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What Are Enzymes?

• Most enzymes are
Proteins (tertiary
and quaternary
structures)
• Act as Catalyst to
accelerates a
reaction
• Not permanently
changed in the
process

1
Enzymes
• Are specific for
what they will
catalyze
• Are Reusable
• End in –ase
-protease
-Sucrase
-Lactase
-Maltase

2
Enzymes
Without Enzyme
With Enzyme

Free Free energy of activation
Energy
Reactants

Products

Progress of the reaction

3
Enzyme-Substrate
Complex and active site
The substance
(reactant) an
enzyme acts on is
the substrate

Joins
Substrate Enzyme

4
Induced Fit
• A change in the
shape of an
enzyme’s active
site
• Induced by the
substrate

5
Structure of immunoglobulin

• The fragment antigen
binding (Fab fragment)
• The fragment crystallizable
region (Fc region)
• Antibodies bind to antigens
by reversible, noncovalent
interactions, including
hydrogen bonds and
charge interactions
Light chain

• The light chains
are constructed of
two domains
– Variable (VL)
– Constant (CL)
MUSCLE PROTEIN
FUNCTION
• Good example of conversion of
sarcomere chemical energy in mechanical
energy
• Functional unit of a myofibril is the
sarcomere
• Major filamentous proteins are
actin and myosin, titin (in the z
disk)
• Myosin is composed of 6 polypeptide
chains, 2 H or heavy chains, and two L
or light chains
• Myosin head has ATPase activity
• Myosin has a hinge region where the
molecule is flexible
• The myosin head has a high affinity for g
actin
Myosin (thick) filaments
• Each filament contains about 400 individual myosin
molecules
• Bundled so that half of the molecules have their head
facing one direction, the other half, the opposite direction

Myosin
heads are in
a staggered
arrangement
along the
filament
Actin Filaments (thin filaments)
• Monomers of globular or g actin combine to form long fibers of f actin.
Two f actin molecules twist around one another to form a single thin
filament
• All actin myofilaments are anchored to the proteins of the z disk
• Each g actin molecule has a binding site for the myosin head
Cross-Bridge Cycling
Cross-bridge cycling
• Continues as long as nerve
depolarizes muscle
membrane; also dependent
on fuel supply as myosin
power stroke is dependent
on ATP
• Pulls z lines closer
together; shortens
sarcomere
• Myosin heads do not pull
in a synchronized manner;
random rowing