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ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS

OF THE DECISIONS THAT MUST BE MADE by the designer of a multistory

building, probably none is more important than the selection of the vertical

transportation equipment-that is, the passenger, service and

freight elevators and the escalators. Not only these items represent a major
building expense being in the case of a 25-story office building as much as

10% of the construction cost, but the quality of elevator service is also an

important factor in a tenants choice of space in competing buildings.


MOVEMENT PATTERN

VERTICAL– ELEVATORS – LIFTS

INCLINED – ESCALATORS – MOVINGSTAIRS

HORIZONTAL– CONVEYORS -- WALKWAYS


HYDRAULIC TRACTION
ESCALATORS
MULTI LEVEL
ECSALATORS
HYDRAULIC

TRACTION
COMPONENTS OF
GEARED
ELEVATOR
INSTALLATION
COMPOSITE
HOIST MOTOR
AND SHEAVE
ASSEMBLY
PASSENGER ELEVATORS
ONE MUST DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN

1) RESIDENTIAL HIGH RISE


2) ELEVATORS IN NORMAL OFFICE BUILDINGS
3) ELEVATORS IN SMALL OFFICE BUILDINGS AND
4) ELEVATORS IN TALL OFFICE BUILDINGS

THE ELEVATOR PLANNERS JOB IS TO

1) DETERMINE REQUIRED CAPACITY


2) CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF ELEVATORS NECESSARY
3) DEMANDS ON ELEVATORS TO BE CLEARLY DEFINED
BUILDING PARAMATERS

USABLE FLOOR SPACE

BASIC PARAMETERS FOR ELEVATOR TRAFFIC CALCULATIONS


1) FOR OFFICE BUILDINGS--- THE PLANNED OFFICE SPACE
2) FOR HOTELS --- THE NUMBER OF HOTEL ROOMS
3) FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS--- THE NUMBER AND SIZE OF APARTMENTS

OFFICE SPACE OR THE NUMBER OF HOTEL ROOMS OR APARTMENTS


MUST BE DETERMINED FOR EACH FLOOR

THE NUMBER AND HEIGHT OF INDIVIDUAL FLOORS MUST BE KNOWN


NUMBER OF PASSENGERS
THE POPULATION OF EACH STORY IS DETERMINED BY THE USABLE FLOOR
SPACE . THE FOLLOWING VALUES CAN BE CONSIDERED
--- OFFICE BUILDING WITH ONE USER
8-10 SQMT NET AREA / PERSON
--- OFFICE BUILDING WITH MULTIPLE USER
10-12 SQMT NET AREA / PERSON
--- RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS AND HOTELS
1.5-1.9 PEOPLE / ROOM
OR WITH SLIGHT DEVIATION
--- RESIDENTIAL BUILDING
13 SQMT / PERSON
--- HOTEL
1,5-1.7 PEOPLE / DOUBLE ROOM,
1 PERSON / SINGLE ROOM
--- RESIDENTIAL BUILDING
DEPENDING ON APARTMENT SIZE- 2,3 OR 5 PEOPLE/ APARTMENT
REQUIRED HANDLING CAPACITY

