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I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 23 -Çí∫Ææ’d 2005

Vinod: When did you get the letter? What's Vittal: Why are you in such a hurry?
the news? (àçôçûª £æ«ú≈-´¤úÕ?)
(™„ô®˝ á°æ¤-úÌ-*açC? àçöÀ Ææçí∫-ûª’©’?) Vikram: I have two or three urgent jobs to
Vijai: Important news. My uncle is moving do before 3 in the afternoon.
into his new home by the month end. (؈’ ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç ´‚úø’™í¬ È®çúø’
He has given me an important job to ´‚úø’ °æ†’©’ îËߪ÷Lq ÖçC.)
do. Vittal: I have a job to do too. Mom wants
(´·êu-¢Á’i† ¢√Í®h. ´÷ ¶«¶«®· Ñ ØÁ™«- me to take her shopping.
ê-JéÀ éÌûªh ÉçöÀéÀ ´÷®Ω’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. Ø√éÓ (Ø√èπ◊ äéπ °æE ÖçC. ´÷ Å´’t
´·êu-¢Á’i† °æE Å°æp-ñ„-§ƒpúø’.) ≥ƒ°œçí˚éÀ BÆæ’-Èé-∞¡x´’çöçC.)
Vinod: What is it? (àçôC?) Soap èπÿú≈ uncountable. Å®·ûË ü∆Eo-
Vijai: I have to buy furniture here and send èπÿú≈ Ææçêu™ îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´÷®√_-©’-Ø√o®·.
it to him. Kiran: How much soap do you use a Practice the following aloud in English:
(Ééπ\úø °∂æJo-˝ éÌE Çߪ’-†èπ◊ °æç°œç-î√L.) month? ؈’ -Fèπ◊ ´çü¿-®Ω÷-§ƒ-ߪ’-L-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’,
1) Madan: Ø√èπ◊ Ææ•’s 鬢√-©´÷t?
Vinod: How much? (ØÁ©èπ◊ O’®Ω’ áçûª Ææ•’s ¢√úø-û√®Ω’?) ÅC î√™«?
I am giving you a hundred rupees. Will (Mom ¢√úøçúÕ)
(áçûª? - furniture uncountable) Kashyap: Depends. In summer at least 5 to
that do? Mother: È®çvúÓ-V© éÀçüË éÌûªh Ææ•’s BÆæ’èπ◊-
Vijai: It's a tall order. At least 8 to 9 items. 6 cakes of soap. In winter, two
(î√™« áèπ◊\¢Ë. éπFÆæç áE-N’C, ûÌN’tC or three. ÅC î√©ü¿’. Ø√èπ◊ Åçûª-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\¢Ë 鬢√L. Ø√o´¤. ÅC ¢√úË-¨»¢√?
´Ææ’h-´¤©’) (¢ËÆæ-N™ Å®·-ü∆®Ω’ Ææ•’s G∞¡x©’, That will not (won't) do. I need more Madan: Åü¿-®·-§Ú-®·çC. É°æ¤púø’ Ø√èπ◊ Ææ•’s
(tall order= áèπ◊\´. á´-È®jØ√ ´’†èπ◊ °æ¤®Ω-´÷-®·ç- Qû√-鬩ç È®çúø’´‚úø’.) than that. 鬢√L.
*† °æE áèπ◊\¢Ë ņ-ú≈-EéÀ a tall order Åçö«ç. O’
conversation ™ DEo practice îËߪ’çúÕ.)
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æù†’ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. furniture
uncountable ÅE Éçûªèπ◊ ´·çüË ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√oç
í∫ü∆? Å®·ûË furniture †’ specificí¬ Ææçêu™
îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ an item/ items of; a piece/ pieces
of furniture ņ-´îª’a. An item/ items of fur-
niture ÅØËC shops ™, official language ™
a piece of/ pieces.. Hemanth: You waste a
¢√úøû√ç. ´÷´‚©’ ´’† ¢√úø’é𠶵«≠æ™ con- Mother:
lot of paper.
versational í¬ Å®·ûË a piece of/ pieces of
Ææ•’s ´’K áèπ◊\´ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 37
furniture Åçö«ç. (†’´¤y Ê°°æ®˝ ¶«í¬ Ωtç §ÒúÕí¬ Å´¤-ûª’çC ñ«ví∫ûªh!
Madan: ؈’ î√™« ûªèπ◊\´ Ææ•’s ¢√úø-û√†’.
Customer: I want some furniture. ´%ü∑∆ îË≤ƒh´¤.) Mother: ûÁ©’-Ææ÷hØË ÖçC. Ø√©’í∫’ ®ÓV™x äéπ
Shop keeper: What are the items, Sir, and Hari: Let me have just
how many? Åçõ‰ ´’†ç shop ™ éÌØËC. one sheet. I am in
Ææ•’s Å´-íÌ-õ‰d-¨»´¤.
