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oxide

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N − epitaxial layer

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N substrate

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Q . 5 (  S # &        ! 
B  & (  4  = (   
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4? " R  ) O GUZW)S   = \   D 5 _..  
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B  &    A
B     !  W  <? " & 1C  A R 'W7U S     &4 (   (!  D 5     B  
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 = ,    '  !  
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( 1 A & < (  , AD
5    !     B (7B A  )W  4? "E   =  4  7 ,     ,  & B Z6) B   
! =   ( 67 
B  ( (       AB   6 A   (  #    " 1     &        O 
     



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&      "   (! ,   6  '   2  D  "  O 
(  "#W )? 

B       \\  6)6  ,   %G !, Y  $ W  4? " R  G YVW)S 
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=   76 A 
 1   6   1 (    ( 6 1 ,    GYHW    = A     ' 1  )< ,  
(  ( 76   .. 5 (  DM5     
' 1 B ! ) 6  
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( "       G )TW  
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G YVW    = AD   
  # )6   6   
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)   . 2 #    6  '  
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  = AD + F?        B (   HW  4? "    =  ,# '      B    /  B   

&   1?  '  #   ( 6    
<6    ) 6) 6  , <  ) +    
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6           
7 4  )   , " W  <? "    D   T ,   1 
 + ( 6) 
B , 6 A   (  &     G )TW   =  >   
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6    / AB     1? ! )C ,  1 T67 , , ( D
& (' ,,     ' > 3B !7  
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6 A  #    B ,  >        
A 
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R  G )'W)SE   =   .O W  2 1  7 6   ,   (    "    ( 6 1 ( '       
   
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B (    ZO W  2 W  4? "    = A D $+ ( A    (   
 
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 + ( 
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B ,      UZW    = D 5     , 
7       .O W  2  G )TW 
  = A     
    &    B A "  1<6 Y  $    O   ?   AB   &   ?  !  >   O  

 
 C
6    
         
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Z67 
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   & 
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+    ]   ( W  <? " R   ] W)S    =      !  " 6 , W  A6      
 "D U  ,  ) _ O  ( (     (      
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6        "A&  6   !  [ .
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Q.    W)W   =      ' 
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7 
  T67 6  (   W)W <  )         <6   !   "3W  <? "
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 TY  $    1D ] 7    ( #  
6  '     F6     "    '    
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 (      Z6    (   1   
  6  , D
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B A     ( "#    (  
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B ( 6   
 
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2  16  \

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4? " & 1 C    =   1  '  ,"  (   16)6     Z  F !   ' 6  ' + O 
6  
     '    ! C6 (, D ] +  ,  16)6    
 (#   ( F &     B 
W   
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B ( "   '*   
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,, &   !  & 1<  A 
(!   ,  <    "   ,     ' & 1C  A W  4? "   D 
 

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 & ,    >6 A [ # '      A 1  B B   6   W  <? "/  = A  

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 = A   !  
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+67 
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6    
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B  
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 !  & 1<
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4? " ( (   ( 1?  !     W  <? "3   =  &    PD 
   & 
@   B      ' C? 6) ( ( ,       1 6 A+    A      6) 16    
(  ! #  
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,  , =   , '       !  & 1C   (   6    O        ' & 1C   W  <? " 
(!   )  !   + AB   &   D     & (   
) ?  '  (!#    4  7    
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   '
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  !  & 1C  W  4? " R  %U W)S 
  = A D  

    1
6 , # '   (  4      
   6) 6  , G )TWI   = A  76 A  1 
 6    (   
( 6 1 
,      G YVW    = A     ' >  )C (  (  ( )6  
.. 5 (  D 5    1 
' 1  B  
! ) 16  
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    G )TW 
  =      &  '      
 &     
,(   !     G YVW 
  = AD    # ) 

6   6     !  ( 6   )   . 2 #   /6  ' A    ( & 
5 

,

_.

TW   =  1   '   &  (          
        G YVW   = AD 
+  F? 
      B ,    
KW  4? "   =  ,# '      B+  V B  & ,1?  '  # 
 ( 6     C6    
)V6)16  , 4 7     
  V BA  & ,1?  '   VB "
 1<6     1 
!&      &    

(,   !     G YVW   = A   <6&    
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4? "    D   +  
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6   1 (        G )TW   = A >   "
(,   ,  ! <  O &  ' (,    
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 B !7 6    / AB     1? ! )C ,  1  6), , ( D 
     

G

)  

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]  !)D _ D [   '      (  
  O     
7B  (' %     
 B(  KW   O 
4? "     G )TW   =   ( 6   ( , ,  W    G : )  2  D     
B(   
< 
 )#     
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4? "    '          

6) 6  , G )TW 4 )
#     
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4? " (   D    
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  $  (!    !6  , " ( ( (4  " 
&    , &                 B 1       AB   '    (  &   
( , $; ,   >D 5  ( 6   ( (7= (  O 6  
A (        ,  ( &    

,  4 
 = ,    '  !  
   4 ,  (!( D     6  ( 
(, 4 )H6 1 (  A    
) 
  Z ,!   , !  R  S # 7     ,!     ? ,  R   S # & )  ,       ? (  R
S #
= (         ? (  R  S 3= ,  O# 6   
 ,! 
 R   S  ! '        & AB  
6 1  ( (A  ,       (   
        UZW #  UZW #  G YVW   G )TW    =  
1 
 ! B ,     &   _ D [ D   (  " &  ,         )  (   
 (#     6  (  ( 
) 
  H ,!   ,!         6  (   ,!   ,!   
  T  B A  &   1?  ' 
B 
!    AB  1D    1 6  (  (
B  (  6 1  ( (A      #   # 
 
'    &   , & "
B 1 "   !  6 1  (    &  (   !     (    (  (   B A      

_

[ 

Cathode

Schottky

Anode

Cathode

L 









FP 





 







      

     

  
  
  
  





 



  

Field Oxide
L

N + N−Drift region

tox
N+

tsi

(a)

tbox

Buried Oxide

N +−Substrate

Cathode

φL

φH

Anode

Cathode   

LFP  

       
Field Oxide 
   
   d t
L
si
m

N + N−Drift region

w

tox
B

N+

A

Buried Oxide

tbox

(b)

N +−Substrate

4? 

'AH8!$=F,  , W
"  

R& S  



(    

O 

A NG  !,  



) 

R S   
A 2  B ,    
W
&  /W  4? " R  G )'W)S.  =  W   D
0B 

   

 '

__ 

   



O

! #43A,  , '6  ( 
,( 4  ) 6 1 ( (A 
%UZW #  G YVW   G )TW3  =  D

I(  
, 

Y 1  (  
$   
6   !     (    
) 
  . ,!  6  !# 
) 
  . ,!   (!  # 
) 
  . ,!     ? ,  ,#  
U )  ,       ? ,  ,# 

]  ,         ? ,  ,# 
]  ,  O# 6   
 (!  #   
 
(    6   # 
 
(  '     #
G ,  '     # 
 ' W  <? " & 1<  A  , !   R $+ S # Q  
& !  W  <? " & 1<    , !   R  S #
Q 

Y  6  !    G YVW3   = 
8   1     
 Q 
U 1<    , !  +  ' A   !    ,  Q   

  

 UZW

[

.

( 

( 

[F_ D .  (
_ D.  ( 
D.  (
. D\ 
( 
D.  (
. D . O [ D \ 
(
. D _ O [ D .. 
(
. D _ O [ D .. 
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[:[ . 5 (  L
_[. (
.       

 

?(6 !     +6 1 (  A    D    "    O 
,  &  ' (,     G YVW   G )TW   = A     
   <(  ,!       G )TW 
 = A  VA6  , & " EY   (!              G YVW   = AD        '  ! 
B  H6 1 (   '  
!
B 1  ,       "   ,   ( 6    B  !6 A  (   
4,   6   R S # < 
(  O '     R S # ( ,  O '     R S   ( 6 A 
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' 

B 
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&  1?   

 

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#

& 1C  W  <? " R . D \   S       !  & 1<  W  <? " R . D Q   S    ,#V O
<6   B,"
Q  D ] )  (#    & 1C   , !     ' A !    ,  '       , ,    
B A   ,1? ! )<, & >?,  _  [ .   ( Q  D   

V  \ E 
  

G YVW

(    

' 1  1 A 
G )TW   = 1   ' 

 
(  

     

  , ,  



 

S  ?  D"     8  



Forward current density, J F [A/cm2] 



10
10
10
10

     



B 

,   

]  !)D _ D _ DM5+  

 UZW
&

#

B 

%UZW 

(  

1 

,( #      

A 

 

3
2
1
Conv. LLBS
Conv. LHBS
LMPS
LMDS

0

−1

10

m = 1.0 µm
w = 1.0 µm
d = 1.5 µm
o
T = 27 C

−2

10

−3

10

0.0

0.2
0.4
0.6
Forward voltage drop, VF [V] 

  "!$#%&'!'()#%*,+-&$#/.'0,0#1*,2%"+3*,+-#43506*,.)287:9<;>=?@24#1*,+-A'245#4BDC0@24!
*,E*".'3"2F06:*,.)2G7:9<HI= J#%&LK2%&M*"+&'0N:7:7O=P0&'!P#%&LK24&L*"+& NQ7RSO=8"24#1*,+TA24@34U
V W

#

TW  = A   ( &  ' (,    
&     B(     UZW      B( O 
   %UZWE  = A AD 5     '  1' 1 &   R 
. D S # 
   1    
   
G )TW   =          
     B(      U W   = A &    ( @ " 
   
)C 
(   '    !      ' & 1C AZW  <? " ,!       G )TW   = AD 
 (  " &  ,          !  A  ' 1 &   ,# (       
)<,        G )TW 
 = A  1C  ( & "      !  & 1C  AVW  4? "      , +    1 A  
    G )TW  
  = A &   ( (   A     
     B(    %U W   = AD
5  
&  ,,   ( ]  !)D _ D _ #  
+ ! B ,   ' 1 [B  ! ) 16 #    G )TW[  = A 
>< 
 ,   !   )< ,  
 ( 6 1 (      G YVW3   =  '         ! B (   ' > 
&   T  !        ,  & (' ,(    '    ' >  )< ,  ,   ,      ,
'      
,  !   ' 1  &   
D 5     ' >  B !  . D Q  #      ' >  )C (    
  G )TW  
  = A &   ( ( '            G YVW    = AD     &    O 
   
 (    )C ,    ' B      '    ]  !)D _ D 7D   ,    16) 6   (   ' > 
&    . D  #   &       G YVW  
G )TW    =  (# )C (    ' "    !  
   ' & 1< 
  W  <? "    D & ' AB   
&   !     ' 1  &   R 1D !)D  . D Q 
S #  &( F  )C ,        G YVW    =       '    !    %W  <? "   
'      
Y   ,!    !    
( '        )< ,        G )TW    = A 
 '    !  &        ' & 1C  &    !  & 1C  W  4? "    % (  !   
  !   
7< 
(  ( "     6) 6  , AB  1D   (  ,     '    
    G )TW 
  = A  
& ( 1 ,   , "   ( 6 1 (      G YVW   = AD ]    ( 6  #  

  )    1 
,%   F (       G )TW   GYHW    =   . D .. _\ (    . D .. \
(   , C6   B ( "  1C "    ' 1  7< (   [ 5 %D    +   '      7
B  
! 
  6) 
6  (  B   B A     G YVW[   = AD 
   

G

)

_\

Distance [ µm]
Distance [ µm]
Distance [ µm]
Distance [ µm]

0

(a) LMPS
VF = 0.3 V

3

6

−|

|

0

5

|

10

|

|

|

|

15

20

25

30

Distance [ µm]

0

3

6

−|

|

|

|

|

|

|

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

(b) LMDS
VF = 0.3 V
Distance [ µm]

0−

(c) LMPS
VF = 0.6 V

3−
6

−|

|

|

0

5

10

0

|

|

15

20

Distance [ µm]

25

30

(d) LMDS
VF = 0.6 V

3

6

−|

|

0

5

'AH8!$=F,

|

− 

,

|

10

|

|

15

20

Distance [ µm]
.

2 )<,   ' B      
 ' 1 B!76  . D    
. D Q E 
D

| 

_1Q  

G YVW

|

|

25

30  

  

G

TW9  =    
)  

" #?  D"     8

V  V 9

]  !)D _ D 

(   
,  AB    1 A       B( O 
    UZW #  B,    
 %UZW # GYHW   G )TW   = A AD    ,(    
  
BA    >? 

! )C,  ,  "     B (     UZW   =    !  ,       

   
B(    %U W   =     ' (   +   &         % BA   1? ! 
7<(  <! " 6 ,  )6     ( ( 
O  (    & ><   , !   D ] )   A,#  
&       B(   W   
4? " AB  , (#   +  B    ,1? ! )C(      , %B " 
>6 " '        
 !  AB   &  
 (   !    
 4  ( , "   &  ,1?  '   
 [ 
R  A= (      AB   &   B  !  
  [ .   5 
(  S D            #
  '

+ 

( 6 >   

  

Reverse current density, J R [A/cm2] 

10

0

−1

10

−2

10

−3

10 

'AH8!$=F,  ,

=  

' 

 

−4

2 ( 6 1 
G YVW  

 

m = 1.0 µm
w = 1.0 µm
d = 1.5 µm
o
T = 27 C

10

0

Conv. LLBS
Conv. LHBS
LMPS
LMDS 

 
# 

40
80
120
Reverse voltage , VR [V]

+AB  &
B(     UZW  

  

_   

? 

 !

1 

 

B 

160 

,      

G

'W  O 
UZW   =  D 

  

 

)

Distance [ µm]
Distance [ µm]
Distance [ µm]

0

LMPS &
LMDS
VR = 120 V

3−
6 −|

0

0

|

|

|

|

|

10

15

20

25

30

|

5

Distance [ µm]
(a)

LMPS
VR = 120 V

3−
6 −|

0

0

|

|

|

|

|

|

5

10

15

20

25

30

Distance [ µm]
(b)

LMDS
VR = 120 V

3−
6 −|

0

'AH8!$=F,  , 

R S ) C(  

|

|

|

|

|

|

5

10

15

20

25

30

R S A6 
) 

'

Distance [ µm]
(c)

I,!   R & S )C,    ' B 1 
   G )TW   =   1  ABA  &   

   

B  + 

_   

 

[F_ 

. 

G YVW 
ED  

G YVW 

G

TW3  =  &   '* &     ( ( ,   !  AZ B  & ,1?O 
'  B ! '     1A  ( !    ,      AB   ,1? ! 
)C(   
( 6 >,     
B,    
  UZW   =D G ,BA,#    A(  !    
)  
  6)16  ,  G )TW 
  = A        <6      ! " W  <? "    ,#   
BA  &  >?   '  B  !&  4  ( , "  1<6  (   1       +6/@   D ] ) O 
 ,#   (  " &  ,    
   67 
6  ( W   
4? " 4  )  6) B  (    (  ( (
B  !  ( 6 1 (     B     JUZW 4  7 
\ .  '     
 !   & ,1?  ' [ 
 ,   
6     
  "A 6  !)D 
   (  P 
AB   &   1?  '   1      
   GYHW   G )TW <  O 
7 
,  &  &   A      ( ]  !)D _ D \ '      '    C6) , !     
A
6      ,!       )C ,    ' B   &  &      AB  , + 
&   B A  &   

[F_
. ED     & AC
B ,    
  &      4  ) ( ,#   <6)    !     A6     
(!     ,   D ] )   ( #    &  ,,     (     T AB A   ,1? ! )< ,   

 &       G YVW  
 G )TW  
  =   '    !    +  ' & 1C  HW  4? "  O 
 D + ' A
B A, #   +     G )TW    = ( #       (  
     &    .  B   
,1? ! 
)C 
, &    !  "   !  A & 1C     '   ! 
   ,          '  !
& 

 

  

) 

,   ,    

 
A          &  < !#" %$ !  &'(   ! AB( !  )*  !   !      +  
( , ())- (/.0 ! ! 1 !2" %$ !  3& R S4  ! !  6 (
3  &     65  , 5 - 5/ " ! E=0 "
R798 
:  ;,*  <>=? (   #  @!   
-    &   A " " B$   & 3C3!   (     

 



  

ED

HJI,K1L%8
GF D
$  !    MCN ! 5'1PO,P= HJQ E5 8 3  "1    
F     .0 !!  !R" %$ !  &   '   K 
  .  O( S -0  R+  .0 ! ! 1 !2" %$ !  3& 5' *     5   .   *  !   !   

