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3-4 Finding an Equation of a Line (continued)

Vocabulary
j>-intercept The y-coordinate of the point where a line (or curve) intersects the y-axis.
x-intercept The ^-coordinate of the point where a line (or curve) intersects the *-axis.
Slope-intercept form The equation of a line written as y = mx + b where
m is the slope and b is the y-intercept.
Theorem Let Zq and L2 be two different lines, with slopes mj and m2.
1. LI and L2 are parallel if and only if m\ = wt2.
2. LI and L2 are perpendicular if and only if mjW 2 = — 1. (mi and ra2 are negative reciprocals.)

Example J3 Find an equation in standard form of the line having slope - — and
^-intercept 2.

Solution Use = mx + b with m = -- and b = 2.

y = + 2 Multiply both sides by 4
4y = -3* + 8 to clear the fraction.
3x 4y = 8

Find an equation in standard form of the line having slope m and ^-intercept b.

17.m=-l,b = 18. /» = 2, b = -4 19. 20. m = 0.8, & = 0.6

Example 4 Find equations in standard form of the lines through point P( — 1, 3) that are
(a) parallel to and (b) perpendicular to the line x - 3y = 6.

Solution Solve the equation for y to find the slope:
x - 3y = 6; y = ~x - 2 .". the slope of the line is —.

a. A line parallel to x — 3y = 6 b. The slope of a line perpendicular to
has the same slope, —-. x — 3y = 6 is the negative reciprocal
Use the point-slope form: of —, or —3. Use the point-slope form:

y - 3 = + 1) y - 3 = -3(jc + 1)
3v - 9 = x + 1 y - 3 = -3x - 3
x - 3y = -10 3* + y = 0

Find equations in standard form of the lines through point P that are (a) parallel to
and (b) perpendicular to line L.

21. P(0, -5);L:y = ~x + 2 22. P(3, 0);L:x -4y = 4

23. P(2, -3);L: 2x + 7y = 14 24. P(-5, -1);L:* + 4 = 0

Study Guide, ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY, Structure and Method, Book 2
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