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1. The AFP Core of Values

a. Honor

The members of the AFP believe in honor as the most important
virtue that a soldier must posses. It is in fact considered as more precious than
life itself. Without honor, a man is nothing but a beast. Honor means clean
consciousness, personal dignity, good reputation, unquestionable character.
Honor means truthfulness, sincerity, honesty, credibility. Honor means integrity,
a modest but decent life. A honorable soldier does not lie, cheat, steal, violate
moral and ethical codes not tolerate the violations of the code of honor is the
sacred part of the character of a soldier, violation of which should bring shame.

b. Loyalty

The members of the AFP believe in unflinching loyalty. Thus we
shall promote the national interest and security as a paramount concern. We
shall support and defend the constitution. We shall be obedient to the duly
constituted government. We shall obey the order of those legally appointed over
us. We shall support those who lead us and those who serve with us.

c. Valor

We believe in valor as the power and strength, courage and ability to
overcome fear, which enables the soldiers to carry out their mission and to
accomplish what is seemingly impossible. It is more than bravery or ability to
endure pain. Valor is calmness and presence of mind in the heat of battle where
danger or death is imminent. It is the courage to stand for what is right and the
perseverance to make it difficult for others to do wrong.

d. Duty

Despite difficulty and danger, we perform our tasks as order or
implied. Discipline and obedience, we believe that duty is a personal act of
responsibility, which we show by doing all our assigned tasks to the best of our

e. Solidarity

Solidarity is the value that binds us with the rest of our comrades-in-
arms. It is the value that makes us one strong and united organization.

2. Military Culture, Customs and Traditions and Core Philosophies

a. The AFP Organization

The AFP Organization proves that the AFP should be organized in
such manner that it can function effectively to accomplish its mission with
minimum cost and maximum result. The AFP Organization must also promote
the active participation of the people in the defense of the state and in civil
assistance projects during disaster and calamities and national emergencies.
This is to avoid creation and manning of new units that merely duplicates the
function of another unit or office, if only to give positions to the favored general
officers or senior field grade officers who have no significant assignments or if
only to generate funds which will be divested for personal use of the proponents
at the expense of the government. The creation of CAFGU Active auxiliary, the
bantay-bayan and the civilian volunteer organization, not to mention the
development of our reserve units in all the 13 regions of the country are some
organizational reforms embodied in the AFP Organization.

b. Supremacy of Civilian Authority

Supremacy of civilian authority emphasizes the legal and moral
obligation of the soldier as an ordinary citizen of the republic to obey the laws,
carryout directives and subscribe to regulations enacted and issued by the
legislative judicial and executive branches of the civil government.

c. Chain of Command

Chain of Command deals on the generally accepted principles that a
military action being executed should pass the approval or consent of the
Commander at each level or echelon of command from lowest to highest without
bypassing any approving authority or taking the action upon ones self as his

d. Military Leadership

Military leadership summarizes the significant role of a military
leader or Commander to influence his men to carry out its mission, perform
assigned tasks or fulfill its obligations and functions.

e. Peoples Support

Peoples support is a statement of the acknowledgement by the AFP
of the vital importance of peoples support to achieve peace and order. To get
peoples support, the members of the AFP should exercise prudence and justice
when dealing with the civilians. The soldiers should respect and protect the
rights of the people, their beliefs, and ways of life and living conditions.

f. National Development

The AFP must be a catalyst of change, reform and development. It
must actively participate in endeavors that will contribute to national progress.

g. Partisan Politics

The members of the AFP shall not engage in partisan politics. Its
involvement shall be limited only to the exercises of his right to vote the
candidate of his choices and to assist in ensuring a clean and honest election.

h. Democracy

The AFP adheres to the principles of democracy. It believes that the
Philippine Government is the embodiment of the Filipino peoples will and was
established to protect their inherent rights and to fulfill their aspirations as a

i. National Interest

The AFP realizes that the protection of national interest is for the
common good of the people. In accomplishing the mission given to AFP it shall
keep in mind that a national interest is of paramount concern and must be
enhanced and protected.

j. Peace

The AFP believes that program and development can only be
attained if there is stability, peace and order.

k. War

The AFP believes that war or the use of force against the enemy of
the state shall be resorted to only when all the peaceful means shall have failed
and no other option is left to resolve the conflict.

l. Use of Armed Force

When implementing government policies pertaining to security, the
AFP must act with restraint as far as use of force is concerned. When the use of
arms is necessary, it must have the authority of the duly established government.

m. Social Justice

The members of the AFP shall be instrument in the promotion of
social justice. It shall subscribe to the generally accepted principle that all men
area created equal and every citizen must be given the same rights and
opportunities in life and equal protection from the government.

n. Human Rights

The members of the AFP shall respect the inherent rights of an
individual as a human being. In the performance of its mission, the troops
must see to it that the lives and properties on non-combatants and innocent
civilians are well protected.

o. Enemies of the State

The AFP shall consider the following as enemies of the state:

1) Those who shall violate the sovereignty of the Philippines
such as foreign aggression whose intention is to occupy and control the national
territory or part thereof.
2) Those who resort to violence as a means to achieve their ends
such as CPP/NPA/Guerillas.

