Ñ.À. ÏÎÄÎÑÅÍÎÂ, À.

À ÏÎÒÀÏÎÂ,
Äæ. ÔÎÓÊÇÎÍ, Å.Ð. ÌÅÍÜÊÎÂÀ

ÍÅÃÎËÎÍÎÌÍÛÅ,
ÔÐÀÊÒÀËÜÍÛÅ
È ÑÂßÇÀÍÍÛÅ ÑÒÐÓÊÒÓÐÛ Â
ÐÅËßÒÈÂÈÑÒÑÊÈÕ
ÑÏËÎØÍÛÕ ÑÐÅÄÀÕ,
ÝËÅÊÒÐÎÄÈÍÀÌÈÊÅ,
ÊÂÀÍÒÎÂÎÉ ÌÅÕÀÍÈÊÅ
È ÊÎÑÌÎËÎÃÈÈ

Ïîä ðåäàêöèåé
äîêò. ôèç.- ìàò. íàóê ïðîôåññîðà À.À. Ïîòàïîâà
ÌÎÍÎÃÐÀÔÈß Â ÒÐÅÕ ÒÎÌÀÕ

ÒÎÌ III
ÀÑÈÌÏÒÎÒÈ×ÅÑÊÈÅ ÌÅÒÎÄÛ
 ÇÀÄÀ×ÀÕ ÊËÀÑÑÈ×ÅÑÊÎÉ È
ÔÐÀÊÒÀËÜÍÎÉ ÈÌÏÓËÜÑÍÎÉ
ÝËÅÊÒÐÎÄÈÍÀÌÈÊÈ È ÊÂÀÍÒÎÂÀß
ÊÎÑÌÎËÎÃÈß Â ÏÐÎÑÒÐÀÍÑÒÂÅ-ÂÐÅÌÅÍÈ
ÎÒÐÈÖÀÒÅËÜÍÎÉ ÔÐÀÊÒÀËÜÍÎÉ
ÐÀÇÌÅÐÍÎÑÒÈ

Èçäàòåëüñêàÿ ãðóïïà URSS
ÌÎÑÊÂÀ 2014

2

ÓÄÊ 530.1:621.396
Ïîäîñåíîâ Ñ.À., Ïîòàïîâ À.À., Ôîóêçîí Äæ., Ìåíüêîâà
Å.Ð.
Íåãîëîíîìíûå, ôðàêòàëüíûå è ñâÿçàííûå ñòðóêòóðû â ðåëÿòèâèñòñêèõ ñïëîøíûõ ñðåäàõ, ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêå, êâàíòîâîé
ìåõàíèêå è êîñìîëîãèè. Ìîíîãðàôèÿ â 3-õ òîìàõ. Òîì. 3.
Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé è ôðàêòàëüíîé èìïóëüñíîé ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêè è êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè /Ïîä ðåä. ä. ô.-ì. í. ïðîô. À. À. Ïîòàïîâà. - Ì.: Èçäàòåëüñêàÿ ãðóïïà URSS, 2014.- 236 ñ.: èë.

 êíèãå, ñîñòîÿùåé èç òðåõ òîìîâ, ðàññìîòðåíî âçàèìîäåéñòâèå ãîëîíîìíûõ, íåãîëîíîìíûõ, ôðàêòàëüíûõ è ñâÿçàííûõ ñòðóêòóð ñ ðàçëè÷íûìè ïîëÿìè, èñïîëüçóåìûìè â ñîâðåìåííûõ çàäà÷àõ ôèçèêè.
Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà ïðèìåíåí äëÿ
àíàëèçà ÷èñëåííîé ðåàëèçàöèè ìåòîäà ê çàäà÷àì ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ÝÌÈ.
Äàíà êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ñðåäíèõ çíà÷åíèé êâàíòîâîìåõàíè÷åñêèõ íàáëþäàåìûõ íà îñíîâå êâàíòîâîãî ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà. Íà îñíîâå óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì
äðîáíîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûì êîîðäèíàòàì âû÷èñëåí ôåéíìàíîâñêèé èíòåãðàë ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì äëÿ îáîáùåííîãî ëàãðàíæèàíà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî âðåìåíè.
Ïðîâåäåíî ÷èñëåííîå ñðàâíåíèå íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé àñèìïòîòèêè ñ ðåçóëüòàòàìè ïîëó÷åííûìè â ðàìêàõ êàíîíè÷åñêîé òåîðèè âîçìóùåíèé.
Ðàññìîòðåíû íîâûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ â òåîðåòè÷åñêîé àñòðîôèçèêå, òàêèå êàê êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè îòðèöàòåëüíîé
ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè è êâàíòîâîïîëåâàÿ ïåðòóðáàòèâíàÿ ìîäåëü
âàêóóìà Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à, à òàêæå èíäóöèðîâàííàÿ ãðàâèòàöèÿ Ñàõàðîâà â ðèìàíîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè. Ïðåäíàçíà÷åíà äëÿ èíæåíåðíî-òåõíè÷åñêèõ è
íàó÷íûõ ðàáîòíèêîâ, çàíèìàþùèõñÿ èìïóëüñíûì èçëó÷åíèåì, ðàäèîëîêàöèåé, òåîðèåé îòíîñèòåëüíîñòè, ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîé ìåõàíèêîé ñïëîøíûõ ñðåä, íåëèíåéíîé ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêîé, íååâêëèäîâûìè ãåîìåòðèÿìè è äðóãèìè ñìåæíûìè âîïðîñàìè ôèçèêè è ìàòåìàòèêè. Ïîëåçíà
ïðåïîäàâàòåëÿì è ñòóäåíòàì ìàòåìàòè÷åñêèõ, ðàäèîòåõíè÷åñêèõ è ôèçè÷åñêèõ ñïåöèàëüíîñòåé ÂÓÇîâ.
Èë. 25. Áèáëèîãð. 168.

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ÎÃËÀÂËÅÍÈÅ

ÎÃËÀÂËÅÍÈÅ
Ïðåäèñëîâèå . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé è
ôðàêòàëüíîé èìïóëüñíîé ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
15.1. Èñõîäíûå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ è èõ ñëåäñòâèÿ.
Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
15.2. Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â.Ï.Ìàñëîâà.
Àíàëèç ÷èñëåííîé ðåàëèçàöèè ìåòîäà îáîáùåííîãî êàíîíè÷åñêîãî
îïåðàòîðà ïðèìåíèòåëüíî ê çàäà÷àì ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ÝÌÈ . . . . . . . . . . . 31
15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ñðåäíèõ çíà÷åíèé
íàáëþäàåìûõ â êâàíòîâîé ìåõàíèêå. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà
ñ äåòåðìèíèðîâàííûì ïîòåíöèàëîì . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
15.4.Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ñðåäíèõ çíà÷åíèé ÊÌ
íàáëþäàåìûõ. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà . . . . . 64
15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî
äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûì êîîðäèíàòàì.
Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé èíòåãðàë ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì äëÿ îáîáùåííîãî
Ëàãðàíæèàíà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî
âðåìåíè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
15.6. Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî
äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûì êîîðäèíàòàì . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå. Óðàâíåíèå
Øðåäèíãåðà ñ ïîòåíöèàëîì óáûâàþùèì íà áåñêîíå÷íîñòè . . . . . . . . . . . 129
15.8. ×èñëåííîå ñðàâíåíèå íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé àñèìïòîòèêè ñ
ðåçóëüòàòàìè, ïîëó÷åííûìè â ðàìêàõ êàíîíè÷åñêîé òåîðèè
âîçìóùåíèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè

îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè è
êâàíòîïîëåâàÿ ïåðòóðáàòèâíàÿ ìîäåëü âàêóóìà
Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

16.1 Ââåäåíèå . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
16.2 Ïðîáëåìà êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ïîñòîÿííîé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
16.3 Âàêóóì Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
16.4. Êâàíòîâàÿ ìåõàíèêà è êâàíòîâàÿ òåîðèÿ ïîëÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâàõ
îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
16.5. Èíäóöèðîâàííàÿ ãðàâèòàöèÿ Ñàõàðîâà â ðèìàíîâîì
ïðîñòðàíñòâå îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Ïðèëîæåíèå I

Îáîáùåííûå ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíûå ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó-Õàóñäîðôà.
Èíòåãðèðîâàíèå ôóíêöèé, çàäàííûõ íà ìíîæåñòâàõ îòðèöàòåëüíîé
ðàçìåðíîñòè Êîëîìáåàó-Õàóñäîðôà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

4

ÎÃËÀÂËÅÍÈÅ

Ïðèëîæåíèå II

Ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ëåæàíäðà îáîáùåííîé ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó
è åãî îñíîâíûå ñâîéñòâà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Ïðèëîæåíèå III

Ôðàêòàëüíûå êâàíòîâûå ïîëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè. Ôóíêöèè
Ãðèíà, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå ôðàêòàëüíûì êâàíòîâûì ïîëÿì . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Ïðèëîæåíèå IV

Âûðàæåíèÿ äëÿ äàâëåíèÿ è ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà â
äîïëàíêîâñêóþ è ïëàíêîâñêóþ êîñìîëîãè÷åñêèå ýïîõè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

Ïðèëîæåíèå V

Óðàâíåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ "âàêóóìíîé ñðåäû"â ñîâðåìåííóþ
êîñìîëîãè÷åñêóþ ýïîõó . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Ëèòåðàòóðà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

5

ÏÐÅÄÈÑËÎÂÈÅ

Ïðåäèñëîâèå
Ìîíîãðàôèÿ ñîñòîèò èç òðåõ äîïîëíÿþùèõ äðóã äðóãà òîìîâ. Ïåðâûé òîì ïîñâÿùåí îäíîìó èç àêòóàëüíûõ âîïðîñîâ ñîâðåìåííîé ôèçèêè  òåîðèè èìïóëüñíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ è âçàèìîäåéñòâèþ ýòîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ ñ ãîëîíîìíûìè è ôðàêòàëüíûìè ñðåäàìè. Ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûå
èìïóëüñû (ÝÌÈ) - ýòî íàñòîÿùåå è áóäóùåå ñîâðåìåííîé ðàäèîëîêàöèè ïðèìåíèòåëüíî êàê ê çåìíûì, òàê è ê ìåæçâåçäíûì ðàññòîÿíèÿì, ãäå ñîâðåìåííûå ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ òðåáóþò äàëüíåéøåãî ðàçâèòèÿ.
 ïåðâîì òîìå ïîëó÷åíà ñèñòåìà èíòåãðî-äèôôåðåíöèàëüíûõ óðàâíåíèé äëÿ ïëîòíîñòåé çàðÿäîâ è òîêîâ çàðÿæåííûõ ìåòàëëè÷åñêèõ òåë
è ïðîâîäîâ, íàõîäÿùèõñÿ âî âíåøíåì íåîäíîðîäíîì è íåñòàöèîíàðíîì ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîì ïîëå. Ïðåäëîæåí íîâûé ïðîñòîé ìåòîä ðàñ÷åòà èìïóëüñíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ âî âðåìåííîé îáëàñòè, îñíîâàííûé íà íåïîñðåäñòâåííîì íàõîæäåíèè òåíçîðà ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ îò áåãóùåé âîëíû òîêà ïðîèçâîëüíîé ôîðìû áåç ïðåäâàðèòåëüíîãî âû÷èñëåíèÿ çàïàçäûâàþùèõ ïîòåíöèàëîâ. Ðåçóëüòàòû èñïîëüçóþòñÿ äëÿ ðàñ÷åòà èçëó÷åíèÿ V-îáðàçíîé è ëèíåéíîé àíòåíí, à òàêæå àíòåíí, ñîñòàâëåííûõ èç ïðÿìîëèíåéíûõ îòðåçêîâ. Ðàññìîòðåí íîâûé ñïîñîá ðàñ÷åòà
èìïóëüñíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ àíòåííû ñ ðåôëåêòîðîì êàê â áëèæíåé, òàê è
â äàëüíåé çîíå. Ìåòîä îñíîâàí íà çàìåíå ïîëÿ èçëó÷åíèÿ îò ïàðàáîëè÷åñêîãî çåðêàëà ïîëåì èçëó÷åíèÿ îò îòðàæåííîé â çåðêàëå V-îáðàçíîé
âîçáóæäàþùåé àíòåííû. Ïðîâåäåíî ýêñïåðèìåíòàëüíîå èññëåäîâàíèå
ïîëÿ èçëó÷åíèÿ ñèñòåìû è ñðàâíåíèå ñ òåîðåòè÷åñêèìè ðåçóëüòàòàìè.
Ñîñòàâëåíà ïðîãðàììà âû÷èñëåíèÿ ïîëÿ èçëó÷åíèÿ îò ñèñòåìû ðóïîðîâ, êîòîðóþ ìîæíî èñïîëüçîâàòü, ïðèìåíÿÿ îáû÷íûé ïåðñîíàëüíûé êîìïüþòåð. Äëÿ ïðîâåðêè ïðàâèëüíîñòè òåîðèè áûë ïðîâåäåí
ðÿä ýêñïåðèìåíòîâ. Áûë ïðîâåäåí ðàñ÷åò ïîëÿ ñèñòåìû èç 64, 36 è
144 ðóïîðîâ. Èç ýêñïåðèìåíòàëüíûõ äàííûõ ñëåäóåò õîðîøåå ñîâïàäåíèå ðåçóëüòàòîâ, ïîëó÷åííûõ ñîâåðøåííî ðàçíûìè ìåòîäàìè. Ýòî
ãîâîðèò î êîððåêòíîñòè ìåòîäà ÷èñëåííîãî ðàñ÷åòà è ñïðàâåäëèâîñòè
ðàçâèòîãî íàìè ìåòîäà Ãþéãåíñà - Êèðõãîôà íà âðåìåííóþ îáëàñòü.
Èç ïðîâåäåííûõ ðàñ÷åòîâ è ñðàâíåíèÿ èõ ñ ýêñïåðèìåíòîì ñëåäóåò,
÷òî ìîäèôèöèðîâàííûé ìåòîä Ãþéãåíñà - Êèðõãîôà ìîæíî ïðèìåíÿòü äëÿ ðàñ÷åòà ïîëÿ èçëó÷åíèÿ íà ðàññòîÿíèÿõ ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî â
7 ðàç áîëüøèõ ïîïåðå÷íîãî ðàçìåðà ðàñêðûâà ðóïîðîâ. Ïðåäëàãàåòñÿ
ïðîñòîé ìåòîä ðàñ÷åòà ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ ïîëåé âî âðåìåííîé îáëàñòè, êàê îò èìïóëüñîâ òîêà, òàê è ìîíîõðîìàòè÷åñêèõ âîëí, áåãóùèõ
ïî òîíêèì ïðîâîäàì ñ èçëîìàìè. Ýòîò ñïîñîá ðàñ÷åòà, â îòëè÷èå îò
ðàíåå ïðåäëîæåííîãî àâòîðàìè íîâîãî ìåòîäà ìîíîïîëüíîé òåõíèêè,
ó÷èòûâàåò ïåðåðàñïðåäåëåíèå òîêîâ â ïðîâîäàõ çà ñ÷åò ïîòåðè ýíåðãèè èçëó÷åíèÿ îò èçëîìîâ. Ýòî òðåáóåò ïåðåñìîòðà ðåøåíèé çàäà÷ äëÿ
ñëîæíûõ ïðîâîëî÷íûõ ñòðóêòóð. Ðåøàþòñÿ çàäà÷è î ðàñïðåäåëåíèè
âîëí òîêîâ è èõ èçëó÷åíèè îò èçëîìîâ òîíêèõ îäíîïðîâîäíûõ è äâóõïðîâîäíûõ ëèíèé ïåðåäà÷. Äàåòñÿ êðèòåðèé íàèëó÷øåãî ïðîïóñêàíèÿ
äâóõïðîâîäíûìè ëèíèÿìè èìïóëüñíûõ òîêîâ. Íàéäåíû êîýôôèöèåí-

6

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òû îòðàæåíèÿ è ïðîõîæäåíèÿ èìïóëüñîâ òîêà îò èçëîìîâ ëèíèé, çàâèñÿùèå îò ïàðàìåòðîâ èìïóëüñîâ è âðåìåíè èõ ïðîõîæäåíèÿ ÷åðåç
èçëîìû. Ýòî ïîçâîëÿåò âî âðåìåííîé îáëàñòè îïðåäåëèòü ôîðìó îòðàæåííîãî è ïðîõîäÿùåãî èìïóëüñîâ ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ïàäàþùèì. Äëÿ
ìîíîõðîìàòè÷åñêèõ âîëí íàéäåíà çàâèñèìîñòü ýòèõ êîýôôèöèåíòîâ
îò ÷àñòîòû. Äàåòñÿ ýëåêòðîäèíàìè÷åñêèé âûâîä òåëåãðàôíûõ óðàâíåíèé äëÿ âîçáóæäàåìîé ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûì ïîëåì ëèíèè ïåðåäà÷è,
ñîñòîÿùèé èç äâóõ ëèíåéíûõ ïàðàëëåëüíûõ ïðîâîäîâ, ðàçäåëåííûõ
äèýëåêòðè÷åñêèì ñëîåì.  êà÷åñòâå ïðèìåðà ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ âçàèìîäåéñòâèå ëèíèè ñ ïëîñêîé ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîé âîëíîé ïðè ïðîèçâîëüíîé
îðèåíòàöèè âåêòîðà Ïîéíòèíãà è ðàçëè÷íûõ óãëàõ ïîëÿðèçàöèè. Ïðîâîäèòñÿ ñðàâíåíèå ñ ðåçóëüòàòàìè äðóãèõ ðàáîò è âûÿñíÿåòñÿ ðîëü
ìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ ïðè âîçáóæäåíèè ëèíèè. Ïðîáëåìà íàïðàâëåííîãî
èçëó÷åíèÿ êîðîòêèõ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ èìïóëüñîâ èìååò âàæíîå çíà÷åíèå äëÿ ðåøåíèÿ ïðèêëàäíûõ çàäà÷ ñâåðõøèðîêîïîëîñíîé êîðîòêîèìïóëüñíîé ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêè. Íà îñíîâå ïðåäëîæåííîãî ìåòîäà ðàññ÷èòàíû ðàçëè÷íûå ïîëåîáðàçóþùèå ñèñòåìû è ïðîâåäåí êðèòè÷åñêèé
àíàëèç ñóùåñòâóþùèõ â ýòîé îáëàñòè ðàáîò. Ïðè ðàññìîòðåíèè çàäà÷ äèôðàêöèè ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ âîëí íà ìàëûõ òåëàõ, à òàêæå ïðè
îöåíêå êâàçèñòàöèîíàðíîãî âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ ïîëÿðèçîâàííûõ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì èëè ìàãíèòíûì ïîëåì òåë ìåæäó ñîáîé è ñ ïîëåîáðàçóþùåé
ñèñòåìîé (ÏÑ), âîçíèêàåò íåîáõîäèìîñòü îïðåäåëåíèÿ êîìïîíåíò òåíçîðà ïîëÿðèçóåìîñòè ýòèõ òåë.  ÷àñòíîñòè, òåíçîð ïîëÿðèçóåìîñòè
èçìåðèòåëüíîãî ïðåîáðàçîâàòåëÿ (ÈÏ) ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî è ìàãíèòíîãî
ïîëÿ îïðåäåëÿåò ñîñòàâëÿþùóþ ïîãðåøíîñòè åãî êàëèáðîâêè â ÏÑ,
ñâÿçàííóþ ñ âçàèìîäåéñòâèåì ÈÏ è ÏÑ. ×èñëåííûé ðàñ÷åò òåíçîðà
ïîëÿðèçóåìîñòè ïðîèçâîëüíûõ òåë â ïðèíöèïå âîçìîæåí, íî îí äîñòàòî÷íî ñëîæåí è òðåáóåò áîëüøèõ çàòðàò ìàøèííîãî âðåìåíè.  ïåðâîì
òîìå êíèãè ïðåäëàãàåòñÿ ïðîñòîé ðàñ÷åòíî-ýêñïåðèìåíòàëüíûé ìåòîä
îïðåäåëåíèÿ äèïîëüíîãî ìîìåíòà è òåíçîðà ýëåêòðè÷åñêîé ïîëÿðèçóåìîñòè ïðîâîäÿùèõ òåë ïðîèçâîëüíîé ôîðìû, ñâÿçàííûé ñ èçìåðåíèåì
åìêîñòè êîíäåíñàòîðà äî è ïîñëå âíåñåíèÿ â íåãî èñïûòóåìîãî òåëà.
 íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ èññëåäîâàòåëüñêèå èíñòèòóòû ìèðà ñîñðåäîòî÷èëè
ñâîè óñèëèÿ íà ðàçðàáîòêå òåîðåòè÷åñêèõ è ýêñïåðèìåíòàëüíûõ âîïðîñîâ ñâåðõøèðîêîïîëîñíîé êîðîòêîèìïóëüñíîé ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêè è
ìîäóëèðîâàííûõ ðàäèîâîëí ÑÂ× - äèàïàçîíà.  ðàäèîëîêàöèè ïðåäëàãàåòñÿ èñïîëüçîâàòü ñâåðõêîðîòêèå èìïóëüñû ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ. Ïåðåäà÷à èíôîðìàöèè ñ ïîìîùüþ ñâåðõêîðîòêèõ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ èìïóëüñîâ ýíåðãåòè÷åñêè âûãîäíåå ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ñóùåñòâóþùèìè ñïîñîáàìè ìîäóëÿöèè ðàäèîâîëí, ïîñêîëüêó ýíåðãèÿ èçëó÷àåòñÿ
òîëüêî â òå÷åíèå î÷åíü êîðîòêèõ èíòåðâàëîâ âðåìåíè. Åñëè îòðàæåííûé ðàäèîèìïóëüñ îáû÷íîãî ðàäàðà ïîçâîëÿåò óñòàíîâèòü äàëüíîñòü
è óãëîâûå êîîðäèíàòû öåëè, òî îòðàæåííûé êîðîòêèé ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûé èìïóëüñ ñîäåðæèò, êðîìå òîãî, èíôîðìàöèþ î ðàçìåðàõ, ðàêóðñå è ñòðóêòóðå öåëè. Ýòî ïîçâîëÿåò áûñòðî è òî÷íî èäåíòèôèöèðîâàòü öåëü è ñ ïîìîùüþ ñîâðåìåííîé âû÷èñëèòåëüíîé òåõíèêè óäàåòñÿ
âîññòàíîâèòü îáðàç (ñèãíàòóðó) îáúåêòà. Ïðè äëèòåëüíîñòè èìïóëü-