. = 
I        

  

.  )
,=   51 H 15  & A !  8  
   1 H
3 C  "  ! *  ! & :"  = ! 8   CN   JK   ! 5
$ 1 )  -  ! ! @ 
3 CN 
  ( 3 # " !  "
S  ! !  C (
    :15  & A ! 
$  1" 4  9"    !  !5   ! !  C (
     9 
C  "1 4   K  9  '1   F      &
C  !  5'  ! $  ( O  " -     <E   !  5   6& 1O(    E. " I@K1L(K Q  & K I,K   %$  
3  @ !   
5  ,15 - 5 .0 ! ! 1 !'" %$ !   &    ;,*    < =           -   ( 
! O !  .    K     .  ! O( 
    A ! .       ( O(    (  "
3 O@  +  .0 ! ! !
" %$ !  &   
    "  
)  !    O( ! =     $ P    !    3& ! O( !  .    !  - "P  & 
  "  ! & S! O( !  "  <  & S - !!   K    S    .       ;  
  ;
!   0 ! +  .  ! ! ! " %$ !  &  3 " %$ .0 ! ! 1 !);,*  <>= H 38 ! 5      " 5 (  
      $ P   !    3& ! O !  .    O  "1  & K      .  -      " 1 ( ! &  (      

          

Barrier lowering, ∆φ[eV]

0.25

m = 1.0 µm
w = 1.0 µm
d = 1.5 µm

0.20

Conventional Schottky

0.15

LMDS (∆φH )

0.10
LMDS (∆φL )

0.05

LMPS

0.00
0    

25
50
75 100
Reverse voltage , VR [V]

125 

 ! ! 1 !2" %$ !  3&     -   (  ! O !  .    O  "P  & A !4   ; +     

;  
 ( O   (  " 
O@   K 

"!

6

5

Electric field [x10 V/cm]

(a)
5

Conventional Schottky
LMPS & LMDS

4
3
2

1 m = 1.0 µm
0
0.0

w = 1.0 µm
d = 1.5 µm

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Distance [ µm]

8
Conventional Schottky
LMPS & LMDS

6

5

Electric field [x10 V/cm]

(b)

4

2

0
0 

8

16

24

Distance [ µm]

32 

  " !  0 "
?O  !       ! . !  <@
B$   "  & H  8 O !    " "   2C      &   

3!  - &  C      !  5 0 "
 1 
  "1      !      1"   (  .3- ! 1 
 1
:   !    

H . 8   !
(   ","   C     &  !  - & 6C       H   ! 0 "1
  
3    " 1 (    !    8 K 
L   

.  $    M $  !  *    C3  * 

- !   &  ! O( !  .    !  - "P  &    ! 
-   

"1 ! 1 0 "1
   " %$ .  ! ! ! ;,*   <>= (    K  ! 
-  
.0 ! ! ! " %$ !  3&  
# " %$ .0 ! ! 1 !4;,*  <>=  (   2     ;   
; !   0 !  !  - "1    
"  ! & M! 
-      ! O( !  "1  <  &  - ! !       5'C  !  
    ( O(    (  " ;
!   0 ! K   5  = .     
             2;!  0 ! + 3 .0 !! 1 ! " %$ !   & 
   &  .0 ! ! !6;,*   <>= H 8  
  "1 & >"P=   &  ! .0 ! ! !" B$ !  &   
" %$ .0 !! 1 !9;,*    < = H 38  (   9 E-     5  "1"   !   6   6! O !  "1  <  & 
- ! !   E   9C !  C ( 

O@      5'C  ! 
?          ;?!   0 ! K 
   "1=  3 !  ( SA !)3 15C !  O( 
! O( !  *  !   !      3  ; 


 ; !  0 ! + P    "   15C  !     )  2 4 "  !   0 "1

 ! . -    3 
3 
3 2 
O@1   ! -  - !  K Q  & KMI, K H  8   %$    "1 ! 1 0 "
O  !    (   ! . !  <
%$  
" ( &   O( !1  " "   C    3&   !  - &  C            ! -  - ! H   %$    Q  & K
I,KPLB8  !  5 0 "1
  
  1" 1 (    !    6    "1  (  . - !  
  
3 )   !    K      . 
 R+ A ! .     ;   
 ; !  ! +  !      &(     ! 
-   (   
3  - !    "1 ! 1 0 "1
$ 1  CN  < " !  0 "1
 C CN  !  3&    .     5 
&  
3 S !  * H C        8K  B$ O ! +    '  O   (  " ;,*    < = !   0 ! + 3 CN  < 
"1 ! 1 0 "1
  - !      ;,*  <>=S       
-    C ! 5   - !    . !  <
%$  
3 
O@ 
- 2     !   
.0 !!  ! " %$ !  &  K Q - !  ! +   2 "1 ! 1 0 "

O  !    (  "  &   )  ! 
(   " "   C      &   !  - &  C       H  -   . " %$  " 

 
  1"   (    !    8  #  %$    Q  & K#I, K H . 8K      !  5    & - ! +   CN  < 
"1 ! 1 0 "
A !  2 ( O(    (  "R 
O,1 #  - !    3 ;,*  <>=  (    K   !  + 
A ! .       ;  
    ; !   0 ! + 3 C  < " !  "
 C C  !   
C       H  $  =  !  5  ;,*  <>=    !    8 $   * !  - "1        ! C  
  &  !
. !  <
%$  O  "1  &  3  9 
O@   K             

                               

>I   

   
   

C %$ ! " (     !  0 !
3 CN 
 - C ( 3  C !     &  5'C !   - !
-   3 O  !  
  (   3 A ! $  !
 
! O( !  '"  <  & *  !   !   1 4$ P  5'C !   - ! K  ! 
A ! +   
  )    5'C !   - ! ( C %$ ! 
   C    ( + $   
  !  2< 3B$ 
3 2O  !       
 $ P  5CN !   - ! KMQ  & KMI@K    %$    
C 
   

   5CN !   - !    A ! $  !
 - !!  
3   1=  L  E 5   
! O !  .    
L%I
A !3 ;  
; !  !  K  2   .  .  ! O( 
   4  A ! $  !

O  "1  & 2
!  C  .   ?  
O,1  
!    $ 1?  !     &  5'C !   - ! K      .  

 

  

           

!"!   

Reverse current density
JR [A/cm2]

!   

10 0
LMPS
LMDS

−2

10

10−4

Forward voltage drop
VF [V] 

  

(a)

−6

10

VR= 120 V

−8

10

JF =100 A/cm2

0.5
0.4

(b)

m = 1.0 µm
w = 1.0 µm
d = 1.5 µm

0.3
−120

−60

0

60

Operating temperature [ o C ]

120

H  8 O !  9"  <  & 4 - ! !  :
  P=  
H . 8 A ! $  !
O  "1  & 
!  C    

-   (?  5'C !   - ! A !   ;     



2;?!   0 !  K   

40

Power dissipation [ W/cm2 ]

30

20   

µm
µm
µm

m = 1.0
w = 1.0
d = 1.5

10
−120

VR= 120 V
JF =100 A/cm2

LMPS
LMDS

−60

0

60

120

Operating temperature [ o C ]

% $ ! 
  C   (     -   (G  5'C !   - ! A !)  

;   

; !  0 !  K  

 R+ 3  2;9!   0 ! & 1O    &(     "P=4" %$ ! A ! $  !
9O  "1  &
!  C    5'C  ! ( 
 
 ; !  ! K  .    
3 O@  +   ! O( !  "  <  &  - ! !  6  !   
$ 1 ?  !    3&  5'CN !   - ! K
Q !  5   E.  O( !  - "P E Q  & K?I,K  +   C %$ !" (    "1 - "   
-   3& K H L(K 8 
A ! 

- = =@"     -   (   5'C !   - ! 6    %$    Q  & KSI,K 3K  P  " "P= + 
3 C %$ !6"     .    
3 O@   
!   '$ P   !     &  5CN !   - !
- ?  
3  
!     3 A ! $  !
O  "1  & 9
!  C $  1*
 5'      C %$ !" ( - C     
CN !    &  5'C !   - !  4K  .  O( +   ! O( !  #"1  <  &  - ! !  
 5'     
3 )C %$ ! " (   
!  - "P        !   
C %$ ! 
  1C    ( $ 1  5'CN !   - ! K   
  .         2C3!  C ( 
 ; !  0 ! 
  C    "   C %$ !     5C  ! 
  
3  ;!  !M O  - C'   4K   15C  !    !  - "P      O(    +          

!  

"! 

"!

   

!  

"!



C B$ ! " (       ; !  ! + $ 3 *  (     :( "1=?;@*    <>=  -    (3+   A -  

 . L 
" %$ !         3  ; !  0 ! K        

  
 
      "! $# % 


Q  & K I,K1L H  8   %$     5 - "   
. !  <
%$  O  "P  &     -    ( E   !  * 

C3 A !   
2; !  0 ! K    R+   . !  <@
B$  O  "1  & S 5'C !  O  $ 1   
!     &  !  * 
C3  
   - !    . = 
 !  * 
C,  K '& 5 K   !
3 !
!   

Breakdown voltage [V]

! 

150
100
LMDS
m = 1.0 µ m
w = 1.0 µ m
T = 27 oC

50
(a)

0

Point ‘A’
Point ‘B’

Electric field
[x10 5 V/cm]

6
4
2
0
0.0

(b)

0.5

1.0

1.5

Trench depth, d [µm]

2.0

H  8 !  <
%$  O  "1  &  
H . 8 "1  ! 1 0 "1
  ! . !  <
%$   MC     
/. H .     5  3 )!  * 8  
C      . H 
&   0 "
C "   8     -   (  
3 2!  *
3 C3  A !    ; !  ! K 

) (+*-,         

5

E [x10 V/cm]

d = 0 µm
4
2
30

00
20
10

Y[ 1
µm
]

X

0

2

]

m

(a)

d = 1.5 µm
4

A

5

E [x10 V/cm]

B

2
30

0
0
20
10

Y[ 1
µm
]

0

2

X

]

m

(b)

$   
15    (  " " !  0 "1

 ! . -     3 
!  #! &  (    

; !   0 ! A ! H  8  !  !  *? 
C3    ! O !  .    
H . 8 !  *? 
C3 
L(K & 5    ! O( !  .   : L%I
K   

( ( ,      



! 

 -  
!    
S  + 1   15C  !        :3 : "  !   0 "1
'
3   !  . -  (    : 
O@  K
Q  & K I@K1L H . 8   %$    ! . !  <
%$   #O  !    'E "1  ! 1 0 "
'O  !  * 
C3  
C      /.  
 .R    S
!    ! &   E    ! -  - ! H   %$    Q  & K6I,K1L%8K     
!  *S 
C3S  !   +   :CN  < "  !   0 "1
6 
!      C      /.  
6  !     
C      . K,Q - !3 ! + . " %$  !  * 
C3  K & 5 +   4CN  < " !  0 "1
  C     
/.     &  !9    C      . !  - "1   &    "  ! & S! O( !  "  <  & ' - !!  
-  
.0 !! 1 ! " %$ !  3&      2  &  .0 !! 1 !:;@*    <>=  (    H C      /. 8K 3  5  <  
3 2 
O@1 2  . !  <@
B$   :C      . A !   !  *
3 C3  "1     K & 5 K    
  !#  
+N$    !  *
3 C3      !   
. = (
K & 5 +  C  <? "1  ! 1
0 "
  C      . .   5'    &  !2        9C      /.  
 -     ' 
O@  ' 
. !  <
%$   9C      . K       . .   ! -  
!   @
 !  5   6 $   
15    (  " 
"1 ! 1 "
6
3   !  . -  (   ! . !  <
%$ '  %$    Q  & K I,KPL(L A !  $ 
3 !   !  * 

C3  K      .     !  5 Q  & K#I@K1L(L>H  8 + A !  !  !  * 
C3 +  C  <? "1  ! 1
0 "
  - !   M  2;@*    <>= (       !     "1  6 - !    K    !  - "P     "  ! &
! O( !  "  <  & 2 - ! !  #
-     !   
.0 ! ! ! " %$ !   &   
? -      !"1=
. !  <
%$ G   ? 
O@1 K     !  *G 
C,G    !   
G  L(K & 5 +  ?CN  < 
"1 ! 1 0 "
    B$    Q  & K6I@K1L(L>H . 8 +         C      /.    6O !    " 
1!  (
H  $  =  !  5    "1    - !    8  
  C      .R    6  ! 
   " 
1!  ( H  $  = 
!  5  ;,*   <>=      8K 3 #        C  < "1  ! 1 "
!  - "P       &  ! 

   ! C . !  <
%$  O  "1  &  3  2; !   0 ! K 

!   

!     

!

!                 

      

$!     '% 



 ! 

  

     "! # % 

! 
 .  $    A ! $  !
O  "1  &
3!  C  
3 ! O( !  "  <  &  - ! !  

  P= A !4 
!  4O  " - 2E  !  * 
C, H 08 + !  * $ 
3  H 8  
5   $ 
3     



H 8     %$    Q  & K)I,KPLBI A !43  2; !   0 ! KSQ  & K6I@K1LBI3H  8   %$    S! O( ! 
"  <  & ' - !!  )
  1=   L%I 
! O !  .        -   (    5'   $ 1
3   
!  * $ 
, H 8 !     A !  !  * 
C3   E L(K  
L(K & 5 K  O  !    (  
!      : .     
A !   
  
3 $ 1
3  & 5 H I   & 5 8K     
.   R+     !   )  3 !  * 
C3
3 !    3 )! O( !  6"1  <  &  - !!  9
- 
   ! 
-  
.0 ! ! ! " %$ !   &  :  " %$ .0 !! 1 ! ;,*    < =  (    K      !    

!

! 

 

Forward voltage drop
VF [V]

Reverse current density
−3
2
J R [x10 A/cm ] 



9    

LMDS
d = 1.0 µm
d = 1.5 µ m

7
5

(a)

3
VR= 120 V

1
JF =100 A/cm2

0.42

(b)

0.40
0.38
0.36
0.34
0

2

4

6

m/w Ratio

8

H  8  O( !  "1  <  &  - ! !  
  1=  
H . 8 A ! $  !
?O  "1  &
!  C   
 -    ( 5'   $ 1
3 B!  * $ 
3  H 48 !    A !   
 - !     3
$ 
,
H I   & 5 8 A !     ;?!  ! K

) ( ,  

       

Reverse current density
−3
2
J R [x10 A/cm ]

6

φ H[eV]

LMDS
J F = 50 A/cm2
J F = 100 A/cm2

0.64
0.66
0.68
0.70
0.74

4

2
m = 1.0 µm
w = 1.0 µm
d = 1.5 µm

0
0.30

VR= 120 V
φ L= 0.57 eV

0.35

0.40

0.45

Forward voltage drop, VF [V]

! 
 .  $     A ! $  !
O  "1  &
!  C  
 ! O( !  )"1  <  & 
- ! !  
  P= $ P O  !         .0 ! ! !   & > H 8    3 &  .0 !!  ! ;@*    <>= 
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{jc G BDE=R  .- 0/  BDcŽ\9E&c G RFE GZH c^fqa0LW_d@FSbBDUFRFEpCTS[_dCFE G BYCFL^@ŒBYCMLWB.{ G EORFS[IrBYE=Rˆ\`yoBDCFEpBYCFE G a}S[cd@TS[I
E=a}S HZH Sbcd@QBYCFEOc G y 12 Š d3Š / L^@TR H CTc P|H L H B G cd@F_dE G †^cdebBYL^_dEŽRFEO{9EO@FRFEO@FI=EJBDCML^@}_dSb†^E=@}\`y
BYCTE‡Sba0L^_^E fhc G I=EŽSb@FRFUFIOE=R€\FL GDG S[E G e[c P E G S[@F_ 12 Š dŠ Š ŽCFS H S H \jE=I=L^U H EoS[@%L^RFRFSlBYSbcd@}BDc    

    

  