3) Those who shall not accept the supremacy of civilian authority
over the military, such as the coup plotters and participants.
4) Those who shall dismember the country or any part thereof,
such as the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and other secessionist
5) Those who shall engage in organized crimes, such as
gambling syndicates, drug pushers, gun runners, hired killers.
6) Those who shall organize the populace for the purpose of
alienating their allegiance from the state such as the national democratic front
and the sectoral organizations under its umbrella.

p. Professionalism

Military professionalism is the heart and soul of the whole AFP code
of ethics. It emphasizes that being public servants, we in the AFP area expected
to perform our duties and responsibilities with utmost competence and
efficiency. Our right to bear arms as one of the peculiarities of the military
service calls for the assurance to the people that their safety, protection and
welfare shall be our paramount concern.

The people expects the AFP to perform its tasks as mandated by the
constitution with the highest degree of excellence by applying expertly the basic
and specialized skills of soldiery while adhering strictly with the code of ethics
and all laws and statutes of the land.

q. Standards

1) Standard of Loyalty

All military personnel shall be loyal and true to the Republic of
the Philippines, the constitution, the AFP and to the people. We are loyal to the
republic when we serve its interest and protect its territorial integrity against the
enemy, even if it shall cost our lives.

2) Standard of Competence

All military must be competent in the performance of his
duties. By competence means the ability or capability to do what is expected him
to do and to do it well.

3) Standard of Ethics

Every soldier must conform to the accepted principles of right conduct,
being observed in the society which he is a part, from being a soldier, he is also a
citizen of the community, because the military community is only a part of a
larger society the Filipino society

4) Standard of Morals
The soldier must be aware that he has the capacity to
distinguish between what is right and what is wrong. To be moral is to do the
right things and to avoid the wrong ones.

r. Unprofessional Acts

These behaviors that fall short of the professional standards as
enumerated in the AFP code of ethics are considered unprofessional acts.

1) Acts of Disloyalty

We are disloyal when we do something or refuse to do
something that constitute betrayal of our country and people, non-support to our
duly constituted government and disregard to the AFP chain of Command. Some
disloyal acts are cowardice in the face of the enemy, desertion or abandonment
of post, AWOL, insubordination, disrespect to superior, bypassing the chain of

2) Acts of Incompetence
We are incompetent when we lack the required knowledge,
skills, physical attributes and character traits necessary for the adequate
performance of duty and accomplishment of mission.

3) Unethical Acts

Unethical acts are deviations from the established and accepted ethical
and moral standards of behavior and performance laid down in the AFP code of
ethics. Some of these unethical acts are using government time for outside
employment, sideline, position or authority, unwarranted assertion or rank,
tolerating irregularities in the military service, etc.

4) Corrupt Acts

Corrupt acts are crimes against public interest, public morals,
property, chastity, civil status of person and honor. We are corrupt when we are
dishonest, unjust and commit moral acts.


Military discipline is necessary to ensure orderly and effective group
action. This is commonly known as teamwork. Teamwork is particularly important
in military operations where its presence or lack of it may spell the difference
between victory and defeat.

With discipline, everybody learn the sense of obligation to himself and to
his group, to his superiors and to the entire organization where he belongs. He
also realizes that he is a member of a team, organized, trained and equipped for
the purpose of engaging and defeating the enemies of the state.

Really, all aspects of military life are affected by discipline. We hear of fire
discipline", water discipline, "supply discipline", etc.


a. MILITARY DISCIPLINE - is the state of order and obedience among
personnel in a military organization. It is characterized by the men's prompt and
willing responsiveness to orders and unhesitating compliance to regulations.
b. MILITARY COURTESY - are the acts of politeness, civility and
respect that personnel in the military organization accord to one other. Just like
in the civilian world, military courtesy serves to smooth the personal relationship
among men in the profession of arms. As a soldier, you must be thoroughly
familiar with the different forms of military courtesy. Learn to practice them
wholeheartedly and insist that your fellow soldiers do the same.
c. CUSTOMS OF THE SERVICE it is the body of unwritten or common
law of the armies, navies and air forces.
d. MORALE the term may be defined as the mental state and spirit of
an individual or unit.
e. EFFICIENCY it is the ability to accomplish successfully an
assigned task in the shortest possible time with the least confusion. Efficiency
requires interest, resourcefulness, and proficiency. It develops pride, and the
satisfaction of a job well done.