ÏÐÅÄÈÑËÎÂÈÅ

7

ñà 10−10 ñåê äîñòèãàåòñÿ ðàçðåøåíèå â íåñêîëüêî ñàíòèìåòðîâ. Óñòàíîâëåíî òàêæå, ÷òî ïîäîáíûé ðàäàð ïîçâîëÿåò ýôôåêòèâíî îáíàðóæèâàòü öåëè, ðàñïîëîæåííûå ïîä ïîêðîâîì ëåñà, â ãëóáèíå îêåàíà
è ïîä ïîâåðõíîñòüþ çåìëè. Èñïîëüçîâàíèå òåîðèè ôðàêòàëîâ è äåòåðìèíèðîâàííîãî õàîñà ïîçâîëÿåò ñèíòåçèðîâàòü áîëåå àäåêâàòíûå
ìîäåëè, êîòîðûå çíà÷èòåëüíî óìåíüøàþò ðàñõîæäåíèÿ ìåæäó òåîðåòè÷åñêèìè è ýêñïåðèìåíòàëüíûìè ðåçóëüòàòàìè.  ïåðâîì òîìå êíèãè òàêæå ðàçâèòû òåîðåòè÷åñêèå ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ î ðàññåÿíèè ìîäóëèðîâàííûõ ðàäèîâîëí ÑÂ× - äèàïàçîíà ïîâåðõíîñòüþ ñ êðóïíîìàñøòàáíûìè íåðîâíîñòÿìè íà îñíîâå èíòåãðàëüíûõ ïðåîáðàçîâàíèé Ôóðüå - îïòèêè è òåîðèè ëèíåéíûõ ïðåîáðàçîâàíèé. Òåîðåòè÷åñêèé àíàëèç ïîêàçàë, ÷òî ñ óâåëè÷åíèåì ðàçìåðîâ íåðîâíîñòåé, óãëà ïàäåíèÿ
âîëíû è óìåíüøåíèåì øèðèíû äèàãðàììû íàïðàâëåííîñòè àíòåííû
ïðîèñõîäèò ñïàä îáîáùåííîé àìïëèòóäíî-÷àñòîòíîé õàðàêòåðèñòèêè
ðàäèîëîêàöèîííîãî êàíàëà çîíäèðîâàíèÿ. Ïðîâåäåí äåòàëüíûé àíàëèç ïðîñòðàíñòâåííî-÷àñòîòíûõ ôóíêöèé êîððåëÿöèè âîëí, ðàññåÿííûõ øåðîõîâàòîé èçîòðîïíîé è àíèçîòðîïíîé ïîâåðõíîñòÿìè ñ ó÷åòîì
âçàèìíîé ñòàòèñòè÷åñêîé ñâÿçè íàêëîíîâ êðóïíîìàñøòàáíûõ íåðîâíîñòåé. Óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî ïðè îñòðîíàïðàâëåííûõ àíòåííàõ çíà÷åíèÿ
ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûõ êîýôôèöèåíòîâ êîððåëÿöèè è ÷àñòîòíûõ ôóíêöèé
êîãåðåíòíîñòè ïîëåé ðàññåÿíèÿ îïðåäåëÿþòñÿ â îñíîâíîì ëèøü øèðèíîé äèàãðàììû íàïðàâëåííîñòè. Íà îñíîâå ïðåäëîæåííîãî ìåòîäà
ïîëó÷åíû è èññëåäîâàíû êîëè÷åñòâåííûå çíà÷åíèÿ ïîëîñû êîãåðåíòíîñòè ðàäèîëîêàöèîííîãî êàíàëà äèñòàíöèîííîãî çîíäèðîâàíèÿ çåìíûõ ïîêðîâîâ. Èññëåäîâàíî è êîëè÷åñòâåííî ïîäòâåðæäåíî ïðèìåíåíèå ìîäóëÿ è ôàçîâîé õàðàêòåðèñòèêè ÷àñòîòíîé ôóíêöèè êîãåðåíòíîñòè äëÿ ïðåöèçèîííîé îöåíêè âûñîòû ïîëåòà è âåëè÷èíû êðóïíîìàñøòàáíûõ íåðîâíîñòåé ïðè ðàçëè÷íûõ çíà÷åíèÿõ âçàèìíîé êîððåëÿöèè
è èõ íàêëîíîâ. Ïîêàçàíî, ÷òî ìåòîäû èçìåðåíèÿ êîíêóðåíòíîñïîñîáíû
ñ îáû÷íûìè êîðîòêîèìïóëüñíûìè ìåòîäàìè èçìåðåíèÿ âûñîòû ïîëåòà è õàðàêòåðèñòèê êðóïíîìàñøòàáíûõ íåðîâíîñòåé çåìíûõ ïîêðîâîâ.
Ïîëó÷åíû àíàëèòè÷åñêèå âûðàæåíèÿ äëÿ ÿäðà îáîáùåííîé ôóíêöèè
íåîïðåäåëåííîñòè ñ ó÷åòîì õàðàêòåðèñòèê àíòåííû, åå óãëîâîé îðèåíòàöèè è õàðàêòåðèñòèê ðàññåèâàþùåé àíèçîòðîïíîé èëè èçîòðîïíîé
ïîâåðõíîñòè äëÿ âñåãî äèàïàçîíà êîýôôèöèåíòà êîððåëÿöèè íàêëîíîâ
êðóïíîìàñøòàáíûõ íåðîâíîñòåé. Ôðàêòàëüíàÿ ðàçìåðíîñòü åñòåñòâåííûõ ïîêðîâîâ îïðåäåëÿåò óãëîâîå ðàñïðåäåëåíèå èíòåíñèâíîñòè ðàññåÿíèÿ (èíäèêàòðèñó ðàññåÿíèÿ). Ïî èñêàæåíèþ îòðàæåííûõ ðàäèîñèãíàëîâ ìîæíî îïðåäåëèòü ìåðó ïîâåðõíîñòíûõ íåðîâíîñòåé è ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè. Ïåðå÷èñëåííîå âûøå - ýòî ëèøü ìàëàÿ ÷àñòü
îáëàñòè ïðèìåíåíèÿ ñâåðõøèðîêîïîëîñíîé ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêè è îò÷àñòè îáúÿñíÿåò áîëüøîé èíòåðåñ, ïðîÿâëÿåìûé ê ýòîé ïðîáëåìå. Îïóáëèêîâàíû ñîòíè è ñîòíè ðàáîò, ïîñâÿùåííûõ òåîðåòè÷åñêèì è ýêñïåðèìåíòàëüíûì èññëåäîâàíèÿì â äàííîé îáëàñòè. Îäíàêî êíèã ïî èìïóëüñíîé ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêå, âûïóùåííûõ â Ðîññèè, ÿâíî ìàëî. Ïðåäëàãàåìûé ïåðâûé òîì ïðåäíàçíà÷åí äëÿ çàïîëíåíèÿ ïðîáåëà ìåæäó
îáèëèåì æóðíàëüíûõ ñòàòåé è íåäîñòàòêîì êíèæíûõ èçäàíèé â îá-

8

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ëàñòÿõ èññëåäîâàíèÿ íåñòàöèîíàðíûõ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ ïîëåé è èõ
ïðèìåíåíèÿ â ðàäèîëîêàöèè è ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîé ñîâìåñòèìîñòè. Âî
âòîðîì òîìå ðàññìîòðåíû âîïðîñû èíåðöèàëüíîé íàâèãàöèè è ðàäèîëîêàöèè ñ ó÷åòîì ðåëÿòèâèñòñêèõ ïîïðàâîê, äëÿ ðåøåíèÿ êîòîðûõ òðåáóåòñÿ ïðèâëå÷åíèå àíàëèòè÷åñêîãî àïïàðàòà ðåëÿòèâèñòñêèõ íåèíåðöèàëüíûõ ñèñòåì îòñ÷åòà (ÍÑÎ). Îäíàêî â ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîé òåîðèè íå
ñóùåñòâóåò åäèíîãî àíàëèòè÷åñêîãî îïðåäåëåíèÿ, êàê ñèñòåì îòñ÷åòà,
òàê è ïðàâèë, óñòàíàâëèâàþùèõ ïåðåõîä ìåæäó íèìè. Äàæå ïðè ðàññìîòðåíèè ïðîñòåéøèõ ÍÑÎ â ñïåöèàëüíîé òåîðèè îòíîñèòåëüíîñòè
(ÑÒÎ), òàêèõ êàê ðàâíîóñêîðåííàÿ è ðàâíîìåðíî âðàùàþùàÿñÿ, ïðèõîäèòñÿ ñòàëêèâàòüñÿ ñ ëîãè÷åñêèìè òðóäíîñòÿìè, êîòîðûì óäåëÿåòñÿ
ìàëî âíèìàíèÿ â ðàáîòàõ ïî ñèñòåìàì îòñ÷åòà. Èçëîæåíèå ìàòåðèàëà
íà÷èíàåòñÿ ñ ðàññìîòðåíèÿ ñèñòåì îòñ÷åòà (ÑÎ) ñ íåòðàäèöèîííûõ ïîçèöèé, àêöåíòèðóÿ îñíîâíîå âíèìàíèå íà ïðè÷èíå âîçíèêíîâåíèÿ êðèâèçíû ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè ñïëîøíîé ñðåäû. Âòîðîé òîì êíèãè ñîäåðæèò íîâûå ìàòåðèàëû, î êîòîðûõ êðàéíå ìàëî èçâåñòíî êàê â Ðîññèè, òàê è çà ðóáåæîì. Êàê èçâåñòíî, îáëó÷àåìûå ðàäèîëîêàöèîííûìè
ñèãíàëàìè ëåòàòåëüíûå àïïàðàòû (ñàìîëåòû), íàïðèìåð, ïðè âçëåòå,
ïîñàäêå è ìàíåâðàõ äâèæóòñÿ óñêîðåííî. Ñïóòíèêè, äâèæóùèåñÿ ïî
îðáèòàì, âñåãäà èìåþò óñêîðåíèå. Ïîýòîìó ïåðåäàþùèå è ïðèåìíûå
ñòàíöèè, ðàñïîëîæåííûå íà ëåòàþùèõ îáúåêòàõ, åñòåñòâåííî ñàìè èñïûòûâàþò óñêîðåíèå. Íåìåäëåííî âîçíèêàåò âîïðîñ î äåéñòâèè ñèë
èíåðöèè íà ÷àñòîòó è ôîðìó ïðèíèìàåìûõ è èçëó÷åííûõ ñèãíàëîâ íà
ëåòàòåëüíûõ àïïàðàòàõ, ïðè îáìåíå ñèãíàëàìè ìåæäó íèìè è íàáëþäàòåëÿìè íà Çåìëå. Îáû÷íî ýòè âîïðîñû ðåøàþòñÿ ñ ïîìîùüþ õîðîøî
èçâåñòíîãî ýôôåêòà Äîïëåðà, êîòîðûé ïðåêðàñíî ðàáîòàåò â èíåðöèàëüíûõ ñèñòåìàõ îòñ÷åòà (ÈÑÎ). ×òî êàñàåòñÿ íåèíåðöèàëüíûõ ñèñòåì
îòñ÷åòà (ÍÑÎ), òî äî íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè íå ñóùåñòâóåò îáùåïðèçíàííîãî îïðåäåëåíèÿ ïðàâèë ïåðåõîäà îò ÈÑÎ ê ÍÑÎ. Âî âòîðîì òîìå
êíèãè äîêàçàíî, ÷òî â ÍÑÎ, êàê è â îáùåé òåîðèè îòíîñèòåëüíîñòè
(ÎÒÎ) ýôôåêò Äîïëåðà çàâèñèò íå òîëüêî îò ñêîðîñòè, íî è îò óñêîðåíèÿ è ðàññòîÿíèÿ äî èçëó÷àþùåãî îáúåêòà. Áîëåå òîãî, íàáëþäàòåëü,
åãî ïðèåìíîå èëè ïåðåäàþùåå óñòðîéñòâî, íàõîäÿñü â óñêîðåííî äâèæóùåìñÿ àïïàðàòå, îêàçûâàþòñÿ â ðèìàíîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå - âðåìåíè. Êðèâèçíà âíóòðè "ìèðîâîé òðóáêè"àïïàðàòà çàâèñèò îò óñêîðåíèÿ
îáúåêòà è íèêàê íå ñâÿçàíà ñ èñêðèâëåíèåì ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè â
òåîðèè ãðàâèòàöèè Ýéíøòåéíà. Îòñþäà âîçíèêàåò ïðîáëåìà ïðåîáðàçîâàíèÿ ãåîìåòðè÷åñêèõ îáúåêòîâ (âåêòîðîâ, òåíçîðîâ, ñïèíîðîâ, ñâÿçíîñòåé è ò. ä.) èç ïëîñêîãî ïðîñòðàíñòâà Ìèíêîâñêîãî â èñêðèâëåííîå
ïðîñòðàíñòâî Ðèìàíà è íàîáîðîò. Ðåøåíèå ýòîé ïðîáëåìû ïðèâîäèò
ê ïðåäñêàçàíèþ íîâûõ ýôôåêòîâ ïðè ðàññìîòðåíèè ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ
ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ âîëí è ñîçäàíèþ íîâîé îáëàñòè íàóêè - ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîé íåèíåðöèàëüíîé ðàäèîëîêàöèè. Ðàçâèòèå íåòðàäèöèîííîãî ïîäõîäà ê ÍÑÎ ïðèâåëî ê íîâîìó êðóãó çàäà÷, êîòîðûå, íà ïåðâûé âçãëÿä,
íå èìåþò íèêàêîãî îòíîøåíèÿ ê ÍÑÎ, íî íà ñàìîì äåëå îêàçàëèñü ñ
íèìè òåñíî ñâÿçàííûìè. Íà ñòûêå ÎÒÎ è ÍÑÎ âîçíèêëà íîâàÿ îáëàñòü èññëåäîâàíèé, ñâÿçûâàþùèõ ãåîìåòðèþ ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè

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ñ êëàññè÷åñêèìè (íåêâàíòîâûìè) ïîëÿìè ñâÿçàííûõ çàðÿäîâ. Ñàìûì
åñòåñòâåííûì îáðàçîì âîçíèêëà íåëèíåéíàÿ ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêà, ëèøåííàÿ ðàñõîäèìîñòåé, íî ðàññìàòðèâàåìàÿ â ðèìàíîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâåâðåìåíè. (Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî áåñêîíå÷íàÿ ñîáñòâåííàÿ ýíåðãèÿ ïîëÿ òî÷å÷íîãî çàðÿäà - ãëàâíàÿ òðóäíîñòü êëàññè÷åñêîé è (êâàíòîâîé) òåîðèè
ïîëÿ). Îòìåòèì, ÷òî óðàâíåíèÿ Ýéíøòåéíà (ââèäó ñëàáîñòè ãðàâèòàöèîííîãî ïîëÿ ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûì) ïðè ýòîì íå èñïîëüçîâàëèñü, õîòÿ ðåøåíèå äëÿ êóëîíîâñêîãî ïîëÿ òî÷å÷íîãî çàðÿäà
(ïðè çàìåíå ýëåêòðè÷åñêèõ êîíñòàíò âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ íà ãðàâèòàöèîííûå) ïåðåøëî â ïåðâîì ïðèáëèæåíèè â òî÷íîå ðåøåíèå Øâàðöøèëüäà
â ÎÒÎ. Ðåçóëüòàòû, ïðîâåäåííûõ âî âòîðîì ðàçäåëå êíèãè èññëåäîâàíèé, ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî âçàèìîñâÿçü ìåæäó òåîðèÿìè Íüþòîíà, Ìàêñâåëëà
è Ýéíøòåéíà îêàçàëàñü ãîðàçäî ïðî÷íåå è îáúåìíåå, ÷åì ïðèíÿòî ñ÷èòàòü â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ. Âî ìíîãèõ çàäà÷àõ íå çàäàåòñÿ çàðàíåå ñòðóêòóðà ñðåäû, ïðèâîäÿùàÿ â îáùåì ñëó÷àå ê âûõîäó çà ðàìêè ïëîñêîãî
ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè, à ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ äâèæåíèå ñïëîøíîé ñðåäû
(áàçèñà ÍÑÎ) â ïëîñêîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå Ìèíêîâñêîãî â çàäàííîì ñèëîâîì ïîëå. Îäíàêî è â ýòîì ñëó÷àå âîçíèêàåò îòíîñèòåëüíàÿ êðèâèçíà ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè, îáóñëîâëåííàÿ íåñîâïàäåíèåì ãèïåðïîâåðõíîñòè, îðòîãîíàëüíîé ìèðîâûì ëèíèÿì ÷àñòèö áàçèñà ñ ãèïåðïîâåðõíîñòüþ îäíîâðåìåííîñòè. Ðàçðàáîòêå íåãîëîíîìíîãî ìàòåìàòè÷åñêîãî
àïïàðàòà è åãî ïðèìåíåíèþ ïîñâÿùåí âòîðîé òîì êíèãè. Âî âòîðîì
òîìå êíèãè ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêà êàê â ÑÎ ñ çàäàííûì
çàêîíîì äâèæåíèÿ, òàê è â ÑÎ ñ çàäàííîé ñòðóêòóðîé. Ïðîâîäèòñÿ ïàðàëëåëüíîå ñðàâíåíèå äëÿ ðåøåíèé â "ðàâíîóñêîðåííîé"ñèñòåìå
Ìåëëåðà è ðàâíîóñêîðåííîé æåñòêîé ÍÑÎ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå ïîñòîÿííîé êðèâèçíû. Ôîðìóëèðóåòñÿ êðèòåðèé ñòàöèîíàðíîñòè, íà îñíîâå
êîòîðîãî ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ îäèí èç "âå÷íûõ âîïðîñîâ ôèçèêè î ïîëå
ïðè ðàâíîìåðíî óñêîðåííîì äâèæåíèè çàðÿäà. Îáñóæäàþòñÿ âîïðîñû
ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ âîëí, îáîáùåííûé íà ïðîèçâîëüíûå ÍÑÎ ýôôåêò Äîïëåðà è ïðåîáðàçîâàíèÿ ïîëåé. Èíûìè ñëîâàìè,
çàêëàäûâàþòñÿ îñíîâû íîâîãî íàïðàâëåíèÿ èññëåäîâàíèÿ  ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîé íåèíåðöèàëüíîé ðàäèîëîêàöèè. Â êíèãå ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ íîâîå íàïðàâëåíèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñèëîâûõ ïîëåé, îñíîâàííîå íà ïîñòóëàòå ýêâèâàëåíòíûõ ñèòóàöèé. Â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîêàçàíî, ÷òî èñêðèâëåíèå ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè - ýòî íå ïðèâèëåãèÿ òîëüêî ãðàâèòàöèîííîãî
ïîëÿ. Ïîëó÷åííûå ðåçóëüòàòû ÿâëÿþòñÿ îðèãèíàëüíûìè. Ðàçâèòèå íîâîãî íàïðàâëåíèÿ ïîçâîëèëî óñòðàíèòü ðàñõîäèìîñòü ïîëÿ òî÷å÷íîãî
çàðÿäà, êîòîðàÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ãëàâíîé ïðèíöèïèàëüíîé òðóäíîñòüþ êëàññè÷åñêîé è êâàíòîâîé òåîðèè ïîëÿ. Ïðåäëîæåííûé ïîäõîä ÿâëÿåòñÿ
ñâîåîáðàçíûì ìîñòèêîì, êîòîðûé ñîåäèíèë, êàçàëîñü, íåñîâìåñòèìûå
òåîðèè: êëàññè÷åñêóþ ìåõàíèêó Íüþòîíà, êëàññè÷åñêóþ ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêó Ìàêñâåëëà è îáùóþ òåîðèþ îòíîñèòåëüíîñòè Ýéíøòåéíà. Îêàçàëîñü, ÷òî ñõîäñòâî ìåæäó ýòèìè òåîðèÿìè çíà÷èòåëüíî áëèæå, ÷åì
ñ÷èòàëîñü ðàíåå. Ðàññìîòðåíî äâèæåíèå çàðÿæåííûõ ÷àñòèö â ïîëÿõ
ñâÿçàííûõ çàðÿäîâ äëÿ ñëó÷àåâ ïëîñêîé è ñôåðè÷åñêîé ñèììåòðèè.
Ïðîâåäåíî ñðàâíåíèå ñ ðåçóëüòàòàìè, ïîëó÷àåìûìè ïðè êëàññè÷åñêîì

10

ÏÐÅÄÈÑËÎÂÈÅ

ðàññìîòðåíèè â ÑÒÎ è ÎÒÎ. Ïîëó÷åííûå ðåçóëüòàòû îðèãèíàëüíû. Âî
âòîðîì òîìå ïîëó÷åíî óðàâíåíèå ñêàëÿðíîãî ìåçîííîãî ïîëÿ ñâÿçàííûõ íóêëîíîâ, ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîå óðàâíåíèå äâèæåíèÿ ïðîáíûõ íóêëîíîâ
â ïîëå ñâÿçàííûõ ìåçîíîâ. Îïðåäåëåíà ãåîìåòðèÿ ïðîñòðàíñòâà - âðåìåíè ìåçîííîãî ñêàëÿðíîãî ïîëÿ è íàéäåí òåíçîð ýíåðãèè - èìïóëüñà
ýòîãî ïîëÿ. Ïðè ðàäèîëîêàöèè êàê äàëüíèõ, òàê è áëèæíèõ îáúåêòîâ, èñïóñêàåìûé è ïðèíèìàåìûé ñèãíàëû âñåãäà ðàñïðîñòðàíÿþòñÿ â
íåêîòîðîé ñïëîøíîé ñðåäå. (Èäåàëüíîãî âàêóóìà íå áûâàåò). Ñàì ñèãíàë - óëüòðàðåëÿòèâèñòêèé, à ñïëîøíàÿ ñðåäà, â êîòîðîé ðàñïðîñòðàíÿåòñÿ âçàèìîäåéñòâèå, êàê ïðàâèëî, ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ â êëàññè÷åñêîì
ïðèáëèæåíèè, ÷òî ìîæåò ïðèâåñòè ê çíà÷èòåëüíûì íåòî÷íîñòÿì. Äëÿ
óñòðàíåíèÿ ýòîãî ïðîáåëà â êíèãå ðàçâèòà ðåëÿòèâèñòñêàÿ òåîðèÿ äåôîðìèðóåìûõ ñðåä, íà ôîíå êîòîðîé è äîëæíà ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíî ñòðîèòüñÿ òåîðèÿ ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîé íåèíåðöèàëüíîé ðàäèîëîêàöèè. Â êíèãå
ðàññìîòðåíà êèíåìàòèêà äåôîðìèðóåìîé ñðåäû â ðàìêàõ ÑÒÎ. Íà ãèïåðïîâåðõíîñòÿõ îðòîãîíàëüíûõ ìèðîâûì ëèíèÿì ÷àñòèö ñðåäû (àêòóàëüíîé è íà÷àëüíîé) íàéäåíû òåíçîðû äåôîðìàöèé â ðàçëè÷íûõ ñèñòåìàõ îòñ÷åòà, îáîáùàþùèå êëàññè÷åñêèå òåíçîðû Àëüìàíñè, Ãðèíà,
Êîøè, Ôèíãåðà. Ïîëó÷åíû ðåëÿòèâèñòñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ ñîâìåñòíîñòè
äåôîðìàöèé è âûâåäåíû ñîîòíîøåíèÿ, ñâÿçûâàþùèå òåíçîð ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ íàòÿæåíèé ñî ñêîðîñòüþ èçìåíåíèÿ òåíçîðà äåôîðìàöèé â
ðàçëè÷íûõ ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿõ. Íàéäåíû ðåëÿòèâèñòñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ ñîâìåñòíîñòè äëÿ òåíçîðà ñêîðîñòåé äåôîðìàöèé.  ýòîì òîìå êíèãè âûâåäåíî ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîå óðàâíåíèå íåðàçðûâíîñòè è íàéäåíî åãî ðåøåíèå. Íà îñíîâå âàðèàöèîííîãî ïðèíöèïà Ëàãðàíæà ïîñòðîåíà ðåëÿòèâèñòñêàÿ äèíàìèêà èçîòðîïíîãî óïðóãîãî êîíòèíóóìà. Ïîëó÷åí ðåëÿòèâèñòñêèé çàêîí Ãóêà è ïîêàçàíî, ÷òî ìåõàíè÷åñêàÿ ñèñòåìà óðàâíåíèé, îïèñûâàþùàÿ ïîâåäåíèå ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîãî èçîòðîïíîãî óïðóãîãî
êîíòèíóóìà, ÿâëÿåòñÿ çàìêíóòîé.  êà÷åñòâå ïðèìåðîâ ðåøåíà çàäà÷à
î ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè ïëîñêèõ âîëí â íåîãðàíè÷åííîé èçîòðîïíîé äâèæóùåéñÿ ñðåäå è â ðàìêàõ ÑÒÎ íàéäåí àíàëîã æåñòêîãî "ðàâíîóñêîðåííîãî"äâèæåíèÿ êîíòèíóóìà, ïðèâåäøèé ê êîíöåïöèè Áîðíà è ìåòðèêå
Ìåëëåðà.  íüþòîíîâñêîé ìåõàíèêå è ÑÒÎ ñ÷èòàåòñÿ, ÷òî ìàòåðèàëüíàÿ òî÷êà èëè öåíòð ìàññ òåëà èìåþò íóëåâîå àáñîëþòíîå óñêîðåíèå
îòíîñèòåëüíî (ÈÑÎ) â ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà îòñóòñòâóþò ïðèëîæåííûå ê òåëó ñèëû èëè êîãäà èõ âåêòîðíàÿ ñóììà ðàâíà íóëþ.  îáùåé òåîðèè
îòíîñèòåëüíîñòè (ÎÒÎ) ýòîò ïðàâèëî íå âûïîëíÿåòñÿ. Íàïðèìåð, ïîêîÿùååñÿ íà ïîâåðõíîñòè Çåìëè òåëî èìååò ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ÎÒÎ îòëè÷íûé îò íóëÿ âåêòîð ïåðâîé êðèâèçíû (4 - óñêîðåíèå). Ñèëà ðåàêöèè
îïîðû ñî ñòîðîíû ïîâåðõíîñòè Çåìëè ñáèâàåò òåëî ñ åãî ãåîäåçè÷åñêîé
ëèíèè, èìåþùåé íóëåâîé âåêòîð ïåðâîé êðèâèçíû òîëüêî ïðè îòñóòñòâèè ðåàêöèè îïîðû. Ñîãëàñíî ÎÒÎ òåëî, ëåæàùåå íà ïîâåðõíîñòè
Çåìëè, èìååò àáñîëþòíîå óñêîðåíèå, íàïðàâëåííîå ââåðõ è ðàâíîå ïî
âåëè÷èíå óñêîðåíèþ ñâîáîäíîãî ïàäåíèÿ âáëèçè ïîâåðõíîñòè. Íüþòîíèàíåö áóäåò óòâåðæäàòü, ÷òî àáñîëþòíîå óñêîðåíèå òåëà íà ïîâåðõíîñòè Çåìëè, îðáèòàëüíûì è ñîáñòâåííûì âðàùåíèåì êîòîðîé ïðåíåáðåãàåì, ðàâíî íóëþ. Õîòÿ äëÿ ñëàáûõ ïîëåé óðàâíåíèÿ Ýéíøòåéíà

