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Machine Tool 12 Cutting Tool Materials:- the purpose of cutting tool material to remove metal under controlled condition. therefore the tool must be harder than the material which it is to cut. the cutting tools made up of different materials. the cutting tool material should possess the following requirements;- 1. It should be strong enough to withstand the forces being applied due the cutting tool i.e. bending, shear, compression etc. 2. It should be tough 3. It should be harder than the material. 4. It should be able to resist high temperature. 5. It should be capable of withstanding the sudden cooling effect of coolant used during cutting. 6. The coefficient of friction between the chip and the tool should be as low as possible in the operating range of speed and feed. 7. It should be easily formed to the required cutting shape. The various cutting tool for material can be g as follows. • plain carbon steel • Medium alloy steel • High speed steel (H.S.S) • Non-ferrous alloy steel • Cemented carbides • Ceramics • Diamonds • Cubic boron nitride • UCON • Salon • Carbonate Tool Steel :- plain carbon steels, medium alloy steel and high speed steels are known as tool steel. Chip Breaker;- Chip breaker are provided to control the continuous ribbon-like chip that are formed at high cutting speeds. Continuous chips are dangerous to the operator of the machine. These chips are hard, sharp and hot. The chip Machine Tool 13 breaker deflects the chip at the sharp angle and cause to break into small pieces. So that they are easily removed by the coolant or simply allowed to fall into the chip pan of the machine. There are basically two types of the chip breakers: • Groove type • Obstruction type CuttingFluid Cutting coolants and oils are used during drilling to carry away ____ the heat from the drill point preventing it from overheating. This permits higher cutting speeds and longer drill life. The action of the chips coming out of the hole tends to restrict _____ the entry of the fluid. A continuous supply of cutting fluid should be maintained in order to obtain proper cooling. For severe conditions drills containing oil holes have a considerable advantage. Practically all metals require the use of coolant when being drilled except cast iron which may be machined dry. =================================== Prepaid By:- Muhammad Kashif Jamil B.Tech (pass) 08MR-07 Check By: Engg. Atiq-ur-Rahman