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BYCTE‡BYCTE G a}S[c^@FS[I|E=a}S HZH Sbcd@€L^@TR€S[a%L^_dE fhc G I=EŽS[@TRFUFI=EOR \ML GZG S[E G ebc P E G S[@T_ N BDCFE G EO†^E GDH EŒe[E=L^
L^_dEwI=U GZG E=@`B]S[@VBDCFE s S s IKCTc^BDBDny G E=IrBYS ME GZH S H Sb@  UFEO@FI=EORz\`y a%L^@`y)cWBYCFE G {ML G LWa%ErBYE GZH
H UTIKC L H}H U G fƒL^I=E*S[@FCFc^a%cd_^E=@FEOSbBYSbE H  .- /  N RFEO{Fe[ErBYS[c^@ G E=_dSbcd@ _^E=@FE G LWBDS[cd@  /  N \ML GDG S[E G
CFEOS[_dC`B  UFIrBYUML‰BYS[c^@ H L^@FR BYCFE‚IL GDG SbE G BYUT@F@FE=ebS[@F_  / / N /  Š ?A@FI=ebUFRFSb@F_xL^e[e BDCFE H E*IOU GDG E=@`B
e[E=L^‰L^_dEˆa}E=IKCML^@TS H a H S[@*BDCFE BDCFE G a%Sbcd@FSbIŒE=a}S HDH S[cd@ a}cmRFEOe S H †dE G y)IOcda}{Fe[E uŠ ŽCTE G Erfhc G E N
P EQ{ G c^{9c H EQL H S[a}{Fe[E]E=a}{FS G S[I=L^ea}cmRFEOefhc G BDCFEQ\ML GZG SbE G CFE=Sb_dC`Boe[c P E G S[@F_  Sb@ 12 Š
^Š / fhc G L^@VLWI=I=U G LWBDEw{ G E=RFSbIOBYSbcd@)cWfpBYCFE G Er†dE GZH E„ebEL^‰L^_dE]I=U GDG EO@`BoS[@ BYCFE s S s IKCFc^BDBD`y
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I=c^@ H BYL^@`B H Š ŽCTE H E}I=c^@ H BYL^@`B H L G E„Er†^LWe[UMLWBDE=R \`y SbBDE G LWBYSb@F_ 12 Š /TŠ S[@ 1 ‡? ?oUF@`BYSbe
BYCTE H SbaQUFevL‰BYE=R G EO†^E GZH E‚e[E=L^‰L^_dE0IOU GDG E=@`Bka%LWBYIKCFE H BYCFE0a%E=L H U G E=RiRML‰BKLTŠ5L H E=R cd@ BDCFE
E m{jE G S[a}E=@`BKL^e G E H UTebB H]G EO{9c G BYEOR \`y s IKCFcqE=@ Š   N BDCFE H E0IOcd@ H BYL^@`B H L G EkfhcdUF@FR~BDc
\jE N  /TŠ 4 /    IOa  LW@FR    Š  / fhc G ŽS9L^@FR  dŠ    I=a 
L^@FR    Š 4 / - fhc G ‡S N BDCFE‡a}EOBYL^e H U H E=R€Sb@%c^U GgH BYUTRTydŠ  CFSbe[E5BYCTE‡{ML G L^a}EOBDE G QL^@FR  


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Reverse current density, J R [A/cm2]     

−1

10

!788!7 6 8787
5!5!565

Simulation Experiment

−2

LBS [54]
HBS [54]
DMTS [54]

10

−3

10

−4

10

−5

10

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100 150 200 250
Reverse voltage, VR [V]

300

dc a}{ML G S H c^@ c^f H SbaQUFe[LWBYEOR LW@FRE T{jE G S[a}E=@`BKLWe G EO†^E GZH EVebEL^‰L^_dE IOU GDG E=@`B
RFEO@ H SlBYS[E H fhc G BYCTEˆ†^E G BYS[I=L^e  s S   s ŽS rN   s ‡S L^@FR s‚G E=IrBYS ME GZH Š 1 T{jE G
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S[@‚BYCTEQL^\jc †dEw\FL GDG S[E G ebc P E G S[@F_}a}cmRFEOefhc G \9c^BDC ŽS L^@FR ‡S P c G  †dE G y P E=ebe P CFE=@VIOcda
{ML G E=R BYc„BDCFEˆE m{9E G Sba%EO@nBYL^e.RML‰BKL„c^f   N SlBŽa%L y L^e H c„\9EŒ@FcWBYE=R‚BYCFLWBŽBYCFE]L^IrBYUMLWeu†WL^e[UFE H
c^f L^@FR  CML†dE%BDc*\jE„fhcdUF@FRzIL G EOfhUFebeby H S[@TI=EkBYCFE}a%E=L H U G E=Rz\ML GZG S[E G CFE=Sb_dC`B H c^f5a}c H B
a}EOBKLWe H cd@ s S I=L^@xCML†dE%L P SbRFE G L^@T_dE„c^f†^LWe[UFE H RTE={jE=@FRFSb@F_‚cd@ BYCFEk{ G cmIOE HDH L^@TRxBDCFE
2 UML^ebSbBAy%c^f s S P LWfhE GDH U H EOR)Sb@‚BDCFEŒfƒL^\ G S[IL‰BYS[c^@.Š
c}†dE G Sbf y BDCFE L^I=IOU G L^Iry c^ftBDCFEw{ G cd{jc H EOR)E=a}{FS G S[I=L^e.a}cmRTE=e N ‹tS[_FŠ /TŠ kH CFc P|H L}IOcda
{ML G S H cd@‚c^f H S[aQUTevLWBDE=R G Er†dE GZH E IKCML G LWIOBYE G S H BYSbI HŽP SbBDC‚E m{9E G Sba%EO@nBYL^eRMLWBYLQfhc G BYCFEŒ†dE G BDS[ILWe
]s IKCFc^BDBD`y
{Fe[L^@ML G   s ŽS L^@FR   s ‡S L HJP E=ebe&L H BDCFE„RFUML^eta%ErBKL^e B G EO@FIKC
G EOIOBDS ME GDH   cd@  s S JŠ.? B IL^@x\jE H E=E=@xBYCML‰B BDCFE H S[awUFevLWBDE=R G E H UFelB H U H Sb@F_‚BYCFE}{ G c
{jc H EOR EOa%{FS G SbIL^ea%cqRFEOe H CFc P LW@ E mI=E=ebe[EO@nB%L^_ G E=EOa%EO@`B P SbBYCiBDCFE‚a%E=L H U G E=R RMLWBYLTŠi? B
S HON BDCFE G EOfhc G E N @Fc P {9c HDH Sb\Fe[E„BDc)E m{Febc G EkBYCTE%UF@TS 2 UFEkfhELWBDU G E H c^f BYCFE%{ G cd{jc H E=R  s S 
swG E=IOBDS ME G \`ywUmBYS[ebS OS[@F_|BYCFE { G cd{jc H E=R„E=a}{FS G S[I=L^ena%cqRFEOeqfhc G \ML GZG S[E G CFEOS[_dC`Bte[c P E G Sb@F_
S[@ c^U G B P c}RFS[a}E=@ H S[c^@ML^eu@nUFa}E G S[I=L^e H SbaQUFe[LWBYSbcd@€L H RFS H IOU HDH E=R)\jE=ebc P Š
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ŽCFE H S[awUFevLWBDE=R]fhc GZP L G R I=cd@TRFUFIOBDS[cd@wIKCML G LWIOBYE G S H BYSbI H c^fFBYCTE  s S zI=cd@`†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e #  sjN
I=c^@n†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e   s L^@FR%BDCFE  s0G E=IrBYS ME GZH L G E H CTc P @0S[@€‹ S[_FŠ /TŠ /mŠ  H IL^@€\jE H E=EO@ N
BYCTE5I=cd@`†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e   swG EOIOBYS ME GtH CFc P|H LoevL G _dE G †dc^ebBKLW_dE5R G cd{„RFUFE BDcŒSbB H CFS[_^CFE G \ML GDG S[E G
CFEOS[_dC`B‡L H I=cda}{ML G E=R‚BYckBYCFE]I=cd@`†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e   s G E=IOBDS ME G Š ŽCFE fhc G P L G R IKCML G LWIOBYE G S H BYSbI
c^fˆBYCTE  s G E=IOBDS ME G S H I=c^a%{ML G L^\FebE)BYciBDCMLWB‚c^f]BYCFE IOcd@`†dEO@nBDS[cd@FL^e #  s G E=IOBDS ME G
P CFSbIKC H CFc P|H Lkebc P fhc G P L G R †dcdelBKL^_^EoR G c^{.Šg‹Mc G E TL^a}{FebE N BDCFEofhc GZP L G R‚†^cdebBYL^_dEŒR G cd{‚c^f
BYCTE   s9N  s L^@TR   s G E=IOBDS ME GDH S H  Š .4 N  Š 54 L^@FR dŠ QNG E H {jE=IrBYSl†dE=ely N LWB]L
I=U GDG EO@`BJRFEO@ H SlBAy‚c^f    WIOa Š ŽCFE]e[c P fhc GZP L G R R G c^{*c^f BYCFE  s‚G EOIOBYS ME G ILW@*\jE
UF@FRTE GDH BYcqcmR%f G cda BYCFEJI=U GZG E=@`BŽ†^E=IOBDc GDHŽH CFc P @‚S[@ ‹tSb_FŠ /mŠ wfhc G \jc^BYC€BDCFE   7s 6 #  s   

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Forward current density, J F [A/cm2]

10

4
LLBS

10

2
LMDS

10

LHBS

0

−2

m = 2.0 µm
w = 1.0 µm
d = 1.0 µm
t = 2.0 µm

10

−4

10

0.0

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
Forward voltage drop, VF [V]

s S[aQUTevLWBDE=R fhc G P L G R I=cd@FRTUFIOBDS[cd@ IKCML G L^IOBDE G S H BDS[I H cWf‡BDCFE  s S
G EOIOBDS ME G I=cda}{ML G E=R BYckBYCFc H Eˆc^f BYCFEˆI=c^@n†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e   s L^@FR   s€G EOIOBDS ME GDH Š
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^L @FRzBYCFE  s~G EOIOBYS ME GZH LWBQL*IOU GDG E=@`B„RFEO@ H SlBAy~c^f    WI=a Š ? BQILW@ \9E H EOE=@ BYCFLWB
S[@‚BYCTEwIL H EwcWf  s)G EOIOBDS ME G=N BYCFE e[c P \ML GZG SbE G‡s IKCFc^BZBY`y*I=cd@`BKLWIOBo{TevLy H L%WEOy G cdebE Sb@
fƒL^IOS[e[SlBKLWBDS[@F_ˆBYCTE]IOU GDG E=@`B  c P L^@FR‚CFEO@FI=E G E H UFelB H S[@ L„e[c P fhc GZP L G R †^cdebBYL^_dEŒR G cd{.Š   

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‹tSb_FŠ /mŠ H CFc P|H LˆI=c^a%{ML G S H cd@}c^fuBDCFE H S[aQUFe[LWBYEOR G EO†^E GZH Eo\FebcmIKnSb@F_ˆIKCML G LWIOBYE G S H BYSbI H c^f.BDCFE 
s S I=c^@n†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e   s9N IOcd@`†dEO@nBDS[cd@FL^e   s L^@FR0BDCFE  s0G E=IrBYS ME GZH Š&? B5I=L^@€\jE
H EOE=@ BYCFLWBoBYCTE G EO†^E GZH E}e[ELWWLW_dEwIOU GDG E=@`BˆRFE=@ H SbBAyVc^fgBYCFEQIOcd@`†dEO@nBDS[cd@FL^e   s)G E=IrBYS ME G S H
CFSb_dCFE H BˆL^@FR BDCMLWBˆc^fgBYCTE„I=cd@`†dEO@`BYS[c^@ML^e   sVG E=IOBDS ME G S H ebc P E H BˆRFUFEQBDc BYCFEQfƒL^IrBoBYCFLWB   

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BYCTE G Er†dE GDH EŒebEL^‰L^_^E‡IOU GDG E=@`B H B G cd@T_deby}RFEO{9EO@FR H UF{jcd@0BDCFEJa}EOBYL^e H EOa%SbI=cd@FRTUFIOBDc G \ML GDG S[E G
CFEOS[_dC`BŠ~‹MU G BDCFE G a%c G E N S[@ BDCFE‚IL H E‚c^fX\9c^BDCiBYCFE IOcd@`†dE=@`BDS[cd@MLWe s IKCFc^BZBY`y RFEO†qSbI=E HON BDCFE
G Er†dE GDH E%e[E=L^‰L^_dE„I=U GDG EO@`BwSb@FI G EL H E H †dE G y G L^{FSbRFeby P SbBDC S[@FI G EL H S[@T_ G Er†dE GZH Ex\FSvL H RTUFE}BDc
BYCTEŒS[@FI G EL H E=R \ML GZG SbE G e[c P E G S[@F_kE 9E=IrBkLWB BYCFE s IKCTc^BDBDny~I=cd@`BYL^IOB=Š @ BYCFE€cWBYCFE G CML^@FR N 

Distance [µm]

Distance [µm] 

0
1−

Anode

Cathode

(a)

2−
3−
|

|

0

2

0−
1−

|

|

4
6
Distance [µm]

|

|

8

10

Anode

Cathode

2−

(b)

3−
|

|

0

2

|

|

4
6
Distance
[µm]
.

|

|

8

10 

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1

10

0

10

−1

LLBS

10

−2

10

−3

10

LMDS

−4

10

−5

m = 2.0 µm
w = 1.0 µm
d = 1.0 µm
t = 2.0 µm

LHBS

10

−6

10

−7

10

0

200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Reverse voltage, VR [V]

s SbaQUFe[LWBYEOR G Er†dE GZH Eˆ\FebcmIKnS[@T_QIKCML G L^IOBDE G S H BDS[I H cWf BDCFE  s S  s€G E=IrBYS
ME G I=cda}{ML G E=R‚BYc„BYCFc H Eˆc^f BYCFEˆI=c^@n†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e   s L^@FR   s G EOIOBYS ME GZH Š
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fhc G BYCFE  s G E=IrBYS FE G=N BYCFE G EO†^E GDH Eˆe[ELWWLW_dEJIOU GDG E=@`B|S[@FI G E=L H E H cd@Feby}\`y L]fƒL^IOBDc G c^f /
L H BYCFE G Er†dE GZH EQ\TSvL H S H S[@FI G E=L H EOR*f G c^a   BYc    LW@FR)S H L^\jcdUTBXBYC G E=E c G RTE GDH c^f
a%L^_d@FSlBYUFRFEe[c P E G L H I=cda}{ML G E=RQBDcJBYCFEŽIOcd@`†dEO@nBDS[cd@FL^e   swG EOIOBDS ME G Šp? B&S H Sb@nBDE G E H BDS[@F_oBDc
@Fc^BDEŒBYCMLWBX\jc^BYC‚BYCTE IOcd@`†dE=@`BDS[cd@MLWe RTEO†qS[IOE H E mCFS[\FSlBXL H c^f B G Er†dE GZH EQ\ G ELWqRTc P @VLWB
RTE M@FEOR L H BYCTE G Er†dE GZH Eˆ\FS[L H †^cdebBYL^_dEoL‰B   WI=a P CFE G E=L H BYCFE  s€G E=IrBYS ME GON
S[@ H {TSbBYEXc^fU H S[@T_wcd@Fely s IKCFcWBDBY`y%I=cd@`BYL^IOB H=NTH CFc P|H L H CML G {€\ G E=L^nRFc P @ LWB /  P CTS[IKC
S H L^\9c^UTBoB P c‚BDS[a}E H CFS[_dCTE G BDCML^@ BYCML‰BŒc^fgBYCFE„IOcd@`†dEO@nBDS[cd@FL^epRFEr†mSbI=E H Š ŽCFS HŒG EOa0L G ‰L^\Fe[E
S[a}{ G c †^E=a}E=@`B5Sb@0BYCTEo\ G E=L^nRFc P @ †dcdelBKL^_dE‡c^fBYCTE  s€G EOIOBYS ME G S H RTUFEJBYcQBDCFE G E=RFUFIOE=R
E=ebE=IrB G SbI MEOe[RzLWBŒBYCFE s IKCTc^BDBDny IOcd@`BKL^IrB L^@FR BYCFE}L†WL^evLW@FIKCFEk\ G E=L^nRFc P @zBYL^^E H {Fe[L^I=E„Sb@ 
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BYCTEŒR G Slf B G E=_^S[cd@‚\jE=e[c P BYCFEˆEORF_dEˆc^f BYCFE MEOe[R {FevLWBDEŒL H RFS H I=U HDH EOR)Sb@ H E=IrBYS[c^@ /TŠ 4 Š
ŽCFE G EO†^E GZH EoebEL^‰L^_dE|IOU GDG E=@`B  c P a}E=IKCFL^@FS H a IL^@%\9E|\jEOBZBYE G UF@FRTE GDH BYcqcmR}f G cda ‹ S[_FŠ
/TŠ 4 P CFSbIKC H CTc P|H BYCFE%I=U GZG E=@`B  c P †^E=IrBYc GZH fhc G \jc^BDCzBYCTE0I=c^@n†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e s IKCFc^BZBY`y~L^@FR
BYCTE  s0G E=IrBYS FE GDH LWB L G Er†dE GDH EŒ\TSvL H c^f   Š  H ILW@€\9E H EOE=@ N fhc G BDCFEJIOcd@`†dEO@nBDS[cd@FL^e
s IKCFcWBDBY`y G EOIOBDS ME GDH=N BDCFE G EO†^E GDH E e[E=L^‰L^_dE I=U GDG EO@`B  c P|H @Fc^@ AUF@TSbfhc G a%ely BDC G cdUT_dC BDCFE    

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Distance [µm]

Distance [µm] 

0
1− 

Anode

Cathode

(a)

2−
3−
|

|

0

2

0−
1−

|

|

4
6
Distance [µm]

|

|

8

10

Anode

Cathode

2−

(b)