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ñîâïàäàþò ñ òåîðèåé Íüþòîíà, îäíàêî ïðèíöèï ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê àáñîëþòíûì óñêîðåíèÿì íå ðàáîòàåò. Öåëüþ ïðåäëàãàåìîé
êíèãè ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ïðèíöèïîâ ÎÒÎ íà ïðîèçâîëüíûå ñèëîâûå ïîëÿ áåç ïðèâëå÷åíèÿ óðàâíåíèé Ýéíøòåéíà. Õàðàêòåðèñòèêàìè ñïëîøíîé ñðåäû â 4-ïðîñòðàíñòâå - âðåìåíè ÿâëÿþòñÿ 4-óñêîðåíèå,
òåíçîð ñêîðîñòåé äåôîðìàöèé è òåíçîð óãëîâîé ñêîðîñòè âðàùåíèÿ.
4 óñêîðåíèå âõîäèò â çàêîí äâèæåíèÿ è ïðè èçâåñòíîé ïëîñêîé ìåòðèêå èíòåãðèðîâàíèåì óðàâíåíèÿ äâèæåíèÿ îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ ïîëå 4- ñêîðîñòè è îñíîâíûå òåíçîðû ñðåäû. Äëÿ ñèñòåì îòñ÷åòà ñ çàäàííûìè èç
ôèçè÷åñêèõ òðåáîâàíèé ñâîéñòâàìè íåîáõîäèìî çíàòü äîïîëíèòåëüíûå
óñëîâèÿ, ïðèïèñûâàåìûå îñíîâíûì òåíçîðàì ñðåäû, çàâèñÿùèì îò 4 ñêîðîñòåé è 4 - óñêîðåíèé. Íàïðèìåð, òðåáîâàíèå îòñóòñòâèÿ âðàùåíèé
è æåñòêîñòè ïî Áîðíó. ×èñëî óðàâíåíèé äëÿ íàõîæäåíèÿ 4 - ñêîðîñòè
ñòàíîâèòñÿ ïåðåîïðåäåëåííûì è äîëæíû âûïîëíÿòüñÿ óñëîâèÿ èíòåãðèðóåìîñòè. Ïîñëåäíèå âûïîëíÿòñÿ, åñëè èñêîìûìè áóäóò íå òîëüêî
4 - ñêîðîñòè ñðåäû, íî è ìåòðè÷åñêèå êîýôôèöèåíòû. Äëÿ ñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ ðåøåíèÿ ïîëó÷åíû óñëîâèÿ èíòåãðèðóåìîñòè (óðàâíåíèÿ ñòðóêòóðû). Äîêàçàíà òåîðåìà, ÷òî æåñòêàÿ ïî Áîðíó ðàâíîóñêîðåííàÿ ñðåäà
ìîæåò áûòü îïèñàíà â ðàìêàõ ïðîñòðàíñòâà Ðèìàíà. Óðàâíåíèå ñòðóêòóðû íå ñâÿçàíî ñ ÎÒÎ, íî äàåò äîïîëíèòåëüíîå óñëîâèå ê óðàâíåíèÿì Ýéíøòåéíà. Äîêàçàíà òåîðåìà, ÷òî âñå ñòàòè÷åñêèå ñôåðè÷åñêèñèììåòðè÷íûå ðåøåíèÿ ÎÒÎ ñîâìåñòíû ñ óðàâíåíèåì ñòðóêòóðû. Îäíîìåðíîãî ðåøåíèÿ âíå ïëîñêîãî áåñêîíå÷íîãî ìàññèâíîãî èñòî÷íèêà
â ÎÒÎ íå ñóùåñòâóåò, à óðàâíåíèå ñòðóêòóðû èìååò åãî è èíäóöèðóåò ìåòðèêó äëÿ ïîñòîÿííîãî îäíîðîäíîãî ñòàòè÷åñêîãî ïîëÿ. Èññëåäîâàíà ñèñòåìà ðåøåíèé óðàâíåíèé Ýéíøòåéíà-Ìàêñâåëëà, ñîâìåñòíàÿ
ñ óðàâíåíèÿìè ñòðóêòóðû. Íàðÿäó ñ ðåøåíèÿìè óðàâíåíèé ýëåêòðîñòàòèêè â ïëîñêîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå Ìèíêîâñêîãî äîêàçàíà âîçìîæíîñòü
îïèñàíèÿ ýëåêòðîñòàòè÷åñêèõ ïîëåé â ðèìàíîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå - âðåìåíè, íå ñâÿçàííîãî ñ ÎÒÎ, íî ñîâìåñòíîãî ñ óðàâíåíèåì ñòðóêòóðû.
Ðàññìîòðåíèå ñïëîøíîé ñðåäû â ëàãðàíæåâîé ñîïóòñòâóþùåé ñèñòåìå
îòñ÷åòà (ÑÎ) ñâÿçàíî ñ ïåðåõîäîì â íåèíåðöèàëüíóþ ñèñòåìó îòñ÷åòà
(ÍÑÎ). Êàê èçâåñòíî, "...íåèíåðöèàëüíàÿ ñèñòåìà îòñ÷åòà ýêâèâàëåíòíà íåêîòîðîìó ãðàâèòàöèîííîìó ïîëþ. Ýòî îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî íàçûâàþò
ïðèíöèïîì ýêâèâàëåíòíîñòè". Â íàñòîÿùåé êíèãå ïðåäïðèíÿòà ïîïûòêà âûÿñíåíèÿ ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ êðèâèçíû ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè ñïëîøíîé ñðåäû áåç îáðàùåíèÿ ê ÎÒÎ Ýéíøòåéíà. Âûâåäåííûå óðàâíåíèÿ
ñòðóêòóðû ïîçâîëÿþò îáúåêòèâíî îöåíèòü êàê ïðàâîìåðíîñòü íåêîòîðûõ èçâåñòíûõ ðåøåíèé ÎÒÎ, òàê è ïîñòðîèòü ýëåêòðîñòàòèêó â ðèìàíîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè íà îñíîâå îáùåêîâàðèàíòíûõ óðàâíåíèé Ìàêñâåëëà è óðàâíåíèé ñòðóêòóðû. Äîêàçàíà òåîðåìà. ¾Æåñòêîå
ïî Áîðíó ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîå ðàâíîóñêîðåííîå ïîñòóïàòåëüíîå äâèæåíèå
ñïëîøíîé ñðåäû âîçìîæíî òîëüêî â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè ñ íåðàâíûì íóëþ òåíçîðîì Ðèìàíà¿. Ñëåäñòâèåì òåîðåìû ÿâëÿåòñÿ îøèáî÷íîñòü ðàñïðîñòðàíåííîãî ìíåíèÿ, ÷òî ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ìåëëåðà îñóùåñòâëÿåò ïåðåõîä îò ÈÑÎ ê ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîé ðàâíîóñêîðåííîé ÍÑÎ.
Ýòà òî÷êà çðåíèÿ íàøëà îòðàæåíèå â ïðåêðàñíîé ìîíîãðàôèè Ôîêà

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ÏÐÅÄÈÑËÎÂÈÅ

[15]. Èçâåñòíàÿ ìåòðèêà Ìåëëåðà, ÿâëÿÿñü æåñòêîé ïî Áîðíó, îòíþäü
íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðàâíîóñêîðåííîé. Îá ýòîì æå ïèñàë è ñàì Ìåëëåð.  òðåòüåì òîìå îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà ïðèìåíåí äëÿ àíàëèçà ÷èñëåííîé ðåàëèçàöèè ìåòîäà ê çàäà÷àì ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ÝÌÈ. Äàíà êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ñðåäíèõ çíà÷åíèé
êâàíòîâî-ìåõàíè÷åñêèõ íàáëþäàåìûõ íà îñíîâå êâàíòîâîãî ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà. Íà îñíîâå óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà ñ
îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûì êîîðäèíàòàì âû÷èñëåí ôåéíìàíîâñêèé èíòåãðàë ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì äëÿ îáîáùåííîãî ëàãðàíæèàíà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî
âðåìåíè. Ïðîâåäåíî ÷èñëåííîå ñðàâíåíèå íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé àñèìïòîòèêè ñ ðåçóëüòàòàìè, ïîëó÷åííûìè â ðàìêàõ êàíîíè÷åñêîé òåîðèè âîçìóùåíèé. Ðàññìîòðåíû íîâûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ â òåîðåòè÷åñêîé àñòðîôèçèêå òàêèå, êàê êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè è êâàíòîâîïîëåâàÿ ïåðòóðáàòèâíàÿ
ìîäåëü âàêóóìà Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à, à òàêæå èíäóöèðîâàííàÿ ãðàâèòàöèÿ Ñàõàðîâà â ðèìàíîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ñòàíîâèòñÿ ÿñíûì,
÷òî ïðèìåíåíèå â ôèçèêå èäåé íåòðèâèàëüíîé ìàñøòàáíîé èíâàðèàíòíîñòè  ñêåéëèíãà è òåîðèè ôðàêòàëîâ, à òàêæå ðàçäåëîâ ñîâðåìåííîãî
ôóíêöèîíàëüíîãî àíàëèçà, êîòîðûå ñâÿçàíû ñ òåîðèåé ìíîæåñòâ, òåîðèåé ðàçìåðíîñòè, îáùåé òîïîëîãèåé è ãåîìåòðè÷åñêîé òåîðèåé ìåðû,
îòêðûâàþò áîëüøèå ïîòåíöèàëüíûå âîçìîæíîñòè è íîâûå ïåðñïåêòèâû (ñì., íàïðèìåð, êíèãè: Ïîòàïîâ À.À. Ôðàêòàëû â ðàäèîôèçèêå è
ðàäèîëîêàöèè.- Ì.: Ëîãîñ, 2002.- 664 ñ.; Ïîòàïîâ À.À. Ôðàêòàëû â ðàäèîôèçèêå è ðàäèîëîêàöèè: Òîïîëîãèÿ âûáîðêè. Èçä. 2-å, ïåðåðàá. è
äîï.- Ì.: Óíèâåðñèòåòñêàÿ êíèãà, 2005.- 848 ñ.; Ïîòàïîâ À.À. Ôðàêòàëû è õàîñ êàê îñíîâà íîâûõ ïðîðûâíûõ òåõíîëîãèé â ñîâðåìåííûõ
ðàäèîñèñòåìàõ. - Äîïîëíåíèå ê êí.: Êðîíîâåð Ð. Ôðàêòàëû è õàîñ â
äèíàìè÷åñêèõ ñèñòåìàõ / Ïåð. ñ àíãë.; Ïîä ðåä. Ò.Ý. Êðåíêåëÿ.- Ì.:
Òåõíîñôåðà, 2006.- Ñ. 374  479; Ïîòàïîâ À.À., Ãóëÿåâ Þ.Â., Íèêèòîâ
Ñ.À., Ïàõîìîâ À.À., Ãåðìàí Â.À. Íîâåéøèå ìåòîäû îáðàáîòêè èçîáðàæåíèé / Ïîä ðåä. À.À. Ïîòàïîâà. Ì.: ÔÈÇÌÀÒËÈÒ, 2008.- 496 ñ.
(ìîíîãðàôèÿ - ïî ãðàíòó ÐÔÔÈ  07  07 - 07005); Ïîäîñåíîâ Ñ.À.,
Ïîòàïîâ À.À., Ñîêîëîâ À.À. Èìïóëüñíàÿ ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêà øèðîêîïîëîñíûõ ðàäèîñèñòåì è ïîëÿ ñâÿçàííûõ ñòðóêòóð / Ïîä ðåä. À.À.
Ïîòàïîâà.- Ì.: Ðàäèîòåõíèêà, 2003.- 720 ñ.; Ïîòàïîâ À.À. Ôðàêòàëüíûé ìåòîä è ôðàêòàëüíàÿ ïàðàäèãìà â ñîâðåìåííîì åñòåñòâîçíàíèè.Âîðîíåæ: ÈÏÖ Íàó÷íàÿ êíèãà, 2012.- 108 ñ.). Îñíîâíûå ðåçóëüòàòû,
âîøåäøèå â ìîíîãðàôèþ, îïóáëèêîâàíû â ñòàòüÿõ àâòîðîâ. ×àñòü ðåçóëüòàòîâ ïî ôðàêòàëàì â ðàäèîëîêàöèè, îáðàáîòêå ñâåðõñëàáûõ ñèãíàëîâ â èíòåíñèâíûõ ïîìåõàõ íåãàóññîâñêîãî òèïà, à òàêæå ïî ôðàêòàëüíûì àíòåííàì, ôðàêòàëüíûì ðàäèîýëåìåíòàì, ôðàêòàëüíûì ðàäèîñèñòåìàì è îáíàðóæèòåëÿì âîøëè â ¾Îò÷åòíûå äîêëàäû Ïðåçèäèóìà Ðîññèéñêîé àêàäåìèè íàóê. Íàó÷íûå äîñòèæåíèÿ Ðîññèéñêîé
àêàäåìèè íàóê¿ - â 2007, 2009, 2011, 2012 ãã., à òàêæå â ¾Äîêëàä Ïðàâèòåëüñòâó Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè. Îá èòîãàõ ðåàëèçàöèè â 2011 ãîäó

ÏÐÅÄÈÑËÎÂÈÅ

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Ïðîãðàììû ôóíäàìåíòàëüíûõ íàó÷íûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ àêàäåìèé íàóê íà 2008 - 2012 ãã.  òðåõ òîìàõ. Ì.: Íàóêà, 2012¿.
×àñòü ðåçóëüòàòîâ áûëà ïîëó÷åíà â ïðîöåññå ðàáîòû íàä ðóêîïèñüþ.
Íåñêîëüêî ñëîâ î ñòðóêòóðå ìîíîãðàôèè. Ñóùåñòâî åå îïðåäåëåíî íàçâàíèåì. Êðóã âîïðîñîâ, âêëþ÷åííûõ â êíèãó, âèäåí èç îãëàâëåíèÿ.
Êíèãà ñîñòîèò èç 3 òîìîâ è 16 ãëàâ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìîíîãðàôèÿ çíàêîìèò ÷èòàòåëÿ ñ öåëûì ðÿäîì íîâûõ êëþ÷åâûõ èäåé â ðàññìîòðåííûõ íàïðàâëåíèÿõ è ôîðìóëèðóåò îñíîâó äëÿ äàëüíåéøåãî èõ èçó÷åíèÿ.  ðÿäå ãëàâ äîêàçàíî ïî íåñêîëüêó íîâûõ òåîðåì, èìåþùèõ
âàæíîå çíà÷åíèå. Ïî ñâîåìó íàçíà÷åíèþ è îòáîðó ìàòåðèàëà ìîíîãðàôèÿ íå èìååò àíàëîãîâ â ìèðîâîé ëèòåðàòóðå. Êíèãà îïðåäåëåííî
áóäåò ïîëåçíà øèðîêîìó êðóãó, êàê íàó÷íûõ ðàáîòíèêîâ, òàê è èíæåíåðîâ, à òàêæå àñïèðàíòàì è ñòóäåíòàì ñòàðøèõ êóðñîâ, çàíèìàþùèõñÿ èìïóëüñíûì èçëó÷åíèåì, òåîðèåé ôðàêòàëîâ è äðîáíûõ îïåðàòîðîâ,
ñâåðõøèðîêîïîëîñíîé ðàäèîëîêàöèåé, òåîðèåé îòíîñèòåëüíîñòè, ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîé ìåõàíèêîé ñïëîøíûõ ñðåä, íåëèíåéíîé ýëåêòðîäèíàìèêîé,
íååâêëèäîâûìè ãåîìåòðèÿìè è äðóãèìè ñìåæíûìè âîïðîñàìè ôèçèêè
è ìàòåìàòèêè. Àâòîðû èñêðåííå ïðèçíàòåëüíû ä.ò.í. Â. Í. Êðóòèêîâó
è ïðîô. Â. Ñ. Èâàíîâó çà áëàãîæåëàòåëüíîñòü è ñîäåéñòâèå â ïðîâåäåíèè â ïðàêòèêó íàó÷íûõ èçûñêàíèé. Àâòîðû áëàãîäàðíû çàâ. ëàá.
ä.ò.í. Ê. Þ. Ñàõàðîâó, ê.ò.í. Î. Â. Ìèõååâó, ê.ò.í. Â. À. Òóðêèíó, Ñ.
Àëüáåòêîâó è Â. À. Ñàáåëüíèêîâó çà ëþáåçíîå ïðåäñòàâëåíèå ýêñïåðèìåíòàëüíûõ ðåçóëüòàòîâ, ðèñóíêîâ è ìàêåòîâ, êîòîðûå áûëè èñïîëüçîâàíû äëÿ ñðàâíåíèÿ ñ ðàçâèòîé â êíèãå òåîðèåé.  çàêëþ÷åíèå àâòîðû
òàêæå ñ÷èòàþò ñâîèì ïðèÿòíûì äîëãîì âûðàçèòü ïðèçíàòåëüíîñòü çà
íåîöåíèìóþ ïîìîùü ïðè ïîäãîòîâêå êíèã ê ïå÷àòè Ñ. Â. ×åòûðêèíó.
Àâòîðû èñêðåííå ïðèçíàòåëüíû àêàäåìèêó Þ. Â. Ãóëÿåâó çà èíòåðåñ ê äàííîìó íàó÷íîìó íàïðàâëåíèþ, ïîääåðæêó ýòèõ èññëåäîâàíèé
è âíèìàíèå ê íèì. Àâòîðû áóäóò ðàäû îáñóäèòü ñ çàèíòåðåñîâàííûìè ÷èòàòåëÿìè ïðîáëåìû, çàòðîíóòûå â ýòîé ìîíîãðàôèè, è ñ ÷èòàòåëÿìè, êîòîðûå çàõîòÿò ïîäåëèòüñÿ ñ íàìè ñâîèìè ïðåäëîæåíèÿìè è
çàìå÷àíèÿìè î êíèãå.
Ïî÷òîâûé àäðåñ: 125009, Ìîñêâà, óë. Ìîõîâàÿ, äîì 11, ñòð. 7,
Èíñòèòóò Ðàäèîòåõíèêè è Ýëåêòðîíèêè èì. Â.À.Êîòåëüíèêîâà ÐÀÍ.
Ïîòàïîâ Àëåêñàíäð Àëåêñååâè÷, E-mail: potapov@cplire.ru
Ïî÷òîâûé àäðåñ: 119361, Ìîñêâà, óë. Îçåðíàÿ, 46,
ÔÃÓÏ "ÂÍÈÈÎÔÈ"
(Âñåðîññèéñêèé Íàó÷íî-Èññëåäîâàòåëüñêèé Èíñòèòóò Îïòèêî-Ôèçè÷åñêèõ Èçìåðåíèé).
Ïîäîñåíîâ Ñòàíèñëàâ Àëåêñàíäðîâè÷, E-mail: podosenov@mail.ru
Ñ. À. Ïîäîñåíîâ, À. À. Ïîòàïîâ, Äæ. Ôîóêçîí, Å. Ð. Ìåíüêîâà.
Ìîñêâà, 2014.

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Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ãëàâà 15

ÀÑÈÌÏÒÎÒÈ×ÅÑÊÈÅ ÌÅÒÎÄÛ Â ÇÀÄÀ×ÀÕ
ÊËÀÑÑÈ×ÅÑÊÎÉ È ÔÐÀÊÒÀËÜÍÎÉ ÈÌÏÓËÜÑÍÎÉ
ÝËÅÊÒÐÎÄÈÍÀÌÈÊÈ
Ýòà ãëàâà ñîäåðæèò:
1. Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà.
2. Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà. Àíàëèç ÷èñëåííîé ðåàëèçàöèè ìåòîäà îáîáùåííîãî êàíîíè÷åñêîãî îïåðàòîðà Â.Ï.
Ìàñëîâà ïðèìåíèòåëüíî ê çàäà÷àì ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ÝÌÈ.
3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ñðåäíèõ çíà÷åíèé íàáëþäàåìûõ â êâàíòîâîé ìåõàíèêå. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ äåòåðìèíèðîâàííûì ïîòåíöèàëîì.
4. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ñðåäíèõ çíà÷åíèé ÊÌ
íàáëþäàåìûõ. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà.
5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûì êîîðäèíàòàì. Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé èíòåãðàë
ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì äëÿ îáîáùåííîãî Ëàãðàíæèàíà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî âðåìåíè.
6. Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî
äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûì êîîðäèíàòàì.
7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå. Óðàâíåíèå
Øðåäèíãåðà ñ ïîòåíöèàëîì, óáûâàþùèì íà áåñêîíå÷íîñòè.
8. ×èñëåííîå ñðàâíåíèå íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé àñèìïòîòèêè ñ ðåçóëüòàòàìè, ïîëó÷åííûìè â ðàìêàõ êàíîíè÷åñêîé òåîðèè âîçìóùåíèé.

15.1. Èñõîäíûå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ è èõ ñëåäñòâèÿ.
Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà.
Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ìîíîõðîìàòè÷åñêîé âîëíû â ñðåäå ñ êðóïíîìàñøòàáíûìè ñëó÷àéíûìè íåîäíîðîäíîñòÿìè îïèñûâàåòñÿ âîëíîâûì óðàâíåíèåì ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà [1]

∆Ψ (r) + k 2 [1 + εb (r, ω)] Ψ (r) = 0, εb (r, ω) =

ε(r, ω)−hε(r, ω)i
,
hε(r, ω)i

(1)

15.1. Èñõîäíûå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ è èõ ñëåäñòâèÿ...

15

ãäå r= (x, y, z), a εb (r, ω) - ôëóêòóèðóþùàÿ ÷àñòü äèýëåêòðè÷åñêîé
ïðîíèöàåìîñòè. Ôóíêöèÿ Ψ (r) ñâÿçàíà ñ êîìïîíåíòîé âîëíîâîãî ïîëÿ
E ñîîòíîøåíèÿìè

E (r) = Ψ (r) exp (−iωt) , k 2 =

ω2
c2

hε (r, ω)i .
(2)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.1.1. Ìû áóäåì ïðåäïîëàãàòü â äàëüíåéøåì, ÷òî
âûïîëíåíû ñëåäóþùèå óñëîâèÿ:
1. ε (r, ω) ýòî Σ -èçìåðèìàÿ ñëó÷àéíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ, çàäàííàÿ íà íåêîòîðîì âåðîÿòíîñòíîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå hΩ, Σ, Pi .
Òàêèì îáðàçîì, hε (r, ω)i = ∫ Ω ε (r, ω) dP.

2. Ñëó÷àéíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ ε (r, ω) ìîæåò áûòü ïðåäñòàâëåíà â âèäå
ε (r, ω) = f (r, ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω)) , ãäå f (r, u1 , ..., un ) - äåòåðìèíèðîâàííàÿ ôóíêöèÿ âåùåñòâåííûõ ïåðåìåííûõ, à ξi (x, ω) - ñëó÷àéíûé
ïðîöåññ ñî çíà÷åíèÿìè â Rd è ïëîòíîñòüþ ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ pi (x, wi ) , 1 ≤
i≤n.
3. Ñëó÷àéíûå ïðîöåññû ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω) ñòîõàñòè÷åñêè íåçàâèñèìû.
4. Ôóíêöèÿ hε (r, ω)i çàâèñèò òîëüêî îò ïåðåìåííîé x.
5. ω 2 /c2  1.
Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî óñëîâèÿ 2, 3 è 4 íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñóùåñòâåííûìè è
ïðèíÿòû òîëüêî äëÿ ÷èñòî òåõíè÷åñêèõ óïðîùåíèé. Òàêèì îáðàçîì,
äëÿ ïðîèçâîëüíîé èçìåðèìîé ôóíêöèè G (·) ìû èìååì hG (ε (r, ω))i =
∫ G (ε (r, ω)) dP (ω) = ∫ dup (x, u) G (ε (r, u)) , ãäå u = (u1 , ..., un ) ,

p (x, u) =

n
Q

Rn

pi (x, ui ) .

i=1

Åñëè ïðèíåáðå÷ü ðàññåÿíèåì íà áîëüøèå óãëû, òî ôóíêöèþ Ψ (r)
ìîæíî ïðåäñòàâèòü â âèäå Ψ (r) = ψ (x, ρ) exp (ikx) , ρ = (y, z) , ãäå
ôóíêöèÿ ψ (x, ρ) óäîâëåòâîðÿåò ïàðàáîëè÷åñêîìó óðàâíåíèþ Øðåäèíãåðîâñêîãî òèïà [1]
ρ, ω)
= ∆⊥ ψ (x, ρ, ω) + k 2 εb (x, ρ, ω) ψ (x, ρ, ω) ,
2ik ∂ψ(x,
∂x
∂2
∂2
∆⊥ = ∂y
2 + ∂z 2 .

(3)

 óðàâíåíèè (3) îñü x ñîâïàäàåò ñ íàïðàâëåíèåì ïåðâîíà÷àëüíîãî
ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ âîëíû. Ïðè ïåðåõîäå îò óðàâíåíèÿ (1) ê óðàâíåíèþ
(3) áûëî îòáðîøåíî ñëàãàåìîå âèäà ∂ 2 Ψ/∂x2 . Ãðàíè÷íûì óñëîâèåì äëÿ
óðàâíåíèÿ (3) ÿâëÿåòñÿ óñëîâèå

ψ (0, ρ) = ψ (ρ) .

