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Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that source, detect and
control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics. In this context, light often includes
invisible forms of radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet and infrared, in addition
to visible light. Optoelectronic devices are electrical-to-optical or optical-to-electrical
transducers, or instruments that use such devices in their operation. Electro-optics is often
erroneously used as a synonym, but is in fact a wider branch of physics that deals with all
interactions between light and electric fields, whether or not they form part of an electronic

LED (Light emitting diode)

Colors and Materials

Conventional LEDs are made from a variety of inorganic semiconductor materials, the following table
shows the available colors with wavelength range, voltage drop and material:

Color Voltage (V) Semi-conductor Material

Gallium arsenide (GaAs)
Infrared λ > 760 ΔV < 1,9
Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)

Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)
1,63 < ΔV < Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)
Red 610 < λ < 760
2,03 Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)

2,03 < ΔV <
Orange 590 < λ < 610 Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)

Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)
2,10 < ΔV <
Yellow 570 < λ < 590 Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)

Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) / Gallium(III) nitride
2,18 < ΔV <
Green 500 < λ < 570 Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Aluminium gallium phosphide (AlGaP)

Zinc selenide (ZnSe)
2,48 < ΔV < Indium gallium nitride (InGaN)
Blue 450 < λ < 500
3,7 Silicon carbide (SiC) as substrate
Silicon (Si) as substrate — (under development)

2,76 < ΔV <
Violet 400 < λ < 450 Indium gallium nitride (InGaN)

diamond (C)
Aluminium nitride (AlN)
Ultraviolet λ < 400 3,1 < ΔV < 4,4 Aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN)
Aluminium gallium indium nitride (AlGaInN) — (down
to 210 nm[17])

White Broad spectrum ΔV = 3,5 Blue/UV diode with phosphor