3−
|

|

0

2

|

|

4
6
Distance .[µm]

|

|

8

10 

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CD< 5(IRGHCD< d>5^;i+$(X102rBPORQW<o0:5a&*SKMndp5(,i!>5^,iI 5^D10W+5(d4sM$(!1,i5(;tf

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s IKCFcWBDBY`y I=cd@`BYL^IOBgLW@FR„E mCFSb\FSbB H LJI G c P RFS[@T_ŒLWBtBDCFE G S[_dC`BtE=RF_dE c^fMBYCFE L^@FcqRFE^Š ŽCFS H S H RTUFE
BYcQBDCFEŒ{ G E H EO@FI=E]c^f BYCFEŒ{jELW0E=ebE=IrB G SbI ME=ebR‚LWBŽBYCTS H {jcdS[@`B P CTS[IKC G E H UFelB H S[@‚L^@‚Sb@FI G EL H E=R
\ML GZG SbE G ebc P E G S[@T_„E 9E=IOB=Š  CFE G EL HON S[@€BDCFEŒIL H EŒc^f BYCFE  s G E=IrBYS FE G=N a0L Zc G SbBAy}c^f BDCFE
G Er†dE GDH E}e[E=L^‰L^_dE„IOU GDG E=@`B  c P|H UF@TSbfhc G a%ely*BDC G cdUT_dC BYCFEke[c P \ML GDG S[E Gˆs IKCFc^BZBY`yxI=cd@`BYL^IOB=Š
ŽCFE G E=L H c^@ H fhc G BYCFE]L^\jc †dE]RFS 9E G E=@FIOEˆS[@ BYCFEˆIOU GDG E=@`B  c P L G E]RTS H IOU HDH E=R*\9EOe[c P Š    

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!
c H EOE BDCFE E uEOIOBpcWfFBYCFE\ML GZG SbE G e[c P E G Sb@F_‡c^@ BYCTE G Er†dE GDH E e[ELWWLW_dE IOU GDG E=@`B N BYCFE a0L mSbaQUFa
\ML GZG SbE G e[c P E G Sb@F_  L H L fhUF@FIrBYSbcd@ c^f5BDCFE G EO†dE GDH E \FSvL H S H]H CFc P @iSb@i‹tS[_TŠ /mŠ fhc G
BYCTE  s G E=IOBDS ME G L^@FR BYCFEkIOcd@`†dE=@`BDS[cd@MLWeRTEO†qS[IOE H Š}? BˆILW@z\jEkcd\ H E G †^E=RzBDCMLWBˆfhc G BDCFE
I=c^@n†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e   s}G E=IOBDS ME G=N BYCFE‡\ML GZG S[E G e[c P E G Sb@F_ Sb@FI G EL H E H †dE G y%fƒL H B P SbBYC%S[@FI G E=L H Sb@F_
G Er†dE GDH E}\FS[L H †dcdelBKL^_^E G E H UFelBYS[@T_ S[@xL evL G _dE G Er†dE GDH E}e[E=L^‰L^_dE„IOU GDG E=@`BŠ„? B H CTcdUFe[RxL^e H c \jE
@Fc^BDE=RkBYCML‰B5L^elBYCFc^UF_dC„BYCFEX\ML GZG SbE G e[c P E G S[@F_  fhc G BYCTE‡IOcd@`†dE=@`BDS[cd@MLWe   s}G E=IOBDS ME G
S H CFS[_dCTE G BYCFL^@ BYCFE„IOcd@`†dE=@`BDS[cd@MLWe #  sVG E=IOBDS ME G=N BDCFE}L^IOBDUML^e s IKCTc^BDBDnyV\ML GDG S[E G CFE=Sb_dC`B
S[@%BYCFEŒI=L H EŒc^f BDCFE   s€G EOIOBDS ME G S H a}c G EJBYCMLW@€BYCMLWB|cWfBYCFE   s€G EOIOBYS ME G L^@FR‚CFE=@TI=E
BYCTE G Er†dE GDH E ebEL^‰L^_^E0I=U GDG EO@`B„c^fŽBYCTE   s~G E=IrBYS FE G S H ebc P E G BYCMLW@~BYCML‰BQc^fŽBDCFE   s
G EOIOBDS ME G ŠŒ?A@VBYCTEQIL H E„c^f&BYCTE  s)G EOIOBYS ME GON BYCTE G S H EQSb@V\ML GZG S[E G ebc P E G S[@F_€LWBJBDCFE„e[c P
\ML GZG SbE GŒs IKCFc^BDBD`y  L^@FRVBDCFE„CFSb_dCV\ML GZG SbE GŒs IKCFc^BDBD`y   I=c^@nBYL^IOBˆS H a
L^@FR .4 a G E H {9EOIOBDSb†dEOeby€L H BYCTE G Er†dE GZH Eˆ\FS[L H S H S[@TI G E=L H EOR€f G cda   BYc    Š ŽCFS H
S[@TI G E=L H E H BYCFE G EO†dE GDH E)e[E=L^‰L^_dE€IOU GDG E=@`B%c^f|BYCFE  siG EOIOBYS ME G \`y LVfƒL^IrBYc G c^f / L H
BYCTE G EO†dE GDH EQ\FSvL H S H Sb@FI G EL H E=R)f G cda   BYc    Š cda}{ML G E=R*BDc%BDCFE IOcd@`†dEO@nBDS[cd@FL^e 
 s9N BYCTE G E=RFUFIOE=R \FL GDG S[E G ebc P E G S[@F_xLWBkBDCFE*ebc P \ML GZG SbE G%s IKCFc^BZBY`y I=cd@`BYL^IOB  
G E H UFelB H Sb@ LVevL G _dE G E=RFUTIOBYSbcd@ S[@~BDCFE G Er†dE GDH E e[E=L^‰L^_dE%I=U GZG E=@`B}c^f|BYCTE  s G E=IrBYS ME G Š
ŽCFS H S H \9EOIL^U H EQBYCFE s S G E=_dSbcd@V\jEOB P E=E=@ BYCTEwB P c€B G EO@FIKCFE H S H {FSb@FIKCFE=R Ac ~RFU G Sb@F_0BDCFE
G Er†dE GDH EJ\FSvL HgG E H UTebBYSb@F_]S[@€L G EORFUFI=EOR€E=ebE=IrB G SbI FE=e[R0LWBgBYCFE‡e[c P \ML GDG SbE G s IKCFcWBDBY`y%I=cd@`BYL^IOB=Š   

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1.0
LMDS ( ∆φBH )

Barrier lowering, ∆φB [V]

LHBS

0.8
0.6

m = 2.0 µm
w = 1.0 µm
LLBS
d = 1.0 µm
t = 2.0 µm
LMDS ( ∆φ BL)

0.4
0.2
0.0
0

;
   , 5L GDG S[E G

200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Reverse voltage, VR [V]

[e c P E G S[@F_ L H L%fhUF@FIrBYS[c^@ c^f G Er†dE GZH Ek\FS[L H †dc^ebBKLW_dE fhc G BYCFE  s S
s L^@FR I=cd@`†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^eRFEr†qS[I=E H Š   

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‹tSb_FŠ /mŠ -‚H CFc P|H BYCFE H SbaQUFevL‰BYE=Rx\ G EL^nRFc P @~†^cdebBYL^_dE}L H L‚fhUF@TIOBYSbcd@xc^f BDCFE0R G Sbf B G E=_dSbcd@
BYCTS[IKn@FE HZH fhc G BYCFE  siG E=IrBYS FE G Š ? B„I=L^@ \9E H E=EO@ BDCMLWBQBDCFE€\ G EL^nRFc P @ †dcdelBKL^_^E
S[a}{ G c †^E H P SbBDCQRFE=I G E=L H Sb@F_oR G Sbf B G EO_dS[cd@]BYCFSbIKn@FE HZH L^@FRQLW{F{ G c!mS[a%LWBDE=eby G E=a%L^S[@ H IOcd@ H BKL^@`B
\jE=e[c P L R G Sbf B G E=_dSbcd@ BYCFSbIKn@FE HZH c^f Š & a*Š ?A@ c G RTE G BYc L^@MLWeby =E BYCTEz\ G EL^nRFc P @
{FCFEO@Fcda}E=@Fc^@ S[@ BYCTEzRFEr†qS[I=E N SbB S H S[a}{jc G BYL^@`B BYc H E=ExBYCFExE=ebE=IrB G SbI FE=e[R RFS H B G S[\FUmBYS[c^@
S[@ H S[RTE}BDCFE0RFEr†qS[I=EWŠV‹tSb_FŠ /TŠ 4 H CTc P|H BDCFE0EOe[EOIOB G S[I ME=ebR~†WL G S[LWBYSbcd@xL^e[c^@F_*BDCFE0CFc G S Ocd@`BKL^e
e[Sb@FE}@FEL G BYCFE s S s S S[@`BYE G fƒL^IOE%fhc G BYCFE G S[_dC`BwCML^ebf|{jc G BYS[c^@~f G cda BYCTE€I=EO@nBDE G c^f|BDCFE  

 

 

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zs G E=IrBYS FE G L^@FR~BDCFE0IOcd@`†dE=@`BDS[cd@MLWe RFEr†qS[I=E H Š ŽCFE€EOe[E=IrB G S[I ME=ebRz†WL G S[LWBYSbcd@ S[@x\9cWBYC
BYCTE)I=c^@n†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e s IKCFc^BZBY`y G E=IrBYS FE GDH S H fhcdUF@FRBDc \jE H Sba%SbevL G LW@FR CFEO@FI=E)BDCFEOy H CTc P
S[RTE=@`BYSbIL^e5\ G ELWqRTc P @ LWB Šg‹MU G BYCFE G a}c G E N S[@iBDCFE*I=L H E c^fJI=cd@`†dEO@`BYS[c^@ML^e|RFEO†qSbI=E HON
BYCTE L†^LWevL^@FIKCTE \ G E=L^nRFc P @ BYL^^E H {FevL^IOE LWBQBDCFE s IKCFcWBDBY`y~I=cd@`BKLWIOBkRFUFE€BDc { G E H EO@FI=E c^f
{jEL^ EOe[E=IrB G S[I ME=ebR)L‰BXBDCFS H {jcdS[@`B=Š @*BDCFE cWBYCFE G CMLW@FR N S[@‚BYCFE]IL H E]c^f  s G E=IrBYS ME GON
BYCTE0{jEL^ E=ebE=IrB G SbI FE=e[R~LWBwBDCFE s IKCFc^BDBD`y~IOcd@`BKL^IrBQS H aQUFIKC~e[c P E G L H I=cda}{ML G E=RxBYc)BDCFE
I=c^@n†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e s IKCTc^BDBDny G E=IOBDS ME G Š ŽCFS H]G EORFUFIOE=R {jEL^)E=e[EOIOB G S[I MEOe[R G E H UFelB H S[@xL e[L G _^E
S[a}{ G c †^E=a}E=@`B|S[@ BDCFEˆ\ G E=L^nRFc P @)†dcdelBKL^_^EŒc^ftBDCFEˆ{ G cd{jc H E=R RFEO†qS[IOE^Š ŽCFS H ILW@*\jEˆ\9ErBDBYE G
UF@FRTE GDH BYcqcmR f G cda BDCFE‚B P c RFS[a}E=@ H S[c^@ML^eŽE=ebE=IrB G SbI FE=e[R RFS H B G S[\FUmBYS[c^@L H}H CTc P @S[@ ‹ S[_FŠ
/TŠ  fhc G \jc^BYC)BDCFEwIOcd@`†dEO@nBDS[cd@FL^etRFEr†qS[I=E H L^@FR)BDCFE  s)G E=IrBYS FE G L‰BŒL G EO†dE GDH E„\FSvL H c^f 
 Š  H IL^@€\jE H E=EO@€f G cda3‹tSb_FŠ /TŠ  L rN fhc G I=cd@`†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e9RFEO†qS[IOE HON BYCTEo{9E=L^kE=ebE=IOB G SbI  

!     

   

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Breakdown voltage [V]

1600

1200

800

400

0
1.0

LMDS
m = 2.0 µm
w = 1.0 µm
d = 1.0 µm
o
T = 27 C

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Drift region thickness, t [µm] 

 !#"%$&&')(*+&,-/.0"12(435&"6.7(48,3).9(:;+&35&"<(831*"=--.>(8
?A@BDC 3FEHGJI6K C =1=(35LM=N
OP

LLBS & LHBS
LMDS

m = 2.0 µm
w = 1.0 µm
d = 1.0 µm
o
T = 27 C
VR= 500 V

3

6

Electric field [x10 V/cm]

4

t = 2.0 µm

2

t = 2.5 µm

1

t = 2.0 µm
t = 1.5 µm

0
0

2

4

6

8

Distance . [ µm]

10

e[E=IrB G S[I ME=ebR †WL G SvLWBDS[cd@ LWe[cd@F_ BDCFE*CTc G S 
=cd@`BKLWeŽe[S[@TE @FEL G BYCTE s S s S
S[@`BDE G fƒLWI=E|fhc G BDCFE G S[_dC`B CML^elf.{jc G BDS[cd@kf G cda BDCFEJIOE=@`BYE G c^f.BDCFE H B G UTIOBYU G EoL‰BŽL G EO†^E GDH EŒ\FSvL H
c^f   Š
;
   , 1      

MEOe[R cmIOI=U GZH L‰B„BYCFE s IKCFc^BZBY`y I=c^@nBYL^IOB S Š EWŠ LWBkBYCFE G S[_dC`BkE=RT_dE*cWf‡BDCFE)LW@FcmRTE Š ŽCFS H
G E H UFelB H Sb@ L e[L G _dE G EO†^E GZH E)ebEL^‰L^_^E€I=U GZG EO@nB}RFUTE‚BDc S[@FI G EL H E=R \ML GZG SbE G e[c P E G S[@F_ E uEOIOB
L^@FR I=L^U H E H LW@ E=L G ely \ G EL^nRFc P @cWf‡BDCFE‚RFEO†qS[IOE^Š  CFE G EL H=N fhc G BDCFE  siG E=IrBYS ME GON
BYCTE0{jEL^xE=ebE=IOB G SbI MEOe[RiL HwH CFc P @iS[@ ‹tS[_FŠ /TŠ  \ rNpH CFSbf B H BYc){9cdSb@`B  Sb@zBDCFE0†dE G BDS[ILWe
RFS G E=IrBYSbcd@ L P L y‚f G cdaBDCFE H U G fƒLWI=E L^@FR‚BYc}{jcdS[@`B  S[@ BYCFE]CFc G S Ocd@`BKL^e.RTS G EOIOBDS[cd@ L P Ly
f G c^a BYCFE s IKCFcWBDBY`y I=c^@nBYL^IOB Š ŽCTS HXH CFSlf B‡Sb@ BDCFE]{9E=L^ E=ebE=IOB G SbI FE=e[R G E H UFelB H S[@*L%CFSb_dCFE G
L^@FR H CML G { \ G EL^nRFc P @*†^cdebBYL^_dEŒc^f BYCTE  s S  s‚G E=IrBYS FE G Š
? B5a%Lyk\9E‡@Fc^BYEOR€f G cda ‹ S[_FŠ /TŠ - BYCML‰B BYCTE G Er†dE GDH EŒ\ G ELWqRTc P @€†^cdebBYL^_dE‡c^f.BYCTE  s
G EOIOBDS ME G RFE=I G EL H E HXP SbBDC Sb@FI G EL H S[@F_kR G Sbf B G E=_dSbcd@ BYCFSbIKn@FE HZH Š ŽCFS H S H \jE=I=L^U H EˆBDCFEˆ{9E=L^ 



T 

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6

E [x10 V/cm]

4
2

10

0
0

5

Y [µ 1
m]

X

0

2

]
m

(a)

6

E [x10 V/cm]

B
4
2

10

00

Y[ 1
µm

5

A

]

X

0

2

]
[ µm

(b)

3E=e[EOIOB G S[I MEOe[RxRFS H B G S[\FUTBDS[cd@ Sb@xBDCFE0R G Sbf B G E=_dSbcd@zcWf BYCTE  s S L
I=c^@n†^E=@`BYSbcd@ML^e   s 6   s L^@TR \  s G E=IrBYS ME GZH LWBXL G EO†dE GDH Ew\FS[L H c^f   Š
;
   (+*-, 

  

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-     

E at Trench Bottom (point A)
E at FP Edge (point B)

3
t = 2.6 µm

6

Electric field [x10 V/cm]

4

t = 2.0 µm

2

LMDS

m = 2.0 µm
w = 1.0 µm
d = 1.0 µm
o
T = 27 C

1

0
0

[e EOIOB G S[I ME=ebR LWB {jcdS[@`B \jc^BZBYcdaEORF_dE0cWf5BYCFE}B G E=@FIKC L^@FR~{jcdSb@nB 
\jE=ebc P YB CFE E=RF_^EQc^fpBDCFE MEOe[R {FevL‰BYE L H L}fhUF@FIrBYSbcd@)c^f&BDCFE G EO†^E GDH E„\FSvL H †^cdebBYL^_dEˆfhc G BDCFE 
s S  s G EOIOBDS ME G Š

;
  )( ( , 1 

200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Reverse voltage, VR [V]    

!