(4)

16

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Óðàâíåíèå (3) î÷åâèäíî ÿâëÿåòñÿ óðàâíåíèåì ïàðàáîëè÷åñêîãî òèïà, ãäå êîîðäèíàòà x ôîðìàëüíî âûïîëíÿåò ðîëü âðåìåíè, à óðàâíåíèå
(4) çàäàåò íà÷àëüíîå óñëîâèå.
Ïåðåïèøåì óðàâíåíèå (3) â êàíîíè÷åñêîé ôîðìå óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà

2

ρ, ω)
= h¯2 ∆ψ (x, ρ, ω) + V (x, ρ, ω) ψ (x, ρ, ω) , ψ (0, ρ) = ψ (ρ) ,
i¯h ∂ψ(x,
∂x
∂2
∂2
∆ = ∂y
h = ωc , V (x, ρ, ω) = εb (x, ρ, ω) .
2 + ∂z 2 , ρ = (y, z) , ¯
(5)

Ðåøåíèå óðàâíåíèÿ (5) ìîæíî ïðåäñòàâèòü â çàìêíóòîé ôîðìå â
âèäå Ôåéíìàíîâñêîãî èíòåãðàëà ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì

ψ (x, ρ, ω; h
¯) =


ψ0 (q (0)) exp h¯i S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] D [q (v)] =
q(x)=ρ


ψ0 (ρ0 ) exp h¯i S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] D [q (v)] dρ0 ,


q (x) = ρ
0
q (0) = ρ

x

S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] = 



∫ 12
0
0

dq(v)
dv
0 

2 

− V (q (v) , x, ω) dv,

q (v) = (q1 (v) , q2 (v)) , ρ0 = (y , z ) , D [q (v)] = D [q1 (v)] D [q2 (v)] .
(6)
Îáðàçóÿ áèëèíåéíóþ êîìáèíàöèþ

2

¯ ) = |ψ (x, ρ, ω; h
¯ )|
χ (x, ρ, ω; h
¯ ) = ψ (x, ρ, ω; h
¯ ) ψ (x, ρ, ω; h

(7)
è ïðèìåíÿÿ óðàâíåíèå (6), ìû ïîëó÷èì

χ (x, ρ, ω; h
¯) =
#2 
1

∫ ψ0 (q (0)) cos h¯ S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] D [q (v)] +
q(x)=ρ
"
#2 
1

∫ ψ0 (q (0)) sin h¯ S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] D [q (v)] =
"

q(x)=ρ

χ1 (x, ρ, ω; h
¯ ) + χ2 (x, ρ, ω; h
¯) ,

(8)

17

15.1. Èñõîäíûå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ è èõ ñëåäñòâèÿ...

ãäå ìû îáîçíà÷èëè

χ1 (x, ρ, ω; h
¯) =
#2 
1

ψ0 (q (0)) cos h¯ S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] D [q (v)] ,

"

=

q(x)=ρ

"

=

q(x)=ρ

χ2 (x, ρ, ω; h
¯) =
#2

1
ψ0 (q (0)) sin h¯ S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] D [q (v)] .
(9)

Îïðåäåëèì òåïåðü ñëó÷àéíûå ôóíêöèè χ
b (x, ω; h
¯) , χ
b1 (x, ω; h
¯) è

χ
b2 (x, ω; h
¯ ) ñîãëàñíî ôîðìóëàì

χ
b (x, ω; h
¯) = ∫

∫ [χ1 (x, ρ, ω; h
¯ ) + χ2 (x, ρ, ω; h
¯ )] dydz,

χ
b1 (x, ω; h
¯) = ∫

∫ [χ1 (x, ρ, ω; h
¯ ) + χ2 (x, ρ, ω; h
¯ )] ydydz,

χ
b2 (x, ω; h
¯) = ∫

∫ [χ1 (x, ρ, ω; h
¯ ) + χ2 (x, ρ, ω; h
¯ )] zdydz.

−∞ −∞
∞ ∞

−∞ −∞
∞ ∞

−∞ −∞

(10)

Ïîäñòàâèâ óðàâíåíèÿ (9) â óðàâíåíèÿ (10) ìû ïîëó÷èì

∫ 

−∞ −∞

ψ0 (q (0)) cos

χ
b1 (x, ω; ¯h) = 
1 

q(x)=ρ

−∞ −∞

ψ0 (q (0)) sin

S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω]
h
¯ 

1

q(x)=ρ

h
¯

S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] 

2
D [q (v)]

ydydz+ 

2
D [q (v)]

ydydz
(11)

−∞ −∞

−∞ −∞

χ
b2 (x, ω; ¯h) = 

ψ0 (q (0)) cos 

q(x)=ρ

ψ0 (q (0)) sin

q(x)=ρ 

1
h
¯ 

1
h
¯ 

2

S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] D [q (v)]
S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω]

zdydz+ 

2
D [q (v)]

zdydz.
(12)

Óñðåäíÿÿ òåïåðü óðàâíåíèÿ (11) è (12), ñ ó÷åòîì çàìå÷àíèÿ 1.1.1
ìû èìååì

χ
b1 (x, ω; h¯ ) = ∫ dn up (x, u) χb1 (x, u; h¯ ) =
Rn  

2 
1

∞ ∞
n
∫ d up (x, u) ∫

Rn

∫ dn up (x, u) ∫
Rn

−∞ −∞

−∞ −∞

ψ0 (q (0)) cos 

q(x)=ρ

ψ0 (q (0)) sin

h
¯S 

1

h
¯S

˙ (v) , q (v) , x, u]
[q

D [q (v)]

˙ (v) , q (v) , x, u]
[q

ydydz+ 

2
D [q (v)]

ydydz

q(x)=ρ

(13)

18

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

χ
b2 (x, ω; h¯ ) = ∫ dn up (x, u) χb2 (x, u; h¯ ) =
Rn

∫ dn up (x, u) ∫
Rn 

−∞ −∞

∫ dn up (x, u) ∫
Rn

ψ0 (q (0)) cos 

1 

q(x)=ρ

−∞ −∞

ψ0 (q (0)) sin

˙
h
¯ S [q (v) , q (v) , x, u] 

1

h
¯S

˙ (v) , q (v) , x, u]
[q

2
D [q (v)]

zdydz+ 

2
D [q (v)]

zdydz.

q(x)=ρ

(14)

Ìû áóäåì èññëåäîâàòü êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêóþ àñèìïòîòèêó ( ¯
h→0)
ÊÌ ñðåäíèõ ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

hχb2 (x, ω;¯h)i
hχb1 (x, ω;¯h)i

b2 (x; h
¯) =
,
hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
(b) χ
b1 (x, ω; h
¯ ) = χb1 (x, ω;¯h) , χ
b2 (x, ω; h
¯ ) = χb2 (x, ω;¯h) .
χ
b(x, ω;¯h)
χ
b(x, ω;¯h)
(a) χ
b1 (x; h
¯) =

(15)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.1.1. Ôóíêöèè χb1 (x; h
¯) è χ
b2 (x; h
¯ ) íàçûâàþòñÿ
ïîëíûìè ÊÌ ñðåäíèìè çíà÷åíèÿìè ðåøåíèé ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà (5).
Ñëó÷àéíûå ôóíêöèè χ
b1 (x, ω; h
¯) è χ
b2 (x, ω; h
¯ ) íàçûâàþòñÿ ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèìè ÊÌ ñðåäíèìè çíà÷åíèÿìè ðåøåíèé ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà (5).
Ïðåäïîëîæèì, ÷òî äëÿ çàäàííîãî x ∈ R ñóùåñòâóþò êîíå÷íûå ïðåäåëû

hχb1 (x, ω;¯h)i
,
hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
χ
b
(x,
ω;¯
h
)
h 2
i
λ2 (x) = lim χ
b2 (x, ; h
¯ ) = lim
.
b(x, ω;¯h)i
h
¯ →0
h
¯ →0 hχ
λ1 (x) = lim χ
b1 (x, ; h
¯ ) = lim
h
¯ →0

h
¯ →0

(16)

Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî â ýòîì ñëó÷àå, ðàâåíñòâà (16) ýêâèâàëåíòíû ñëåäóþùèì ðàâåíñòâàì

lim χ1 (x, λ1 ; h
¯ ) = lim [hb
χ1 (x, ω; h
¯ )i − λ1 (x) hb
χ (x, ω; h
¯ )i] = 0,

h
¯ →0

h
¯ →0

h
¯ →0

h
¯ →0

lim χ2 (x, λ2 ; h
¯ ) = lim [hb
χ2 (x, ω; h
¯ )i − λ2 (x) hb
χ (x, ω; h
¯ )i] = 0.
(17)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âû÷èñëåíèå ïðåäåëîâ (16) äëÿ çàäàííîãî x ∈ R
ñâîäèòñÿ ê íàõîæäåíèþ òàêèõ çíà÷åíèé λ1 (x) è λ2 (x) , äëÿ êîòîðûõ
ïðè óñëîâèè ¯
h → 0 âûïîëíÿþòñÿ ñëåäóþùèå îöåíêè

χ1 (x, λ1 ; h
¯ ) = [hb
χ1 (x, ω; h
¯ )i − λ1 (x) hb
χ (x, ω; h
¯ )i] = o (¯hα ) ,
χ2 (x, λ2 ; h
¯ ) = [hb
χ2 (x, ω; h
¯ )i − λ2 (x) hb
χ (x, ω; h
¯ )i] = o (¯hα ) ,

(18)

15.1. Èñõîäíûå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ è èõ ñëåäñòâèÿ...

19

ãäå 0 < α. Ïîñêîëüêó â îáùåì ñëó÷àå ïðåäåëû (16) íå ñóùåñòâóþò, ìû
áóäåì ïðåäïîëàãàòü â äàëüíåéøåì, ÷òî äëÿ çàäàííîãî x ∈ R ñóùåñòâóþò òîëüêî êîíå÷íûå âåðõíèå ïðåäåëû

hχb1 (x, ω;¯h)i
,
hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
h
¯ →0
h
¯ →0
hχb2 (x, ω;¯h)i
λ2 (x) = lim sup χ
b2 (x, ; h
¯ ) = lim sup
hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
h
¯ →0
h
¯ →0

λ1 (x) = lim sup χ
b1 (x, ; h
¯ ) = lim sup

è êîíå÷íûé, íî îòëè÷íûé îò íóëÿ íèæíèé ïðåäåë

λ∗ = lim inf hb
χ1 (x, ω; h
¯ )i =
6 0.
h
¯ →0

(19)

(20)

 ýòîì ñëó÷àå, ìû èìååì

hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
hχb1 (x, ω;¯h)i
− λ1 (x)
=
hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
λ1 (x) hχ
b(x, ω;¯h)i
hχb1 (x, ω;¯h)i
lim sup
− lim sup
=
χ
b
(x,
ω;¯
h
)
χ
b
(x,
ω;¯
h)i
h
i
h
h
¯ →0
h
¯ →0
hχb1 (x, ω;¯h)i−λ1 (x) hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
.
lim sup
hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
h
¯ →0
lim sup
h
¯ →0

è

(21)

Âûáåðåì òåïåðü òàêóþ ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü, ÷òî ¯
hn → 0 ïðè n → ∞

lim sup
h
¯ →0

hχb1 (x, ω;¯h)i
hχb1 (x, ω;¯hn )i
= lim
.
b(x, ω;¯hn )i
n→∞ hχ
hχb(x, ω;¯h)i

(22)

Òîãäà â ñèëó (21) è (22) ìû èìååì

hχb1 (x, ω;¯h)i−λ1 (x) hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
=
hχb(x, ω;¯h)i
h
¯ →0
hχb1 (x, ω;¯hn )i−λ1 (x) hχb(x, ω;¯hn )i
lim
,
n→∞
hχb(x, ω;¯hn )i

lim sup

(23)

20

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

îòêóäà, â ñèëó íåðàâåíñòâà (20), ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùóþ îöåíêó

lim sup hχb1 (x, ω;¯h)i−λ1 (x) hχb(x, ω;¯h)i =
h¯ →0

χ
b
(x, ω;¯
h)i
h

χ
b
(x,
ω;¯
h
)
−λ
(x)
χ
b
(x,
ω;¯
h
)
h
i
h
i
1
n
1
n
lim
=
n→∞

χ
b
(x, ω;¯
hn )i
h

hχb1 (x, ω;¯hn )i−λ1 (x) hχb(x, ω;¯hn )i


lim

n→∞
hχb(x, ω;¯hn )i
lim sup|hχ
b1 (x, ω;¯hn )i−λ1 (x) hχb(x, ω;¯hn )i|
n→∞

lim inf hχ
b(x, ω;¯hn )i
n→∞
lim sup|hχ
b1 (x, ω;¯h)i−λ1 (x) hχb(x, ω;¯h)i|
h
¯ →0

b(x, ω;¯hn )i
lim inf hχ
n→∞
(1/λ∗ ) lim sup |hb
χ1 (x, ω; h
¯ )i − λ1 (x) hb
χ (x, ω; h
¯ )i| .
h
¯ →0

(24)

Ðàññóæäàÿ àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì, ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùóþ îöåíêó

lim sup hχb2 (x, ω;¯h)i−λ2 (x) hχb(x, ω;¯h)i ≤

h¯ →0
hχb(x, ω;¯h)i

(1/λ (x)) lim sup |hb
χ2 (x, ω; h
¯ )i − λ2 (x) hb
χ (x, ω; h
¯ )i| .
h
¯ →0

(25)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âû÷èñëåíèå âåðõíèõ ïðåäåëîâ (19) äëÿ çàäàííîãî
x ∈ R ñâîäèòñÿ ê íàõîæäåíèþ òàêèõ çíà÷åíèé λ1 (x) è λ2 (x) , äëÿ
êîòîðûõ ñóùåñòâóåò ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü ¯
hn òàêàÿ, ÷òî ¯hn → 0 ïðè
n → ∞ è äëÿ íåêîòîðîãî α âûïîëíÿþòñÿ ñëåäóþùèå îöåíêè

χ1 (x, λ1 , λ2 ; h
¯ n ) = [hb
χ1 (x, ω; h
¯ n )i − λ1 (x) hb
χ (x, ω; h
¯ n )i] = o (¯

n) ,
χ2 (x, λ1 , λ2 ; h
¯ n ) = [hb
χ2 (x, ω; h
¯ n )i − λ2 (x) hb
χ (x, ω; h
¯ n )i] = o (¯

n) ,
(26)
ãäå 0 < α. Ïðåîáðàçóåì òåïåðü ýêâèâàëåíòíûì îáðàçîì ñëåäóþùèå
âûðàæåíèÿ
χ1 (x, λ1 ; h
¯ ) = hb
χ1 (x, ω; h
¯ )i − λ1 hb
χ (x, ω; h
¯ )i ,
χ2 (x, λ2 ; h
¯ ) = hb
χ2 (x, ω; h
¯ )i − λ2 hb
χ (x, ω; h
¯ )i .

(27)

Ïîäñòàâèâ â âûðàæåíèÿ (27) óðàâíåíèÿ (13)-(14) ìû ïîëó÷èì

χ1 (x, λ1 ; h
¯ ) = ∫ dn up (x, u) ∫
Rn 

∫ (y − λ1 )

−∞ −∞

∫ (y − λ1 )

−∞ −∞

∫ (y − λ1 ) χ
b1 (ρ, x, u; h¯ ) dydz = ∫ dn up (x, u) ×
Rn

−∞ −∞ 

ψ0 (q (0)) cos 

q(x)=ρ

ψ0 (q (0)) sin 

1

h
¯S 

1

h
¯S

˙ (v) , q (v) , x, u]
[q

˙ (v) , q (v) , x, u]
[q 

2
D [q (v)]

dydz + 

2
D [q (v)] 

dydz

q(x)=ρ

(28)

21

15.1. Èñõîäíûå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ è èõ ñëåäñòâèÿ...

χ2 (x, λ2 ; h
¯ ) = ∫ dn up (x, u) ∫
Rn 

∫ (z − λ2 ) χ
b2 (ρ, x, ω; h¯ ) dydz = ∫ dn up (x, u) ×
Rn

−∞ −∞ 

∫ (z − λ2 )

−∞ −∞

ψ0 (q (0)) cos 

1

˙
h
¯ S [q (v) , q (v) , x, u] 

2
D [q (v)]

dydz +

q(x)=ρ 

∫ (z − λ2 )

−∞ −∞

ψ0 (q (0)) sin 

1

˙
h
¯ S [q (v) , q (v) , x, u] 

2
D [q (v)] 

dydz

.

q(x)=ρ

(29)

Âûïîëíèâ â óðàâíåíèè (28) çàìåíó ïåðåìåííûõ èíòåãðèðîâàíèÿ ρ =
ρ∗ + λ ìû ïîëó÷èì:

∫ χ
b1 (ρ, x, ω; h¯ ) y0 dy0 dz0 = ∫ d m up (x, u) ×

χ1 (x, λ1 ; h
¯ ) = ∫ dwp (x, w) ∫
Rd 

∫ 

−∞ −∞

−∞ −∞

Rm

−∞ −∞

ψ0 (q (0)) cos

˙
h
¯ S [q (v) , q (v) , x, u]

q(x)=ρ∗ +λ 

ψ0 (q (0)) sin

1 

1

˙
h
¯ S [q (v) , q (v) , x, u]

q(x)=ρ∗ +λ

2
y ∗ dy ∗ dz ∗ +

D [q (v)] 

2
D [q (v)] 

y ∗ dy ∗ dz ∗

,
(30)

ãäå λ = (λ1 , λ2 ) , ρ∗ = (y ∗ , z ∗ ) . Âûïîëíèâ â óðàâíåíèè (30) ôóíêöèîíàëüíóþ çàìåíó ïåðåìåííûõ èíòåãðèðîâàíèÿ: q (v) = u (v) + λ â ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ôóíêöèîíàëüíûõ èíòåãðàëàõ, ñòîÿùèõ â ïðàâîé ÷àñòè
óðàâíåíèÿ (30), ìû ïîëó÷èì
χ1 (x, λ1 , λ2 ; h
¯) =

R

d up (x, u)

Rn

(
R
Rn

n

d up (x, u)

R ∞
R

n

R ∞
R

−∞ −∞

χ
b1 (ρ, x, u; h¯ ) y0 dy0 dz0 =

−∞ −∞
2

"

#

R

A


y dy dz

u(x)=ρ∗

−∞ −∞







R n
R ∞
R R

d up (x, u) ×


Rn

−∞ −∞

R ∞
R R

+

R ∞
R

#2

"
R

y dy dz

=

R

dρ0

u (x) = ρ∗
0
u (0) = ρ


A y ∗ dy ∗ dz ∗ +

2
R

u (x) = ρ
0
u (0) = ρ

−∞ −∞

u(x)=ρ∗
2

dρ0

B

)


B  y ∗ dy ∗ dz ∗




,




(31)

ãäå ââåäåíû îáîçíà÷åíèÿ 

1
S [u˙ (v) , u (v) +λ, x, u] D [u (v)] ,
h
¯  

1
S [u˙ (v) , u (v) +λ, x, u] D [u (v)] .
B = ψ0 (u (0) +λ) sin
h
¯ 

A = ψ0 (u (0) +λ) cos

Ïðåîáðàçóÿ óðàâíåíèå (29) òî÷íî òàêèì æå ñïîñîáîì êàê è óðàâíå-

22

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

íèå (28), ìû ïîëó÷èì
χ2 (x, λ1 , λ2 ; h
¯) =

R

R ∞
R

n

d up (x, u)

Rn

R

χ
b1 (ρ, x, u; h¯ ) y0 dy0 dz0 =

(

R ∞
R

#2

"

−∞ −∞

R

R ∞
R

#2
R

−∞ −∞

z ∗ dy ∗ dz ∗ +

A]

u(x)=ρ∗

"

dn up (x, u) ×

Rn

−∞ −∞

B

)

z dy dz

=

u(x)=ρ




∞
R ∞
R n
R R

d up (x, u) ×


−∞ −∞
Rn


2
dρ0

R
u (x) = ρ∗
0
u (0) = ρ


A z ∗ dy ∗ dz ∗ +

2

R ∞
R R

dρ0

R
u (x) = ρ∗
0
u (0) = ρ

−∞ −∞


(32)

B  z ∗ dy ∗ dz ∗




.



Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷òîáû óäîâëåòâîðèòü àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèì îöåíêàì
(26), íåîáõîäèìî ïîëó÷èòü íåòðèâèàëüíûå êîíñòðóêòèâíûå àñèìïòî¯ ) , i = 1, 2 êàê ôóíêöèé ïàðàòè÷åñêèå îöåíêè âåëè÷èí χi (x, λ1 , λ2 ; h
ìåòðîâ x, λ1 , , λ2 . Îáùàÿ îöåíêà òàêîãî òèïà, ïîëó÷åííàÿ â ðàáîòå [13],
â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå äàåò ñëåäóþùèé ðåçóëüòàò.

Òåîðåìà 15.1.1. Ïóñòü äàíà ñëåäóþùàÿ çàäà÷à Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíå-

íèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà (5).

2

ρ, ω)

h ∂ψ(x,
= h¯2 ∆ψ (x, ρ,
ρ, ω)i,
∂x
h ω)2 + V (x,
i ρ, ω)h ψ (x,
ε (y−y0 )2
ε2 (z−z0 )2
ε2
ψ (0, ρ, ρ0 , ω) = 2π¯h exp −
exp − 2¯h
,

h

(33)
ãäå x ∈ [0, ∞) , ¯
h  ε  1. Ïóñòü V (x, ρ, ω) åñòü ïîëèíîì îò ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûõ ïåðåìåííûõ ρ = (y, z) , ò. å.
P
V (x, ρ, ω) =
gα (x, ω) ρα , α = (i1 , i2 ) , kαk =
kαk≤n
P2
(34)
r=1 ir , ir = 1, ..., n,
α
i1 i2
ρ = y z , gα (x, ω) = gbα (x, ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω)) .
Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç

u (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) = (u1 (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) , u2 (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ))
ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé ëèíåéíîé êðàåâîé

15.1. Èñõîäíûå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ è èõ ñëåäñòâèÿ...

23

çàäà÷è
d2 uT (ν,x,ω,λ,ρ,ρ0 )
dν 2

= Hess [V (λ, ν, ω)] uT (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 )+
h 0
iT
V (λ, ν, ω) ,
u (0, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) = ρ0 , u (x, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) = ρ,

(35)

ãäå

λ = (λ1 , λ2 ) , uT (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) =
T
(u1 (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ,ρ0 ) , u2 (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ,ρ0 )) ,
0
ν, ω) ∂V (ρ, ν, ω)
V (λ, ν, ω) = ∂V (ρ,
,
∂y
∂z

(36)

ρ=λ

è ãäå Hess [V (λ, ν, ω)] - ýòî Ãåññèàí îòîáðàæåíèÿ V (·, ν, ω) : R2 → R,
âû÷èñëåííûé â òî÷êå ρ= λ, ò. å.
P
P2
V (x, ρ, ω) =
gα (x, ω) ρα , α = (i1 , i2 ) , kαk = r=1 ir , ir = 1, ..., n,
kαk≤n

ρα = y i1 z i2 , gα (x, ω) = gbα (x, ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω)) .

(37)
Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç S (x, λ, ρ, ρ0 , ω) ñëó÷àéíóþ ôóíêöèþ, çàäàííóþ ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëîé  

x
du(ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 )
0
0
b
, u (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ ) , ν, ω dν,
S (x, λ, ρ, ρ , ω) = ∫ L

0

(38)

ãäe

b
L

du
dν , 

u, ν, ω =

m
2 

du 2

− Vb (u,hλ, ν, ω) ,

i
0
Vb (u, λ, ν, ω) = uHess [V (λ, ν, ω)] uT + V (λ, ν, ω) uT .
(39)
0
0
Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç ρcr = ρcr (x, λ, ρ, ω) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñèñòåìû
ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé
∂S(x, λ, ρ, ρ0 , ω )
∂y 0

= 0,

∂S(x, λ, ρ, ρ0 , ω )
∂z 0

= 0,
(40)

ãäå ρ0 = (y 0 , z 0 ) , ò. å.

∂S(x, λ, ρ, ρ0 , ω )

∂y 0

= 0,
ρ0 =ρ0cr

∂S(x, λ, ρ, ρ0 , ω )

∂z 0

= 0.
ρ0 =ρ0cr

Îáîçíà÷èì äàëåå ÷åðåç

ρb = ρb (x, ρ0 , λ, ω) = (b
ρ1 (x, ρ0 , λ, ω) , ρb2 (x, ρ0 , λ, ω))

24

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ñëó÷àéíóþ âåêòîð-ôóíêöèþ, êîòîðàÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåøåíèåì ñëåäóþùåé
ñèñòåìû ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé

ρcr (x, λ, ρb, ω) + λ−ρ0 = 0.

(41)
Ïðåäïîëîæèì òàêæå, ÷òî äëÿ äàííûõ çíà÷åíèé ïàðàìåòðîâ x, λ, ρ0 , ω
òî÷êà ρb = ρb (x, ρ0 , λ, ω) íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôîêàëüíîé òî÷êîé íà òðàåêòîðèè,
çàäàííîé ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ðåøåíèåì êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (39). Òîãäà:
(i) äëÿ ïîëíûõ ÊÌ ñðåäíèõ (15.a) ñïðàâåäëèâà ñëåäóþùàÿ ñèñòåìà
íåðàâåíñòâ 

h
i2
1/2
,
lim inf |b
χ1 (x, ρ0 , ; h
¯ ) − λ1 | ≤ E |b
ρ1 (x, ρ0 , λ1 , λ2 , ω)|
h
¯ →0 
h
i2
1/2
.
lim inf |b
χ2 (x, ρ0 , ; h
¯ ) − λ2 | ≤ E |b
ρ2 (x, ρ0 , λ1 , λ2 , ω)|
h
¯ →0

(42)

(ii) äëÿ ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèõ ÊÌ ñðåäíèõ (15.b) P - ïî÷òè íàâåðíîå,
ñïðàâåäëèâà ñëåäóþùàÿ ñèñòåìà íåðàâåíñòâ

lim inf |b
χ1 (x, ω, ρ0 , ; h
¯ ) − λ1 | ≤ |b
ρ1 (x, ω, ρ0 , λ1 , λ2 )| ,
h
¯ →0

lim inf |b
χ2 (x, ω, ρ0 , ; h
¯ ) − λ2 | ≤ |b
ρ2 (x, ω, ρ0 , λ1 , λ2 )| .
h
¯ →0

(43)

Ðàññìîòðèì ñëó÷àé, êîãäà â óðàâíåíèè Øðåäèíãåðà (5) ôóíêöèÿ
V (x, ρ, ω) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

V (x, ρ, ω) = V (x, ρ, ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω)) ,

(44)
ãäå ξl (ν, ω) , l = 1, ..., n ýòî êîíå÷íûé íàáîð ñòîõàñòè÷åñêè íåçàâèñèìûõ êâàçè-ãàóññîâñêèõ ñëó÷àéíûé ïðîöåññîâ, çàäàííûõ íà âåðîÿòíîñòíîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå hΩ, Σ, Pi è èìåþùèõ ïëîòíîñòü ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

pl (x, ul , a) '
(

1
2πσl

n
o
2
l (x)]
exp − [ul −m
, |ul | ≤ a,
2σl2
0 , |ul | > a.

