BP cos 40° h2= 200 × 0.753)]/ 2 × 9.6 × 5167.81 – 24}/ 2 (1 + 0.6 × 5167.3 √(N1) =√ 33588.6 + 107.6 × 5167.4 / 19.43 (N1) = 127.214 m q2 = tanβ2 / tanα2 tanα2 = tan 40° = 0.1 / 0.01638 DG =√ 0.2146 tanβ2 = 0.250)² .128 / 0.3 r.(BG)² (DG)² = (0.2 × 0.5 × 5167.5774 q1 = 0.2291 tanβ1 = 0.766 h2= 0.64 r2 = 0.04612 DG = 0.839 . For maximum position (N2) = [mg + {Mg + F }/ 2(1 + q2)] / mg × 895 / h2 r2 = BG = BP sin40° r2 = 200 × 0.753 (N1) = [mg + {Mg – F} / 2 (1 + q)] / mg × 895 / h1 (N1) = [2 × 9.43 (N1) = 33588.3 N1 = 183.596 q2 = tanβ2 / tanα2 q2 = 0.128)² √(DG)² = √0.m.81 × 895 / 0.766 h2= 0.81 {15 × 9.43 (N1) = 6.6 + {61.43 (N1) = [19.

04 h1 = 0.250−) ( ) 2 2 h1 = 0.0225 = 0.3 = 41.673 N2 = 224.N1 = 224.2m Now find tan α1 BG 0.0625 − 0. The upper arms are attached on the axis of rotation and lower arms attached to the sleeve at distance of 30mm from the axis.6 × 5849.153 (N2) = [19.6732 (N2) = 8.18 r.m. Problem # 05:- A porter Governor has four arms 250mm long.6 × 5849.753)] / 19.p.6732 (N2) = 169.81 × 895 / 0.7105)] / 2 × 9. Given Data:- BP = 250mm.m. The mass of each ball is 5kg and the sleeve has mass of 50kg.75 h1 0. Range of speed of governor = N2 .65 × 5849.673 √(N2) =√ 50599. ( PG ) ( )− BG ( ) 2 2 2 = BP ( 0.57}(1.94 – 183.81 + 24} / 2(1 + 0.p. 39. M = 50kg Solution:- First we find h1 for minimum speed. BG = 150mm m = 5kg.p.6 + {85.69 r.6732 (N2) = 50599.2 Now find tan β1 .7105 (N2) = [mg + {Mg + F }/ 2(1 + q2)] / mg × 895 / h2 (N2) = [2 × 9.6 + 150] / 19. The external radiuses of rotation are 150mm and 200mm.150 = 0.6732 (N2) = [19.6 / 19.m. Determine the range of speed of the governor.6 × 5849.MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 12 q2 = 0.81 {15 × 9.94 r.15 tan α1 = = = 0.

0144 = 0.547 FD 0.729 tan α1 0.12 tan β1 = = = 0. where r2=0. r.0625 − 0. BF 0.750 PuttingthevaluesinEq .250 ) − ( 0.2 = 207.547 q1 = = = 0.729) 2 895 = × 5 0.0481 = 0.225 895 = × 5 0.75 .2 48.MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 13 ( FD ) = ( BD ) − ( BF ) 2 2 2 ( 0. find the maximum speed.12 ) 2 2 = = 0.2 m .2193 Putting the values of tan α1 & tan β1 in q1 tan β1 0.pm Now.2193 mm Put the value in Eq. M m+ + (1q )1 2 × 895 ( N1 ) = 2 m h 1 50 5 + (1+ 0.

0625 − 0.333 h2 0.15 m Now find tan α 2 r2 0.69) 2 895 47.928 FD 0.75 N 2 − N1 = 30.08 r.17 ) = 0.2 ) 2 2 2 2 2 = 0.333 Putting the values for find the maximum speed.m Now.2 tan α 2 = = = 1. The upper arms are pivoted on the axis of the rotation.0289 2 2 = = 0.04 = 0.83 r.03 5 0. find range of speed . p.1833 Putting the values of tan α 2 & tan β 2 in q2 tan β 2 0. MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 14 ( PG ) = ( BP ) − ( BF ) = ( 0. The lower arms are attached to sleeve at distance of 40mm from axis of rotation.m Problem # 06:- The arms of a porter governor are 300mm long.0225 h2 = 0.69 tan α 2 1. N 2 − N1 = 237.15 5 0.1833 m r 0.25 ) − ( 0.928 q2 = = = 0. p.15 N 2 = 237.42 895 = × = × = 56564. M m+ (1 + q2 ) 2 895 ( N2 ) 2 = × m h2 50 5+ (1 + 0.17 tan β 2 = 2 = = 0. Determine the equilibrium speed when the radius of the rotation of the .15 putting the values for tan β 2 ( FD ) = ( BD ) − ( r2 ) 2 2 2 ( 0.0625 − 0.83 − 207.0336 FD = 0.25 ) − ( 0. The mass of the load on the sleeve is 70kg and mass of each ball is 10kg.