 

E=ebE=IrB G SbI ME=ebR)L‰BXBDCFE s IKCFc^BZBY`y I=cd@`BYL^IOBXS[@  s‚H B G UFIOBDU G E G S H E H|P SlBYC S[@FI G E=L H Sb@F_kR G Slf B
G EO_dS[c^@~BYCFSbIKn@FE HZH ‹tS[_FŠ /TŠ 4 Š ŽCFS H IL^@i\jE \jEOBDBDE G L^@FL^eby =EOR P SbBYCiCTE=e[{ c^f‡‹tSb_FŠ /TŠ
P CFSbIKC H CFc P|H BDCFEwEOe[EOIOB G S[I ME=ebR*†WL G S[LWBYSbcd@*LWBJ{jcdSb@nBLW@FR  S Š E^Š‡LWB‡BDCFEw\jc^BZBYcda E=RT_dE
c^fŒBDCFEVB G E=@FIKC L^@FR \jE=ebc P BDCFEVE=RT_dE c^fˆBYCFE FE=e[R A{Fe[LWBYE)L H€H CTc P @ S[@ ‹tS[_FŠ /mŠ
L H L
fhUF@FIrBYSbcd@‚c^ftBDCFE G EO†^E GDH EQ\FS[L H †dcdelBKL^_dEŒfhc G BDCFE  s*G EOIOBDS ME G Š ? BXI=L^@)\jE H E=EO@)BYCML‰BXfhc G
LQR G Sbf B G EO_dS[c^@€BYCFSbIKq@TE HDH c^f Š 4 & a N BYCFEˆEOe[E=IrB G S[I MEOe[R LWBŽ{jcdS[@`B (S H aQUFIKC CFS[_dCTE G BDCML^@
BYCFLWB|LWB {9cdSb@`B  G E H UFelBYS[@T_QS[@‚Lwe[L G _^E G Er†dE GZH Eˆe[E=L^‰L^_dE‡I=U GZG E=@`B|RFUTEoBYc„S[@TI G E=L H EOR‚\ML GDG S[E G
e[c P E G S[@F_ E 9E=IrBkLWB]BYCFE%CFS[_dC A\ML GZG SbE G]s IKCFcWBDBY`yzI=cd@`BYL^IOB=Š ŽCFS H I=L^U H E H L G E=e[LWBYSl†dE=ely e[c P  

! 

 

        

54 

L^@FR H c^f Bw\ G E=L^nRFc P @ic^fŽBYCFE  s~G EOIOBDS ME G fhc G L)R G Slf B G E=_dSbcd@zBDCFS[IKn@FE HDH c^f Š 4 & a*Š
@*BDCFEQc^BDCFE G CML^@FR N L H BDCFEwR G Sbf B G EO_dS[c^@*BYCTS[IKn@FE HZH S H RFE=I G E=L H EOR BDc & a N BYCTEQE=ebE=IOB G SbI
MEOe[R*LWBJ{jcdSb@nB  \9EOI=cda}E H CFS[_^CFE G BYCMLW@*BYCTE EOe[E=IrB G S[I ME=ebRVLWBX{jcdS[@`B @TEL G \ G E=L^nRFc P @.Š
ŽCFS H a%L^WE H BDCFE]RFEO†qS[IOE]BDc%\ G ELWqRTc P @VLWBJ{jcdSb@nB L P L y‚f G cda BYCTE s IKCFcWBDBY`y I=c^@nBYL^IOB
L^@FR G E H UFelB H S[@*L}CTS[_dCFE G LW@FR H CML G {)\ G EL^nRFc P @V†dc^ebBKLW_dEˆc^ftBDCFE { G cd{jc H EOR H B G UTIOBYU G E fhc G
LVe[c P E G EO{FSbBYL mSvL^eevLydE G BYCFSbIKn@FE HZH Š zE H E=E€BDCMLWB„BDCFE a0L TSbaQUFa E=ebE=IrB G SbI MEOe[R S[@ BDCFE
RFEr†mSbI=EQ@TEL G \ G E=L^nRFc P @zS H L^\jcdUTB /  WI=a P CFS[IKC S H E 2 UFL^etBYc%BYCFEQI G SlBYS[I=L^e E=ebE=IOB G SbI
MEOe[Rxc^f  s S I=c GDG E H {jcd@FRFSb@F_*BDcVL R G Slf B G E=_dSbcd@xRFcd{FSb@F_)c^f  IOa /TŠ ŽCFS H S H Sb@
I=c^@ H S H BYEO@`B P SlBYC BYCTE]I G SlBYS[I=L^euEOe[EOIOB G S[I MEOe[R †WL^e[UTE H|G EO{9c G BYEOR*Sb@  /  Š 
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? B S H RFE H S G L^\Fe[E|BYc a%Sb@FS[a}S OE BDCFE‡fhc G P L G R%†^cdebBYL^_dEXR G c^{€L^@FR}BYCFE G Er†dE GZH EoebEL^‰L^_^EXIOU GDG E=@`B
BYc G EORFUFIOE)BYCFE*{9c P E G RFS HZH S[{FLWBYEOR\`y L s IKCFcWBDBY`y G EOIOBYS ME G Š  c P Er†dE G=N|H Er†dE G L^eJRTE H Sb_d@
B G L^RFE Ac H CML†dE‚BYc~\jE‚a0LWRFE H S[@TI=E \9c^BDC BDCFE H E){ML G L^a}EOBDE GDH RFEO{9EO@FR UF{jcd@ BYCFE a}E H L
P S[RmBYC N B G E=@TIKC P SbRTBYC rN B G EO@FIKC RFE={TBDC LW@FR0BYCTEJR G Sbf B G E=_^S[cd@}BYCFSbIKq@TE HDH c^f
BYCTE  s)G E=IOBDS ME G ŠJ‹tS[_FŠ /TŠ %H CFc P|H L%B G L^RFE Ac z\9ErB P EOE=@ BYCTE fhc G P L G RV†dcdelBKL^_^E R G cd{
L^@FR}BYCFE G Er†dE GDH EJe[ELWWLW_dE|I=U GZG E=@`B fhc G BDCFE  s S  s%G EOIOBDS ME GP CFSbIKC0S H cd\mBKL^Sb@FE=R}\`y
†WL G yqSb@F_ BYCFE%a%E H L P S[RTBDC BDc*B G E=@TIKC P SbRTBYC JG LWBDS[c fhc G BYCFEkB G E=@FIKCzRFE={mBYC H c^f  Š
L^@FR dŠ  & a Š ŽCFEŽ†WL G SvLWBDS[cd@QSb@ G LWBYSbcoS H c^\TBKL^Sb@FE=RQfhc G L TEOR0LW@FcmRTE P S[RTBDC}cWf & a  

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G L‰BYS[c}RFEOI G E=L H E H BYCFE G EO†^E GZH Eke[E=L^‰L^_dE]I=U GZG E=@`BˆRFEO@ H SlBAy)\jE=I=L^U H EQc^fL0\jEOBZBYE G {FS[@FIKC Ac zc^f
BYCTE s S G E=_^S[cd@k\jEOB P E=E=@}BYCFEŽB P c B G E=@TIKCFE H \FUTBS[@TI G E=L H E H BDCFEŽfhc GZP L G R}†^cdebBYL^_dEŽR G cd{%RTUFE
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10

LMDS
d = 1.0 µm
d = 0.5 µm
t = 2.0 µm

−3

10

−4

m/w
9.00
2.33
1.50
0.67
0.25
0.11
VR = 1000 V
J F = 100 A/cm2
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T = 27 C

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10
0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

Forward voltage drop, VF [V]

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I=U GDG EO@`B)RFEO@ H SlBAy fhc G RFS uE G E=@`B a}E H L P S[RmBYC ‰B G EO@FIKC P SbRTBYC 0G LWBYSbc H L^@TR L mE=R
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e[c P E G S[@F_€E uEOIOB LWBoBDCFE„e[c P \ML GZG S[E GŒs IKCTc^BDBDny IOcd@`BKL^IrBŠ  c P Er†dE G=N BYCFEQfhc G P L G R †dcdelBKL^_^E
R G cd{ S[@FI G E=L H E H \9EOIL^U H EŒBYCFEJI=U GZG E=@`B  c P Sb@F_QBYC G cdUF_dC€BDCFEoebc P \ML GDG SbE G5s IKCFc^BZBY`y G E=_dSbcd@
fƒL^IOE H L^@*Sb@FI G EL H E=R G E H S H BKL^@FIOE Sb@ BDCFE]R G Slf B G E=_^S[cd@ { G E H EO@nBJ\9ErB P EOE=@)BDCFE]\9c^BZBYcda c^ftBDCFE
B G E=@FIKC*L^@FR‚BYCTE H E=a}S S[@ H UFevLWBDS[@F_ H UF\ H B G LWBYEWŠ
? Bpa%Ly \jE @Tc^BYEORQBYCMLWBpLJU H EOfhUFeqB G LWRFE c 0\jEOB P E=EO@„BYCFEfhc GZP L G RQ†^cdebBYL^_dER G c^{„L^@FRQBDCFE 

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S[@‚BYCTEwR G Sbf B G EO_dS[cd@ BYCFSbIKn@FE HZH RFE=I G E=L H E H BYCFE G Er†dE GZH E„ebEL^‰L^_dEˆIOU GDG E=@`BŠ ŽCFS H S H \9EOIL^U H E
fhc G L H a%L^e[ebE G R G Sbf B G E=_dSbcd@*BDCFS[IKn@FE HDHON BYCFEQ{jELW*EOe[E=IrB G S[I FE=e[RVLWBoBYCTE s IKCFc^BZBY`yVIOcd@`BKL^IrB
RFEOI G E=L H E H L HXH CTc P @)S[@*‹tS[_FŠ /TŠ 4 G E H UFebBDS[@F_}S[@*L G E=RFUTI=E=R)\ML GDG S[E G ebc P E G S[@T_%E uEOIOBŠ  c P
EO†^E GON BDCFEXfhc GZP L G Rk†dcdelBKL^_^EŽR G cd{}S[@TI G E=L H E H RTUFEXBDcwLW@%Sb@FI G EL H E‡Sb@}R G Sbf B G E=_dSbcd@ G E H S H BKL^@TI=E
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Reverse current density, J R [A/cm2]

−2

10

d [µm]
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50

LMDS
m/w = 1.0
m/w = 0.7
t = 2.0µ m

−3

10

VR = 1000 V
J F = 100 A/cm2
o
T = 27 C

−4

10

−5

10
0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

Forward voltage drop, VF [V]

G L^RFE c x\9ErB P EOE=@VBDCFE fhc G P L G R*†^cdebBYL^_dE]R G c^{VL^@FR BYCFE G Er†dE GZH EQebEL^‰L^_^E
I=U GDG EO@`B‡RTE=@ H SbBAy fhc G RFS uE G EO@nBŽB G EO@FIKC)RFEO{TBYC H c^f BYCTE  s S  s G E=IrBYS FE G Š
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t [µm]
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2.40
2.25
2.00
1.75
1.50

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VR = 500 V
VR = 1000 V
J F = 100 A/cm2
m/w = 1.0

−3

10

d = 1.0 µm
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T = 27 C

−4

10

−5

10
0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

Forward voltage drop, VF [V]

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I=U GDG EO@`B‡RTE=@ H SbBAy fhc G RFS uE G EO@nB|R G Sbf B G E=_dSbcd@€BYCTS[IKn@FE HZH E H c^f BYCFE  s S  s G EOIOBDS ME G Š
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MEOe[R {FevLWBDEBDE G a%Sb@MLWBYSbcd@wSba%{Te[E=a}E=@`BDE=RQcd@ s Œ? Sb@ 1 J? ?KŠ ŽCFE|L^@FcqRFE5cWfMBYCFE H B G UTIOBYU G E
S H L‚{TevL^@ML GJH U G fƒL^IOE s IKCFc^BDBD`y \ML GZG S[E G I=c^@nBYL^IOB P SlBYC L H Sba%{FebE MEOe[R {FevL‰BYEwBDE G a}S[@FLWBYSbcd@.Š 
zE CML†dE U H EOR L P EOe[e H BYUFRFSbE=R a%ErBKL^e N @ML^a}E=ely ‡SbIK^EOe ‡S fhc G BYCTE s IKCFc^BDBD`y \ML GDG S[E G
I=c^@nBYL^IOB  4  Š ŽCFE)I=LWBYCFcqRFE S H L^@c^CFa%SbI I=cd@`BYL^IOB%BKL^WE=@f G cda BYCFE   G EO_dS[cd@uŠ ŽCFE
RFEr†mSbI=E {ML G LWa%ErBYE GZH U H E=R Sb@*BDCFE H S[aQUFe[LWBYSbcd@€fhc G BYCFE  |‹ s G E=IrBYS ME G L G E]_dSb†^E=@VSb@ L^\FebE
FŠ dŠ ?A@QcdU G H SbaQUFevL‰BYS[c^@ H=N P E CML†dE U H EORQBYCFE cd{TBYSba%
S =EOR R G Sbf B G EO_dS[c^@we[EO@F_^BDC  L^@FR FE=e[R
{Fe[LWBYEpebE=@F_WBYC  Š ŽCFE H S[e[SbI=cd@ Fe[a BDCFS[IKn@FE HDH rN ME=ebR]!c mS[RTEgBDCFS[IKn@FE HDH N \TU G SbE=R
Nns IKCFcWBDBY`y„\FL GDG S[E G CFE=Sb_dC`B  L^@FR„c^{9E G LWBDS[@F_JBDE=a}{9E G LWBDU G E P E G E
!c mS[RFE BDCFS[IKn@FE HDH
†WL G SbE=R€BDc H BYUFRTy0BYCFEOS G E 9E=IrBJc^@ RTEO†qS[IOE]{jE G fhc G a%L^@FIOE^Š           

   

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Cathode

Anode
Schottky

Cathode
L FP 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  

 
 
 
 
 
        

                 

 
  

 
  

 


tox

Field Oxide

L

N+

N−Drift region

LS

A

tsi

B

N+

tbox

Buried Oxide

N +−Substrate

s IKCFEOa0L‰BYS[I I G c HZH H E=IrBYSbcd@ML^eJ†qSbE P c^fˆBYCFE  WL BDE G L^e ŽCFSb@ ‹tS[eba s IKCFc^BDBD`y 
|‹ s G E=IOBDS ME G Š

;
    

  

4  

  Œ{mBYS[a}S OE=R 

{ML G L^a}EOBDE GDH LW@FR G E=e[LWBYEOR IOcd@ H BKL^@`B H fhc G BDCFE  |‹ s€G EOIOBDS ME G Š  

tL G L^a}EOBDE GDH 
 RFcd{TS[@F_Qfhc G

L^e[UFE 

^c CFa%SbIŒI=cd@`BYL^IOB
 I=a
G Sbf B G EO_dS[c^@ RFcd{FSb@F_ N
  I=a
G Sbf B G EO_dS[c^@ e[E=@T_^BYC N 
FŠ   a
Š  a
‹tSbE=e[R A{Fe[LWBYE‡e[E=@T_^BYC N  
‹tSbE=e[R c!mS[RTEˆBDCFS[IKn@FE HDHON 
Š  Š   a
s Sbe[S[IOcd@ MebaBDCFS[IKn@FE HDH=N 
Š  Š   a 
U G S[EOR !c mS[RTEˆBDCFS[IKn@FE HDHON 
Š dŠ  a
s IKCFcWBDBY`y‚IOcd@`BKL^IrB‡ebE=@F_WBYC N  
Š a
s IKCFcWBDBY`y‚\ML GDG SbE G CFEOS[_dC`B ‡S N   4  
Š 
5L GZG SbE G CFEOS[_dC`B|e[c P E G S[@F_kI=cqEO…}IOS[E=@`B  4 -
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|S[IKCML G R H c^@*IOcd@ H BYL^@`B  4 - 
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t‹ Sb_FŠ FŠ ŽH CFc P|H BYCFE H S[aQUFe[LWBYEORofhc GZP L G R]IOcd@FRFUTIOBYSbcd@ˆIKCML G L^IOBDE G S H BDS[I H cWfmBDCFE  |‹ soG E=IOBDS ME G
fhc G BDCFE Me[a BDCFS[IKn@FE HDH E H cWf  Š L^@FR  Š   a*Š&? BXILW@)\jE H E=EO@*BYCFLWBŽfhc G \9cWBYC BYCFE]IL H E HON
BYCTE‡{ G cd{jc H EOR0RFEr†mSbI=E‡E mCFS[\TSbB H Lˆe[c P fhc G P L G R%†^cdebBYL^_dE|R G c^{0c^f  Š EO†^E=@‚LWB L IOU GDG E=@`B
RFEO@ H SlBAy)c^f    ‰I=a Š 5BŒCFSb_dCFE G I=U GDG EO@`BˆRFE=@ H SbBDS[E HON fhc G P L G RV†dc^ebBKLW_dEwR G cd{VSb@FI G EL H E H
fhc G L H a%L^ebe[E G Me[a3BYCFSbIKn@FE HZH RFUFEŒBDc%LW@ Sb@FI G EL H EˆS[@‚R G Slf B G EO_dS[cd@ G E H S H BYL^@FIOE^Š
‹tS[_TŠ F3Š / H CFc P|H BDCFE H S[aQUFe[LWBYEOR G EO†^E GZH EoIKCML G L^IrBYE G S H BYS[I H cWfuBYCTE  |‹ s}G EOIOBDS ME G fhc G BDCFE
MebaBYCFSbIKn@FE HZH E H cWf  Š L^@TR  Š   a*Š ? B I=L^@€\jE H E=E=@%BYCMLWBfhc G BYCFE MebaBYCFSbIKq@TE HDH c^f  Š 
a N BYCFE G EO†^E GZH EQebEL^‰L^_dE]I=U GDG EO@`BŒS[@FI G E=L H E H †dE G y G L^{TS[RFely P SbBDC)S[@TI G E=L H Sb@F_ G EO†^E GDH E„\FSvL H
G E H UFelBYSb@F_„S[@‚L^@~E qB G E=a}E=eby H cWf BQ\ G EL^nRFc P @ †^cdebBYL^_dE€L‰B 4 RFE F@FE=R L H BYCFE G Er†dE GZH E      