(45)

Ïðèíèìàÿ òåïåðü âî âíèìàíèå ðàâåíñòâî (47), ïåðåïèøåì ñèñòåìó

15.1. Èñõîäíûå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ è èõ ñëåäñòâèÿ...

25

íåðàâåíñòâ (44) â âèäå

lim inf |hb
χ1 (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ )i − λ1 | ≤
h
¯ →0 
h
i2
1/2
≤ E |b
ρ1 (x, ρ0 , λ, ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω))|
,
lim inf |hb
χ2 (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ )i − λ2 | ≤
h
¯ →0 
h
i2
1/2
≤ E |b
ρ2 (x, ρ0 , λ, ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω))|
.
(46)
Ïðàâûå ÷àñòè íåðàâåíñòâ ïåðåïèøåì â âèäå
h
i
1/2
E |b
ρ1 (x, ρ0 , λ, ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω))|
=
n
Q
1/2
∫ du1 ... ∫ dun
ul pl (x, ul , a∗ ) |b
ρ1 (x, ρ0 , λ, u1 , ..., un )| ,
h l=1
i
1/2
E |b
ρ2 (x, ρ0 , λ, ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω))|
=
n
Q
1/2
∫ du1 ... ∫ dun
ul pl (x, ul , a∗ ) |b
ρ1 (x, ρ0 , λ, u1 , ..., un )| .
l=1

(47)

Âû÷èñëèâ òåïåðü êðàòíûå èíòåãðàëû â (47) ìåòîäîì Ëàïëàñà, ìû
çàïèøåì ñèñòåìó íåðàâåíñòâ â ñëåäóþùåì îêîí÷àòåëüíîì âèäå

lim inf |hb
χ1 (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ )i − λ1 | ≤ ρb1 (x, ρ0 , λ, m1 (x) , ..., mn (x)) ,
h
¯ →0

lim inf |hb
χ2 (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ )i − λ2 | ≤ ρb2 (x, ρ0 , λ, m1 (x) , ..., mn (x)) .
h
¯ →0

(48)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âû÷èñëåíèå àñèìïòîòèêè ïîëíûõ ÊÌ ñðåäíèõ

χ
bi (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ ) , i = 1, 2,
â äàííîì ñëó÷àå ñâîäèòñÿ ê ÷èñëåííîìó ðåøåíèþ ñèñòåìû äâóõ òðàíñöåíäåíòíûõ óðàâíåíèé âèäà

ρb1 (x, ρ0 , λ, m1 (x) , ..., mn (x)) = 0,
ρb2 (x, ρ0 , λ, m1 (x) , ..., mn (x)) = 0.

(49)

Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì, âû÷èñëåíèå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèõ ÊÌ ñðåäíèõ
(15.b) ñâîäèòñÿ ê ÷èñëåííîìó ðåøåíèþ ñèñòåìû òðàíñöåíäåíòíûõ óðàâíåíèé âèäà

ρb1 (x, ρ0 , λ1 , λ2 , ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω)) = 0 ,
ρb2 (x, ρ0 , λ1 , λ2 , ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω)) = 0 .

(50)

26

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.1.2. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî â íåðàâåíñòâàõ (48) íèæíèé

ïðåäåë

lim inf |hb
χi (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ )i − λ1 | , i = 1, 2,
h
¯ →0

â îáùåì ñëó÷àå, íåëüçÿ çàìåíèòü ïðîñòûì ïðåäåëîì

lim |hb
χi (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ )i − λ1 | , i = 1, 2.

h
¯ →0

Âñëåäñòâèå ýòîãî ñèñòåìà (49) â îáùåì ñëó÷àå èìååò ìíîæåñòâî ðåøåíèé.

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.1.3. Îòìåòèì, ÷òî ïðåäïîëîæåíèå î ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîé
íåçàâèñèìîñòè êâàçè-ãàóññîâñêèõ ñëó÷àéíûé ïðîöåññîâ ξl (ν, ω) , l =
1, ..., n, íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñóùåñòâåííûì. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî ñèñòåìà òèïà (48)
èìååò ìåñòî òàêæå â ñëó÷àå, êîãäà ñîâìåñòíàÿ ïëîòíîñòü ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ px (u1 , ..., un ) ñëó÷àéíûé ïðîöåññîâ ξl (x, ω) , l = 1, ..., n èìååò
ïîäõîäÿùóþ êâàçèãàóññîâñêóþ ôîðìó èëè äàæå îáùóþ ýêñïîíåíöèàëüíóþ ôîðìó, ïîçâîëÿþùóþ ïðèìåíèòü ìåòîä Ëàïëàñà.
Îòìåòèì, ÷òî â âûøåóêàçàííîì ñëó÷àå âìåñòî ðåøåíèÿ ëèíåéíîé
ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (39) äîñòàòî÷íî ïîñòðîèòü ðåøåíèå äâóõòî÷å÷íîé êðàåâîé çàäà÷è äëÿ ëèíåéíîãî âèäà
du(ν, x, λ, ρ, ρ0 )

= A(ν, λ, m1 (ν) , ..., mn (ν))u (ν, x, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) +
+B (ν, m1 (ν) , ..., mn (ν)) ,
u (0, x, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) = ρ0 , u (x, x, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) = ρ,

(51)
ãäå A (ν, m1 (ν) , ..., mn (ν)) - (2 õ 2)-ìàòðèöà, à B (ν, m1 (ν) , ..., mn (ν))
- äâóõ êîìïîíåíòíûé âåêòîð, êîòîðûå çàäàíû ñëåäóþùèìè ÿâíûìè
âûðàæåíèÿìè

A (ν, m1 (ν) , ..., mn (ν)) =

h

∂ 2 V (ρ, ν, m1 (ν),..., mn (ν))
∂y∂z

i
ρ=λ

è 

B (ν, m1 (ν) , ..., mn (ν)) = 

∂V (ρ, ν, m1 (ν),..., mn (ν)) ∂V (ρ, ν, m1 (ν),..., mn (ν))
,
∂y
∂z

(52)

.
ρ=λ

(53)

Îòìåòèì òàêæå, ÷òî â ñëó÷àå, êîãäà ïîòåíöèàë V (x, ρ, ω) è ñîâìåñòíàÿ ïëîòíîñòü ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ p (x, u1 , ..., un ) ñëó÷àéíûé ïðîöåññîâ
ξl (x, ω) , l = 1, ..., n
íå çàâèñÿò îò ïåðåìåííîé x, ôóíêöèè ρbi (x, ρ0 , λ, m1 , ..., mn ) , i = 1, 2
äîïóñêàþò ïðîñòîå àíàëèòè÷åñêîå ïðåäñòàâëåíèå, ÷òî çíà÷èòåëüíî ñîêðàùàåò âðåìÿ ðàñ÷åòà.

27

15.1. Èñõîäíûå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ è èõ ñëåäñòâèÿ...

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.1.4. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî â îáùåì ñëó÷àå ðåøåíèå ëèíåéíîé ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (39) ìîæåò áûòü
ïîëó÷åíî â çàìêíóòîé ôîðìå ñ ïîìîùüþ ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîé ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà G (t, τ ; ω) [73]-[74].  ïðèëîæåíèÿõ ÷àñòî âñòðå÷àåòñÿ ñëó÷àé, êîãäà
ñ.ä.ó. (39) åñòü ïðîñòîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå â ñìûñëå Èòî, ò. å.
du (ν) = A(ν)u (ν) dν + Σ (ν) dW (ν) ,

(54)
ãäå A(ν) è Σ (ν) - (2 õ 2)-ìàòðèöû, ýëåìåíòû êîòîðûõ ÿâëÿþòñÿ êóñî÷íîíåïðåðûâíûìè ôóíêöèÿìè. Òîãäà ðåøåíèå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (39) î÷åâèäíûì îáðàçîì ìîæåò áûòü ïîëó÷åíî ñ
ïîìîùüþ õîðîøî èçâåñòíîé ôîðìóëû [75]-[77]
x

u (x) = Φ (x, x0 ) u (x0 ) + ∫ Φ (x, ν) Σ (ν) dW (ν) .
x0

(55)

 ïðèëîæåíèÿõ òàêæå âàæíóþ ðîëü èãðàåò ñëó÷àé ìàëûõ ñëó÷àéíûõ âîçìóùåíèé, ò.å.

P

V (x, ρ, ω) =

gα (x, ω) ρα , α = (i1 , i2 ) , kαk =

2
P

ir , ir = 1, ..., n,

r=1

kαk≤n

ρα = y i1 z i2 , gα (x, ω) = gbα (x) + εb
gα (x, ξ1 (x, ω) , ..., ξn (x, ω)) ,

(56)
ãäå ε  1.  ýòîì ñëó÷àå ñ.ä.ó. (39) îïèñûâàåò ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèé ãàðìîíè÷åñêèé îñöèëëÿòîð ñ ìàëûì ñëó÷àéíûì âîçìóùåíèåì, ëèáî ñèñòåìó,
ñîñòîÿùóþ èç äâóõ ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèõ îñöèëëÿòîðîâ.  ýòîì ñëó÷àå, êðàåâàÿ çàäà÷à (39) òàêæå äîïóñêàåò ÿâíîå àíàëèòè÷åñêîå ðåøåíèå [81][83].
Ïóñòü ñëó÷àéíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ ψ (x, ρ, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ ), çàäàíàÿ ôîðìóëîé (6),
è ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ðåøåíèå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîé çàäà÷è Êîøè. Îïðåäåëèì ñëó÷àéíûå ôóíêöèè η (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ ) , η1 (x, ω; h
¯ ) è η2 (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ ) ñëåäóþùèìè ôîðìóëàìè

η (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ ) = ∫ ∫ ψ (x, ρ, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ ) dydz =
−∞ −∞


∫ ψ0 (q (0)) exp h¯i S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] D [q (v)] dydz,

−∞ −∞ q(x)=ρ

(57)

η1 (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ ) = ∫ ∫ ψ (x, ρ, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ ) ydydz =
−∞ −∞ 

∫ ψ0 (q (0)) cos h¯i S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] D [q (v)] ydydz

−∞ −∞ q(x)=ρ

(58)

28

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

è

η2 (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ ) = ∫ ∫ ψ (x, ρ, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ ) zdydz =
−∞ −∞ 
i

∫ ψ0 (q (0)) cos h¯ S [q˙ (v) , q (v) , x, ω] D [q (v)] zdydz.

−∞ −∞ q(x)=ρ

(59)
Îïðåäåëèì ôóíêöèè η (x, ρ0 ; h
¯ ) , η1 (x, ρ0 ; h
¯ ) è η2 (x, ρ0 ; h
¯ ) ñëåäóþùèìè ôîðìóëàìè
η (x, ρ0 ; h
¯ ) = hη (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ )i =

∫ dn up (x, u) ∫
Rn 

n

∫ d up (x, u)
Rn

∫ ψ (x, ρ, ρ0 , u; h
¯ ) dydz =

−∞ −∞

ψ0 (q (0)) exp 

i

h
¯S

˙ (v) , q (v) , x, u]
[q 

D [q (v)] dydz ,

−∞ −∞ q(x)=ρ

(60)

η1 (x, ρ0 ; h
¯ ) =hη1 (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ )i =

∫ dn up (x, u) ∫
Rn 

∫ dn up (x, u)
Rn

∫ ψ (x, ρ, ρ0 , u; h
¯ ) ydydz =

−∞ −∞

ψ0 (q (0)) cos 

i

˙
h
¯ S [q (v) , q (v) , x, u] 

D [q (v)] ydydz ,

−∞ −∞ q(x)=ρ

(61)

η2 (x, ρ0 ; h
¯ ) =hη2 (x, ρ0 , ω; h
¯ )i =

∫ dn up (x, u) ∫
Rn 

∫ dn up (x, u)
Rn

∫ ψ (x, ρ, ρ0 , u; h
¯ ) zdydz =

−∞ −∞

ψ0 (q (0)) cos 

i

˙
h
¯ S [q (v) , q (v) , x, u] 

D [q (v)] zdydz .

−∞ −∞ q(x)=ρ

(62)

Îïðåäåëèì ôóíêöèè η1 (x, ρ0 , λ; h
¯ ) è η2 (x, ρ0 , λ; h
¯ ) ñëåäóþùèìè ôîðìóëàìè

η1 (x, ρ0 , λ; h
¯ ) = η1 (x, ρ0 ; h
¯ ) − λ1 η (x, ρ0 ; h
¯) ,
η2 (x, ρ0 , λ; h
¯ ) = η2 (x, ρ0 ; h
¯ ) − λ2 η (x, ρ0 ; h
¯) .

(63)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, íàì íåîáõîäèìî ïîëó÷èòü íåòðèâèàëüíûå êîíñòðóêòèâíûå àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèì îöåíêè âåëè÷èí

ηi (x, ρ0 , λ; h
¯ ) = ηi (x, ρ0 , λ1 , λ2 ; h
¯ ) , i = 1, 2
ïðè ¯
h → 0 êàê ôóíêöèé ïàðàìåòðîâ x, λ1 , , λ2 . Îáùàÿ îöåíêà òàêîãî
òèïà, ïîëó÷åíàÿ â ðàáîòå [13], â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå äàåò ñëåäóþùèé ðåçóëüòàò.

Òåîðåìà 15.1.2. Ïóñòü äàíà çàäà÷à Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ Øðå-

29

15.1. Èñõîäíûå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå óðàâíåíèÿ è èõ ñëåäñòâèÿ...

äèíãåðà (5)
2

ρ, ω)
= h¯2 ∆ψ (x, ρ,
ρ, ω)i,

h ∂ψ(x,
∂x
h ω)2 + V (x,
i ρ, ω)h ψ (x,
ε (y−y0 )2
ε2 (z−z0 )2
ε2
ψ (0, ρ, ρ0 , ω) = 2π¯h exp −
exp − 2¯h
,

h

(64)
ãäå x ∈ [0, ∞) , ¯
h  ε  1. Ïóñòü V (x, ρ, ω) åñòü ïîëèíîì îò ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûõ ïåðåìåííûõ ρ = (y, z) , ò. å.

P (2)
(1)
gα1 (x) ρα +
gα2 (x) wα (x) ρα
kα2 k
kαk
P2
= (i1 , i2 ) , kα1 k = r=1 ir , ir = 1, ..., n1 ,
P2
kα2 k = r=1 ir , ir = 1, ..., n2 ,
˙ α (x) ,
ρα = y i1 z i2 , wα2 (x) = W
2

V (ρ, x, ω) =
α1, 2

P

(65)

ãäå {Wα2 (x)} ýòî êîíå÷íûé íàáîð ñòîõàñòè÷åñêè íåçàâèñèìûõ Âèíåðîâñêèõ ïðîöåññîâ, çàäàííûõ íà âåðîÿòíîñòíîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå hΩ, Σ, Pi ,
à òî÷êà îáîçíà÷àåò ïðîèçâîäíóþ ïî ïåðåìåííîé x.
Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç

u (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) = (u1 (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) , u2 (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ))
ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé ëèíåéíîé êðàåâîé
çàäà÷è
d2 uT (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 )
dν 2

= Hess [V1 (λ, ν)] uT (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) +
h 0
iT
Hess [V2 (λ, ν, ω)] uT (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) + V1 (λ, ν) +
h 0
iT
V2 (λ, ν, ω) ,
u (0, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) = ρ0 , u (x, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) = ρ,
(66)

ãäå

λ = (λ1 , λ2 ) ,
0
0 T
uT (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) = (u1 (ν, 
x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ ) , u2 (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ )) ,
0
(ρ, ν) ∂V1 (ρ, ν)
V1 (λ, ν) = ∂V1∂y
,
,
∂z
ρ=λ  

0
ν, ω) ∂V2 (ρ, ν, ω)
V2 (λ, ν, ω) = ∂V2 (ρ,
,
∂y
∂z
ρ=λ

è ãäå Hess [V1 (λ, ν)] ýòî Ãåññèàí îòîáðàæåíèÿ V1 (·, ν)
âû÷èñëåííûé â òî÷êå ρ= λ, ò. å.
h 2
i
1 (ρ, ν)
Hessij [V1 (λ, ν)] = ∂ V∂y∂z
.
ρ=λ

(67)
: R2 → R,

(68)

30

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Hess [V2 (λ, ν, ω)] ýòî Ãåññèàí îòîáðàæåíèÿ V2 (·, ν, ω)
âû÷èñëåííûé â òî÷êå ρ= λ, ò. å.
h 2
i
2 (ρ, ν, ω)
.
Hessij [V2 (λ, ν, ω)] = ∂ V∂y∂z

: R2 → R,

ρ=λ

(69)

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç S (x, λ, ρ, ρ , ω) ñëó÷àéíóþ ôóíêöèþ, çàäàííóþ
ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëîé  

0
x
b du(ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ ) , u (ν, x, ω, λ, ρ, ρ0 ) , ν, ω dν,
S (x, λ, ρ, ρ0 , ω) = ∫ L

0

0

(70)

ãäe
du
dν , 

u, ν, ω =

m
2 

du 2

− Vb (u,
ν, ω) , i
h λ,
0
Vb (u, λ, ν, ω) = uHess [V1 (λ, ν)] uT + V1 (λ, ν, ω) uT +
h 0
i
uHess [V2 (λ, ν, ω)] uT + V2 (λ, ν, ω) uT .
b
L

(71)
0

0

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç ρcr = ρcr (x, λ, ρ, ω) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñèñòåìû
ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé
∂S(x, λ, ρ, ρ0 , ω )
∂y 0

= 0,

∂S(x, λ, ρ, ρ0 , ω )
∂z 0

= 0,
(72)

ò. å.

∂S(x, λ, ρ, ρ0 , ω )

∂y 0

= 0,
ρ0 =ρ0cr

∂S(x, λ, ρ, ρ0 , ω )

∂z 0

= 0,
ρ0 =ρ0cr

ρ0 = (y 0 , z 0 ) . Îáîçíà÷èì äàëåå ÷åðåç

(73)

ρb = ρb (x, ρ0 , λ, ω) = (b
ρ1 (x, ρ0 , λ, ω) , ρb2 (x, ρ0 , λ, ω))
ñëó÷àéíóþ âåêòîð-ôóíêöèþ, êîòîðàÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåøåíèåì ñëåäóþùåé
ñèñòåìû àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé

ρcr (x, λ, ρb, ω) + λ−ρ0 = 0.

(74)
Ïðåäïîëîæèì òàêæå, ÷òî äëÿ äàííûõ çíà÷åíèé ïàðàìåòðîâ x, λ, ρ0 , ω
òî÷êà ρb = ρb (x, ρ0 , λ, ω) íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôîêàëüíîé òî÷êîé íà òðàåêòîðèè,
çàäàííîé ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ðåøåíèåì êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (66). Òîãäà äëÿ
ôóíêöèé ηi (x, ρ0 , λ; h
¯ ) , i = 1, 2, çàäàííûõ ôîðìóëàìè (63), ñïðàâåäëèâà ñëåäóþùàÿ ñèñòåìà íåðàâåíñòâ

lim inf |η1 (x, ρ0 , λ; h
¯ ) − λ1 | ≤ |E (b
ρ1 (x, ρ0 , λ, ω))| ,
h
¯ →0

lim inf |η2 (x, ρ0 , λ; h
¯ ) − λ2 | ≤ |E (b
ρ2 (x, ρ0 , λ, ω))| .
h
¯ →0

(75)

15.2. Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà...

31

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âû÷èñëåíèå àñèìïòîòèêè ïðè ¯h → 0 ÊÌ ñðåäíèõ
âèäà

ηbi (x, ρ0 , ; h
¯) =

ηi (x, ρ0 ;¯
h)
η(x, ρ0 ;¯
h) ,

i = 1, 2

(76)
ñâîäèòñÿ ê ÷èñëåííîìó ðåøåíèþ ñèñòåìû äâóõ òðàíñöåíäåíòíûõ óðàâíåíèé

|E (b
ρ1 (x, ρ0 , λ, ω))| = 0,
|E (b
ρ2 (x, ρ0 , λ, ω))| = 0.

(77)

15.2. Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà.
Àíàëèç ÷èñëåííîé ðåàëèçàöèè ìåòîäà îáîáùåííîãî
êàíîíè÷åñêîãî îïåðàòîðà Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà ïðèìåíèòåëüíî ê
çàäà÷àì ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ÝÌÈ â íåãëàäêîé íåîäíîðîäíîé
èçîòðîïíîé ñðåäå.
Ðàññìîòðèì çàäà÷ó Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà

b
−i¯
h ∂Ψ(t)
∂t + H (t) Ψ (t) = 0,
Ψ (0) = Ψ0 (x) ∈ W22 (Rn ) , x ∈ Rn ,

(78)
ãäå îïåðàòîð-ôóíêöèÿ H (t)
: R × W22 (Rn ) → W22 (Rn ) , H (t) =
h
¯2
− 2m
∆ + V (x, t) èìååò âñþäó ïëîòíóþ îáëàñòü îïðåäåëåíèÿ

D=

\

Dt , Dt = D (H (t))

t∈R+

â Ãèëüáåðòîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå W22 (Rn ) è äëÿ ëþáîãî t ∈ R+ îïåðàòîð
b (t) îáîçíà÷àåò çàìûêàH (t) ñàìîñîïðÿæåí â ñóùåñòâåííîì íà D, H
n
2
¯ ) îáîçíà÷àåò
íèå îïåðàòîðà H (t) â W2 (R ) . Â äàëüíåéøåì G (t, x, y; h
ôóíêöèþ Ãðèíà óðàâíåíèÿ (78). Ëîêàëüíàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà äëÿ ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà G (t, x, y; h
¯ ) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä [2-8]:
r  

∂2S
−n/2
G (t, x, y; h
¯ ) = (2πi¯
h)
¯) ,
∂x∂y exp h¯i S (t, x, y) + ¯hζ (t, x, y; h 
  

2
t
∂X t (τ, x, y)
S (t, x, y) = ∫ m
− V (X t (τ, x, y) , τ ) dτ,
2
∂τ
0

(79)
ãäå t < T [V (x, t)] , x, y ∈ Rn , η (t, y) = kζ (t, x, y; h
¯ )kL2 (Rn ) < C, ÷åðåç X t (τ, x, y) îáîçíà÷åíî ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé êðàåâîé

32

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

çàäà÷è
2

t

t

x, y), τ )
(τ, x, y)
= − ∂V (X (τ,
,
m d X dτ
2
∂X
t
t
X (0, x, y) = y, X (t, x, y) = x.

(80)
Ïðåäïîëîæèì, ÷òî âûïîëíåíû ñëåäóþùèå óñëîâèÿ:
(1) äëÿ âñåõ t, x, y êðàåâàÿ çàäà÷à (80) èìååò òîëüêî êîíå÷íîå ÷èñëî
ðåøåíèé Xkt (τ, x, y) , k = 1, ..., N,
(2) ìíîæåñòâî {Xkt (t, x, y) |k = 1, ..., N } íå ñîäåðæèò ôîêàëüíûõ
òî÷åê. Òîãäà ãëîáàëüíàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà äëÿ ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà G (t, x, y; h
¯ ) âíå îêðåñòíîñòè ôîêàëüíûõ òî÷åê èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä [2-8]:

−n/2 

(2πi¯
h)

N
P

k=1
t


0 

m
2 

G (t, x, y; h
¯) =
r 

i
∂ 2 Sk
∂x∂y exp h¯ Sk (t, x, y) −

iπγk
2  

+ O (¯h) ,

Sk (t, x, y) =  

2
− V (Xkt (τ, x, y) , τ ) dτ,

∂Xkt (τ, x, y)
∂τ

(81)

ãäå γk - èíäåêñ Ìîðñà òðàåêòîðèè Xkt (τ, x, y) .

Ïîëíîå àñèìïòîòè÷åñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå ðåøåíèÿ óðàâíåíèÿ (78), âêëþ÷àÿ îêðåñòíîñòè ôîêàëüíûõ òî÷åê, îáû÷íî äàåòñÿ â ôîðìå êàíîíè÷å1/¯
h
ñêîãî îïåðàòîðà Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà [3-4] KΛn (t) [Ψ0 (x)] , ãäå Λn (t) - Ëàãðàíæåâî ìíîãîîáðàçèå, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåå çàäà÷å Êîøè (78).  òî æå âðåìÿ
íåîáõîäèìî îòìåòèòü, ÷òî âñå îñíîâíûå òåîðåìû òåîðèè êàíîíè÷åñêîãî
îïåðàòîðà äîêàçàíû òîëüêî â ñëó÷àå, êîãäà ïîòåíöèàë V (x, t) óäîâëåòâîðÿåò î÷åíü ñèëüíûì îãðàíè÷åíèÿì òèïà ðåãóëÿðíîñòè [2-8].
 äàëüíåéøåì ìû áóäåì ñèñòåìàòè÷åñêè èñïîëüçîâàòü ñîâðåìåííóþ òåîðèþ íåëèíåéíûõ îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé, ñîçäàííóþ â ðàáîòàõ
Êîëîìáåàó [17-18] âî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå ïðîøëîãî ñòîëåòèÿ è ïîëó÷èâøóþ øèðîêîå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå çà ïîñëåäíèå 20 ëåò â ñàìûõ ðàçëè÷íûõ
îáëàñòÿõ ñîâðåìåííîãî àíàëèçà [19-36].
Ðàññìîòðèì ñëåäóþùóþ îáîáùåííóþ çàäà÷ó Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ
Øðåäèíãåðà [36]    

ε (t)
b ε (t) Ψε (t) = 0,
−i h
¯ ε ∂Ψ∂t
+ H
ε
ε
(Ψε (0))ε = (Ψ0, ε (x))ε , x ∈ Rn ,
ãäå ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] Ψε (t) : R → H è îïåðàòîð Hε (t)

(82)
èìååò ñëåäóþùèé

33

15.2. Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà...

