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Innovation in Medical Electronic Devices and Technologies
Authors: Dr. Shashidhar H L, Professor and KRP, Dept of Telecommunication,PESIT Akshaya Srivatsa, UG student, Dept of Telecommunication, PESIT Lokesh V, Strategic Planning Initiative (IPM), L&T Limited

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Agenda
• Introduction • History of Medical Electronic devices
 Physiological Monitors  Blood Pressure Measurements and Devices  Electrocardiographs  Temperature measurement devices

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Introduction
• Medical equipment is designed to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring or treatment of medical conditions. • Biomedical Equipment Technician or BMET knows how to operate on the equipments. • Classification: Diagnostic equipment, such as ultrasound, MRI. Therapeutic Equipment such as medical laser, infusion pumps. Medical monitors allow medical staff to measure a patient's medical state. Medical laboratory equipment like DNA analysis.

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Physiological Monitors
• These are devices that constantly monitor certain vital parameters of the human body such as pulse rate, heart beat etc.
• 1950’s: Himmelstein and Scheiner invented the Cardiotachoschope • The Cardiotachoscope
 CRT view for ECG waveform.  Alarm for high and low heart rates - Cardiophones.  Heart rate indicator.

• With time, devices started integrating like : Defibrillator & Monitor with Integrated Non-invasive Pacing.

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Physiological Monitors (Continued)
• Earliest Vendors:
 Electrodyne: PM-65 (1956) was a cardioscope with a pacemaker  Levinthal Electronics: “Duo Trace Cardioscope” (1956)  Dallons: Cardioscope (1957) • 1960’s:Centralized Monitors: Connecting different beds in a star network • Bigger screens: 17’’ CRT • Cardioscopes became modular and hence flexible. • Nixie tubes were now replaced by LED’s.

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Physiological Monitors (Continued)
• 1970’s: Advent of digital electronics and microprocessors • Arrhythmia Analysis: Conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular. • Interfacing to computer for Arrhythmia Analysis. • Microprocessors enabled numeric LED, bar graph display, heart rate information on the CRT. • “Memory Monitors”: Briefly store several seconds of recorded data.
 Electrodyne: First to release memory monitors in 1972.  Spacelabs: First to release monitors based on microprocessors in 1974.

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Physiological Monitors (Continued)
• • • • 1980’s: Colour displays came into existence. Monitor networking became more sophisticated. Bed-to-bed and inter-bed viewing became possible. Hot swapping: Add and remove components without shutdown. • Concept of patient data management. • 1990’s: Portable, lighter and smaller in size monitors • Interface to a computer. • Real time data feed via the Internet.

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Some Physiological Monitors

Electrodyne PM-65

Dallons Duo Trace Oscilloscope

Burdick Memory Monitor

Spacelabs PC Express

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Blood Pressure Measurement and Monitors
• 1733: First recorded blood pressure measurement by Reverend Stephen Hales • 1847: Carl Ludwig’s Kymograph used catheters to inserted into artery for blood pressure measurement.

• U shaped Manometer tube
connected to a brass pipe inserted into the artery • 1855: First non invasive method which used inflatable cuffs •1896: The first sphygmomanometer was

Kymogra ph

Sphygmomanom eter

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Blood Pressure Measurement and Monitors (Continued)
• Korotoff Sounds: The characteristic sounds made by arteries due to systolic and diastolic blood pressures. • Many modern sphygmomanometer still use Mercury but now have been replaced by auscultatory sphygmomanometers. • Blood Pressure Monitoring ▫ Invasive Catheterisation Method: As developed by Reverend Stephen Hales ▫ Manual & Automated Auscultatory Method: Based on Korotff Sounds ▫ Oscillometric Method: Measurement of oscillations caused by arterial pressure pulses. ▫ Ambulatory Monitoring: Used to measure BP over the entire day.

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Electrocardiographs
• 1856: Kollicker and Mueller discovered the electrical activity of the heart when a frog sciatic nerve preparation fell onto an isolated frog heart and both muscles contracted synchronously. • Augustus Waller came with the first systematic approach from electrical point of view.

Cambridge VS4

Cambridge Simplescribe

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Electrocardiographs (Continued)

• Willem Einthoven: Invented the string Galvanometer based ECG device which won him a Nobel prize in Medicine.

• Einthoven assigned the letters P, Q, R, S and T to the various deflections, and described the electrocardiographic features of a number of cardiovascular disorders.

Willem Einthoven ECG

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Temperature
• 1592: Galileo’s invented the first thermometer. • 1714: Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invented both Mercury and Alcohol Thermometers. • 1800’s: Lord Kelvin postulated the existence of absolute zero • T J Seebeck proved the thermocouple effect • Invention of BiMets and semi-conductor devices such as thermistors, IC sensors, non-contact sensors etc • Smallest measurement is now 0.0001o C

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Conclusion
• The report generated is based on the information from Papers, patents and market trends • In-depth study in technology, statistical information and innovation has lead to the technological advancements in medical electronics. • The number of patents filed have only increased year by year showing the growing trends in in medical electronics. • In today’s world, the companies key strength is measured through the patents that they file as they
▫ Potray the companies strength. ▫ Bigger monetary returns. ▫ Protect their innovations.

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