2236 10 0.704 tan α 0.2 ) 2 2 2 2 2 = 0.3) − ( 0.95 r.630 BD 0.8944 Now. F = 20N m = 10kg.64 895 = 2 × = × 10 0. M = 70kg Solution:- Find the value of h ( GP ) = ( BP ) − ( BG ) = ( 0.16 ) 2 2 2 2 2 = 0. If the friction is equitant to a load of 20Nat the sleeve.2236 m BG 0.3) − ( 0.253 m BF 0. Given Data:- BP = BD = 300mm = 0. what will be the range of speed for this position.253 Putting the values of tan α & tan β in q tan β 0.2 tan α = = = 0. .704 ) 895 69. find minimum speed.05 = 0.8944 PG 0. MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 15 balls is 200mm. p.2m.2236 ( FD ) = ( BP ) − ( BF ) = ( 0.3m BG = 200mm = 0.m Now. find average speed of governor M m+ (1 + q ) 2 895 N = 2 × m h 70 10 + ( 1 + 0.2236 = 27874.16 tan β = = = 0.630 q= = = 0.686 = 166.0644 = 0.

81 +  + 10  ( 1 + 0.m Problem # 08:- All arms of a porter governor are 178mm long and are hinged at a distance of 38mm from the axis of rotation.81 +  − 10  ( 1 + 0.81  10 × 9.7 r.m.p. m = 1.81 0.15kg and mass of sleeve is 20kg. p. mg + ( Mg ± F ) 895 ( N2 ) 2 = × mg h  70 × 9.1 0.m Now.1 + (333)(1. find range of speed N 2 − N1 = 169 − 164.2236 N 2 = 169 r. MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 16  Mg  mg +  − F  ( 1+ q)  2  895 ( N1 ) 2 = × mg h  70 × 9. p.m BP = BD = 178mm.704) 895 895 = × = 7. when the links are at angle of 30o to the vertical. Given Data:- M = 20kg.81  10 × 9.704) 895 895 = × = 6. α = β = 300 Solution:- .1 + (353) × (1. Determine the minimum and maximum speed of rotation. The governor sleeve begins to rise at 280 r.137 × 98.25 r. when the inclination of the arms to the vertical is 45o.2236 98.m Now.81 0.704 )  2  895 = × 10 × 9.p.2236 98.2236 N1 = 164.2236 0. N=280 r. Assuming the friction force to be constant. p.704 )  2  895 = × 10 × 9. find maximum speed.7 N 2 − N1 = 4.1 0.2236 0.79 × 98.15kg. The mass of each ball is 1.

m 0.15 × 9.81) × 0. MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 17 r r sin α = ⇒ sin 30o = BP 0.15 × 9.127 Find r.99 ) × 895 ( 1.127 m r 0.51× ⇒ N1 = 123405.48 ± F = 9.178 = 0.41 − 207.22 −  1.99 N α = β = 45o r 0.089 o r = 0.178 r = 0.15 × 9.127 h= ⇒ h = 0. r r sin α = ⇒ sin 45o = BP 0.178 × sin sin 30 = 0.038 ⇒ r = 0.163m = h o .125m + 0.038m = 0.81 + 20 × 9.127 m h h1 tan 45o mg + ( Mg − F ) 895 ( N1 ) 2 = × mg h1 = ( 1.127 tan α = ⇒ tan 45o = ⇒ h1 = = 0.127 tan α = ⇒ tan 30o = h h 0.22m tan 30o mg + ( Mg ± F ) 895 N2 = × mg h N 2 × mg × h ±F = − ( mg + Mg ) 895 ( 280 ) × ( 1.81  2 = 895 ( ) ( ) = 217.01 = 351.089 + 0.127 895 = 17. p.81 − 9.178 r = sin 45 × 0.127 0.81) 0.15 × 9.81) + ( 20 × 9.29 r.