âèä
h
¯2

ε
∆ + Vε (x, t) ,
Hε (t) = − 2m

(83)

ãäå [(Vε (x, t))ε ] ∈ G (Rn ) . Îòìåòèì, ÷òî
n
(Vε (x)) 
ε ∈ G (R ) ⇒

∀ε (ε ∈ (0, 1]) 

sup |gradx Vε (x)| < ∞ .

x∈Rn

(84)

Ëîêàëüíàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà

(Gε (t, x, y; h
¯ ε ))ε
óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà (82) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä :

(2πi ((¯hε )ε ))

−n/2

h
¯ ε )) =
r  (Gε (tε , x, y; 
εh
i
∂ 2 Sε (tε , x, y)
i
exp
(S
(t
,
x,
y))

ε
ε
ε +
∂x∂y

hε )
ε

ε

((¯hε )ε ) ((ζε (tε , x, y; h
¯ ))ε ) ,
(S
(t
,
x,
y))
=
ε
ε
ε 
 
  
2

m ∂Xε (τ ; tε , x, y)
∫ 2
− Vε (Xε (τ ; tε , x, y) , τ ) dτ ,
∂τ
0

ε

(85)

ãäå  

˜
(tε )ε < (T [Vε (x, tε )])ε , x, y ∈ Rn , kζ (tε , x, y; h
¯ )kL2 (Rn ) < (Cε )ε ∈ R
ε

è 

   

(Xε , t)
¨ε
m X
= − ∂Vε∂X
,
ε
ε
ε
(Xε (0, t, x, y))ε = y, (Xε (t; t, x, y))ε = x.

(86)

 ñèëó (84) ìû èìååì 

(Gε (t1 + t2 , x, y; h
¯ ε ))ε = 

∫ Gε (t1 , yb, y; h
¯ ) Gε (t2 , x, yb; h
¯ ) db
y .

Rn

ε

(87)

Ïðåäïîëîæèì òåïåðü, ÷òî âûïîëíåíû ñëåäóþùèå óñëîâèÿ :
(i) äëÿ ëþáîãî ôèêñèðîâàííîãî ε ∈ (0, 1] , t è y êðàåâàÿ çàäà÷à (15.2.9) èìååò ëèøü êîíå÷íîå ÷èñëî ðåøåíèé Xk, ε (τ ; t, x, y) , k =
1, ..., N (ε) ,

(ii) äëÿ çàäàííûõ t, x, y è ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] ìíîæåñòâî
{Xk, ε (t; t, x, y) |k = 1, ..., N (ε)}

34

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

íå ñîäåðæèò ôîêàëüíûõ òî÷åê.
Òîãäà ãëîáàëüíàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà (Gε (t, x, y; h
¯ ε ))ε óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà (82), ïîëó÷åííàÿ ñîãëàñíî
(85) è (87), èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä :

!
r  

∂ 2 Sk, ε (t, x, y)
(Gε (t, x, y; h
¯ ε ))ε = (2πi (¯hε )ε )
×

∂x∂y
k=1
ε
h
ii
iπ(γk, ε )ε
exp (¯hεi ) (Sk, ε (t, x, y))ε −
+
(O

h
))
,
ε ε
2
ε  

 
 
2
t
∂X
(τ,
t,
x,
y)
m
k
(Sk, ε (t, x, y))ε = ∫ 2
− Vε (Xk, ε (τ, t, x, y)) dτ .
∂τ
"

−n/2

NP
(ε)

0

ε

(88)

ãäå γk, ε ýòî èíäåêñ Ìîðñà òðàåêòîðèè Xk, ε (τ ; t, x, y) .

Ôîðìóëà (88) ìîæåò áûòü ïåðåïèñàíà
â ôîðìå
îáîáùåííîãî êàíîíè 

1/¯
h

ε
÷åñêîãî îïåðàòîðà Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà KΛn (t)
[·] , ãäå (Λnε (t))ε - ñèíãóëÿðε
ε
íîå Ëàãðàíæåâî ìíîãîîáðàçèå, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåå îáîáùåííîé çàäà÷å
n
Êîøè (82). Ïóñòü äàëåå (Λε (t))ε , ε ∈ (0, 1] - ñèíãóëÿðíîå Ëàãðàíæåâî
ìíîãîîáðàçèå êëàññà G R2n â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå R2n
x, p è ïóñòü dσε
-ýëåìåíò îáúìà íà Λnε (t) .

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.2.1. Êàíîíè÷åñêèé àòëàñ íà ìíîãîîáðàçèè
(Λnε (t))ε∈(0, 1]
ýòî ëîêàëüíî êîíå÷íîå ñ÷åòíîå êîíå÷íîå ïîêðûòèå, ñîñòîÿùåå èç îãðàíè÷åííûõ ñâÿçíûõ îáëàñòåé (Ωj, ε )ε (ãäå Ωj, ε - ε -÷àò) òàêèõ, ÷òî íà
êàæäîé èç íèõ ìîæíî âûáðàòü êîîðäèíàòû xε , ε ∈ (0, 1] èëè pε , ε ∈
(0, 1] òàê, ÷òî ñìåøàííàÿ êîëëåêöèÿ

(pα, ε , xβ, ε ) ,
α = α1 , ...αs(ε) ,
β = β1 , ..., βn−s(ε)

(89)
íå ñîäåðæèò íè îäíîé äóàëüíîé ïàðû, ò. å. ïàðûâèäà (pj, ε, xj, ε ). Îáîá1/¯
h

ε
ùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà KΛn (t)
[·]
ε

åò

I
(C (Rnx ))

ε

îòîáðàæà-

(t))) , ε ∈ (0, 1] â ìíîæåñòâî
, I = (0, 1] .  


Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.2.2. Îïåðàòîð KΛ1/¯
çàäàåòñÿ ñëåäóþøèì
n (t) [·]
ε
ε
îáðàçîì:
(C∞
0

(Λnε

(1) Ïóñòü ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] ε -÷àò Ωj, ε ÿâëÿåòñÿ íåâûðîæäåííûì, ò. å. ∀ε ∈
(0, 1] îáëàñòü Ωj, ε çàäàíà óðàâíåíèåì pε = pε (xε , t, ε) . Îïðåäåëèì

35

15.2. Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà...

îïåðàòîð  

1/¯
h
KΩj, εε  

1/¯
h
KΩj, εε [ϕε ] (x) êàê
ε

r    

ε
[ϕε ] (x) = dσ
exp
dxε

"
i
h
¯ε

#

!

∫ (pε , dxε ) ϕε (rε )
rε0
P
n
rε = (xε , pε (xε , t, ε)) , (pε , dxε ) = j=1 pj, ε dxj, ε .
ε

ε

,
ε

(90)

b - îáîáùåííûé ïàðàìåòð, ò. å. [(¯
b rε0 ∈ Ωj, ε
Çäåñü (¯
hε )ε ∈ R
hε )ε ] ∈ R,
n
ôèêñèðîâàííàÿ òî÷êà è (ϕε )ε ∈ G (R ) .
(2) Ïóñòü ëîêàëüíûìè êîîðäèíàòàìè â ε -÷àòå Ωj, ε ÿâëÿþòñÿ pε ,
òîãäà îáëàñòü
xε = xε (pε , t, ε). Îïðåäåëèì   

Ωj, ε çàäàíà óðàâíåíèåì
îïåðàòîð

1/¯
h

KΩj, εε (Ωj, ε [ϕε ]) (x)  

−1
F1/¯
h

ε

1/¯

KΩ

ε

êàê 

(Ωj, ε [ϕε ]) 

(x)

=

ε 
q   

j, ε


i
ε exp


(p
,
dx
)

(x
(p
,
t)
,
p
)
ϕ
(r
)
ε
ε
ε
ε
ε
ε
ε
dx
h
¯
, ε, p→x
ε

ε

0

,
ε

rε = (xε (pε , t) , pε , ε) .

(91)

Çäåñü ìû îáîçíà÷èëè 

−1
F1/¯
hε , p→x

[φε ] 

 

(x) =

ε

1
(−2πi¯
hε )n/2

n

∫ d pφε (p) exp
Rn 

i
h
¯

(x, p)  

.
ε

(92)

(3)  ñëó÷àå,  

êîãäà ëîêàëüíûå êîîðäèíàòû èìåþò âèä (pα, ε , xβ, ε ) ,
1/¯

îïåðàòîð KΩj, ε
çàäàåòñÿ î÷åâèäíûì îáðàçîì ïîñðåäñòâîì ôîðìóë
ε

(91) è (92).

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.2.3. Ïóñòü (lε )ε - çàìêíóòûé ïóòü íà (Λnε (t))ε .
Îïðåäåëèì òåïåðü îáîáùåííûé èíäåêñ Ìàñëîâà indM [(lε )ε ] êàê êëàññ:
indM [(lε )ε ] = [(indM (lε ))ε ] . 
H 

Ïóñòü lε (pε , dxε ) = 0 è indM [(lε )ε ] = 0 äëÿ ëþáîãî çàìêíóòîãî
ε

ñèíãóëÿðíîãî ïóòè (lε )ε , ðàñïîëîæåííîãî íà ìíîãîîáðàçèè (Λnε (t))ε . 

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.2.4. Âîçüìåì ðàçáèåíèå åäèíèöû (ej, ε (x))ε j∈N
êëàññà C ∞ íà ìíîãîîáðàçèè (Λnε (t))ε , ò. å.

P
j=1

(ej, ε (x))ε = 1, ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] [supp (ej, ε ) ⊂ Ωj, ε ]

è ôèêñèðîâàííóþ òî÷êó rε0 

ε

(93)
∈ (Ωj0 , ε )ε . Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé

36

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...  

1/¯

îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà KΛn (t)
[·] îïðåäåëåí êàê
ε 

1/¯

KΛn (t)
ε 


[ϕε (r)]
(x) =

ε

P

ε

cjε

j 

1/¯
h, ε
KΩj, ε

iπ M
2 γ, j, ε

exp 

[ej, ε ϕε ] 

! !
(x) , cj, ε =
ε

.
(94)

Çäåñü
- èíäåêñ Ìàñëîâà öåïè ε -÷àòîâ, ñîåäèíÿþùåé ε -÷àòû
Ωj0 , ε è Ωj, ε . Òî÷êà (rε )ε ∈ (Λnε (t))ε íàçûâàåòñÿ ðåãóëÿðíîé òî÷êîé, åñëè îíà èìååò îêðåñòíîñòü, êîòîðàÿ çàäàåòñÿ óðàâíåíèåì pε = pε (x, ε).
Ïóñòü ïåðåñå÷åíèå ε -÷àòîâ Ωi, ε è Ωj, ε íå ïóñòî è ñâÿçíî,ïóñòü (rε )
ε ∈
M
γj,
ε

(Ωi, ε ∩ Ωj, ε )ε - ðåãóëÿðíàÿ òî÷êà è ïóñòü (pα, ε , xβ, ε ) , pα
b, ε , xβb, ε
êîîðäèíàòû â ýòèõ ÷àòàõ. ×èñëî
M
γij,
ε 

ε

-      

∂x (rε )
α (rε )
b
α
= inerdex ∂x∂p

inerdex
∂p
α
ε
b
α
ε

(95)
ýòî îáîáùåííûé èíäåêñ Ìàñëîâà ïàðû ε -÷àòîâ Ωi, ε è Ωj, ε , ε ∈ (0, 1] .
Èíäåêñ Ìàñëîâà öåïè ε - ÷àòîâ îïðåäåëåí î÷åâèäíûì îáðàçîì àääèòèâíî. Îáîáùåííûé èíäåêñ Ìàñëîâà ïóòè îïðåäåëåí àíàëîãè÷íî. Èíäåêñ
Ìàñëîâà ïóòè (mod 4) íà îáîáùåííîì Ëàãðàíæåâîì ìíîãîîáðàçèè ÿâëÿåòñÿ ãîìîòîïè÷åñêèì èíâàðèàíòîì. Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Ìàñëîâà ÿâëÿåòñÿ èíâàðèàíòíûì ïðè âûáîðå êàíîíè÷åñêîãî àòëàñà c ëîêàëüíûìè êîîðäèíàòàìè â ÷àòàõ â ñëåäóþùåì  

ñìûñëå: 
åñëè
1/¯

1/¯

b
äàíû äâà îáîáùåííûõ îïåðàòîðà Ìàñëîâà KΛn (t) è KΛn (t) , òîε
ε
ε
ε
ãäà â àëãåáðå GL2 (Rn )  


1/¯


b 1/¯
KΛn (t)
ϕε − K
ϕ

(x) = (O (¯hε ))ε
Λn (t) ε
ε

ε

ε

(96)

äëÿ ëþáîé îáîáùåííîé ôóíêöèè (ϕε )ε ∈ GL2 (Λnε (t)) .

Ïóñòü (Lε (x, ¯
hε D))ε - äèôôåðåíöèàëüíûé îïåðàòîð
ñ îáîáùåííûì 

âåùåñòâåííûì ñèìâîëîì (Lε (x, p))ε êëàññà G R2n
è
ïóñòü
∀ε ∈ (0, 1] :
x, p
Lε (x, p) = 0 íà Λnε (t). Ïóñòü òàêæå îáîáùåííîå Ëàãðàíæåâî ìíîãîîáðàçèå (Λnε (t))ε è ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèé ýëåìåíò îáúåìà (dσε )ε èíâàðèàíòíû
îòíîñèòåëüíî ñèñòåìû Ãàìèëüòîíà:  

dxε (τ )

dpε (τ )
dτ 

= 

h

ε 

=−
ε

∂Lε (xε (τ ), p)
∂p 

h 

i

∂Lε (x, pε (τ ))
∂x

,

p=pε (τ )

i 

ε
.

x=xε (τ )

ε

(97)

37

15.2. Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà...

Òîãäà ñïðàâåäëèâà ñëåäóþùàÿ îáîáùåííàÿ ôîðìóëà êîììóòàöèè   


1/¯

Lε (x, ¯
hε D) KΛn (t)
ϕε
(x) =
ε  

 ε

hε )ε
1/¯

KΛn (t)
[(<ε ϕε )ε + (O (¯
hε ))ε ] ,
i
ε"
(98)
ε
# !
n
P
∂ 2 Lε (x, p)

1
ϕε ,
(<ε ϕε )ε =
dε τ − 2
∂xj ∂pj
j=1

ε

n
ãäå ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] : ϕε ∈ C∞
0 (Λε (t)) è dε /dε τ - ïðîèçâîäíàÿ âäîëü èíòåãðàëüíûõ êðèâûõ ñèñòåìû Ãàìèëüòîíà (97). Óðàâíåíèå (<ε ϕε )ε = 0
ýòî îáîáùåííîå óðàâíåíèå ïåðåíîñà. Â ñèëó
ôîðìóëû êîì îáîáùåííîé 

1/¯

ìóòàöèè, îáîáùåííàÿ ôóíêöèÿ (uε )ε = KΛn (t) ϕε ÿâëÿåòñÿ àñèìïòîε

òè÷åñêèì ðåøåíèåì Êîëîìáåàó óðàâíåíèÿ (Lε (x, ¯
hε D) uε )ε = 0, åñëè
îáîáùåííàÿ ôóíêöèÿ (ϕε )ε óäîâëåòâîðÿåò îáîáùåííîìó óðàâíåíèþ ïåðåíîñà, ò. å. (<ε ϕε )ε = 0.
 òî æå âðåìÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêîå ïðèìåíåíèå êàíîíè÷åñêîãî îïåðàòîðà Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà è, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ôîðìóëû (81) òðåáóåò ÷èñëåííîãî
èíòåãðèðîâàíèÿ êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (80). ×èñëåííàÿ ðåàëèçàöèÿ ìåòîäà
êàíîíè÷åñêîãî îïåðàòîðà Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà, ïðèìåíèòåëüíî ê çàäà÷àì
ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ÝÌÈ ïðîâåäåíà â ðàáîòàõ [9]-[12].
Ïóñòü êîðîòêîâîëíîâûé ñèãíàë ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ìîíîõðîìàòè÷åñêóþ âîëíó ÷àñòîòû f, êîòîðàÿ ðàñïðîñòðàíÿåòñÿ â èîíîñôåðå ñ ïîêàçàòåëåì ïðåëîìëåíèÿ n (r, f ) . Îòìåòèì, ÷òî â ðàáîòå [9] ðàññìîòðåí
òîëüêî ïðîñòåéøèé ñëó÷àé ãëàäêîé ôóíêöèè n (r, f ) .  òî æå âðåìÿ
â ðåàëüíûõ çàäà÷àõ, ïðåäñòàâëÿþùèõ ïðàêòè÷åñêèé èíòåðåñ, ïîêàçàòåëü ïðåëîìëåíèÿ n (r, f ) íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ãëàäêîé ôóíêöèåé, êàê ýòî òðåáóåòñÿ äëÿ ïðèìåíåíèÿ êëàññè÷åñêîãî ìåòîäà êàíîíè÷åñêîãî îïåðàòîðà
Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà. Äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû èññëåäîâàòü ñëó÷àé íåãëàäêîé ôóíêöèè n (r, f ) äîñòàòî÷íî ðàññìîòðåòü åå ïîäõîäÿùóþ ðåãóëÿðèçàöèþ
(nε (r, f ))ε , ε ∈ (0, 1] , ïîñëå ÷åãî ìîæíî âîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ îáîáùåííûì
êàíîíè÷åñêèì îïåðàòîðà Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà. Çäåñü ìû êðàòêî ðàññìîòðèì îáùèé ñëó÷àé, êîãäà ðåãóëÿðèçîâàííûé ïîêàçàòåëü ïðåëîìëåíèÿ
ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé
îáîáùåííóþ ôóíêöèþ [(nε (r, f ))ε ] èç àëãåáðû Êî
ëîìáåàó G R3 [17]-[20]. Ïóñòü â îáëàñòè, îïðåäåëåííîé íåðàâåíñòâîì
∀ε (ε ∈ (0, 1]) [nε (r, f ) 6= 0] , âûïîëíåíî ñëåäóþùåå óñëîâèå
−1

Λ−1
ε = (k0 aε )

∼ 

|∇r nε (r, f )|
nε (r, f ) 

ε

c
2πf 

1, k0 = 

c
2πf 

−1

,

(99)
ãäå c-ñêîðîñòü ñâåòà â âàêóóìå, aε -ìàñøòàáíûé ïàðàìåòð. Ïðîöåññ ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ðàäèîâîëí â èîíîñôåðå îïèñûâàåòñÿ óðàâíåíèåì Ãåëüìãîëüöà

([∆ + k0 nε (r, f )] Uε (r))ε = 0, r= {x, y, z} .

38

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ðèñ. 1: Òî÷å÷íûé èñòî÷íèê ñ ðàäèàöèîííîé äèàãðàììîé (Dε (α, β))ε
Ðåøåíèå ñòðîèëîñü äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ òî÷å÷íîãî èñòî÷íèêà ñ ðàäèàöèîííîé äèàãðàììîé (Dε (α, β))ε , ãäå α è β -êîîðäèíàòû íà ñôåðå σ0 ðàäèóñà R0 (Ðèñ. 1), â öåíòðå êîòîðîé ðàñïîëîæåí òî÷å÷íûé èñòî÷íèê.
Âåëè÷èíà R0 âûáèðàåòñÿ òàê, ÷òîáû áûëî âûïîëíåíî ñëåäóþùåå ðàâåíñòâî

[(Uε )ε ]|σ0 = R0−1 [(Dε (α, β))ε ] exp (ikR0 ) , k = k0 n0 .

(100)

 ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ðàáîòîé [9] âîçüìåì ðåãóëÿðèçîâàííûé ïîêàçàòåëü
ïðåëîìëåíèÿ nε (r, f ) â âèäå

nε (r, f ) =

1−f02 (r,ε)
f [f +2πiνeff (r,ε)] .

(101)

Îáîáùåííàÿ ñèñòåìà Ãàìèëüòîíà â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå èìååò
ñëåäóþùèé âèä 
0 
0  0   

  

dp
drε
=
pε , dτε
= 21 ∇r0ε n2ε , n2ε = Ren2ε ε ,

ε
ε  ε 
ε 

ε
0
0
0

−1

= aε R0 pε
, pε
=
ε τ =τ0

ε τ =τ0

{sin α, cos α sin β, cos α cos β} ,

ε τ =τ0

(102)

39

15.2. Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà...

ãäå 

0 
 0 
0  

0
rε = rε (α, β, τ ) aε , pε = pε (α, β, τ ) ,
ε
ε
o
n 0ε
n 0 0 0 o ε0
0
0
0
rε = xε , yε , zε , pε = px, ε , py, ε , pz, ε .
(103)
Îáîçíà÷èì 

 

∂ x0ε , yε0 , zε0

(Jε )ε = det ∂(τ, α, β)
.
ε

(104)

Ïóñòü â íåêîòîðîé îáëàñòè G ⊂ R3 âûïîëíåíî íåðàâåíñòâî 


J 

ε 


= det

0

0

0

px, ε , yε , zε
∂(τ, α, β) 



6= 0.

ε

(105)

Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêîå ðåøåíèå çàäà÷è Êîëîìáåàó èìååò âèä  

0  
1/2 

ε
Uε rε
= iΛ
exp − iπ

2 Ind ([(lε )ε ]) ×
ε 

−1/2 
i 0 
h 


0
0
b
∫ ϕε J
exp iΛε Sbε + px, ε xε dpx, ε .
ε
−∞

ε

(106)

Çäåñü 

Sbε 

ε 

0 
00  
0 0 
 0 
0
0
= Sε + Sε
− xε p xε , y ε , z ε
, Sε =
ε 
ε
ε
ε

0
0
0
τ pxε ,, yε , zε

 

00

Sε 

ε

=

n2ε dτ  ,

0
0

0

0

τ px ,, yε ,, zε


0

ε 

Imn2ε dτ  , (ϕε )ε |α0 =

((Dε (α, β))ε ) U0 |cos α|

ε
1/2

.
(107)

Ñïðàâåäëèâî ñëåäóþùåå ðàâåíñòâî




0
0 

pxε
dp

x
ε
0
d  yε  =  0  = det

0
0

ε
ε

0

0

0

px, ε , yε , zε
∂(τ, α, β) 



×d

ε

τ
α
β

!
.
(108)

40

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Òîãäà â ñèëó (105) ñïðàâåäëèâû ñëåäóþùèå ðàâåíñòâà

0 0      

−1 
∂ yε , z ε
0

dpx, ε ,
J
det
∂(α, β)

ε
ε
ε 
0 0   
  

0 
−1
∂ yε , z ε

dpx, ε ,
dα = − J
det
∂(τ, β)
ε
0 0   ε  
 ε  

−1
∂ yε , z ε
0

dβ = J
det
dpx, ε .
∂(τ, α)
dτ = 

ε

ε

ε

(109)

0

Âûïîëíèâ â (106) çàìåíó ïåðåìåííîé px, ε → α ìû ïîëó÷èì
0

Uε rε
− 

iΛε 1/2

1/2 

b

sign b
Jε 

0
0
0
0
ε y =y , z =z
ε
0
0 ε 

exp − iπ
2 Ind (lε )ε
0 

=
√  

Dε (α, β) |U0 | R0 |cos α|
×
0
0
[αN , αB ] det ∂ yε , zε ∂(τ, β)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
z0 , y0 , z0 + px, ε α, y0 , z0 xε

0

bε px α, y0 ,
exp iΛε S     

dα 

0

dzε
dβ 

0

dzε
dβ 

2 2
1 ∂ nε ∂zε
2 ∂zε0 2 dβ

(111) 

0
= − yε
ε  

iΛε 1/2
2π 

0 

Uε rε 

exp − iπ
2 Ind [(lε )ε ]

ε

(112)

ε yε0 =y00 , zε0 =z00

.

0

=
ε 

ε

(110)

Ñïðàâåäëèâû ñëåäóþùèå ðàâåíñòâà
d
dτ 


[αN , αB ]

=

Dε (α, β) |U0 | R0

p

0
y0

|

|cos α|

|p0y, ε

× 

  

0
0 

0   1/2


∂ px, ε , yε0
det ∂ px, ε , yε sign

×
det

∂(τ, α)
∂(τ, α)
ε
h 
0 ε
i  

0
0
0
exp iΛε Sbε px (α) , y0 , 0 + px, ε (α) xε dα .
ε 

(Iε (η, a, b, Λε ))ε =

(113) 

b
∫ gε (η, t) exp [iΛε Φε (η, t)] dt
a

ε

(114)

Äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ, êîãäà a = −∞, b = ∞, ñïðàâåäëèâî àñèìïòîòè÷åñêîå

41

15.2. Îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà...