2) Prasanth: †’´¤y ´÷´‚-©’í¬ áEoç-öÀéÀ °æúø’-
Customer: Just a few items a cake/ cakes of soap a hurry
business language item
èπ◊ç-ö«´¤?(when ... go to bed
Ééπ\úø 鬕öÀd let me
Éçöx Ø√èπ◊ ≤Ú°ˇ 鬢√L ņ-ú≈-EéÀ– (Ç ≠‘ö¸ É´¤y. ؈’ M. SURESAN ¢√úøçúÕ).
(= ´Ææ’h´¤) ¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç. have soap/ a piece of soap/ some soap ûÌçü¿-®Ω™ ÖØ√o.) Pramod: ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ®√vA 10éÀ. é¬F
Ramana: Look at that sofa there and the Åçö«ç. (pronunciation- cake = Èéß˝’é˙) ®√ߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ, printing èπ◊ Ñ ®ÓV Ç©Ææuç
dining table. Ééπ news, information N≠æߪ’ç. ¢√úË paper á°æ¤púø÷ uncountable. Åçõ‰ Ñ Å´¤ûª’çü¿†’èπ◊çô’Ø√o. Ø√èπ◊ È®çúø’
(Ç ≤Ú§∂ƒ, úÁjEçí˚ õ‰•’™¸ îª÷úø’) a piece of good/ bad news; Å®Ωnç™ papers ÅE-í¬F, a paper ÅE-í¬F ņç. ´‚úø’ ´·êu-¢Á’i† °æ†’-©’-Ø√o®·.
Raghav: Yes, what about them? a piece of information/ some pieces of Ææçë«u-¢√-îªéπçûÓ ÅØ√-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰– a sheet of/ ÅN îËÆœ† ûª®√yûË °æúø’-èπ◊çö«.
(îª÷¨»†’, àN’öÀ?) information ¢√úø’-éπ™ ÖçC. sheets of paper; Prasanth: Å®·ûË ØË¢Á-∞¡xØ√? Ø√èπÿ Éçöx
Ramana: Those two pieces of furniture a) He has leaked out an important piece of a slip of/ slips of paper; ´·êu-¢Á’i† °æE ÖçC? ؈’ éÌçûª
have been with us for the past information. a piece of paper/ pieces of paper Åçö«ç. Ê°°æ®˝ BÆæ’Èé-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’Ø√o. áÂÆj-Ø˛-¢Á’çö¸
twenty years. É´Fo Spoken English ™ ñ«ví∫-ûªh-°æ-ú≈-Lq† äéπöÀ ®√ߪ÷L. äéπ Ø√©’í∫’ é¬T-
(´·êu-¢Á’i† Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç •ßª’-ô-°-ö«dúø’.) *†o-*†o Å稻©’.
(Ç È®çúø÷ ´÷ ü¿í∫_®Ω 20 à∞¡Ÿxí¬ ÖØ√o®·.) b) A piece of news is missing in this letter. û√©’ BÆæ’Èé-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’Ø√o.
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æù business/ official é¬èπ◊çú≈ ¢√úø’ É°æp-öÀÍé Ø√©’í∫’ é¬T-û√©’ ´%ü∑∆ î˨»úø’. Pramod: ÅN î√™«?
informal 鬕öÀd Åçü¿’™ a piece of /
(Ñ ™„ô-®˝™ äéπ Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.) He has already wasted four sheets of
Hari: I want paper. Have you any? Answers:
pieces of furniture Åçö«ç. paper.
1) Madan: I want soap/ some soap, mom.
¢Á·ü¿öÀ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ Vijai à´’Ø√oúø’? (Ø√èπ◊ Ê°°æ®˝ 鬢√L. F ü¿í∫_-®Ω’çü∆?) ¢√úø’ ûª† ÅvúøÆˇ äéπ é¬Tûªç ´·éπ\ O’ü¿
Mother: You took a new cake of soap
He has given me an important job to do Hemanth: I have only two sheets. ®√Æœ-î√aúø’.
He has written his address on a slip of just two days ago. Have you
ÅE éπü∆. 'work' uncountable. Åçü¿’-éπE ûÁ©’- (Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω È®çúø’ ≠‘ô’x ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ÖØ√o®·.)
paper and given it to me. done with it?
í∫’™ ™«í¬ °æE/ °æ†’©’ ÅE îÁ°æp-ú≈-EéÀ job/ jobs Hari: One sheet will do for me.
ØË© î√™« ¨¡Ÿv¶µºçí¬ ÖçC. äéπ\ é¬Tûªç ´·éπ\ (have done with = äéπ ´Ææ’h´¤†’ ¢√úËߪ’úøç
¢√úø-´îª’a. (Job Åçõ‰ ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç ÖüÓuí∫ç. (Ø√èπ◊ äéπ ≠‘ö¸ î√©’.) èπÿú≈ ™‰ü¿’. – ÉC conversational. 'Have you used it
job Åçõ‰ °æE = work ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ÖçC. will do = î√©’. ÉC èπÿú≈ conversational.
The floor is clean, not a piece of paper up?' bookish.
ņ-´îª’a. é¬F ÅC éÌçîÁç ¢√u´-
'work' uncountable; 'job' countable.) O’ spoken English ™ 'î√©’— ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøçúÕ. anywhere. 'Have you used it up?'