('         

4- 

Forward current density, J F [A/cm2]

10

;
   < 

10
10
10
10

4

tsi = 0.50 µm

LTFS

3

tsi = 0.05 µm

2
1
0

tbox = 1.0 µm
t ox = 0.3 µm
φ B = 0.57 V

−1

10

−2

10

o

T = 27 C

−3

10
0.0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Forward voltage drop, VF [V]

s S[awUFevLWBDE=R€fhc G P L G R I=cd@FRTUFIOBDS[cd@‚IKCML G L^IOBDE G S H BDS[I H cWf BDCFE  |‹ s G EOIOBYS ME G Š  

\FS[L H †dc^ebBKLW_dE LWB    WI=a Š  H BDCFE Meba BDCFS[IKn@FE HDH S H RFEOI G EL H E=R BYc  Š  
a N BYCFE G EO†dE GDH E*ebEL^‰L^_dE0I=U GZG E=@`B G EORFUFI=E H \`y LVfƒL^IrBYc G c^f‡BDC G EOE L^@FRiBYCFE‚\ G EL^nRFc P @
†dc^ebBKLW_dE S H L H evL G _dE‚L H 4  ŠzE M@FR BDCMLWB}cdU G { G cd{jc H EOR s IKCFcWBDBY`y H B G UTIOBYU G E)_^Sb†dE H
L^@xS[a}{ G c †^E=a}E=@`B]c^fŽc †dE G Š ‚BYS[a}E H Sb@z\ G EL^nRFc P @~†^cdebBYL^_dEkI=c^a%{ML G E=RxBYc‚BYCFEk†dE G BDS[ILWe 
s0H B G UFIOBDU G E  jP SbBDC‚L^@€S[RTE=@`BYSbIL^ejE={FSlBKL mS[L^e evLydE G RFcd{FSb@F_FŠp? B5a0Ly%L^e H cQ\jEo@Fc^BDE=R
BYCFLWB5BYCTEo\ G E=L^nRFc P @ †^cdebBYL^_dEocWf BDCFE  |‹ s0G E=IrBYS ME G S H L^{F{ G !c mS[a%LWBYEOeby H S 0BDS[a}E H CFSb_dCFE G
BYCFL^@%BDCFEJ{Fe[L^@FEX{ML G L^e[ebE=eM\ G EL^nRFc P @€†dc^ebBKLW_dE P CTS[IKC€I=L^@€\jEJILWe[I=UTevLWBDE=R}U H Sb@F_ 12 Š dŠ Š 
c P EO†^E G=N BDCFEQ\ G EL^nRFc P @ †dcdelBKL^_dE c^f&BYCTEQ†dE G BYSbIL^e  sVG EOIOBYS ME G   S H‡G EO{9c G BYEOR BDc
CML†dEˆcd@Teby LW\9cdUmBŽBYC G E=EˆBYS[a}E H BYCFEˆ{Fe[L^@FEŒ{ML G L^e[ebE=e9\ G E=L^nRFc P @*†dc^ebBKLW_dE^Š
? B|a0Ly \jE€{jcdS[@`BDE=R cdUmBXBDCMLWB BYCFE \ G EL^nRFc P @i†dc^ebBKLW_dE0c^f|BDCFE€{ G cd{9c H E=R H B G UFIrBYU G E    

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Reverse current density, J R [A/cm2]

2

10

Plane parallel breakdown

1

10

tsi = 0.50 µm

0

10

−1

10

tsi = 0.05 µm

−2

10

−3

−4

10

o

T = 27 C

−5

10

0

;
    

tbox = 1.0 µm
t ox = 0.3 µm
φ B = 0.57 V

LTFS

10

20
40
60
80
Reverse voltage, VR [V]

100

s S[awUFevLWBDE=R G EO†dE GDH Ew\FebcmIKnS[@T_„IKCML G LWIOBYE G S H BYSbI H c^f BYCFE  |‹ s€G E=IrBYS ME G Š  

P S[ebep\jE0L 9E=IrBYEOR \`yxBDCFE0RTEO†qS[IOE%{ML G L^a}EOBDE GDH]H UTIKC L H EO{FSbBYL mSvL^e&e[LydE G RFcd{TS[@F_ N R G Sbf B G E
_dSbcd@ke[E=@T_^BYC N MEOe[R {FevLWBDEŽe[EO@F_^BYC N Fe[aBYCTS[IKn@FE HZH=N \FU G SbE=R%c mSbRFEXBDCFS[IKn@FE HDH LW@FR MEOe[R%c mSbRFE
BYCTS[IKn@FE HZH Š ŽCFE]L^\jc †^Eˆ\ G E=L^nRFc P @*†dc^ebBKLW_dEŒc^f  |‹ s G EOIOBYS ME G S H cd\TBYL^S[@FEOR fhc G BYCFEˆcd{mBYS
a}S =EOR*{FL G L^a}EOBDE GZH _^Sb†dEO@)Sb@ L^\Fe[E FŠ dŠ ŽCTS HXG E=a%L G WLW\Fe[EˆS[a}{ G c †^E=a}E=@`B‡S[@‚BYCFE G Er†dE GZH E
\FebcmIKnS[@T_€IL^{FL^\FS[ebSbBAy‚c^fgBDCFE  |‹ s)G E=IrBYS FE G S H RFUFEQBDc€BYCFE G E=RFUFIOE=Rx\ML GZG S[E G ebc P E G S[@F_‚L‰B
BYCTE s IKCFc^BZBY`y I=cd@`BKLWIOB‡L H RFS H I=U HDH EORV\jE=e[c P Š
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‹tSb_FŠ FŠ H CFc P|H BDCFE€a%L mS[aQUTa\ML GDG S[E G e[c P E G S[@F_ L‰BwBYCTE s IKCFc^BZBY`yiIOcd@`BKL^IrB„E qB G L^IOBDE=R
U H S[@F_ 12 Š Š L H L fhUF@FIOBDS[cd@zc^f G EO†dE GDH E€\FSvL H fhc G BYCTE  |‹ s G E=IrBYS ME G Š&? B5ILW@ \9E H EOE=@ 



   

Barrier lowering, ∆φB [V]

0.25
tsi = 0.50 µm

0.20

LTFS

tsi = 0.05 µm

0.15
0.10

tbox = 1.0 µm
t ox = 0.3 µm
φ B = 0.57 V

0.05

o

T = 27 C

0.00
0

;
    5 L GZG S[E G

20
40
60
80
Reverse voltage, VR [V]

100

e[c P E G Sb@F_}L H L„fhUF@FIOBDS[cd@ cWf G Er†dE GDH E]\FS[L H fhc G BYCTE  |‹ s G E=IrBYS ME G Š  

BYCFLWBJfhc G BYCTE Me[aBDCFS[IKn@FE HDH c^f  Š  a N BYCFE \ML GDG S[E G e[c P E G S[@F_%S[@FI G EL H E H †^E G y*fƒL H B P SbBDC
S[@TI G E=L H Sb@F_ G Er†dE GZH Ez\FSvL H RTUFExBDc { G E H E=@FIOE~c^fQLievL G _dE E=ebE=IOB G SbI FE=e[R LWB‚BDCFE s IKCFc^BDBD`y
S[@`BDE G fƒLWI=E„L HJH CFc P @ S[@ ‹tSb_FŠ FŠ Š ŽCFS HoG E H UFelB H Sb@ L€evL G _dE G EO†dE GDH E}ebEL^‰L^_^EwI=U GDG EO@`B]L^@FR
G EOevLWBDSb†^E=ebyVe[c P \ G EL^nRFc P @ †dc^ebBKLW_dE^Š  H BYCTE MebaBYCFSbIKq@TE HDH S H RFE=I G EL H E=R BDc  Š   a N
BYCTE}EOe[EOIOB G S[I MEOe[RxLWBˆBYCFE s IKCFcWBDBY`y IOcd@`BKL^IrBwRFEOI G EL H E H \`yxL fƒL^IOBDc G c^f BDC G EOEkI=cda}{ML G E=R
BYc„SlB H †WL^ebUFE‡fhc G   Š  a3ILWU H Sb@F_kL H S[_^@FS MI=L^@`B G E=RFUFIrBYSbcd@‚S[@0BDCFEŒ\ML GZG S[E G e[c P E G S[@F_FŠ
ŽCFS H&G E=RTUFI=E H BDCFE G EO†^E GZH EXe[ELWWLW_dE5I=U GDG EO@`B LW@FR%Sba%{ G c †dE H BYCFE|\ G EL^nRFc P @k†dcdelBKL^_dEŽcWf9BDCFE
RFEr†mSbI=EWŠ         

tbox = 1.0 µm
t ox = 0.3 µm
φ B = 0.57 V

LTFS

6

tsi = 0.50 µm

4

tsi = 0.10 µm

5

Electric field [x10 V/cm]

8

o

T

= 27 C

4

5

tsi = 0.05 µm
2

0
0

2

1

3

Distance. [ µm]

6

be E=IrB G SbI ME=ebR}L^e[cd@T_JBYCFE|CFc G S Ocd@`BKL^eme[Sb@FE5@FE=L G ME=ebR Ac!mS[RTE H S[e[SbI=cd@ S[@`BYE G fƒL^IOE
fhc G BDCFE G Sb_dC`B|CML^ebf {jc G BDS[cd@ c^f BYCTE  |‹ s€H B G UFIrBYU G EwLWBXL G EO†dE GDH Ew\FS[L H c^f Š
;
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t‹ Sb_FŠ FŠ 4 H CFc P|H BYCFE]E 9E=IrB‡cWf H S[e[SbI=cd@ Fe[aBDCFS[IKn@FE HDH c^@‚BDCFEˆ\ G E=L^nRFc P @)†dc^ebBKLW_dEŒc^f
BYCTE  |‹ szG EOIOBYS ME G Š  H IL^@ \jE H E=E=@ N BYCFE€\ G ELWqRTc P @i†^cdebBYL^_dE}RFE=I G EL H E H L H BYCFE Me[a
BYCTS[IKn@FE HZH S H S[@FI G E=L H EOR.Š ŽCFS H B G E=@FR)IL^@ \jEw\jEOBZBYE G UF@FRFE GDH BYcqcmRVf G cda BYCFEwE=e[EOIOB G S[I MEOe[R
RFS H B G S[\FUmBYS[c^@iS[@ H S[RFE‚BYCFE RFEr†mSbI=EWŠ ‹tS[_FŠ FŠ H CTc P|H BYCFE B P c ARFSba%EO@ H Sbcd@ML^e5EOe[EOIOB G S[I MEOe[R
RFS H B G S[\FUmBYS[c^@*Sb@*BYCTEQR G Slf B G E=_dSbcd@)cWfpBYCFE  |‹ s*G E=IrBYS FE G fhc G BYCTE Me[a BDCFS[IKn@FE HDH E H c^f  Š
L^@FR  Š   a Š  H&H E=EO@ NnP CFE=@}BYCFE MebaBYCTS[IKn@FE HZH S H evL G _dE  Š  a N BYCFE|Sb@FI G EL H E=R
{jEL^„EOe[E=IrB G S[I ME=ebR€LWBBYCFE s IKCFc^BZBY`y%I=cd@`BKLWIOB G E H UFebB H S[@%L ebc P E G \ G EL^nRFc P @€†dc^ebBKLW_dE‡RTUFE
BYcŒBDCFE‡Sb@FI G EL H E=R%\ML GDG S[E G e[c P E G Sb@F_FŠ  H BDCFE Me[aBDCFS[IKn@FE HDH S H RFE=I G E=L H EOR0BYc  Š   a N BDCFE
G EORFUFIOE=R){jELW€E=ebE=IOB G SbI ME=ebR*I=L^U H E H Lke[L G _^EŒS[a}{ G c †dEOa%EO@`B|S[@€BYCTE]\ G ELWqRTc P @ †dcdelBKL^_^E^Š   

         

 

 

 



100

tbox = 1.0 µm
t ox = 0.3 µm
φ B = 0.57 V

Breakdown voltage [V]

LTFS

80
60
40
20
0
0.0

;
     

o

= 27 C

T

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Film thickness, tsi [µm]

0.5

G EL^nRFc P @k†dcdelBKL^_dE L H LJfhUF@TIOBYSbcd@Qc^f Meba(BYCFSbIKq@TE HDH fhc G BYCFE  |‹ s RFEr†qS[I=EWŠ 

t‹ S[_TŠ FŠ -0H CFc P|H BYCTEw†WL G S[LWBYSbcd@*Sb@V\ G EL^nRFc P @ †dcdelBKL^_dE c^f&BYCTE  |‹ s)H B G UTIOBYU G E P SbBDC
MEOe[Rc!mS[RTE*BYCTS[IKn@FE HZH Š ? B0IL^@ \jE H E=E=@ BDCMLWB%BYCFE G E)S H L^@ cd{TBDS[aQUFa FE=e[Rc mSbRFE
BYCTS[IKn@FE HZH BYc„_dErB BDCFEŒa0LTSbaQUFa \ G EL^nRFc P @ †dc^ebBKLW_dE^Š ‡@ny0RFEO†qS[LWBYSbcd@0Sb@0BYCFE ME=ebR c mSbRFE
BYCTS[IKn@FE HZH f G cda SlB H cd{mBYS[awUFa †WL^ebUFE„e[c P E GZH BDCFE„\ G EL^nRFc P @z†^cdebBYL^_dEWŠ c L^@MLWeby =EQBDCFS HON
E=ebE=IrB G SbI ME=ebR}†WL G SvLWBDS[cd@kL‰B {jcdSb@nB   L^@TR   S Š EŽBYCTE s IKCTc^BDBDny}IOcd@`BKL^IrB5L^@TR%EORF_dEXc^fuBDCFE
MEOe[R {Fe[LWBYEJL HŽH CFc P @‚S[@‚‹ S[_FŠ F
Š S H LWe H cw{Fe[c^BZBYEOR S[@ ‹tSb_FŠ FŠ - L H LwfhUT@FIOBDS[cd@ c^f BDCFE MEOe[R
!c mS[RFE]BYCFSbIKq@TE HDH Š zEQ@FcWBYEwBDCMLWBofhc G L%BYCTS[@F@FE G MEOe[RV!c mS[RFE BYCFEQSb@FI G EL H E=R {jEL^ E=ebE=IOB G SbI
MEOe[R%LWB BDCFEJEO@FR€c^f9BYCFE ME=ebR A{TevLWBDEXebEL^R H BDcwL]{ G EOa0LWBDU G EX\ G EL^nRFc P @ c^f.BDCFEXRFEO†qS[IOE^Š o@
BYCTEŒc^BYCFE G CML^@TR N LQBYCFSbIK^E G c mSbRFE0Sb@FI G EL H E H BDCFEŒE=ebE=IOB G SbI MEOe[R‚LWB BYCFE s IKCFc^BZBY`y IOcd@`BKL^IrB  


   

 