ðàçëîæåíèå ïðè Λε → ∞ 

(I
ε (η, −∞, ∞, Λε ))ε ' 

N
AN
P
(Xε )
lk, ε ∂I
exp [iΛε Φ0, ε (η)] l1, ε I AN (Xε ) +
,
∂Xε, k−1
k=2

ε

(115)
ãäå êîýôôèöèåíòû lk, ε = lk, ε (η, Λε ) è àðãóìåíòû Xε, k = Xε, k (η, Λε )
- ýòî ìåäëåííî ìåíÿþùèåñÿ ôóíêöèè ïåðåìåííîé η, à I AN (Xε ) - ñïåöèàëüíûå ôóíêöèè âîëíîâûõ êàòàñòðîô (ñ.â.ê.), îïèñûâàþùèå êàñïîèäíûå òèïû ôîêóñèðîâîê âîëíîâûõ ïîëåé [10], [11], ëèáî ñ.â.ê. äðóãèõ
òèïîâ, ñâÿçàííûå ñ òèïîì ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåé ôîêóñèðîâêè. Èñïîëüçîâàíèþ ñòàíäàðòíûõ ïðÿìûõ ìåòîäîâ ÷èñëåííîãî èíòåãðèðîâàíèÿ äëÿ
ðàñ÷åòà ñ.â.ê. ïðåïÿòñòâóåò ñèëüíàÿ îñöèëëÿöèÿ èíòåãðàíòû â îáëàñòè
èíòåãðèðîâàíèÿ.  ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ îñöèëëèðóþùåå ÿäðî ìîæíî ñâåñòè ê
ýêñïîíåíöèàëüíî çàòóõàþùåìó ïðè ïåðåõîäå îò äåéñòâèòåëüíûõ îáëàñòåé èíòåãðèðîâàíèÿ â êîìïëåêñíóþ ãèïåðïëîñêîñòü. Äëÿ âû÷èñëåíèÿ
ñ.â.ê. íåêîòîðûõ òèïîâ òàêîé ïðèåì áûë ïðåäëîæåí â [10], [11]. Äîïîëíèòåëüíûå òðóäíîñòè âîçíèêàþò èç òîãî, ÷òî â ïðàêòè÷åñêèõ çàäà÷àõ
ôóíêöèè gε (η, t) è Φε (η, t), êàê ïðàâèëî, çàäàííû ÷èñëåííî.  ðàáîòå
[9] äëÿ âû÷èñëåíèÿ êëàññè÷åñêîãî èíòåãðàëà ñ áûñòðî îñöèëëèðóþùåé
ôàçîé
b

I (η, a, b, Λε ) = ∫ g (η, t) exp [iΛΦ (η, t)] dt

(116)

a

ïðèìåíÿëàñü ñïëàéí àïïðîêñèìàöèÿ àìïëèòóäû g (η, t) è ôàçû Φ (η, t)
ïîëèíîìèàëüíûìè ñïëàéíàìè ïîðÿäêà NS . Èíòåãðàë (116) ïîñëå âûøåóêàçàííîé àïïðîêñèìàöèè ìîæíî ïðåäñòàâèòü â ñëåäóþùåì âèäå
[9]:

( I (η, a, b, Λ) '
N 

−(l+1)/NS  

PS g
l

Spl, j Λε SpΦ
(−i)
exp iΛSpΦ
0, j
0, j
j=1
l=0 

h
i 
N
PS
BN
k
Il, νjS X (1) −
exp iΛSpΦ

k, j j
k=1  

l  

io
P
BNS
l
l−m
(2)
(l−m)/NS × Im,
(i)
∆l−m
Λ SpΦ
.
νj X
0,
j
j
m
m=0
m−1
P

Spgl, j

(117)

Çäåñü
è
ýòî êîýôôèöèåíòû ïîëèíîìèàëüíûõ ñïëàéíîâ
NS
(η, t) è g{tj }, M (η, t) äëÿ ôàçû Φ (η, t) è äëÿ àìïëèòóäû g (η, t)

SpΦ
k, j

S
ΦN
{tj }, M

42

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ãäå t ∈ [a, b] , ∆j = tJ+1 − tj è òàêèõ, ÷òî
S
Φ (η, t) ' ΦN
{tj }, M (η, t) =

NS
g (η, t) ' g{t
(η, t) =
j }, M

N
PS

h

l=0
N
PS h
l=0

i
l
SpΦ
(η)
(t − tj ) , tj ≤ t ≤ tj+1 ,
l, j

i
l
Spgl, j (η) (t − tj ) , tj ≤ t ≤ tj+1 ,

j = 1, 2, ..., M − 1,
(118)

è ãäå

Φ −k/NS 1−k/N 

(1)
Φ
S

Λ
,
νj = sign SpΦ
NS , j , Xk = Sp
k, j SpNS , j
S −k
Φ −k/NS 1−k/N NP
NS − n
NS −k−n
S
= SpNS , j
Λ
SpΦ
,
NS −n, j ∆
k
n=0
h  

i

PN −1
l
BN
N
k
Im,
.
νj (X) = ∫ (iξ) exp i νj ξ +
k=1 Xk ξ

(1)

Xk

0

(119)

Äëÿ èíòåãðàëà Êîëîìáåàó âèäà (114) ñïðàâåäëèâî àíàëîãè÷íîå ïðåäñòàâëåíèå

mε −1

P 

exp iΛε SpΦ
0, ε, j 

((Iε (η, a, b, Λε ))ε =
NS, ε

P Φ

SpN

S , ε, j

(−i)l

l=0

j=1  

−(l+1)/NS

Λε SpΦ
, ε, j

BN

Il, ν S

j, ε

NS, ε 

P

Xε(1) − 

k
exp iΛε SpΦ
k, ε, j ∆j

l 
P

k=1  

l
m

(120)

×

m=0

∆l−m
Λε SpΦ
0, ε,
j

(i)l−m

j 

(l−mε )/NS, ε

BN

ε
Im, νS,
Xε(2)
j, ε 

io

.
ε    

g
Çäåñü SpΦ
è
Sp
ýòî êîýôôèöèåíòû ïîëèíîìèàëüíûõ
k, ε, j
l, ε, j
ε  

ε 

NS
NS
ñïëàéíîâ Φ{t
(η,
t,
ε)
è
g
(η,
t,
ε)
äëÿ ôàçû (Φε (η, t))ε
{tj }, M
j }, M
ε

ε

è äëÿ àìïëèòóäû (gε (η, t))ε ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ãäå t ∈ [a, b] è òàêèõ, ÷òî  

N ε
(Φε (η, t))ε ' Φ{tS,
(η,
t)
=
},
ε,
M
j
ε
!
i
NP
S, ε h
l
SpΦ
, tj ≤ t ≤ tj+1 ,
l, ε, j (η) (t − tj )
l=0
ε  

N ε
(η,
t)
=
(gε (η, t))ε ' g{tS,
j }, ε, M
ε
!
h
i
NP
S.ε
l
Spgl, ε, j (η) (t − tj )
, tj ≤ t ≤ tj+1 ,
l=0

ε

j = 1, 2, ..., Mε − 1,

(121)

43

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà...

è ãäå 

ε
(νj, ε )ε = sign SpΦ
N  

SpΦ
k, ε, j

−k/NS 1−k/N
S

Λε
S , ε, j   

Φ
SpN

B

Im,Nνεj, ε (X)

=

ε

Φ
SpN

S

,j

S , ε, j
−k/NS

(1)
Xk, ε
NS, ε −k

P 

,

(1)

Xk, ε 

ε
1−k/NS, ε
Λε

= 

,
ε 

ε

=

NS − n
k  

NS, ε −k−n
SpΦ
NS −n, ε, j ∆

n=0 

∫ dξ (iξ)l exp i νj, ε ξ Nε +

PNε −1

0

k=1

Xk, ε ξ

,
ε  

k

.
ε

(122)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, àëãîðèòì, ïðåäëîæåííûé â ðàáîòå [9], ïðèìåíèì
è 

â ñëó÷àå íåãëàäêîé îáîáùåííîé ôóíêöèè (nε (r, f ))ε ∈ G R3 .

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ñðåäíèõ
çíà÷åíèé íàáëþäàåìûõ â êëàññè÷åñêîé êâàíòîâîé ìåõàíèêå.
Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ äåòåðìèíèðîâàííûì ïîòåíöèàëîì.
 ðàáîòå [13] ïðåäëîæåí ýôôåêòèâíûé ïðÿìîé ìåòîä âû÷èñëåíèÿ
ñðåäíèõ çíà÷åíèé ÊÌ íàáëþäàåìûõ è, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ñðåäíåãî çíà÷åíèÿ
îïåðàòîðà êîîðäèíàòû,
∫ xi |Ψ(x, t, x0 ;¯
h)|2 d x

hi, t, x0 ; h
¯i =

Rn

∫ |Ψ(x, t, x0 ;¯
h)|2 d x

, i = 1, ..., n,

Rn

(123)
íå òðåáóþùèé ÷èñëåííîãî èíòåãðèðîâàíèÿ äâóõòî÷å÷íîé êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (80) è âû÷èñëåíèÿ èíòåãðàëîâ îò áûñòðî îñöèëëèðóþøèõ ôóíêöèé.
Ðåøåíèå çàäà÷è Êîøè (78) ïðè ñèëüíûõ óñëîâèÿõ ðåãóëÿðíîñòè
ïîòåíöèàëà V (x, t), äåòàëüíî ðàññìîòðåííûõ â ðàáîòàõ [14], [15], [16],
ìîæíî çàïèñàòü â çàìêíóòîé ôîðìå â âèäå Ôåéíìàíîâñêîãî èíòåãðàëà
ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì

Ψ (x, t; h
¯) =

Ψ0 (q (0)) exp 

i

q(t)=x
t

S [q˙ (τ ) , q (τ ) , t] = ∫
0 

m
2

h
¯S

[q˙ (τ ) , q (τ ) , t]

n
Q

D [qi (τ )] ,

i=1 

q˙ 2 (τ ) − V (q (τ ) , τ ) dτ.
(124)

 ðàáîòå [13] êëàññè÷åñêàÿ ôîðìóëà (124) ðàñïðîñòðàíåíà íà îáùèé ñëó÷àé, êîãäà ïîòåíöèàë V (x) ÿâëÿåòñÿ ãëàäêîé íåîãðàíè÷åííîé

44

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ôóíêöèåé ïðîèçâîëíî ðàñòóùåé íà áåñêîíå÷íîñòè è èìååò òî÷å÷íûå
îñîáåííîñòè ïðîèçâîëüíîãî ïîðÿäêà. Îñíîâíàÿ èäåÿ ñîñòîèò â àïïðîêñèìàöèè òàêîãî ñèíãóëÿðíîãî ïîòåíöèàëà V (x) ïîäõîäÿùåé íåëèíåéíîé îáîáùåííîé ôóíêöèåé

(Vε (x))ε ∈ G (Rn ) ,
ãäå G (Rn ) -àëãåáðà Êîëîìáåàó íåëèíåéíûõ îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé [1726]. Ñ öåëüþ ïîëíîòû èçëîæåíèÿ ìû ïðèâåäåì îñíîâíûå îïðåäåëåíèÿ.
Ìû èñïîëüçóåì ñòàíäàðòíîå ñîêðàùåíèå ∂ α = ∂xα11 ...∂xαnn

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.3.1. Ïóñòü E (Rn ) = (C ∞ (Rn ))I , I = (0, 1] ,
n  


⊂ n
EM (Rn ) = (uε )ε ∈ E (Rn ) | ∀K K6=
R
∀α (α ∈ Nn0 ) ∃p (p ∈ N)  

sup |∂ α uε (x)| = O(ε−p ) 5A; 8 ε → 0 ,
x∈K

n  



N (Rn ) = (uε )ε | ∀K K6=
M , ∀α (α ∈ Nn0 ) ∀q (q ∈ N ) 

sup |∂ α uε (x)| = O(εq ) 5A; 8 ε → 0 

.

x∈K

G (Rn ) = EM (Rn ) /N(Rn ).

(125)

Ýëåìåíòû ìíîæåñòâà EM (Rn ) íàçûâàþòñÿ îãðàíè÷åííûìè ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòÿìè, à ýëåìåíòû ìíîæåñòâà N (Rn ) íàçûâàþòñÿ ïðèíåáðåæèìûìè ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòÿìè. EM (Rn ) ýòî äèôôåðåíöèàëüíàÿ
àëãåáðà ñ ïîòî÷å÷íî çàäàííûìè îïåðàöèÿìè. Îòìåòèì, ÷òî EM (Rn )
ýòî ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ ïîäàëãåáðà â E (Rn ) , äëÿ êîòîðîé ïîäàëãåáðà N(Rn )
åñòü äèôôåðåíöèàëüíûé èäåàë. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, G (Rn ) - êîììóòàòèâíàÿ è àññîöèàòèâíàÿ äèôôåðåíöèàëüíàÿ àëãåáðà.
Ýëåìåíòû àëãåáðû G (Rn ) ìû îáîçíà÷àåì [(Xε )ε ] èëè cl {(Xε )ε } ,
ãäå (Xε (t))ε - ïðåäñòàâèòåëü ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî êëàññà ýêâèâàëåíòíîñòè.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.3.2. Ïóñòü K = R ëèáî K = C . Îïðåäåëèì
ìíîæåñòâà Ec (K) è Nc (K) : 

Ec (K) = (rε )ε ∈ KI |∃n (n ∈ N) [|rε | = O (ε−n ) 5A; 8 ε → 0] , 

Nc (K) = (rε )ε ∈ KI |∀m (m ∈ N) [|rε | = O (εm ) 5A; 8 ε → 0] ,
b = Ec (K) /Nc (K) .
K

(126)

45

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà...

b = Ec (R) /Nc (R) íàçûâàåòñÿ êîëüöîì îáîáùåííûõ âåÊîëüöî R
b = Ec (C) /Nc (C) íàçûâàåòñÿ êîëüöîì
øåñòâåííûõ ÷èñåë, à êîëüöî C
îáîáùåííûõ êîìïëåêñíûõ ÷èñåë [17].
Ïóñòü S (Rn ) - ïðîñòðàíñòâî Øâàðöà îñíîâíûõ ôóíêöèé, ò. å. áåñêîíå÷íî ãëàäêèõ íà Rn ôóíêöèé, óáûâàþùèõ ïðè |x| → ∞ áûñò−1
ðåå ëþáîé ñòåïåíè |x| âìåñòå ñî âñåìè ñâîèìè ïðîèçâîäíûìè. Åñëè
V (x) - ïîëèíîì ñòåïåíè r ≥ 2, òî îí êàíîíè÷åñêèì îáðàçîì îïðåäåëÿåò îáîáùåííóþ ôóíêöèþ óìåðåííîãî ðîñòà V 0 (g) ∈ S 0 (Rn ) , V 0 :
S (Rn ) → R ñîãëàñíî ôîðìóëå: V 0 (g) = ∫ Rn V (x) g (x) dx. Ïóñòü òåïåðü Vε (x) , ε ∈ (0, 1] îáîçíà÷àåò ïðîèçâîëüíóþ ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü
îñíîâíûõ ôóíêöèé, äëÿ êîòîðîé âûïîëíåíî ðàâåíñòâî
0

V 0 (g) = lim Vε (g) = lim ∫ Rn Vε (x) g (x) dx,
ε→0

ε→0

êîòîðîå ìû çàïèøåì â ñèìâîëè÷åñêîé ôîðìå êàê V =S 0 (Rn ) (Vε (x))ε . Â
b -çíà÷íûé ôóíêýòîì ñëó÷àå êàíîíè÷åñêèì îáðàçîì òàêæå îïðåäåëåí R  

0
0
0
(g)
=R
öèîíàë V (g) ñîãëàñíî ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëå: V (g) =R
V
ε
b
b
b
b
R
R
ε
(∫ Rn Vε (x) g (x) dx)ε . Òàêèì îáðàçîì, â ñëó÷àå ñèíãóëÿðíîãî ïîòåíöèàëà V (x) , òàêîãî ÷òî V =S 0 (Rn ) (Vε (x))ε , ðåøåíèå çàäà÷è Êîøè
(78) åñòåñòâåííî ñòðîèòü â êëàññå íåëèíåéíûõ îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé
èç àëãåáðû G (Rn ) èëè êàêîé ëèáî ïîäõîäÿùåé àëãåáðû ïîäîáíîãî òèïà. Ïîñêîëüêó äëÿ ε ∈ (0, 1] ïîòåíöèàë Vε (x) ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåãóëÿðíîé
ôóíêöèåé, äëÿ ïîñòðîåíèÿ îáîáùåííûõ ðåøåíèé ýòîãî òèïà ïðèìåíèìà êëàññè÷åñêàÿ ôîðìóëà Ôåéíìàíà (124).

Òåîðåìà 15.3.1. [13]. Ïóñòü H -ñåïàðàáåëüíîå Ãèëüáåðòîâî ïðîñòðàíñòâî ñî ñêàëÿðíûì ïðîèçâåäåíèåì h·, ·i . Ðàññìîòðèì ñëåäóþùóþ
îáîáùåííóþ çàäà÷ó Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà    

ε (t)
b ε (t) Ψε (t) = 0,
+ H
−i h
¯ ε ∂Ψ∂t
ε

ε

(Ψε (0))ε = (Ψ0, ε (x))ε , x ∈ Rn ,
ãäå ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] Ψε (t) : R → H è îïåðàòîð Hε (t)
âèä

(127)
èìååò ñëåäóþùèé

h
¯2

ε
Hε (t) = − 2m
∆ + Vε (x, t) .

hε ≤ O ε
¯
óñëîâèÿ:

k 

(128)

, k ∈ N åñëè ε → 0. Ïóñòü òàêæå âûïîëíåíû ñëåäóþùèå

(i) cl {(Vε (x, ·))ε } ∈ G (Rn ) ,

46

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

(ii) ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] è ∀t ∈ R+ îïåðàòîð Hε (t) ñàìîñîïðÿæåí
â ñóùåT
ñòâåííîì íà ïëîòíîì â H ìíîæåñòâå âåêòîðîâ Dε = t∈R+ Dt, ε , ãäå
Dt, ε = D (Hε (t)),

b ε (t) ýòî çàìûêàíèå îïåðàòîðà Hε (t) â
(iii) ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] îïåðàòîð H
H, 

(iv) cl (Ψ0, ε (x))ε ∈ G (Rn ) .
Òîãäà çàäà÷à Êîøè (127) èìååò åäèíñòâåííîå îáîáùåííîå ðåøåíèå
Êîëîìáåàó (Ψε (x, t; h
¯ ε ))ε , è ýòî ðåøåíèå ìîæíî çàïèñàòü â çàìêíóòîé
ôîðìå â âèäå îáîáùåííîãî Ôåéíìàíîâñêîãî èíòåãðàëà ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì

(Ψε (x, t; h
¯ ε ))ε =

Ψ0, ε (q (0)) exp

n

q(t)=x

i
h
¯ ε Sε

t

Sε [q˙ (τ ) , q (τ ) , t] = ∫

!
o Q
n
[q˙ (τ ) , q (τ ) , t]
D [qi (τ )] ,
i=1 

m
2

0

ε 

q˙ 2 (τ ) − Vε (q (τ ) , τ ) dτ.
(129)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.3.3. Îáîáùåííîå ðåøåíèå (Ψε (x, t; h
¯ ε ))ε (129)
íàçûâàåòñÿ îáîáùåííûì ðåøåíèåì â ñìûñëå íåëèíåéíûõ îáîáùåííûõ
ôóíêöèé èëè ðåøåíèåì Êîëîìáåàó. Êàê ïîêàçàíî â ðàáîòå [34], äëÿ
äîñòàòî÷íî ðåãóëÿðíûõ ïðè ε = 0 îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé (Vε (x, t))ε ,
îáîáùåííîå ðåøåíèå (Ψε (x, t; h
¯ ε ))ε ñîâïàäàåò ñ êëàññè÷åñêèì ðåøåíèåì óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà (78).
Çàìå÷àíèå 15.3.1. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ 
ñèíãóëÿðíîãî ïî
l

òåíöèàëà (Vε (x, t))ε , òàêîãî, ÷òî V0 (x, t) = O kxk

, l ≥ 3, îáîáùåí-

íîå ðåøåíèå (Ψε (x, t; h
¯ ε ))ε ìîæåò èìåòü ðàçðûâû äëÿ ñêîëü óãîäíî
ãëàäêèõ íà÷àëüíûõ äàííûõ.

Òåîðåìà 15.3.2. Ðàññìîòðèì îáîáùåííóþ çàäà÷ó Êîøè (127) ñ
p

íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (Ψ0, ε (x))ε =

Ψε (x, x0 ) =

Ψε (x, x0 )

ηεn/2
n/2

(2π)

n/2
h
¯ε

ε

, ãäå  

2
0)
exp − ηε (x−x
,
h
¯ε

0<¯
hε  ηε  1, ¯hε → 0 5A; 8 ε → 0.

(130)

Ïóñòü Vε (x, t)|ε=0 = V (x, t) : R → R è ïðè ëþáîì ôèêñèðîâàííîì t ∈ R+ , ôóíêöèÿ V (x, t) åñòü ïîëèíîì îò ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûõ
n

47

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà...

ïåðåìåííûõ x = (x1 , ...xn ) , ò. å.

V (x, t) =

P

gα (t) xα , α = (i1 , ..., in ) , kαk =

P

kαk≤n

r=1 ir ,

i = 1, ..., n,

xα = xi11 xi22 ...xinn .

(131)

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç u (τ, t, λ, x) = (u1 (τ, t, λ, x) , ..., un (τ, t, λ, x)) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé ëèíåéíîé êðàåâîé çàäà÷è

d2 uT (τ, t, λ, x)
dτ 2

h 0
iT
= Hess [V (λ, τ )] uT (τ, t, λ, x) + V (λ, τ ) ,

u (0, t, λ, x, y) = y, u (t, t, λ, x) = x,
(132)

ãäå

λ = (λ1 , ..., λn ) , uT (τ, t, λ, x, y) =
T
(u1 (τ, t, λ, x, y) , ..., un (τ, t, λ, x, y)) ,  

0
(x, τ )
∂V (x, τ )
V (λ, τ ) = ∂V∂x
,
...,
∂xn
1

(133)

x=λ

è Hess [V (λ, τ )] ýòî Ãåññèàí îòîáðàæåíèÿ V (·, τ )
ëåííûé â òî÷êå x= λ, ò. å.

Hessij [V (λ, τ )] =

h

∂ 2 V (x, τ )
∂xi ∂xj

: Rn → R, âû÷èñ-

i

.
x=λ

(134)

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç S (t, λ, x, y) ôóíêöèþ, çàäàííóþ ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëîé

t

b (u˙ (τ, t, λ, x, y) , u (τ, t, λ, x, y) , τ ) dτ,
S (t, λ, x, y) = ∫ L
0

(135)

48

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ãäe

b (u˙ (τ, t, λ, x, y) , u (τ, t, λ, x, y) , τ ) =
L
2
m u˙ (τ, t,2λ, x, y) − Vb (u (τ, t, λ, x, y) , τ ) ,
Vb (u (τ, t, λ, x, y) , τ ) =

(136)

u (τ, t, λ, x,
Hessi [V (λ, τ )] uT (τ, t, λ, x, y) +
h y)
0
V (λ, τ ) uT (τ, t, λ, x, y) .
Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç ycr = ycr (t, λ, x) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñèñòåìû
ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé

h

∂S(t, λ, x, y)
∂yi

i

= 0.

y=ycr

i = 1, ..., n.
(137)

b=u
b (t, x0 , λ) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñèñòåÎáîçíà÷èì äàëåå ÷åðåç x
ìû ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé
b) + λ − x0 = 0.
ycr (t, λ, x

(138)

Ïðåäïîëîæèì òàêæå, ÷òî äëÿ äàííûõ çíà÷åíèé ïàðàìåòðîâ t, λ,
b = u
b (t, x0 , λ) íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôîêàëüíîé òî÷êîé íà òðàåêòîðèè,
òî÷êà x
çàäàííîé ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ðåøåíèåì êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (132). Òîãäà äëÿ
ÊÌ ñðåäíåãî (123) ñïðàâåäëèâî ñëåäóþùåå íåðàâåíñòâî

lim inf |hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε i − λi | ≤ |b
ui (t, x0 , λ)| , i = 1, ..., n.

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

(139)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âû÷èñëåíèå êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêîé òðàåêòîðèè ñâîäèòñÿ ê ÷èñëåííîìó ðåøåíèþ ñèñòåìû òðàíñöåíäåíòíûõ óðàâíåíèé âèäà

u
bi (t, x0 , λ) = 0,

(140)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.3.2. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî â íåðàâåíñòâå (139) íèæíèé

ïðåäåë

lim

inf

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

|hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε i − λi |

49

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà...

â îáøåì ñëó÷àå íåëüçÿ çàìåíèòü ïðîñòûì ïðåäåëîì

lim

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

|hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε i − λi | .