£æ…-J-éπçí¬ ÅØË ü∆EéÀ
spoken form- Have you done with it?/ Are
v°æ¨¡o: 1) Suneetha is like her sister ņúøç ûª°æ¤p éπü∆? ÅE O’Í® (Past Participle) use
î˨»®Ω’. Å™« îËߪ’- you done with it.
Suneetha looks like her sister Madan: Yes, mom. I am done with it. I
ï¢√•’: She has gone out just a minute ago. Ééπ\úø just
ÅØ√L éπü∆! ´î√a? -– áç. Xé¬çû˝, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛
2) Ramu and his brother alike in appearance Ñ want soap now.
Ramu and his brother are
¢√éπuç èπÿú≈ ûªÊ°p éπü∆! a minute ago Åçõ‰ É°æ¤púË ÅØË Å®Ωnç BÆæ’éÓ-¢√-™‰-í¬F, Mother: You are using too much of soap,
alike in appearance ÅE ®√ߪ÷L éπü∆? õ„jç îÁ°œp-†ô’x é¬ü¿’. just ¢√úøúøç ´©x Ç Å®Ωnç boy. It dries up your skin, be
´Ææ’hçC. Å®·ûË American usage ™ É°æ¤p-úÕ-°æ¤púË careful.
ï¢√•’: 1) Suneetha is like her sister,
– áØ˛. ¶µ«Ææ\-®Ω-®√´¤, Çîªçô
complete Å®·† °æ†’-©èπ◊ èπÿú≈ Past Doing Word Madan: I use very little soap.
Suneetha looks like her sister - (past simple) ¢√úøû√®Ω’. Mother: I know. That's why you have
¢ËÍ®y®Ω’ Å®√n-©ûÓ Ñ È®çúø÷correct. He has gone out just a minute ago. used up a whole cake in just four
Suneetha is like her sister. Ééπ\úøjust has gone out-
èπ◊ v§ƒ´·êuç 鬕öÀd days.
Ææ’Fûª Ç¢Á’ ÆœÆd®æ ˝™«Íí ÖçC– Åçõ‰ §ÚL-éπ™, better, British usage v°æ鬮Ωç. 2) Prasanth: When do you go to bed usual-
time
äéπöÀ´÷vûªç í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓ-¢√L. past
îÁ°œp† ly?
í∫’ù«™x, †úø-´-úÕ™ ÅE.
action Past Doing Word correct. (go to bed = sleep =
v°æ¨¡o: ÉçTx≠ˇ™
Suneetha looks like her sister.
èπ◊ á°æ¤púø÷ ¢√úø-úø¢Ë’ Evü¿èπ◊ Ö°ævéπ-N’-çîªúøç,
'could' 'mould'
E 'èπ◊ú˛— ÅE, E '´’¯™¸f— ÅE EvCç-îªúøç – È®çúø÷ äéπöÀ é¬ü¿’ éπü∆!)
D†®Ωnç äéπ\ §ÚL-éπ™ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ (îª÷úø-ú≈-EéÀ). áçü¿’èπ◊ °æ©’-èπ◊-û√®Ω’? ÉC ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ™°æ´÷? Pramod: Usually at 10. I shall be late
2) Ramu and his brother are alike in their
today. I have two or three jobs
ï¢√•’: English pronunciation system ™ Ö†o üÓ≠æç ´©x
appearance are
ÅØËC éπÈ®é˙d. verb
™‰éπ-§ÚûË – öÀ. ÆæB-≠ˇ-È®úÕf, Né¬-®√-¶«ü˛
to do. I will go to bed only after

v°æ¨¡o:
™‰ü¿’. 鬕öÀd éπÈ®é˙d é¬ü¿’. É™«çöÀ ÆæçüË-£æ…©’ ´≤ƒh®·. English ™ äéπ ´÷ô finishing them.
He went out an hour ago.
pronunciation ü∆E origin †’ •öÀd Öçô’çC. Åçõ‰ Prasanth: Shall I go then? I have impor-
went
Ééπ\úø Æ洒ߪ’ç ûÁL-ߪ’ñ‰¨»®Ω’ 鬕öÀd O’®Ω’ E ü∆E ´‚™«-Eo-•öÀd. ÅC Åîªaç English ´÷ö«, tant work at home too. Shall I
use Went (Past doing
îËߪ÷©E í∫ûªç™ îÁ§ƒp®Ω’. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ¢ËÍ® ¶µ«≠憒ç* ´*a† ´÷ö« ÅØË ü∆Eo •öÀd take some paper? I have an
word) 鬕öÀd. ´’J– Öçô’çC. 鬕öÀd Dictionery E ¢√úÕ pronunciation assignment to do. I am taking
She has gone out just a minute ago. ûÁ©’Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç äéπõ‰ ´÷®Ω_ç. áçü¿’-éÀ™«? ÅØË v°æ¨¡oèπ◊ four sheets.
has gone
Ñ ¢√éπuç™†÷ Æ洒ߪ’ç ûÁLߪ’ñ‰-¨»®Ω’. é¬F Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç üÌ®Ω-éπü¿’. Pramod: Will that (they) do?