81) 0. Given Data: r1 = 150mm.81) + ( 20 × 9. The mass revolves at a radius of 150mm at minimum speed and at a radius of 200 mm at minimum speed. p. p.163 Now.15 × 9. mg + ( Mg + F ) 895 ( N2 ) 2 = × mg h = ( 1.24 r. Determine the range of speed. All the links are attached to respective sleeve at radial distances of 40mm from the axis of rotation. p.27 × = 325.m 0.29 r. MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 18 Find minimum speed.81) 0.81 − 9. r2 = 200mm m = 3kg .163 895 N1 = 17.163 895 N 2 = 19.m 0.29 − 310.07 r. N 2 − N1 = 325.m Problem # 07:- A loaded porter governor has four links each 250mm long.163 Find maximum speed.15 × 9.15 × 9.99 ) × 895 ( 1.81) + ( 20 × 9.99 ) × 895 ( 1.81 + 9.07 N 2 − N1 = 15. mg + ( Mg − F ) 895 ( N1 ) 2 = × mg h = ( 1. Two revolving masses each of 3kg and a central dead weight of mass 20kg.51× = 310. find range of speed .15 × 9. M = 20kg Solution: .

8329 = 39.15o find minimum speed.708 N 2 = 169.16 ) = 0.99 N 2 − N1 = 19.15 tan α1 = ⇒ h1 = = 0. MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 19 find h1 & α1 .04 N1 = 149.8329 PF 0.240 = 7.m find h2 & α 2 .2 0.15o 0.2 tan α 2 = ⇒ h2 = = 0. p.11) = 0.11 tan α1 = = = 0. p.79o 0. m + M 895 3 + 20 895 ( N1 ) = 2 × = × m h1 3 0.491 = 26.123 r. N 2 − N1 = 169.15 0.192 α 2 = tan −1 0.224 α1 = tan −1 0.167 = 28602.25) − ( 0.67 × 2934.13 r.0369 = 0.16 tan α 2 = = = 0.224m 2 2 = BF 0. ( FP ) = ( BO ) − ( BF ) 2 2 2 ( 0.25) − ( 0. p.305m h1 tan 26.67 × 3729.123 − 149. ( FP ) = ( BO ) − ( BF ) 2 2 2 ( 0.m .79o find maximum speed. find range of speed.0504 = 0.99 r. m + M 895 3 + 20 895 ( N2 ) = 2 × = × m h2 3 0.305 = 7.m Now.46 = 22507.240m h2 tan 39.192m 2 2 = BF 0.491 PF 0.

MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 20 PROELL GOVERNOR W Fc × BM = w × IM + 2 × ID Mg Fc × BM = mg × IM + 2 × (IM + MD) IM Mg  IM MD  Fc = mg × BM + 2  BM + BM    FM  IM Mg  IM MD  Fc = FM mg × BM ÷ 2  BM ÷ BM     FM  IM Mg  IM MD  Fc =  mg × ÷  ÷  BM  FM 2  FM FM  FM  Fc =  mg × tan α ÷ Mg ( tan α ÷ tan β )  BM  2  FM  Mg  tan β  Fc = ×tanα  mg ÷ 1 ÷  BM  2  tan α   Fc = FM ×tanα  mg ÷ Mg (1 ÷ q )  BM  2  r Fc = mw²r . tanα = h tan β q = tan α FM r  Mg  mw²r = ×h mg ÷ 2 (1 ÷ q )  BM   1  mw² = FM × mg ÷ Mg (1 ÷ q )  BM h  2   M  FM mg ÷ 2 (1 ÷ q )  g w² = BM ×  m  h       2πN w = 60 .

MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 21  M   2πN  FM m ÷ 2 (1 ÷q )  g  ² = ×   60  BM  m  h      M  FM m + 2 (1 ÷q )  9.150 2 h1 = √(0.86      M  FM m + 2 (1 ÷q )  895 N2 = BM × m  h       QUESTION # 1 A proell governor has equal arms of length 300 mm. The extension arms of lower links are each 80 mm long and parallel to the axis. The upper and lower ends of the arms are pivoted on the axis of governor.26 m .08 m ( FP ) 2 = ( PG ) 2 + FG 2 (300 ) 2 = h 2 + 150 2 h12 = (300 ) 2 .15)2 h1 = PG = 0.2 m m =10 kg M =100 kg BF = 80 mm = 0. When the radii of rotation of the balls are 150 mm and 200 mm. r1 = 150 mm = . Determine the range of the speed of the governor.81 × 3600 ( ) N2 = ×  ( ) BM  m  h × 4 × 9.3)2 – (0.15 m r2 = 200 mm = 0. the mass of each ball is 10 kg and the mass of central load is 100 kg.150 2 h1 = √ (300 ) 2 .

