UMF “GR. T. POPA” IASI PH.D. DR. PAUL – DAN SIRBU
1. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the clinical and pathological outcome of a range of factors that lead to pain, disability and structural failure in synovial joints.
2. By the age of 65, 80% of people have radiographic evidence of OA affecting the spine, hips, knees, hands and feet, but only one in four (25%) are symptomatic.
3. There is only a weak relationship between symptoms and radiographic evidence of structural changes of OA.
4. Structural failure of articular cartilage, bone and periarticular tissues results from abnormal mechanical stresses in normal joints or normal forces in abnormal joints.
5. OA is a dynamic process of remodelling and proliferation of new bone, cartilage and connective tissues, as well as focal degeneration of articular cartilage.
6. Insidious pain occurs as a
result of increased pressure or microfractures in the subchondral bone, lowgrade synovitis, inflammatory effusions, capsular distension, enthesitis or muscle spasm, and nocturnal aching may be associated with hyperaemia in the subchondral bone.
7. Consider a predisposing underlying condition in patients with OA before the age of 40 or if OA develops in unusual sites. 8. Focal joint space narrowing and the presence of osteophytes are the main radiographic features of OA.
9. Medical treatment of OA The purpose is to relieve symptoms, maintain and improve joint function, and minimize disability and handicap; optimal management requires a combination of nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities.
10. Surgical management of OA is indicated where medical therapy has failed; joint replacement is effective and cost-effective irrespective of age.
11. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals are deposited at entheses, in hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage, and are associated with chondrocalcinosis and degenerative changes; shedding of crystals into joints can provoke acute synovitis (pseudogout) or chronic pyrophosphate arthropathy.
12. Calcific periarthritis is due to periarticular deposition of hydroxyapatite. 13. Acute gout usually presents as monoarthritis in a distal joint of the foot or hand.
Osteoarthritis a very common desease. The frequency and the severity of the OA increases proportionally with the age .
By the age of 65, 80% of people have some radiographic evidence of OA, although only one in four is symptomatic.
Considering all age groups men and women are equally affected.
Under 45, OA is more frequent in men, but after 55, it becomes more frequent in women. In women hand and knee joints are more often affected. In men the most frequent involved is the hip. Hip OA is more frequent in white males (americans şi europeans) compared to the chinese and south african black males. Primary OA is rare in japanese, but the secondary OA is frequent due to the hip dysplasia.
A.Primary (idhiopatic) OA
1. Localized Hands and feet Hip Knee Spine Other (shoulder, elbow, ankle, etc. )
(three or more joints)
B. Secondary OA
(due to an underlying hip disorder) :
1. Post-traumatic (appears after articular fractures or periarticular fractures that heal with the incongruency of the articular surfaces)
1. Congenital/ developmental/systemic (pediatric hip disease,
osteonecrosis, previous infection, auto-imune desease, bone desease , neurologic desease etc)
Hip disease, e.g. Perthes‘ Mechanical and local factors, e.g. obesity, hypermobility, varus-valgus, local infection)
Bone dysplasia Metabolic (calcium pyrophosphate
deposition disease, hydroxyapatite arthropathy, destructive arthropathies, etc)
Other bone and joint disorders (avascular necrosis,
rheumatoid arthritis, Paget's disease, etc)
Miscellaneous other diseases
(endocrine, e.g. acromegaly, neuropathic
PATHOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
ü the presenting symptom in the majority of patients. ü usually insidious in onset and intermittent at first, ü the pain is typically aching in character
initially, it is provoked by weightbearing or movement of the joint, and relieved by rest, as the disease progresses the pain may be more prolonged and experienced at rest, and may become severe enough to wake the patient at night prolonged early morning stiffness is not a feature as it is in rheumatoid arthritis and other predominantly inflammatory joint diseases, but a few minutes of early morning stiffness and transient stiffness (gelling) after rest are common.
ü it can emanate from all the tissues of the joint, except the articular cartilage, which is aneural ü result from - increased pressure - microfracturesin the subchondral bone, - low-grade synovitis, - inflammatory effusions, - capsular distension, - enthesitis or muscle spasm, - nocturnal aching may be associated with hyperaemia in the subchondral bone.
these can amplify pain and disability. § there is only a weak relationship between symptoms and radiographic evidence of structural changes of OA at all joint sites,
Asssociated anxiety and depression are not uncommon, and
as a result of restriction of movement can be the presenting complaint in patients with OA of the hands, hip or knee, even in the
restriction of movement of joints as a result of - capsular fibrosis or blocking by osteophytes, palpable bony swelling, periarticular or joint-line tenderness, deformities with or without joint instability, muscle weakness and wasting occasional joint effusions, and palpable or even audible
widely used to assess the severity of the structural changes in patients with OA. Because radiographic evidence of OA is so frequent in asymptomatic middle-aged and elderly persons, radiographs are much less useful in the differential diagnosis of arthritis in patients presenting with articular symptoms.
Focal, rather than uniform, joint space narrowing and the presence of osteophytes are the main radiographic features, with subchondral bone sclerosis and cysts in more advanced cases. Ossified synovial loose bodies and chondrocalcinosis can also sometimes be detected on plain radiographs.
In o rd e r t o a s s e s s t h e e xt e n t t o which joint space narrowing reflects loss of articular cartilage in the tibiofemoral joints, standing radiographs are required.
