You are on page 1of 38

Introduction to Human

By: Jeffrey Eric Criste
– Aims to understand others
– To determine how and why people
behave the way they do.
– Is a complicated phenomenon
influenced by many factors.
– A collection of activities influenced by
culture, attitude, emotions, values,
ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis,
persuasion and coercion.
Classifications of Human
1. Conscious - State of awareness of thoughts,
feelings, perception and what is going on in the
Unconscious –
2. Overt - Open to public observation
• Covert - Unseen objects such as thoughts,
feelings or responses which are not easily seen.
3. Rational - Pertaining to reason, influenced or
guided by reason rather than emotion.
• Irrational - Illogical
4. Voluntary - Intentional
• Involuntary – Doing something
against your will, action made without
intent or carried out despite an
attempt to prevent them.
5. Simple – ex. What you see is what you
• Complex - compound complicated
behavior. ex. Drinking alcohol
1. Human behavior is motivated
motivation – driving force behind all action of an
2. Human behavior has multiple causes.
- Influenced by culture
3. Human behavior can be adaptive and maladaptive
• Human are social beings
• Any person depend upon each other for survival
• People need interaction
3. People play an integral part in creating their
4. Human lives are continuous process of change.
5. Every person is different yet the same.
6. Individual is a unique person.
Theoretical approaches about the
factors that cause, maintain, alter
behavior, and mental process:
– Is based on the belief that childhood experiences greatly influence the
development of late personality traits and psychological problems. It also
stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires and motivations on
thoughts and behavior.
– Emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his/her
future, a large capacity for personal growth, a considerable amount of
intrinsic worth & enormous potential for self-fulfillment.
– Studies how organism learn new behavior or modify existing ones,
depending on whether events in their environment reward of punish
these behavior.
– Examines how we process, store, and use information, and how this
information influences what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember
believe and feel.
– Focuses on how genes, hormones & nervous system interact with the
environment to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation,
emotions at coping techniques.
Theories that explain
motivation to Human
• Needs such as air, food, water, shelter, rest, sleep, activity and
temperature maintenance are crucial for survival.
• The need for safety has both physical and psychological aspects.
The person needs to feel safe both in the physical environment
and in relationship.
• The third level needs includes giving and receiving affection,
attaining a place in group, and maintaining the feeling of
• The individual needs both self-esteem (ex. Feelings of
independence, competence, and self-respect) and esteem from
others (ex. Recognition, respect, and appreciation)
• When the need for self-esteem is satisfied, the individual strives
for self-actualization, the innate need to develop one’s maximum
potential and realize one’s abilities and qualities.
(Sigmund Freud)
• This theory explained that human behavior is motivated by an inner force
called the human mind. This theory was introduced by SIGMUND FREUD
• SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939) was an Austrian physician who worked as an
neurologist. Early in his career, he used hypnosis to treat people with physical
and emotional problem. From his work with these patients, he began to
conceptualize a theory of human behavior.
• Freud theorized that people have two (2) basic instincts – SEXUAL and
AGGRESSION. These two (2) basic instincts are not always socially
acceptable. When people exhibit behavior that is nor acceptable, they often
experience punishment, guilt and anxiety.
• Freud’s theory describes a conflict between a person’s instinctual needs for
gratification and the demands of society for socialization. For Freud, a
person’s core tendency is to maximize instinctual gratification while
minimizing punishment and guilt.
– Addresses the relationship among inner experience, behavior, social roles &
functioning. This theory proposes that conflicts among unconscious motivating
factors affect behavior
– CONSCIOUS – aware of here and now, in contact with reality.
• It functions only when the person is awake.
• Contains the partially forgotten memories that
can be recalled at will. Preconscious serves as
the “watchman” by preventing unacceptable &
anxiety producing memories from reaching the
conscious awareness.
– UNCONSCIOUS – The largest part of the personality that is often
compared to the hidden iceberg under the water that contains
memory that are forgotten & cannot be brought back to
consciousness at will.
• ID – represents psychological energy, or libido and it operates on pleasure principles
which can be understood as a demand to take care of needs immediately. The ID only knows
that what it wants and what it wants right away regardless of the present circumstances.
– does not care about morals, society and other individuals
– starts from birth to 6 months
– demanding, unrealistic, primitive, instinctual, uncivilized, undisciplined
• EGO – is the one that relates to the world or reality to satisfy the demands of the ID. The ego
operates by reality principle & uses problem solving based on how it judges reality. It
controls the demands of & mediates between the ID and the Superego according to the
demands of the reality.
– operates on conscious level
– begins in the first 6 or 8 months of life and fairly well developed at age 2 or 3 years
– serves to control and guide actions of an individual
• SUPEREGO- is the one that rewards the moral behavior and punishes actions that are not
acceptable by creating guilt. The superego is our conscience, a residue of internalized
values & moral training of early childhood.
• operates on both conscious and unconscious
• functions on MORAL PRINCIPLE
• develops around the age of 3-4 or 4-5 and fairly well developed at age 10 years
• Ego Ideal – rewards the person with feeling of well-being and pride when a person conforms to the
demands of the superego.
• concern with what is believe to be morally or basically right.
• Conscience – punishes the person with guilt feelings when person
– deviates from the demands of the superego.
– concern with what is believe to be morally or basically wrong.
• Oral - 0-18 months
– The infants pleasure is believed to center around gratification from using
his mouth for sucking and satisfying hunger. Feeling and activities are
focused on & expressed by the mouth and are orally dominated.
• Anal - 18 mos. - 3 years
– Begins w/ the attainment of neuromuscular control of the anal sphincter.
– Toilet training is the crucial issue requiring delayed gratification in
compromising between enjoyment of bowel function and limitations set by
social expectations for the toddler.
• Phallic - 3 to 6 years
– Increased curiosity re: the genitals, questioning and self-
stimulation or masturbation.
• Latent - 6 –12 years
– The child realizes that desires directed to the parent of opposite sex are
not feasible, and become occupied with socializing with peers, refining
roles and relationships.
• Genital - 12 - 20 years *adult sexuality
– Develops awareness of body & sexual part.
– Represents an emergence of sexual interest w/c can now be
expressed in an overt heterosexual relationship.