3)2 – (0.26 m BM = BF + FM BM = 0.736 × 11 × 3995.2)2 h 2 = PG = 0.535 N 22 = 32347.m.3 N12 = 28929 N1 = √ 28929 N1 = 170 r.851 N 2 =180 r.200 2 h 22 = √(0.p.224 + 0.34    10  0.764 × 11 × 3442.p.224 2 N 2 = 0.m.34 m FM  m + M  895 N12 = ×  m  h BM   0.851 N2 =√ 32347.304  10  0. For maximum position ( FP ) 2 = ( PG ) 2 + FG 2 (300 ) 2 = h 22 + 200 2 h 22 = (300 ) 2 .MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 22 FM = PG = GD = 0.224 m BM = h 2 + BF BM = 0.26 10 +100  895 N12 = × 0.26 N12 = 0.p.224 m h 2 = PG = FM = 0.08 BM = 0.m.26 BM = 0.24  10 +100  895 N 22 = ×   0.08 + 0. Question # 2 . RANGE OF THE SPEED = N2 – N1 = 180 .170 = 10 r.200 2 h 22 = √ (300 ) 2 .304 m N 22 = FM ×  m + M  895  m  h2 BM   0.

2 + BF ) = 0.2 + BF (160 ) = 0.m BF = ? BM = FM + BF FM  m + M  895 N12 = FM + BF ×  m  h   0.2 × 39433 .812 ) × 4475 0.2 m N = 160 r.p.2 kg M = 25 kg R = 175 mm = 0.m. Tension of the upper arm. length of the extension link. The central load acting on the sleeve has a mass of 25 kg and each rotating ball has a mass of 3. if the governor speed is 160 r.2 kg. The pivots of the upper and the lower arms are 25 mm from the axis.175 m h = 200 mm = 0.MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 23 A governor of proell type has each arm 250 mm long. m = 3.7 0. when the governor sleeve is in mid position the extension link of the lower arm is vertical and the radius of the path of rotation of the masses is 175 mm. when is mid position.2 . Find 1.649 ( 0. 2.2  0.2  3.649 = 0.2 (160 ) 2 = 0.2 + 25  895 (160 ) = 2  × 0.2 + BF (160 ) 2 = 0.2 2 39433 .7 0.2 + BF 0.2 + BF  3. the vertical height of the governor is 200 mm.2 ( 8.p.2 + BF 0.2 0.

2 + BF = 0.2 BF = 0.308 – 0. the life of the sleeve of governor ‘A’ is grater than the life of sleeve of governor ‘B’.25 =  2  T1 0.81) +  25 × 9. the practical requirement is simply that the change of equilibrium speed from the full load to the low load position of the sleeve should be as small a fraction as possible of the mean equilibrium speed. = 2 N 2 − N1 ∴sensitiveness of governor = N . The sensitiveness is define as the ratio of difference between the maximum and the minimum equilibrium speed to the mean equilibrium speed. In general the greater the life of the sleeve corresponding to a given frictional change in speed.8 = 31 . This definition of sensitiveness may be quite satisfactory when the governor is considered as an independent mechanism. the sensitiveness of the governor increases as the speed range decreases.5 Sensitivity of Governor Consider two governors ‘A’ and ‘B’ running at a same speed.649 BF = 0.625 T1 0.8 = 154 154 T1 = 0. N1 − N 2 N = mean equilibrium speed. But when the governor is fitted to an engine. N2 = Maximum equilibrium speed.2 ( 3. When the speed is increases or decreases by a certain amount. Let N1 = Minimum equilibrium speed.2 × 9.392 +122 .8 T1 = 192. the greater is the sensitiveness of the governor.108 m Mg T1cosα = mg + 2 0.81  T1 0.2 0. MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 24 0. It may also be stated in another way that for a given life of the sleeve. it is then said that the governor ‘A’ is more sensitivity than the governor ‘B’.

The effect this will be to cause wide flocculation in the engine speed or in other words the engine will hunt. . This will results in the opening of the control ball wide which will supply the fuel to the engine in excess of its requirement so that the engine speed rapidly increases again and the governor speed rises to its highest position. there is one radius of rotation of the governor balls at which the governor is in equilibrium. For stable governor if the equilibrium speed increase the radius of governor ball must also increased. This is cussed a too sensitive governor which changes the fuel supply by a large amount when a small change in the speed of rotation takes place . Such a governor may admit either the maximum or minimum amount of fuel. This cycle is repeated indefinitely. the governor sleeve immediately falls to its lowest position.e.MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 25 2( N 2 − N 1 ) = N1 + N 2 Huntin g A governor is set to be hunt if the speed of the engine fluctuates continuously above an below the mean speed. Due to this movement of the sleeves the control value will cut off the fuel supply the engine and thus the engine seeped begin to fall once again. for example when the load on the engine increases the engine speed decreases and if the governor is very sensitive . Stability of Governor A governor is said to be stable when for every speed within the working range there is definite configuration i.

MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 26 .

MECHANIS OF MATERIAL & MACHINES 27 .