The salute is the most important and the most common form of all the
military courtesies. It is a time honored tradition of the profession of arms,
practiced in all military organizations in the world. The manner an individual
executes the salute is an indication of his attitude towards his duties as a military
man and existing state of morale and discipline in his unit. A sloppishly and
grudgingly rendered salute or a childish pretense not to notice anyone to whom a
salute is due, shows neglect or ignorance of the individual duties, his lack of
confidence and ability to perform them, his lack of pride in his team and
possession of a stubborn and defiant character making him unsuited to
cooperate with others in a common effort. When you salute or return a salute
smartly, clearly mark yourself as a soldier who has pride in yourself and your

a. Who and What are Entitled to Salute

1) Commissioned Officers (both male and female) of the Armed
Forces of the Philippines.
2) Commissioned Officers (both male and female) of the Armed
Forces of Allied Nations.
3) Civilian high officials or foreign dignities during military
honors rendered for them.
4) Colors and standard not cased.

b. When to Salute

1) Reporting to an officer.
2) Meeting an officer
3) When the national color passes by
4) When the national anthem is being played. (Out door only)
5) Raising and lowering of flag.
6) After conversing with an officer.

c. When not to Salute

1) When troops are at work
2) Indoors, except when reporting to an officer.
3) When carrying articles with both hands, and being so
occupied to make saluting impracticable.
4) When attending to a vehicle.
5) When meeting a prisoner
6) When in ranks

Military personnel in uniform are always required to salute all
persons who are entitled to such courtesy whenever they meet and recognized
them. Saluting, however, is not necessary when riding public conveyances such
as trains and busses or when inside public places such as theaters and
restaurants or during situations when a salute is manifestly in appropriate or

3. General Rules for Saluting

Following are the rules to observe when saluting:

a. Saluting distance is the distance of recognition. Usually it does not
exceed 30 paces. The salute is rendered and the hand is held in position until the
officers saluted has passed or after the salute is returned
b. A salute must always be returned by the officer entitled to it, unless
he is in the formation of other officers. In which case, only the most senior or the
marcher returns it.
c. The salute must never be rendered in a casual or perfunctory
manner, nor with pipe, cigar or cigarette held in the mouth or in the right hand. It
is only rendered at a halt or a walk. If running, a soldier comes to a walk before
saluting. When mounted on a horse, he brings the horse to a walk and salute.
d. When several are in a group, not in formation, all rise and salute.
When in formation, only the commander or the most senior salutes.
e. The salute is made whether a headgear is worn or not.
f. A soldier salutes an officer if he meets and recognizes him inside a
military camp even though they are both in civilian clothes or when either one of
them is in uniform. When both or each of them are in civilian clothes and they
meet outside of camp, a courteous "Good Morning , Sir" or other greeting will do.
g. The salute is rendered only once if the officer remains in the
immediate vicinity and conversation takes place, the junior must again salute the
officer when he leaves or dismiss him.
h. Unlike Navy personnel, soldiers never salute with the left hand.
When a soldiers hold something on his right hand, he transfer it to the left and
salute. When it is impractical to burden both hands, he simply greets the officer
as he meets him.
i. The salute is always executed while looking at the person being
saluted. It is always best to accompany such courteous gesture with "Good
Morning, Sir" or some appropriate greetings.
j. Enlisted Personnel salute other enlisted personnel only in formation
when rendering reports.
k. Whenever a soldier is in doubt, as to whether a salute is appropriate

4. Services and Last Courtesies

Funeral services are accorded to all military personnel who died in the
performance of their duties. Deceased military personnel are entitled to the

a. Vigil guards during the wake.
b. Gun salute during interment.
c. Pallbearers are provided to carry the casket during the interment.
d. Taps is being played while the casket is being lowered to the grave.

As courtesy to the deceased military personnel, while the casket is being
carried from the house to the caisson, military personnel stand at attention,
uncover and hold the headdress over their left breast. During inclement weather,
they execute hand salute. The honor is also accorded to the remains as it passes
by the mourners. Military men not in formation attending military funerals follow
the mourners according to seniority.

As the casket is being lowered from the caisson to the grave during the
sounding of the volley, taps and funeral services, the headdress is removed and
placed over the left breast. During inclement weather, military personnel remain
uncover and execute the hand salute. This position is maintained until the casket
reaches the grave or when it is beyond saluting distance. Active pallbearers
remain covered while they are carrying the casket.