Erik Erikson
• The developmental theory of Erik
Erikson (1963) was based on Freud’s
work. Erikson expanded Freud’s theory
to include cultural and social influences
in addition to biologic processes. He
believed there was an interrelationship
between such variables that impact the
psychosocial development of an
individual throughout life .
Psychosocial Theory
• based on four major organizing concepts:
– (1) stages of development
– (2) development goal or task
– (3) psychosocial crisis
– (4) the process of coping.

Erickson believed that development is a continuous

process consisting of distinct phases characterized
by the achievement of developmental goals. He
emphasized that certain tasks progressed in a
definite order, but were affected by the social
environment and significant others.
Stages of Development
• Erikson identified eight stages of development from
birth through old age and death. He was one of the
first theorists who acknowledged the continuation of
personality development into the adult years. At
each stage, Erikson presented a developmental
crisis which had to be mastered. Each crises is a
set of normal stresses imposed on a person by the
demands of society. The internal ego identity and
the external expectations of an individuals behavior
by society are in conflict. These demands vary from
one stage to the next and must be resolved or at
least the tension must be reduced to successfully
advance to the next stage.
Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)
• the first stage is the period of
infancy. As the infant learns to rely
on caregivers so that basic needs of
warmth, food, and comfort are met,
he begins to believe and trust in his
caregivers. Mistrust may occur if care
is inconsistent or inadequate. The
infant may view the environment as
being unsafe or chaotic.
Trust Mistrust Maladaptatio Malignanci
n es
Ease in feeding Withdrawal Sensory Withdrawal
Depth in sleep into distortion Depression
Relaxation of schizoid Overly trusting, Paranoia
bowels and gullible, this Possibly
First social depressive person cannot psychosis
achievement states believe anyone
allows would mean
mother out of them harm.
sight w/o
anxiety or
Autonomy vs. Shame and
Doubt (1-3 years old)
• during the toddler years, the child begins to learn
more about his environment through newly learned
motor and language skills. He is gaining
independence through parental encouragement
with activities of daily life, such as eating, toileting,
and dressing. Shame and doubt result if the
parents are overprotective and do not allow the
child a chance to attempt new skills. Expectations
that are too high for the developmental age of the
child can produce feelings of inadequacy in the
Autonomy Shame & Maladaptati Malignancies
Doubt on
Self control w/ Low self- Impulsiveness Compulsion
loss of self- esteem Sort of Feels that as if
esteem Secretivenes shameless their entire
Good will and s willfulness being rides on
pride Feelings of that leads in everything they
Rightful persecutio later do, and so
dignity n childhood and everything must
Sense of even be done
justice adulthood, to perfectly.
jump into
things w/o
of abilities
Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6
years old)
• a time for seeking new experiences and
imagining the “how” and “why” of
surrounding activities. Confidence gained
as a toddler now allows the preschooler
a sense of initiative in learning. Guilt is
the negative result of restrictions or
reprimands for their many questions and
explorations. Guilt can be seen an a
hesitancy to attempt more challenging
skills in motor or language development.
Initiative Guilt Maladaptat Malignancies
Purpose Inhibition Ruthlessness Inhibition
Loving Self- Self-righteous Will not try things
Relaxed righteousn goals are because
Bright in ess everything, “nothing
judgment Paralysis and guilty ventures,
Energetic feelings are nothing lost”
Task-oriented for weak
Industry vs. Inferiority (7-12
years old)
• the school-age child focuses on the end results of his
accomplishments. He gains much pleasure in finishing
projects and receiving recognition from family, teacher, and
schoolmates. This sense of industry is benefited by rewards,
such as good grades or winning games. As sense of
competition develops through peer interaction and also
assists in development of sense of industry.
• If child is not accepted by his peers or cannot meet
expectations of adults, a feeling of inferiority and lack of
self-worth may occur. However, the school-age child
receives feedback from many persons at this time due to
increased social interaction from the home. This increased
interpersonal exchange allows for negative influences to be
encountered with support from more positive influences.
Industry Inferiority Maladapt Malignancies