/

Ca

(a)
t si = 0.5 µm

Electric Field [MV/cm]
0.6

th

1.0

od

e

An

od

e

0.5

|

sta

nce

8

[µm
]

1.0

Di

0.8

0.0

6

12

10 m]

ce

n

a
ist

D

Electric Field [MV/cm]
0.6
0

(b)
Ca

t si = 0.05 µm

th

1.0

od

e

An

od

e

0.5

|

sta 

nce

[µm
]

8

0.6
4

Di

0.6
2

0.0

6

12

10 m]
µ
e[

c

an
ist

D  

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10S)!1 $(X104B  <Y+1)r5^ 5 T&*+4K,l5^+$(X _ u / 
f

G E H UFelBYSb@F_QS[@‚LQebc P E G \ G E=L^nRFc P @ †^cdebBYL^_dEoRFUTEoBYc„BYCFEŒSb@FI G EL H E=R‚\ML GZG SbE G ebc P E G S[@F_wE 9E=IOB=Š 
c P EO†^E G=N fhc G 
3Š /  a N a0L TSbaQUFa \ G E=L^nRFc P @ †^cdebBYL^_dEVS H cd\TBKLWS[@FEOR RTUFE BYc L
G EORFUFIrBYS[c^@VS[@V{jELW*EOe[E=IrB G S[I FE=e[RVLWBo\jc^BYCVBDCFE s IKCTc^BDBDny)I=cd@`BYL^IOBˆL HJP EOe[e L H LWBJBYCFEQEO@FR
c^f BYCFE MEOe[R {FevL‰BYE^Š
?A@ c G RFE G BYc~n@Fc P BYCTE)cd{TBDS[aQUTa †^LWe[UFE c^foBDCFE)\FU G S[EOR !c mS[RFE BYCFSbIKq@TE HDH fhc G
BYCTE  |‹ s)H B G UFIOBDU G E N BYCTE H SbaQUFevL‰BYE=R*\ G E=L^nRFc P @ †dcdelBKL^_dEwL^@FR)BDCFEQEOe[E=IrB G S[I FE=e[RVLWBJBDCFE
s IKCFcWBDBY`y IOcd@`BKL^IrB‡L G E H CFc P @*Sb@*‹ S[_FŠ FŠ 4 L H LwfhUF@TIOBYSbcd@‚c^f BYCFEŒ\FU G S[EOR‚c mSbRFEoBYCFSbIKn@FE HZH Š 
H H EOE=@ N BDCFE \ G EL^nRFc P @„†dc^ebBKLW_dE Sba%{ G c †dE HtP SbBDCwS[@TI G E=L H Sb@F_J\TU G SbE=RQ!c mS[RFEBYCFSbIKn@FE HZH L^@FR
H L‰BYU G LWBYE H \jEOydc^@FR
 a Š ŽCTS H S H \jE=I=L^U H EJfhc G L H a%L^e[ebE G \FU G S[EOR€!c mS[RFE|BYCFSbIKn@FE HZH=N
BYCTEŒE=e[EOIOB G S[I FE=e[R LWB BYCFE s IKCFc^BDBD`y I=c^@nBYL^IOBQS[@FI G EL H E HwG E H UFebBDS[@F_)S[@‚L„e[c P E G \ G EL^nRFc P @   

   

 
   

  

tsi = 0.05 µm
t box = 1.0 µm
φ B = 0.57 V

100

80

o

T = 27 C
VR = 20 V

4

5

Breakdown voltage [V]

LTFS

6

at ‘B’

2

Electric field
at‘A’

60

0
Breakdown voltage

40
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Electric field [x10 V/cm]

120

0.4

0.5

Field oxide thickness, tox [µm]

G E=L^nRFc P @ †dcdelBKL^_dEwL^@FR OE e[E=IrB G S[I FE=e[RVLWBo{jcdS[@`B   s IKCFc^BDBD`yVI=c^@nBYL^IOB
L^@FR*{9c^S[@`B   E=RF_dE c^ftBDCFE FE=e[R*{FevL‰BYE L H L}fhUT@FIOBDS[cd@*c^ftBDCFE MEOe[R*c mSbRFE]BDCFS[IKn@FE HDH fhc G
BYCTE  |‹ s G EOIOBYS ME G Š
;
  #         

  

 

8
tsi = 0.05 µm
t ox = 0.3 µm
φ B = 0.57 V 6

125

o

T = 27 C
VR = 20 V

100

5

Breakdown voltage [V]

LTFS

4

Electric field

75

2

50

0

Breakdown voltage

25
0.0

0.4

0.8

1.2

Electric field [x10 V/cm]

150

1.6

Buried oxide thickness, tbox [µm]

G EL^nRFc P @ †^cdebBYL^_dE*L^@FR EOe[E=IrB G S[I ME=ebR LWB}BYCFE s IKCFc^BZBY`y IOcd@`BKL^IrB L H L
fhUF@FIrBYSbcd@‚c^f BDCFEˆ\FU G S[E=R‚c!mS[RFEŒBDCFS[IKn@FE HDH fhc G BYCFE  |‹ s€G E=IrBYS ME G Š
;
  #    

†dc^ebBKLW_dE^Š  CTE G E=L H=N fhc G L0e[L G _dE G \TU G SbE=R c!mS[RFEwBDCFS[IKn@FE HDHON BYCFE G E=RFUTI=E=R EOe[E=IrB G S[I FE=e[R L‰B
BYCTE s IKCTc^BDBDnyxIOcd@`BKL^IrBwSba%{ G c †dE H BYCTE%\ G EL^nRFc P @~†^cdebBYL^_dEWŠ ‹ G cda BDCFS H M_^U G E N P E0@Fc^BDE
BYCFLWBŽBYCFEˆa}S[@FSbaQUFa †WL^e[UTEŒc^ft\TU G SbE=R‚c!TSbRFEŒBYCFSbIKn@FE HZH S H  a3BYc G E=L^e[S 
=EoBDCFEˆa0L mSbaQUFa
\ G EL^nRFc P @*†^cdebBYL^_dEWŠ  

   



+   +   +  

ŽCFE€{jc P E G RFS HZH Sb{MLWBYSbcd@ c^fXL s IKCFc^BDBD`y G EOIOBYS ME G RFE={jE=@FR H UF{9c^@ BYCFE \ML GDG SbE G CFE=Sb_dC`B„c^f
BYCTE s IKCFc^BZBY`y I=cd@`BYL^IOB}RFUFE BDc †WL G SvLWBDS[cd@~S[@ \9cWBYCiBYCFE fhc G P L G Ri†dcdelBKL^_^E R G cd{ L^@TR BDCFE
G Er†dE GDH EˆebEL^‰L^_dEJI=U GZG E=@`B P SlBYC \ML GZG SbE G CFEOS[_dC`B=Š ŽCFE G EOfhc G E N SbB S H Sb@`BYE G E H BYS[@T_QBYc„n@Fc P BDCFE    

4

cd{TBDS[aQUTa\ML GZG S[E G CTE=S[_^CnB S[@zc G RTE G BYc)a}S[@TS[a}S =EQBDCFE}{9c P E G RFS HDH S[{MLWBDE=Rz\nyzL s IKCFc^BDBD`y
G EOIOBDS ME G Šg‹Mc G  RFUTBAy€IOyqI=ebE N BYCTE]{jc P E G RFS HZH S[{FLWBYSbcd@€ILWe[I=UTevLWBDE=R‚U H Sb@F_ 12 Š dŠ L H L
fhUF@FIrBYSbcd@kc^f s IKCFc^BDBD`yk\ML GDG S[E G CFE=Sb_dC`B  S H&H CFc P @0Sb@%‹ S[_FŠ FŠ
 fhc G BYCFE  |‹ skG E=IOBDS ME G
LWB0Lzfhc G P L G R I=U GZG EO@nB€RFE=@ H SbBAy c^f    WIOa LW@FR G Er†dE GDH E \TSvL H c^f  Š ? B0IL^@ \jE
cd\ H E G †dE=R%BYCMLWBgBDCFE‡{jc P E G RTS HDH S[{ML‰BYS[c^@}S H a%Sb@FS[aQUTa fhc G BDCFE‡\FL GDG S[E G CTE=S[_^CnB H Sb@„BYCFE G L^@T_dE
c G L^@`y€cWBYCFE G a%ErBKL^e 
Š BDc  Š - Š ŽCFS H ZU H BYS ME H BYCFEŒIKCFc^S[I=EJc^f ‡SbIK^E=e   Š
P SbBDC L H S[a}S[e[L G  L H L^@‚cd{mBYS[awUFa s IKCTc^BDBDny‚a}EOBYL^eufhc G BDCFE  |‹ s€G E=IOBDS ME G Š
ŽCFE {jc P E G RTS HDH S[{ML‰BYS[c^@ˆfhc G L  RFUmBAy IryqI=e[E L H LXfhUF@TIOBYSbcd@]c^fFBYEOa%{jE G LWBYU G EgS H H CFc P @
S[@0‹tS[_TŠ FŠ ‡fhc G BYCTE  |‹ s%G EOIOBYS ME G Š&? B5I=L^@€\jE H EOE=@ BYCFLWB fhc G e[c P BDE=a}{9E G LWBDU G E H=N {9c P E G
RFS HDH Sb{MLWBDS[cd@ Sb@FI G EL H E H RTUFE}BDcVL^@xS[@TI G E=L H E%S[@ fhc G P L G Rz†^cdebBYL^_dEkR G c^{ P CFSbIKC~RFcda}S[@FLWBYE H    

(' 

 

      

 

  

Power dissipation [ W/cm2 ]

50

40

;
    

s G E=IrBYS FE G Š

LTFS
VR = 50 V
J F = 100 A/cm2

tsi = 0.05 µm
tbox = 1.0 µm
t ox = 0.3 µm
T

o

= 27 C

30

20

10
0.50     

|‹     

0.55

0.60

0.65

Barrier height, φB [V]

0.70

c P E G RTS HDH S[{ML‰BYS[c^@ L H L)fhUT@FIOBDS[cd@ cWf s IKCFc^BZBY`yi\ML GZG SbE G CTE=S[_^CnB fhc G BDCFE  



Power dissipation [ W/cm2 ]

50

40

30

20

10
−80

;
     

tsi = 0.05 µm
tbox = 1.0 µm
t ox = 0.3 µm
φ B = 0.57 V

LTFS
VR = 50 V
J F = 100 A/cm2

−40

0

40

Operating temperature,

80

T [ oC ]

c P E G RFS HDH Sb{MLWBDS[cd@wL H L‡fhUF@TIOBYSbcd@Qc^f BDE=a}{9E G LWBDU G Efhc G BDCFE  |‹ swG E=IrBYS ME G Š  

BYCTE {9c P E G e[c HDH E H fhc G BDCFE H E BDE=a}{9E G LWBDU G E H Š  c P Er†dE G=N LWB CTS[_dCFE G BYEOa%{jE G LWBYU G E HON BDCFE
G Er†dE GDH E e[ELWWLW_dE IOU GDG E=@`B&RFc^a%Sb@MLWBYE H BDCFE {jc P E G e[c HDH E H L^@TR G E H UFelB H Sb@QL^@wS[@FI G EL H E=Rw{9c P E G
RFS HDH Sb{MLWBDS[cd@ P SbBYC BDE=a}{9E G LWBDU G EWŠ  H„H EOE=@ N BYCTE  |‹ s G E=IOBDS ME G _dSl†dE H a%Sb@FS[aQUTa{9c P E G
RFS HDH Sb{MLWBDS[cd@0fhc G BYCFEŒBYEOa%{jE G LWBYU G E H Sb@‚BDCFE G L^@T_dE  BDc  JŠ   

  

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? B‡S H S[a}{9c G BKL^@`B|BYc H EOEwBYCFE E 9E=IrBŒc^fpBDCFE s S s S  Sb@nBDE G fƒL^I=E H BKL‰BYE H cd@)BDCFEw{jE G fhc G a%L^@FIOE
c^f L0BYCTS[@ MebaRFEr†qS[I=E„ebS[WE  |‹ s)G E=IrBYS FE G Šw‹tS[_TŠ FŠ
0H CFc P|H BYCFEQ†WL G SvLWBDS[cd@*S[@Vfhc G P L G R
†dc^ebBKLW_dE*R G cd{ LW@FR G Er†dE GDH E)e[ELWWLW_dE*IOU GDG E=@`B P SlBYC L^@TR P SbBDCFcdUTB%S[@`BYE G fƒL^IOE H BKLWBDE H L H L
fhUF@FIrBYSbcd@ c^f H S[ebS[IOcd@ MebaBYCTS[IKn@FE HZH fhc G BYCFE  |‹ s€G E=IrBYS ME G Š?A@‚cdU GŽH S[awUFevLWBDS[cd@ NqP EˆCML†dE    

(   

-  

Forward voltage drop
VF [V]

0.40
0.35
J F = 100 A/cm2

0.30
0.25

with interface states
without interface states

0.20
Reverse current density
JR [A/cm2]

(a)

LTFS

(b)
VR= 15 V

−1

10

tbox = 1.0 µm
t ox = 0.3 µm
φ B = 0.57 V

−2

10

T

−3

10

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

o

= 27 C

0.4

0.5

Film thickness, tsi [µm] 

    =1=( . (8 C 3 B C 3
3"A(;.  1>-;(* (4- &" 7.&D   &$ &')(*+&#; " 
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4 3"A(4=;. 1=  (48  ( (48 ( LM='   3  "  '5- ( 8 
0;3=   35 3" (48  G C ;- (012(40;N65 ( 1"7 -=" .873+ N ? N ! 19 >(8M (  - ( 8

LM' (831*"=--/3- ;01=:='! # N #&O<;  0 (8 .&;; $&'5(4+& ; 3"1=-=-/ 0

(4 (48 35"(D. 1 -D(* (- #8351*8 #3''J3" 1- (86 
 '5&--;- -;3+&"3)LM1  "('*N @ !2$&= 0
=  !$&, LM'  (831*"=-- . # N #AO6;  0 (8 .&;;<$&'5(* +& = 63->'  -;(35"(  " "A(

.=>

c^f BYCTE Fe[aBDCFS[IKn@FE HDH L^@FR BYCTE]Sb@`BYE G fƒL^I=E H BKLWBDE H Š  H IL^@‚\jE H E=EO@ f G cda ‹tSb_FŠ FŠ
\ N BDCFE
{ G E H EO@FI=Ekc^fBYCTE„S[@`BYE G fƒL^IOE H BKL‰BYE HˆH CFc P|H c^@Feby)L H e[Sb_dC`BŒS[@TI G E=L H E„Sb@VBYCFE G EO†^E GDH E%ebEL^‰L^_^E
I=U GDG EO@`BkRFE=@ H SbBAy^Š ŽCFE G EOfhc G E N SbBwIL^@ \jE€cd\ H E G †dE=R BYCML‰B  Š   a:S H L^@ic^{TBYSbaQUFa Me[a
BYCTS[IKn@FE HZH fhc G BYCFE  |‹ s‚G E=IrBYS FE GŽH Sb@FI=E]L„e[c P fhc GZP L G R‚†^cdebBYL^_dEŒR G cd{*L^@FR H a%L^e[e G Er†dE GZH E
e[E=L^‰L^_dEoIOU GDG E=@`B‡IL^@ \9E G EL^ebS OE=R.Š

   

 

  


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s o?oEO{FSbBYL mSvL^epe[LydE G CML H \9EOE=@ { G E H E=@`BYEOR.Š H Sb@F_ ARFSba%EO@ H Sbcd@ML^e H S[awUFevLWBDS[cd@ N.P E%CML†dE
RFEOa%cd@ H B G LWBYEOR}BDCMLWBL H BDCFE Fe[aBDCFS[IKn@FE HDH S H RFEOI G E=L H EOR N BDCFE G Er†dE GZH E‡e[ELWWLW_dEŽI=U GZG EO@nB G E
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\jE=ILWU H Ekc^f G EORFUFIOE=R~{jELW)E=ebE=IrB G SbI MEOe[RxLWBŒBYCTE s IKCFc^BZBY`y I=c^@nBYL^IOB=Šk‹Mc G BYCTE GDH BŒBYS[a}E N
H SbaQUFe[LWBYSbcd@ G E H UTebB H CML†dE H CTc P @}BYCML‰BL H e[L G _^EŽL H 4  \ G E=L^nRFc P @0†dcdelBKL^_^E H S „BYSba%E H c^f
BYCTE5{FevLW@FE {ML G L^ebe[E=e`\ G ELWqRTc P @„†^cdebBYL^_dE IL^@„\jEŽL^IKCTS[EO†^E=RkU H S[@F_JBDCFE5{ G cd{jc H EOR H B G UFIOBDU G EWŠ
‹MU G BDCFE G a%c G E N BYCTE  |‹ s0G E=IOBDS ME G S H RFE=a}cd@ H B G L‰BYE=R BDcQCML†dE]Lwfhc G P L G R€†dcdelBKL^_^EoR G c^{‚L H
e[c P L H  Š L‰B0L IOU GDG E=@`B0RTE=@ H SbBAy c^f    ‰I=a Š ŽCTE E uEOIOB H c^f Me[a:BYCFSbIKn@FE HZH=N
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Anode
Schottky                                 

