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Radiographic Film
Interpretation of Welds
ASNT
Saudi Arabian Section
Jim Carswell & Tom Scales
RTFI Presentation Outline

Morning 8:00am 12:00noon

Interpretation/perception
Radiography
Welding processes
Appearance and classification of defects
Review acceptance criteria:
ASME B31.1
API 1104
AWS D1.1


Afternoon 1:00pm 4:00pm

Interpret radiographs


This presentation reviews the
process of detecting, classifying
and evaluating to acceptance
criteria discernable defects on
radiographic film.

Factors affecting Interpretation

Heredity, Genetics and visual
perception

Perception
Distortion
Illusion (machs effect)
Detection

Perception
Distortion
Illusion
Detection
How many faces can you detect?
There are eleven faces

Scoring:


1-4 average
8 extraordinary
9 above average
10 very observant
11 extremely observant
Factors affecting Interpretation

Heredity/Genetics and visual perception
Condition of the human eye
Eye examinations 20/40
Wear your glasses/contacts, if scratched
replace.

Factors affecting Interpretation

Heredity/Genetics and visual perception
Condition of the human eye
Equipment
Viewer/densitometer
Viewing conditions
Tools

Factors affecting Interpretation

Heredity/Genetics and visual perception
Condition of the human eye
Equipment
Film and radiographic techniques
Discussing throughout




When in doubt
2nd opinion
Re-shoot or G/R/S
Radiography
Contact - DWSV
Elliptical - DWDV
Single wall single view
Radiographic film
Film processing
Results: good technique
WELDING
Joining materials (coalescence)
Terminology
Basic Weld Joints
Design factors: cost, code requirement
Common Weld joints:
V groove and Butt
Knowing the weld position and number of passes helps
the interpreter anticipate the location of defects
Welding/Joining Processes

Oxyacetylene
Shielded metal arc (SMAW)
Gas metal arc (GMAW)
Gas tungsten arc (GTAW)
Submerged arc (SAW)
Electro slag (ESW)
Flux cored arc (FCAW)
Stud (SW)
Electron beam
Explosive
Brazing
Torch, furnace, induction, resistance,
dip, infrared and diffusion
Soldering
Common Welding Processes Used
In The Petrochemical Industry
SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding)

GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding)

GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)

SAW (Submerged Arc Welding)
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
(SMAW)
Electric arc between the flux covered
electrode and the base metal



Benefits of the electrode coating


Arc stabilization
Provides gas shielding decomposition of
cellulose and limestone
De-oxidation of weld pool
Strengthens the weld alloying elements
Increases deposition adds filler
Oxide barrier for solidifying metal - slag
Thermal insulation of the cooling weld

Common defects associated
with SMAW

Porosity
Cracks
Slag
Incomplete fusion
Incomplete penetration
Burn through
Lack of fill
Root concavity
Undercut
Excessive penetration

The SMAW process is almost totally operator dependant
Gas Metal Arc Welding
(GMAW)
Electric arc between a continuously fed solid wire
consumable and the base metal
Common defects associated
with GMAW

Porosity
Cracks
Incomplete fusion
Undercut
lack of fill
Incomplete penetration



The GMAW process is automated, semi-automated and
machine.
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
(GTAW)
Electric arc between a tungsten electrode, a solid wire
consumable and the base metal.
Common defects associated
with GTAW



Porosity
Tungsten inclusions
Cracks
Incomplete fusion
Undercut



The GTAW process is almost totally operator dependant

Submerged Arc Welding
(SAW)
Electric arc between a
continuously fed solid
wire consumable and
the base metal submerged
in a protective flux.
Common defects associated
with SAW



Porosity
Cracks
Slag
Incomplete fusion




The GMAW process is automated, semi-automated and
machine.
WELDING DEFECTS

Defects cause stress which can
result in joint failure
Common causes of defects

Welder-technique
Cleaning
Joint preparation
Joint design

Welding technique
Cleaning
(Porosity, Fusion, Tungsten & Slag)
Cleaning - slag removal
Joint preparation - poor fit-up
(Fusion, Penetration & Mismatch - Hi-Lo)
POROSITY






Causes:
Contamination
Moisture
Environment wind, etc.


Porosity
Porosity
Cluster Porosity
Cluster Porosity
Aligned Root-Pass Porosity
Aligned Root-Pass Porosity
Hollow Bead








Causes:
Incomplete penetration of arc
Inadequate welding current
Poor joint fit-up


Incomplete Fusion









Cause:
Poor joint design
Welding technique


Incomplete Penetration
Incomplete Penetration
Incomplete Penetration
Incomplete Penetration
Incomplete Penetration









Causes:
Stress - thermal/mechanical
Welding technique
Electrode material (wrong alloy)
Cracks
Transverse Cracks
Transverse Cracks
Longitudinal Root Crack
Longitudinal Root Crack







Causes:
Non-removal
Welding technique

Slag Inclusions
Elongated Slag
Elongated Slag
Interpass Slag
Interpass Slag







Cause:
Welding technique
Poor joint fit-up

Burn Through
Burn Through
Burn Through







Cause:
Welding technique
Poor joint fit-up

Root Concavity
Root Concavity
Root Concavity









Cause:
Welding technique excessive heat


Undercut
Internal Undercut
Internal Undercut
External Undercut
External Undercut









Cause:
Welding technique excessive arc
penetration
Poor joint fit-up


Excessive Penetration
Excessive Penetration
Excessive Penetration









Cause:
Welding technique


Lack of Fill
Lack of Fill
Lack of Fill










Cause:
Welding technique


Tungsten Inclusions
Tungsten Inclusions
Tungsten Inclusions









Cause:
Poor joint fit-up


Mismatch Hi Low
Mismatch
Mismatch



Cause:
Poor joint fit-up
Welding technique

Weld Spatter
Miscellaneous
Excessive Weld Ripples
Unconsumed Insert
Oxidized Root
Film Handling And
Processing Defects
Scratches
Finger prints
Crimp marks
Light Leaks
Chemical Stains
Roller Marks & Artifacts
Scratches
Chemical Stains

Light Leaks
Static Marks
Store film upright
Artifacts
Water marks
Crimp marks
CODES & STANDARDS
in the petrochemical
industry
What is the purpose for
Codes & Standards?
They ensure uniform practices
throughout industry

Three common codes used in Saudi
Arabias petrochemical industry
ASME B31.3
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
API 1104
Welding of Pipelines And Related Facilities
AWS D1.1
Structural Welding Code - Steel
ASME B31.3
and
Appendix 4
Film interpretation acceptance
criteria for Process Piping on-
plot facilities
API 1104
Film interpretation acceptance
criteria for pipelines
AWS D1.1
Film interpretation acceptance
criteria for structures

END