THE TOTAL PROBABLE MEAN OCCUPANCY FOR EACH FLOOR IS USED TO


DETERMINE THE NECESSARY CONYENCE CAPACITY OF EACH ELEVATOR
GROUP DURING IN- RUSH PERIOD

THE TRAFFIC MODEL CALCULATIONS ARE BASED ON THIS PERIOD BECAUSE


DEMANDS ON THESE TIMES CAN BE STANDARDIZED AND COMPARED
ELEVATOR PARAMETERS
FIVE MINUTE HANDLING CAPACITY
THE No.OF PEOPLE TRANSPORTED IN FIVE MINUTES
FOLLOWING ARE THE STANDARD TRAFFIC %
OFFICE BUILDINGS WITH SEVERAL USERS---11-15%
OFFICE BUILDINGS WITH ONE USER---17%
WITH HIGH PRESTIGE--- 17-25%
AVERAGE WAITING TIME
OFFICE BUILDING WITH PRESTIGE---20-25 SEC.
OTHER BUILDINGS---25-30 SEC.
RESIDENTIAL AND HOTELS---40-100 SEC
CAB CAPACITY
THE NECESSARY FLOOR AREA IS CALCULATED USING THE No. OF
PASSENGERS TO BE TRANSPORTED EACH RUN TO ACHIEVE THE
DESIGNATED HANDLING CAPACITY WITH GOOD AVERAGE WAITING
TIMES.
A NET FLOOR AREA OF AT LEAST 0.22 SQMT/ PER. IS DESIRABLE

TIME LOST AT STOP

THE TIME LOST AT STOP IS THE TIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A TRIP


FROM FLOOR A TO FLOOR B WITHOUT INTERVENING STOPS AND A
TRIP FROM B TO A WITH ONE INTERVENING STOP, PLUS A DEFINED
DOOR OPENING
SPEED
ELEVATOR SPEED IN HIGH- RISES IS DEPENDENT ON HOISTING HEIGHT
AND CHOSEN ON THE BASIS OF TRAFFIC CALCULATIONS.

FAST ELEVATORS REQUIRE COMPLEX EQUIPMENT FOR THE DRIVE


MECHANISM, CARS, AND COUNTER WEIGHT DESIGN, BUFFER AND
TENSION SHEAVE IN THE SHAFT PIT; THEY NEED COSTLY MEASURES
TO ENSURE STRUCTURE AND AIR BORNE NOISE INSULATION AND
THEY HAVE A VERY HIGH ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION
HIGH RISE ELEVATOR GROUPS
ELEVATOR GROUPINGS
ELEVATOR ZONING
ESCALATOR DIMENSIONS
ESCALATOR DIMENSIONS
ESCALATOR GROUPINGS
CRISS CROSS ARRANGEMENT
PARALLEL ARRANGEMENT
PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF THE ELEVATOR

The car
is a cage of some fire resistant material supported on a structural frame
The cables (ropes)
are connected to the cross-head (top beam of the elevator} and carry the
weight of the car and its live load are made of groups of steel wires
The counterweight
is made up of cut steel plates stacked in a frame attached to the opposite
ends of the cables to which the car is fastened.
The elevator machine
turns the sheave and lifts or lowers the car. It consists of a heavy structural
frame on which are mounted the sheave and driving motor
The shaft or hoist way
is the vertical passageway for the car and counterweights
Advantages of Hydraulic types of elevators.

1. From the point of view of architecture and construction the major inherent
advantage of hydraulic units is the absence of an overhead machine
room, a penthouse, and traction equipment.
2. The elevator load is carried by the ground and not the structure. By
contrast, traction units place a large structural load on the pent house
and machine room floors and on overhead steel as well.
3. The hoist way is smaller due to the absence of a counter weight and its
guide rails.
4. Cars can be lowered manually by the operation of oil valves. This is
particularly useful and important in the event of control equipment failure
or power failure.
5. There is essentially no limit to the load that can be lifted.
Disadvantages of Hydraulic types of elevators.
1. The Major inherent disadvantage of the hydraulic elevator is its operating
expense. Because it is not counter weighted, it requires a relatively large
motor to drive the oil pump, and all the energy is lost in heat.
2. They are limited to low-rise, low-speed applications.
3. Ride quality is inferior to that of a good traction unit, although it is entirely
acceptable to residential, mercantile, and industrial applications.
4. Because oil viscosity changes with temperature, the ambient temperature
of the space containing the pump and the oil storage tank must be
controlled to maintain ride quality and performance. The high inrush
current taken by the pump each time it starts, which is every time the
elevator travels upwards, require a stiff power supply to avoid problems of
light flicker and other undesirable line voltage fluctuations.
5. Noise from the pump and motor plus piping noise can be disturbing. This
problem can be ameliorated by moving the pump mechanism (up to 50 ft
from the elevator shaft)