Competency Sense of Narrow Inertia

Productivity inadequac virtuosity Inferiority complex
Task y Too much Never develop social
completion Self- industry skills - inert
Perseverance restriction
Identity vs. role confusion ( 12 –
18 years old)
• the adolescent is faced with many changes occurring in his own
body. Hormonal changes cause physiologic growth of secondary
sex characteristics and labile mood swings. The transition from
childhood to adulthood requires many decisions based on the
teenager’s perception of self. Achieving a stable sense of
identity is the major task for the adolescent. Attempting various
roles enables one to acquire an idea of self from personal
observations and from peers, parents, or other role models.
Occasionally, rebellion and resistance to conformity are the
• Role confusion may occur if the adolescent is unable to
obtain a sense of who he really is, or the direction in which he
plans to take in his life. This fluctuation between identity and
role confusion makes adolescence a period of turmoil for many
Identity Role Maladaptati Malignancies
Confusion on

Fidelity Delinquency Fanaticism Repudiation

Confidence Doubt and Believes that Repudiate their need
Loyalty sexual the only for identity
identity way is his “Fuse” with group:
way cults, may involve
in destructive
activities, drugs,
Intimacy vs. Isolation (20’s –
young adult)
• the task of the young adult is intimacy, which
involves uniting self-identity with identities of
friends for social or career endeavors. It includes
the development of close personal relationships
based on commitment to others, which
necessitates self sacrifice and compromise. Fear
or such commitments can predispose the young
adult to isolation and loneliness
Intimacy Isolation Maladaptati Malignancies

Love Character Promiscuity Exclusion

Commitment problem Intimate too Isolate oneself from
Sacrifice Distancing freely, too love, friendship to
Work behaviors easily and develop certain
productivit w/o any hatefulness in
y depth of compensation to
Satisfactory intimacy loneliness.
sex relation
Generativity vs. Stagnation –
(late 20’s to 50’s- middle
• the middle adult years are time of concern for the
next generation and guiding one’s own children
or those friends, relatives, or community groups.
This sense of guidance is exhibited in a variety of
creative approaches to one’s work or life
experiences. There is an intense desire to leave a
contribution to the world. If generativity does not
occur, stagnation result. The person becomes
self-absorbed, is obsessed with his own health
needs, or regresses to earlier means of coping.
Generativi Stagnatio Maladapta Malignancies
ty n tion

Productivity Self-love Overextensi Rejectivity

Creativity Lack of faith on No longer
Caring Caring for no No time for participating in or
one self contributing to
Involve in so society
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
( 50’s and beyond- old adult)
• later adulthood or old age allows for the
reminiscence of life events with the
attainment of purpose and fulfillment.
Positive feelings present a sense of ego
integrity. When the aging adult believes his
life was a series of failures or missed
directions, a sense of despair may prevail.
During this final stage of development a final
attempt to resolve the cumulative conflicts
throughout life should occur.
“Psychic Inheritance”
• Contains the universal memories & history
of all humans
• A reservoir of our experiences as a species,
a kind of knowledge we are all born with.
• Determined by individual personal
– Repeated images
– The structural component of the collective unconscious. It is a universal thought
form (idea) that contains large element of emotion.
– Can be a mythical figure, such as Hero, the Nurturing Mother, the Powerful Father
or the Wicked Witch.
– Represents your public image.
– Is the public personality, the aspect of self that one reveals to others, the role that
society expects one to play. The persona is frequently at variance with true
– Feminine archetype in man is anima, and masculine archetype in woman is
– Archetype reflects the prehistoric fear of wild animals & represents the animal
side of human nature. The shadow contains the opposite of what we feel
ourselves to be.
– It consists of the animal instincts that human inherited in their evolution from
lower forms of life.
– Serves as a “trash can”.
– It is the “dark side” of the ego, and the evil that we are capable of is often stored
• Amoral – neither good nor bad, just like animals
– Orients the person towards the inner subjective world.
– Describes the person who is focused inward, cautious, shy,
timid & reflective.
– Orients the person towards the external, outside world
– Describes the person who is outgoing, sociable, assertive &
– Jung’s view, motivation comes not only from past conflicts
but also from future goals and the need for self-fulfillment.
He also believed that a healthy person maintains a balance
in all spheres – male and female, introversion and
extroversion, conscious and unconscious – and has the
ability to accept the past and strive for the future.
Application to nursing:
• Jung emphasized the importance of
symbolism, rituals, and spirituality. When
we enter a client’s environment, we see
symbols of importance to that person. We
become aware of the client’s rituals of
self-care. When client’s rituals interfere
with growth and health, we look for the
conflicts and anxiety behind the
The End
• Thank You