Ankle and foot OA
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
shows earlier and more quantitative detection of articular cartilage changes, including changes in hydration and proteoglycan composition useful for detecting intra-articular soft-tissue lesions, such as meniscus tears, and for the diagnosis of osteonecrosis
detection of - osteonecrosis, - stress fractures - bone metastases.
not helpful in the diagnosis or management of OA largely used to exclude other diseases associated with systemic inflammation or metabolic abnormalities. (measurements of serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase are critical for the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism and hypophosphatasia) measurement of serum ferritin is required for the diagnosis of haemochromatosis; detection of homogentisic acid in the urine will confirm a diagnosis of ochronosis. although cartilage degradation products, such as hyaluronan, keratan sulphate and cartilage oligomeric protein, and cartilage synthesis markers, Type II collagen c-propeptide, have been shown to be increased in the plasma, synovial fluid or urine of patients with OA, there are currently no biochemical or molecular markers that
OA only indicated to exclude bacterial joint infection. the fluid is usually clear and viscous with a low cell count. detection of crystals by polarizing light microscopy is not helpful in distinguishing OA from primary crystal deposition disorders , as these can be found in normal or
Synovial fluid analysis
Pharmacological modalities of therapy
Paracetamol (up to 4 g daily) should be the analgesic of first choice for patients with symptomatic OA. (anglo-american ) In patients who do not respond adequately to a trial of paracetamol, the choice of alternative or additional analgesics needs to take into account both the relative efficacy and safety of the drug or drug combination being considered as well as concomitant medication and comorbidities.
NSAIDs at the lowest effective doses can be added or substituted, but long-term use of NSAIDs should be avoided if possible. In patients with increased gastrointestinal risk, a COX2 selective agent or a nonselective NSAID with co-prescription of a proton pump inhibitor or misoprostol for gastroprotection can be considered.
All NSAIDs (including COX2 selective agents) - used with caution in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Topical NSAIDs or topical capsaicin can be effective as adjuncts or alternatives to oral analgesics in some patients with symptomatic knee OA.
Intra-articular injections with corticosteroids -- - patients with moderate-to-severe pain who are not responding adequately to oral analgesic/anti-inflammatory agents - patients with symptomatic knee OA with effusions or other physical signs of local inflammation. Intra-articular injections of hyaluronate can be helpful in some patients with knee OA who are unresponsive to, or intolerant of, repeated injections of intra-articular corticosteroids.
Treatment with glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulfate
may provide symptomatic benefit in patients with knee OA. If no response is apparent within 6 months, treatment should be discontinued.
Opioids and narcotic analgesics
exceptional circumstances for the treatment of severe, refractory pain where other pharmacological agents have been ineffective or are contra-indicated. Non-pharmacological therapies should be continued in such patients and surgical treatments should be considered.
Nonperative nonfarmacological treatment
education of the patient, activity modification, optimization of any leg-length discrepancies (often with a small heel lift), physiotherapy to improve range of motion is often unsuccessful because this type of exercise provokes joint pain. low-impact exercises, particularly swimming, may improve muscle strength., as the disease progresses, the patient will benefit from the use of a cane in
The differential diagnosis
◆ Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (evident on radiographs) ◆ Trochanteric bursitis (localized tenderness, normal radiographs) ◆ Lateral femoral nerve entrapment (burning pain, sensory changes, normal motion) ◆ Lumbar disc herniation or degenerative disc disease (buttock pain, distal motor and sensory changes, no restriction of hip motion) ◆ Tumors of the lumbar spine, pelvis,
The surgical treatment of OA varies according to the anatomy of the joint, the severity of the disease, and the demands of the patient. The goals of OA reconstructive procedures are to relieve or decrease pain, to correct deformity, and to improve function.
Realignment osteotomies of the pelvis, proximal femur, or both Realign joint surfaces so as to redistribute load to a relatively preserved portion of the joint Child, adolescents and young adults who have malalignment of the acetabulum, proximal femur, or both; (Perthes desease, congenital dislocation, etc)
Arthrodesis v operation designed to produce bony ankylosis of a diseased joint. v considered for adolescents or young adults with unilateral end-stage arthritis and no other significant limb dysfunction. v preferred for ankle, foot joints, wrist.
Arthroplasty § Surgery to relieve pain and restore range of motion by replacing a joint with an artificial implant. § In patients who have severe pain and joint erosions, a total joint replacement is indicated. § These procedures can dramatically reduce pain and improve function.
Total hip arthroplasty
34 yers old patient, Secondary ostheoarthrosis after Perthes desease, Prosthesis - ASR
BHR – hip prosthesis
Total knee arthroplasty
Infection (0.5% to 1.0%), Dislocation (8% to 10%) Deep venous thrombosis
(40% to 60% if no prophylaxis is used).
- long-term concern of total joint arthroplasty When a joint implant is loose and has to be revised, less bone stock is available and the rates of all complications are higher, particularly the rate of recurrent loosening.
The risk of needing to replace a hip arthroplasty - very low in a patient older than 65 years, who typically places moderate demands on the joint and who has a limited life expectancy, - is virtually universal in a young adult who is in good health and places more strenuous demands on the joint. - appropriate preoperative planning and better implants have improved the results of both primary and revision arthroplasty.
Revision arthroplasty of the hip
Revision arthroplasty of the knee