L          

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Schottky

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L          

FP                                                                                                       

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L

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10
10
10
10
10

4
3
2

LCS & LTSS

1

ND = 5x1016 cm−3
ND = 8x1016 cm−3

0

tsi = 0.5 µm
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10

L FP = 2.5 µm
L = 3.0 µm
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T = 27 C

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10

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2

10

1

10

LCS

0

10

LTSS

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tox = 0.2 µm

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L = 3.0 µm
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T = 27 C

−1

10

−2

10

ND = 5x1016 cm−3

−3

10

ND = 8x1016 cm−3

−4

10

−5

10

0

20
40
60
80
Reverse voltage, VR [V]

100

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0.25
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0.20

LTSS

0.15
16

−3

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L FP = 2.5 µm
L = 3.0 µm
o
T = 27 C

0.10
0.05
0.00
0

20
40
60
80
Reverse voltage, VR [V]

100

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Electric Field [MV/cm]
0.0
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1 stan
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  !#"$%'&()!(+*+,.-.*0/'+(1"$,.-.32#4,53%66,57##-.98:,;-.!<=%>=8?,.7#
@ &%A?BDCEF&=# @ 2GABHIE#EJ"$,.-.4#*K,54#-$!"!L
M%M

ND = 5x10 16 cm−3

tsi = 0.5 µm
tox = 0.2 µm
L FP = 2.5 µm
L = 3.0 µm
o
T = 27 C

8

5

Electric field [x10 V/cm]

10

6

LCS
LTSS

4
2
0

0

1

2

Distance .[ µm]

3

4 

;  )(3!*+,.-.3* /'!(3=&-. & ,5= &=(3%#< ,.7# 7#%-.!% ,5&=(=(3# &,,57 /'!(3H H# 
".3(3*!% 
,.!-$8 &*! #!&=- 2#-.!& # 

%=(3, &<% =8,57#;BCE &# BHIE#EF-.!*K,59/'!-$"!L  

>,57# HB IE#E1" ,5-$4#*+,.4#-. ,57#!& +(+*+,5-$*0/'!(3  *!*!4-." &,;,57 ! # 8?,57#/'!(3H#(&,5
@ &  &  8.- = ,.7#;EH* 7#,.,  *!% , &*+, A L 7#"?& !" ., 7# # 3*! ,. 2#.- !& #  & ,?,57# +# 
=8,57# /'+(H#( & ,5 -$!".4(3,53#<  & 7#3<%7#!- &# "$7'&=- 2#-$ & #    

"!$#&%('*),+.-0/)1%324!65*/'87 

3<#L8?HLA@ "$7#  " ,57# 2#-$ & # 
>

%%(9, &=<%L 

+9'*:;/<7=5

%%(9, &=<= &=" & 84##*K,5= =8 #-.98:, -.+<%= #B#3#< 8%- ,.7#

"

BCEJ&=# BHIE#EJ-.+*+,.3/'+-."!LDC , &  2 E%3 ,5!J=4,,57'& ,,57# =,.7#!-$'&-5&=+,.!-.""$4#* 7 &=" 
#-$38:,;-.+<%%>(+#<=,.7FD/'+(H#( & ,50(+#<=,57GD/'(3 ,57#3*H !"." &=#1,.7#/'+( IH3#,.7#*H #+"."
<%J%!0,57" /'<%4#-$ &=-$  ,53!!&=" #3".*!4".".+ ".+*+,.%K?HLMLHLNC , *!&= 2 I".!+ ,57#&,8=MBO

Breakdown voltage [V]

160

L [µm] t ox [µm]

120

5.0
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.5

LTSS

80

0.60
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.15
0.15

LCS

40

tsi = 0.5 µm
L FP = 0.8 L
o
T = 27 C

0
16
1x10

16

5x10

16

9x10

Drift region doping, ND [cm−3 ] 

  "!$#&%(')*&"#+,-+'),(&!.",/')0.')012,(3'45*&,-!6&72,-!*83&9'0;:=<> 
! :@?A>>$BCD'),(EF5G

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3S #&UT&GWVJ') T&GYXJ',-P.FZ,(!$[ "!\#&%(']+*&UF"C&P.7^B_')J'08:S<>_5C5',(E^5G
?0"5`CD'a3H2,(3'I*,-&!J7,-!*;!M'0Z3&NZBJ#&&%/']*&&7.!2.B5#FBb%(cd*
CO25!R'e,-F.57,-CD')f,-!hgS,-*GjiLGYkl3&.[m')0n')0\5#@,-C5F5GpoqFQCc!f[ F5!h3P gS,-*G
iLGYk^rs&tDK^')083&BB\#&%(']+*&u2&7v,(!CBcFBFb&!%(w$PQB*&,-!^+%-%(w.3PyxLG{zkM|}'ex2G~zXRiJ| 
5#!e"05!6')02qB,(3'4*,-&!Q&7,(!*u,(F9#+B,-56[RweU",-b)!2*&G€A D#&5KFFB5!63&P
g‚,(*GƒiLGYk^r[tDK€')02 B5#FB\%(cd*_COB!R'M3&„'0 :S<>ƒFB'OCD')OB$,-FBFJ#&5Bw…7,-2%(w 
",('0M,-!C5c+F,-!2*;,/3'a*,-&!J7,-!*2G€†1!.'0"')02€0^!2KR')0"7B&7FQ:L?A>2>MBC5',(E^5
%‡+*&5%(w FO7275FF5Fˆ')02J5#BF6%(cd*„COB5!'8O2M'_')0M5OC5‰[B,-q%- 5,(!*
X&x

Reverse current density
−2
2
JR [x10 A/cm ]

Forward voltage drop
VF [V]

@= 6|6H8;:†Sc<U8;AD6969VXWk</AD4q6H=D<a6/w}JB8;:/GZ:aC~A_GZ:Dg^m|:v4;AD69:Ÿ6H8f=ž6&LQ46H8;:v</=D?9:˜A@CPE¢BS!GZ:/<a69LM\f:aG/gcmo8;LQIM:
6H8^:/G9:OLM?v4;A?Zd;p;? 6U=D4X6HLQ=DI—G9:a`;d;<[6HLQAD4sLM4‰698;:YC~A_GZm=DGZ`zbDA_IM6H=Dr_:Y`;GZA_]zmoL€6H8zLQ4;<aG9:/=D?9LM4;r“\fIQR
`;A_]^LQ4;r;gKLM69?BG9:abD:/GZ?9:7IM:>=DVž=DrD:˜</d;GZG9:a4q6{LQ4^</G9:/=D?9:a?o?9LQrD4;LM\f</=D4X6HI€W_weJB8;LM?oLQ?BLQ4“`^LQG9:a<a6•</AD4q69GH=D? 6
6HA698;:pF:/8;=nbcLMA_d;GO`;:/RhA_4;? 6HG9=@6H:a` pXW 6H8^:EcJ•S;S GZ:/<[6HLM\;:/GOLQ4 mo8;LM<U8pFAD6H8j6H8;:“C~A_G m&=@G9`
b_ADIM6U=@r_:B`;G9AD]!=D?—m|:/IMI+=@?}698;:oG9:[b_:/GZ?9:˜IM:>=DVž=DrD:B</d;GZG9:/4X6|<U8f=D4;rD:{A_4^IMWYR=DG9rDLQ4f=DIMIMWvmoL€6H8O\fIQR
`;A_]^LQ4;r;w|JB8;LQ?oGZ:/R=DG9Vž=Dp;IM:†LQRh];G9Anb_:aR:a4X6{LM4 698;:‘</d;GZG9:/4X6 ¦ b_ADIM6U=@r_:š<U8;=DGH=D<[6H:aG9LQ? 6HLM</?•ADCP698;:
];GZA_]+AD?9:/` `;:[bKLM</:†IQ:/=D`;?&69A=OG9:a`;d;<[6HLQAD4 LM4u]+Anm|:/GoIQA_?Z?9:a?{=@?•`^LQ?9<ad;?9?Z:/`p+:aIQAnm†w
0.5
0.4

tsi = 0.5 µm

L [µm]
5.0
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.5

L FP = 0.8 L
o
T = 27 C
JF = 100 A/cm2

t ox [µm]
0.60
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.15
0.15

0.3
LCS & LTSS
(a)

0.2
8

VR= 20 V

6
LCS

4

LTSS

2

(b)

0
16
1x10

16

5x10

16

9x10

Drift region doping, ND [cm−3 ] 

6    +*+, 8 &=-.&,53%F #-.98:,I-.!<=% #B#3#<% @ & A8=-$ &=-.%%(9, &=<% #-$B
&=# @ 2GA?-.=!-$".;( & &<% *!4#-$-.+ ,I8%-?,.7#;BDCEF&=# B IE#EF-$!*K,53/#!-."+L  

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1 *(*1 
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ADC}6H:aR]F:/G9=@6Hd^G9:iLM?˜?98;Anmo4zLQ4‰NPLMr;wš§Kw!C~A_GŸ6H8^:OE¢BS=D4^`‰EKJ•S;SG9:a<a6HL€\f:/GZ?†=@6†=!C~A_G m&=@G9`
</d^G9G9:a4X6k`;:a4;?9L€65W A@CY…n‡_‡zˆvŠ@<aR ‹ =D4;`GZ:ab_:aG9?Z: p;L¤=@?ADC  ‡z­7w–3 6!<>=D4 p+:?9:a:/46H8;=@6C~ADG
IQAnm’6H:aR]F:/G9=@6Hd;GZ:/?ag6H8^:h]FAnm:aG7IMA_?9?Z:/?‘LQ4‰p+A@6H8‰6H8;:hG9:a<a6HL€\f:/GZ?7=@G9:h=D];];GZA>¥^LMR!=ž6H:/I€W : 3cd;=DI
pF:/<>=@d;?9:‘p+A@6H8u6H8;:‘`;:abcLM</:/?•8f=>b_:‘LQ`^:/4X6HLM<>=DIxC~A_G m&=@G9`ub_A_I€6U=Dr_:†`;GZA_]umo8;LQ<U8`;A_RhLQ4f=@69:/?&698;:
]FAm|:/G•IQAD?9?9:a?{C~A_Go6H8^:/?9:‘6H:aR]F:/G9=@6Hd;GZ:/?awoy{Anm:[b_:aG/g=@6•8;LMr_8;:aG•69:/Rh]+:aGH=@69d;G9:a?/g 6H8;:‘G9:[b_:/GZ?9:
IQ:/=DVž=Dr_:i<ad;G9GZ:/4X6š`;A_RhLQ4f=@69:/?˜698;:]FAnm:aG†IQA_?Z?š=@4;`sGZ:/?Zd;IM69?‘LM4z=D4sLM4;</GZ:>=D?Z:/`s]+Anm|:/G†`;LQ?Z?9L ¦
]f=@69LQA_4moLM6H869:/Rh]+:aGH=@69d;G9:@w7ˆŸ?v?Z:/:a4xgC~ADG˜8;LQrD8 6H:/Rh]F:/GH=ž6Hd;GZ:/?/gx698;:O]+Anm|:/GvIMA_?9?Z:/?†LQ4 698;:
EKJ•S^S7G9:/<[6HL€\f:/GP=DG9:&R7d;<U8YIQAnm|:/G—=D?P</A_Rh]f=DGZ:/`769AŸ6H8;:</A_4Xb_:a4X6HLQAD4f=DI;`;:[bcLQ</:@w—NfA_GP:¥^=DR]^IQ:Dg
=@6 ¯ ‡ a¢ŸgK6H8;:†]FAm|:/GoIMA_?9?BLM4u698;:†EKJ•S^SuGZ:/<a69LM\f:aGBLQ?BA_4^IMWk8;=DIMC26H8;=@6oADC6H8;:†E¢BS“G9:/<[6HL€\f:/Gaw 
  

HAB2 9  &  

) 32 /% 9/ " 9  )  

Power dissipation [ W/cm2 ]

100
80

16
−3
ND = 5x10 cm
tsi = 0.5 µm
tox = 0.2 µm
L FP = 2.5 µm
L = 3.0 µm

VR = 30 V
JF = 100 A/cm2

60

LCS

40
20
LTSS

0
0

20

40

60

Operating temperature,

80

100

T [ oC ]

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X 

Breakdown voltage [V]
Electric field [MV/cm]

120

LTSS

(a)
1

100
0.4ND

80
ND = 5x10 16 cm−3

60
40

2
1.6ND

20
0.0
0.6

0.2

0.4

3

0.6

0.8

Film thickness, tsi [µm]
t si [ µ m]

VR = 35 V

1.0

(b)

0.2
0.5
0.8

0.4

0.2
ND = 5x10 16 cm−3

0.0

0

1

2

Distance . [ µm]

3

4 

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Breakdown voltage [V]

120

LTSS

(a)
1

100
80

0.4ND

60

ND = 5x10 16 cm−3

40

2
1.6ND

20
0.0

0.2

3

0.4

0.6

0.8

Field oxide thickness, tox [µm]

Electric field [MV/cm]

0.6

t ox [ µ m] VR = 40 V

1.0

(b)

0.1
0.2
0.5

0.4

0.2
ND = 5x10 16 cm−3

0.0

0

1

2

Distance . [ µm]

3

4 

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Breakdown voltage [V]
Electric field [MV/cm]

120

(a)

LTSS
1

100
0.4ND

80
ND = 5x10 16 cm−3

60

2

40

3
1.6ND

20

0

1

2

4

5

Field−plate length, L FP [µm]

0.6

L FP [ µm ] VR = 30 V
0.0
2.5
3.0

0.4

0.2

0.0

3

(b)

L = 3.0 µm
ND = 5x10 16 cm−3

0

1

2

Distance . [ µm]

3

4 

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Power dissipation [ W/cm2 ]

30

25

LTSS
VR = 50 V
JF = 100 A/cm2

16

−3

ND = 5x10 cm
tsi = 0.5 µm
tox = 0.2 µm
L FP = 2.5 µm
L = 3.0 µm
o
T = 27 C

20

15

10
0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

Barrier height, φB [V]

0.70

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Forward current density, JF [A/cm2]

1x10 4

tsi = 0.5 µm
tox = 0.2 µm

ND = 5x1016 cm−3
VF = 0.5 V

L FP = 0.8 L
o
T = 27 C

8x10 3

L [µm]

LTSS Rectifier

6x10 3

3

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1.0
1.5
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2.5
3.0


3

2x10

~~

~~

−3

7x10

Lateral PiN Rectifier

−3

6x10

30

40

50

60

70

Breakdown voltage [V]

80

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Forward current density, JF [x103A/cm2] 

20
LTSS

}

Si 3 N 4
with field−plate
SiO 2
without field−plate

16
12
8

ND = 5x10 16 cm−3

tsi = 0.5 µm
tox = 100 Ao

4 L FP = 2.5 µm
L
T

0
0.0

= 3.0 µm
o
= 27 C

0.4ND

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Forward voltage drop, VF [V] 

 9<7:EM/I7:T),+ /I74/2)?14-?7=35;:1435)8;X92H%14+J- L W'J' 

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0.6

(a)

|

|

0

1

|

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2
3
Distance [µm]

|

4

Cathode

|

|

Anode

0.4

|

0.0
0.2

Cathode

|

0.4

|

0.0
0.2

Anode

0.6

|

Distance [µm]

Distance [µm]  

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(b)

|

|

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1

|

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2
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Distance [. µm]

|

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Reverse current density, JR [A/cm2]

 

0.04

tsi = 0.5 µm
tox = 100 Ao

LTSS

L FP = 2.5 µm
L = 3.0 µm
o
T = 27 C

0.03
with field−plate
without field−plate

0.02

ND = 5x10 16 cm−3

0.01
0.4ND

0.00
0

5
10
15
20
Reverse voltage, VR [V] 

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Cathode

|
|

0.6

(a)

|

|

0

1

|

|

|

2
3
Distance [µm]

4

Cathode

|

|

Anode

0.4

|

0.0
0.2

Depletion line

|

0.4

|

0.0
0.2

Anode

0.6

|

Distance [µm]

Distance [µm] 



(b)

|

|

0

1

|

|

|

2
3
Distance .[µm]

4

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LTSS
ND = 2x1016 cm−3
VR = 20 V

6

5

Electric field [x10 V/cm]

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tsi = 0.5 µm
tox = 100 Ao

L FP = 2.5 µm
L = 3.0 µm
o
T = 27 C

with field−plate
without field−plate

4

2

0
0

1

2

Distance [.µm]

3

4 

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