Âñëåäñòâèå ýòîãî ñèñòåìà (140) â îáøåì ñëó÷àå èìååò ìíîæåñòâî ðåøåíèé. Êàê ñëåäñòâèå, äàæå äëÿ êëàññè÷åñêèõ ðåøåíèé óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà (78) êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ( ¯h → 0 ) ÊÌ ñðåäíèõ
(123) íå îáëàäàåò ñâîéñòâîì åäèíñòâåííîñòè.
 êà÷åñòâå ïðèìåðà, ìû ðàññìîòðèì êâàíòîâûé àíãàðìîíè÷åñêèé
îñöèëëÿòîð, ñ êóáè÷åñêèì ïîòåíöèàëîì

V (x, t) = ax3 +

mω 2 2
2 x

− bx − [A sin (Ωt)] x.
(141)

Êëàññè÷åñêèé Ëàãðàíæèàí â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

L (x,
˙ x) =

m 2
˙
2x

mω 2 2
2 x

− ax3 + bx + [A sin (Ωt)] x.
(142)

Ïðåäïîëîæèì, ÷òî äëÿ çàäàííûõ çíà÷åíèé ïàðàìåòðîâ ω, a, λ âûïîëíÿåòñÿ íåðàâåíñòâî σ1 (λ) = ω 2 /2 + 3aλ/m ≥ 0, òîãäà êâàäðàòè÷b (u˙ (τ, t, y, x) , u (τ, t, y, x) , τ ) , çàäàííàÿ ôîðìóëîé (136),
íàÿ ôîðìà L
â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå ïðèìåò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

b (u,
L
˙ u) =

m 2
˙
2u

m$12 (λ) 2
u
2

q
p
$1 (λ) = 2σ1 (λ) = 2

+ g (λ, t) u,
ω2
2

+

3aλ
m 

, 

g1 (λ, t) = − mω 2 λ + 3aλ2 − b − A sin (Ωt) =
− (d1 (λ) − A sin (Ωt)) ,
d1 (λ) = mω 2 λ + 3aλ2 − b.

(143)

Ôóíêöèÿ S (t, λ, x, y), çàäàííàÿ ôîðìóëîé (135), â ðàññìàòðèâàå-

50

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ìîì ñëó÷àå, èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

S (t, λ, x, y) =
m$1
2 sin $1 t

h 

(cos $1 t) y 2 + x2 − 2xy +

2x
m$1

∫ t0 g1 (λ, τ ) sin ($1 τ ) dτ +

2y
+ m$
∫ t0 g1 (λ, τ ) sin $1 (t − τ ) dτ −
1 

− m22$2 ∫ t0 ∫ τ0 g1 (λ, τ ) g1 (λ, s) sin $1 (t − τ ) sin ($1 s) dsdτ ,
sin $1 t 6= 0.

(144)

Ñèñòåìà (137) â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå ñâîäèòñÿ ê îäíîìó óðàâíåíèþ ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

∂S(t, λ, x, y)
∂yi
m$1
2 sin $1 t

h
2y cos $1 t − 2x +

2
m$1

=

i
∫ t0 g1 (λ, τ ) sin $1 (t − τ ) dτ = 0.
(145)

Èç óðàâíåíèÿ (145) ïðè óñëîâèè cos $1 t 6= 0 ìû ïîëó÷àåì

ycr (t, λ, x) =

x
cos $1 t

1
m$1 cos $1 t

∫ t0 g1 (λ, τ ) sin $1 (t − τ ) dτ.
(146)

Ïîäñòàâëÿÿ âûðàæåíèå (146) â óðàâíåíèå (138), ìû ïîëó÷èì

1
m$1

x
b=u
b (t, x0 , λ) =
∫ t0 g1 (λ, τ ) sin $1 (t − τ ) dτ − λ cos $1 t + x0 cos $1 t.

(147)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ñèñòåìà (140) â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå ñâîäèòñÿ
ê îäíîìó òðàíñöåíäåíòíîìó óðàâíåíèþ ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

1
m$1

∫ t0 g1 (λ, τ ) sin $1 (t − τ ) dτ − λ cos $1 t + x0 cos $1 t = 0,

(148)
ãäå ôóíêöèÿ g1 (λ, τ ) îïðåäåëåíà ôîðìóëîé (143). Îêîí÷àòåëüíî ìû

51

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà...

èìååì óðàâíåíèå

d1 (λ) 

cos($1 t)
$1

− 

1
$1

sin($1 t)
+ A $1 sin(Ωt)−Ω

$ 2 −Ω2
1

(λ − x0 ) m$1 cos ($1 t) = 0.

(149)

 ÷àñòíîì ñëó÷àå, êîãäà a = 0, Ëàãðàíæèàí (142) ñâîäèòñÿ ê Ëàãðàíæèàíó ëèíåéíîãî ãàðìîíè÷åñêîãî îñöèëëÿòîðà

L (x,
˙ x) =

m 2
˙
2x

mω 2 2
2 x

+ bx + [A sin (Ωt)] x.
(150)

 ñèëó (143) ìû òàêæå èìååì

d1 (λ) = mω 2 λ − b, $ (λ) = ω.

(151)

Ïîäñòàâèâ (151) â óðàâíåíèå (149) ìû ïîëó÷èì

mω 2 λ − b 

 cos(ωt)
ω

1
ω 

− (λ − x0 ) mω cos (ωt) +

sin(ωt)
+A ω sin(Ωt)−Ω
=
ω 2 −Ω2

mωλ cos (ωt) − mωλ − b 

cos(ωt)
ω

1
ω 

− mωλ cos (ωt) +

sin(ωt)
x0 mω cos (ωt) + A ω sin(Ωt)−Ω
=
ω 2 −Ω2

−mωλ − b 

cos(ωt)
ω

1
ω 

sin(ωt)
+ x0 mω cos (ωt) + A ω sin(Ωt)−Ω
= 0.
ω 2 −Ω2

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, â ñëó÷àå a = 0, óðàâíåíèå (149) ñâîäèòñÿ ê ëèíåéíîìó
óðàâíåíèþ, ðåøåíèå êîòîðîãî î÷åâèäíî èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

λ (t) = x0 +

b
mω 2

sin(ωt)
(1 − cos (ωt)) + A ω sin(Ωt)−Ω
,
mω(ω 2 −Ω2 )

(152)
÷òî, êàê ëåãêî óáåäèòüñÿ ïðÿìûì âû÷èñëåíèåì, ñîâïàäàåò ñ ÊÌ ñðåäíèì çíà÷åíèåì êîîðäèíàòû, âû÷èñëåííûì ïî ôîðìóëå (123), â êîòîðîé
Ψ (x, t, x0 ; h
¯ ) -àñèìòîòè÷åñêîå ðåøåíèå ( ¯
h → 0 ), âû÷èñëåííîå ìåòîäîì
êàíîíè÷åñêîãî îïåðàòîðà Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà äëÿ ïðîèçâîëüíîãî ìîìåíòà
âðåìåíè t, òàêîãî, ÷òî êîíåö ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåé òðàåêòîðèè íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ

52

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ôîêàëüíîé òî÷êîé, ò. å. cos (ωt) 6= 0.  ñàìîì äåëå, óêîðî÷åííàÿ cèñòåìà Ãàìèëüòîíà â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå (a = 0) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé
âèä

m dx
dt = p,
dp
dt

= −mω 2 x + bx + [A sin (Ωt)] ,
x (0) = y, p (0) = 0,

(153)
ãäå íà÷àëüíûå äàííûå èíäóöèðîâàíû íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (130) äëÿ
ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåé çàäà÷è Êîøè. Ýêâèâàëåíòíîå ñèñòåìå (153) óðàâíåíèå Íüþòîíà èìååò âèä


x + mω 2 x + b − A sin (Ωt) = 0,
x˙ (0) = 0, x (0) = y.
(154)
Îáùåå ðåøåíèå çàäà÷è (154) è, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, çàäà÷è (153) èìååò
âèä

x (t) = c1 sin ωt + c2 cos ωt + D sin (Ωt) + C,
p (t) = x˙ (t) = c1 ω cos ωt − c2 ω sin ωt + DΩ cos (Ωt) ,
D=

A
(ω 2 −Ω2 ) m ,

C=

b
mω 2 .

(155)

Ó÷èòûâàÿ íà÷àëüíûå äàííûå çàäà÷è (154), ìû èìååì

x (0) = c2 + C = y,
c2 = y − C
è

(156)

x˙ (0) = c1 ω + DΩ = 0,
c1 = −DΩ/ω.

(157)

53

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà...

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ðåøåíèå cèñòåìû Ãàìèëüòîíà (153) èìååò âèä

x (t, y) = (−DΩ/ω) sin ωt + (y − C) cos ωt + D sin (Ωt) + C,
p (t, y) = D cos ωt − (y − C) ω sin ωt + DΩ cos (Ωt) ,
y ∈ R.
(158)
ßêîáèàí

J (t, y) =

∂x(t, y)
∂y

(159)
ðàâåí J (t, y) = cos ωt è îáðàùàåòñÿ â íóëü ïðè t = tk = kπ + π/2, k =
0, ±1, ±2, ... .
Ñèñòåìà óðàâíåíèé (158) çàäàåò Ëàãðàíæåâî C ∞ -ìíîãîîáðàçèå Λ1t
â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå R2x, y . Ëàãðàíæåâî ìíîãîîáðàçèå Λ1t äèôôåîìîðôíî ïðîåêòèðóåòñÿ íà Rx ïðè t 6= tk . Ðàññìîòðèì òåïåðü ñåìåéñòâî
ëó÷åé x = x (t, y) , y ∈ R. Åñëè t = tk , òî

x (tk , y) = (−DΩ/ω) sin ωtk + D sin (Ωtk ) + C

(160)
äëÿ âñåõ y ∈ R, ò. å. âñå ëó÷è ñîáèðàþòñÿ â îäíó òî÷êó. Åñëè æå t 6= tk ,
òî â ëþáóþ òî÷êó x
b ∈ R ïðèõîäèò ðîâíî îäèí ëó÷ x = x (t, yb) , ãäå yb
èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

x−C−D sin(Ωt)+(DΩ/ω) sin ωt
yb = C + b
.
cos ωt

(161)

Âûïèøåì òåïåðü â ÿâíîì âèäå àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ôîðìóëû äëÿ

Ψ (x, t, x0 ; h
¯)
( a = 0 ) â íåôîêàëüíûõ òî÷êàõ (b
x, t) , ò. å. ïðè t 6= tk . Äåéñòâèå S (t, x)
â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå ðàâíî S (t, x, yb) , ãäå ôóíêöèÿ S (t, x, yb)

54

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä


2 sin(ωt)

S(t, x, yb) = 

2x t
(cos ωt) yb2 + x2 − 2xb
y + mω
∫ 0 g (τ ) sin (ωτ ) dτ +
2b
y

∫ t0 g (τ ) sin ω (t − τ ) dτ − 

− m22ω2 ∫ t0 ∫ τ0 g (τ ) g (s) sin ω (t − τ ) sin (ωs) dsdτ ,
g (τ ) = b + A sin (Ωt) , sin $t 6= 0,
yb = C +

x−C−D sin(Ωt)+(DΩ/ω) sin ωt
.
cos ωt

(162) 

Ïóñòü x (t, y) - òðàåêòîðèÿ ñèñòåìû Ãàìèëüòîíà (154). Òî÷êà t0 , x0 ,
ãäå x0 = x (t0 , y), ïî êðàéíåé ìåðå äëÿ îäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ y ∈ R, íàçûâàåòñÿ ôîêóñîì íà òðàåêòîðèè x (t, y) èëè ôîêàëüíîé òî÷êîé [3-4], åñëè
J (t0 , y) = 0, à êðàòíîñòü íóëÿ ßêîáèàíà J (t0 , y) íàçûâàåòñÿ
êðàòíî
ñòüþ ôîêóñà. Åñëè J (t0 , y) 6= 0, òîãäà òî÷êà t0 , x0 íàçûâàåòñÿ íåôîêàëüíîé òî÷êîé íà òðàåêòîðèè x (t, y) . Ôèêñèðóåì òåïåðü çíà÷åíèÿ

t0 ∈ R+ , x0 ∈ R è ïóñòü Θ t0 , x0 = y j ∈ R, |j ∈ N, x0 = x (t0 , y) , ò.
å. ýòî ìíîæåñòâî âñåõ òàêèõ y ∈ R, äëÿ êîòîðûõ âûïîëíåíî óñëîâèå

x0 = x (t0 , y) .

(163)

Åñëè òî÷êà t0 , x ÿâëÿåòñÿ 
íåôîêàëüíîé òî÷êîé íà òðàåêòîðèè
x (t, y) , òî ìíîæåñòâî Θ t0 , x0 êîíå÷íî, à èíäåêñ Ìîðñà µ òðàåêòîðèè
ñ íåôîêàëüíûìè êîíöàìè ðàâåí ÷èñëó ôîêàëüíûõ òî÷åê íà ýòîé òðàåêòîðèè ñ ó÷åòîì èõ êðàòíîñòåé [3-4]. Ñîãëàñíî òåîðèè êàíîíè÷åñêîãî îïåðàòîðà [3-4], êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà âîëíîâîé ôóíêöèè
Ψ (t, x) â ïðîèçâîëüíîé íåôîêàëüíîé òî÷êå t0 , x0 , çàäàåòñÿ âûðàæåíèåì
0  

Ψ t0 , x 0 =  

−1/2
n   

P
∂x(t0 , x0 )

exp h¯i Sj t0 , x0 −
Ψ y j det
∂y

j=1


2 µj 

.
(164)

Çäåñü Sj t0 , x - äåéñòâèå âäîëü êëàññè÷åñêîé òðàåêòîðèè, ñîåäèíÿþùåé òî÷êè y j è x0 , µj - èíäåêñ Ìîðñà ýòîé òðàåêòîðèè. Ðàññìîòðèì
òåïåðü íåñêîëüêî âîçìîæíûõ ñëó÷àåâ.
0 

(i) 0 < t < π/2.  äàííîì ñëó÷àå çà âðåìÿ t â çàäàííóþ òî÷êó ñ
êîîðäèíàòîé x ïðèõîäèò ðîâíî îäèí åäèíñòâåííûé ëó÷. Òàê êàê íà

55

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà...

ýòîì ëó÷å íåò ôîêàëüíûõ òî÷åê, òî èíäåêñ Ìîðñà µ äëÿ ýòîãî ëó÷à
òîæäåñòâåííî ðàâåí íóëþ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, èç (164) ìû ïîëó÷àåì  

−1/2
Ψ (t, x) = (cos t)
exp h¯i S (t, x) ×  

sin ωt
Ψ0 C + x−C−D sin(Ωt)+(DΩ/ω)
+ O (¯h) .
cos ωt
(165)
Ó÷èòûâàÿ òåïåðü ÿâíûé âèä ôóíêöèè Ψ0 (x) , äëÿ ñðåäíåãî çíà÷åíèÿ êîîðäèíàòû (123) ìû èìååì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå
sin(ωt)
(1 − cos (ωt)) + A ω sin(Ωt)−Ω
+ O (¯h) ,
mω(ω 2 −Ω2 )
(166)
êîòîðîå ñîâïàäàåò ñ âûðàæåíèåì (152).

h1, t, x0 ; h
¯ i = x0 +

b
mω 2

(ii) π/2 < t < 3π/2.  äàííîì ñëó÷àå çà âðåìÿ t â çàäàííóþ òî÷êó
ñ êîîðäèíàòîé x ïðèõîäèò ðîâíî îäèí åäèíñòâåííûé ëó÷, íî íà ýòîì
ëó÷å èìååòñÿ ôîêàëüíàÿ òî÷êà ïðè t = π/2. Êðàòíîñòü íóëÿ ÿêîáèàíà
J = cos t ðàâíà 1, òàê ÷òî èíäåêñ Ìîðñà µ äëÿ ýòîãî ëó÷à ðàâåí 1.
Òàêèì îáðàçîì, èç (163) ìû ïîëó÷àåì  

−1/2
Ψ (t, x) = (cos t)
exp h¯i S (t, x) − iπ
2 ×  

sin ωt
Ψ0 C + x−C−D sin(Ωt)+(DΩ/ω)
+ O (¯
h) .
cos ωt
(167)
Ó÷èòûâàÿ òåïåðü ÿâíûé âèä ôóíêöèè Ψ0 (x) , äëÿ ñðåäíåãî çíà÷åíèÿ êîîðäèíàòû (123) ìû èìååì âûðàæåíèå, ñîâïàäàþùåå òîæäåñòâåííî ñ âûðàæåíèåì (166).
(iii) π/2 + kπ < t < π/2 + (k + 1) π. Èíäåêñ Ìîðñà òðàåêòîðèè â
äàííîì ñëó÷àå ðàâåí µ = k + 1. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, èç (163) ìû ïîëó÷àåì

Ψ (t, x) = (cos t) 

Ψ0 C +

−1/2

exp

h

i
h
¯ S (t,

x) −

x−C−D sin(Ωt)+(DΩ/ω) sin ωt
cos ωt 

iπ(k+1)
2

i

×

+ O (¯h) .
(168)

Ó÷èòûâàÿ òåïåðü ÿâíûé âèä ôóíêöèè Ψ0 (x) äëÿ ñðåäíåãî çíà÷åíèÿ êîîðäèíàòû (123), ìû ñíîâà èìååì âûðàæåíèå, ñîâïàäàþùåå òîæäåñòâåííî ñ âûðàæåíèåì (166).

56

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ðèñ. 2: Êóáè÷åñêèé ïîòåíöèàë. Ïðèåð 15.3.1

Ïðèìåð 15.3.1. Êâàíòîâûé àíãàðìîíè÷åñêèé îñöèëëÿòîð ñ êóáè÷åñêèì ïîòåíöèàëîì. Ïàðàìåòðû: m = 1, Ω = 0, ω = 9, a = 3, b =
10, A = 0.
V (x) = ax3 +

mω 2 2
x − bx
2

χ (t) = sgn (σ [λ (t)])

Ïðèìåð 15.3.2. Êâàíòîâûé àíãàðìîíè÷åñêèé îñöèëëÿòîð ñ êóáè÷åñêèì ïîòåíöèàëîì. Ïàðàìåòðû: m = 1, Ω = 3, ω = 9, a = 3, b =
10, A = 1.
χ (t) = sgn (σ [λ (t)])

Ïðèìåð 15.3.3. Êâàíòîâûé àíãàðìîíè÷åñêèé îñöèëëÿòîð ñ êóáè÷åñêèì ïîòåíöèàëîì. Ïàðàìåòðû: m = 1, Ω = 3, ω = 15, a = 3, b =
10, A = 1.
χ (t) = sgn (σ [λ (t)])

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà...

Ðèñ. 3: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.1

Ðèñ. 4: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè χ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.1

57

58

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ðèñ. 5: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.2

Ðèñ. 6: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.3

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà...

59

Ðèñ. 7: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.4

Ïðèìåð 15.3.4. Êâàíòîâûé àíãàðìîíè÷åñêèé îñöèëëÿòîð ñ êóáè÷åñêèì ïîòåíöèàëîì. Ïàðàìåòðû: m = 1, Ω = 3, ω = 10, a = 3, b =
10, A = 3.
Ïðèìåð 15.3.5. Êâàíòîâûé àíãàðìîíè÷åñêèé îñöèëëÿòîð ñ êóáè÷åñêèì ïîòåíöèàëîì. Ïàðàìåòðû: m = 1, Ω = 12, ω = 9, a = 1, b =
15, A = 2.
Ïðèìåð 15.3.6. Êâàíòîâûé àíãàðìîíè÷åñêèé îñöèëëÿòîð ñ êóáè÷åñêèì ïîòåíöèàëîì. Ïàðàìåòðû: m = 10, Ω = 12, ω = 9, a = 1, b =
15, A = 5.
Ðàññìîòðèì òàêæå êâàíòîâûé àíãàðìîíè÷åñêèé îñöèëëÿòîð ñ áèêâàäðàòè÷íûì ïîòåíöèàëîì ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

V (x) =

mω 2 2
2 x

− ax4 + bx3 − [A sin (Ωt)] x.
(169)

Êëàññè÷åñêèé Ëàãðàíæèàí â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

L (x,
˙ x) =

m 2
˙
2x

mω 2 2
2 x

− bx3 + ax4 + [A sin (Ωt)] x.
(170)

60

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ðèñ. 8: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.5

Ðèñ. 9: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.5

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà...

Ðèñ. 10: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t) Ïðèìåð 15.3.5

Ðèñ. 11: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.6

61

62

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ðèñ. 12: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.6

Ðèñ. 13: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.6

63

15.3. Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà...

Ïðåäïîëîæèì, ÷òî äëÿ çàäàííûõ çíà÷åíèé ïàðàìåòðîâ ω, a, λ âû2
6aλ2
ïîëíÿåòñÿ íåðàâåíñòâî σ2 (λ) = ω2 + 3bλ
m − m ≥ 0. Òîãäà êâàäðàòè÷b (u˙ (τ, t, y, x) , u (τ, t, y, x) , τ ) , çàäàííàÿ ôîðìóëîé (136),
íàÿ ôîðìà L
â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå ïðèìåò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

b (u,
L
˙ u) =
$2 (λ) =

p

m 2
˙
2u

−m

2σ2 (λ) =

$22 2
2 u

q

2

+ g2 (λ, t) u,

ω2
2

+

3bλ
m

6aλ2
m 

, 

g2 (λ, t) = − mω 2 λ + 3bλ2 − 4aλ3 − A sin (Ωt) =
− (d2 (λ) − A sin (Ωt)) ,
d2 (λ) = mω 2 λ + 3bλ2 − 4aλ3 .

(171)

Ôóíêöèÿ S (t, λ, x, y), çàäàííàÿ ôîðìóëîé (135), â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

S (t, λ, x, y) =
m$2
2 sin $t

h 

(cos $2 t) y 2 + x2 − 2xy +
2y
m$

2
m2 $22

2x
m$2

∫ t0 g2 (λ, τ ) sin ($2 τ ) dτ +

∫ t0 g2 (λ, τ ) sin $2 (t − τ ) dτ −

i
∫ t0 ∫ τ0 g2 (λ, τ ) g2 (λ, s) sin $2 (t − τ ) sin ($2 s) dsdτ ,
sin $t 6= 0.
(172)

Ñèñòåìà (137) â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå ñâîäèòñÿ ê îäíîìó óðàâíåíèþ ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

m$
2 sin $t 

2y cos $t − 2x +

∂S(t, λ, x, y)
=
∂yi
t
2

g
(λ,
τ)
m$ 0 2 

sin $ (t − τ ) dτ = 0.
(173)

Èç óðàâíåíèÿ (173) ïðè óñëîâèè cos $t 6= 0 ìû ïîëó÷àåì

ycr (t, λ, x) =

x
cos $2 t

1
m$2 cos $2 t

∫ t0 g2 (λ, τ ) sin $2 (t − τ ) dτ.
(174)

64

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ïîäñòàâëÿÿ âûðàæåíèå (174) â óðàâíåíèå (138) ìû ïîëó÷èì

1
m$

x
b=u
b (t, x0 , λ) =
∫ t0 g2 (λ, τ ) sin $2 (t − τ ) dτ − λ cos $2 t + x0 cos $2 t.

(175)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ñèñòåìà (140) â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå ñâîäèòñÿ
ê îäíîìó òðàíñöåíäåíòíîìó óðàâíåíèþ ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà
1
m$2

∫ t0 g2 (λ, τ ) sin $2 (t − τ ) dτ − λ cos $2 t + x0 cos $2 t = 0.

(176)

Îêîí÷àòåëüíî ìû èìååì óðàâíåíèå

d2 (λ) 

cos($2 t)
$2

1
$2 

sin($2 t)
+ A $2 sin(Ωt)−Ω

$ 2 −Ω2
2

(λ − x0 ) m$2 cos ($2 t) = 0.

(177)

Ïðèìåð 15.3.7. Êâàíòîâûé àíãàðìîíè÷åñêèé îñöèëëÿòîð ñ áèêâàäðàòè÷íûì ïîòåíöèàëîì. Ïàðàìåòðû: m = 100, Ω = 3, ω = 10, a =
−3, b = −100, A = 3.
V (x) =

mω 2 2
x − ax4 + bx3
2

Ïðèìåð 15.3.8. Êâàíòîâûé àíãàðìîíè÷åñêèé îñöèëëÿòîð ñ äâóãîðáûì ïîòåíöèàëîì. Ïàðàìåòðû: m = 10, Ω = 3, ω = 10, a = −10, b =
−100, A = 3.
Ïðèìåð 15.3.9.Êâàíòîâûé àíãàðìîíè÷åñêèé îñöèëëÿòîð ñ äâóãîðáûì ïîòåíöèàëîì. Ïàðàìåòðû: m = 1, Ω = 3, ω = 10, a = −0.1, b =
100, A = 3.
V (x) =

mω 2 2
x − ax4 + bx3
2

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà.
Òî÷íàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ñðåäíèõ çíà÷åíèé
íàáëþäàåìûõ.
Êàê õîðîøî èçâåñòíî, äèíàìèêà êâàíòîâîé ÷àñòèöû ïîä äåéñòâèåì íåïðåðûâíîãî íàáëþäåíèÿ íå ìîæåò áûòü îïèñàíà îáûêíîâåííûì

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

Ðèñ. 14: Áèêâàäðàòè÷íûé ïîòåíöèàë. Ïðèìåð 15.3.7

Ðèñ. 15: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.7

65

66

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ðèñ. 16: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.8

Ðèñ. 17: Áèêâàäðàòè÷íûé ïîòåíöèàë. Ïðèìåð 15.3.9

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

67

Ðèñ. 18: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè λ (t). Ïðèìåð 15.3.9

óðàâíåíèåì Øðåäèíãåðà, äàæå åñëè ÿâíî âêëþ÷èòü â ðàññìîòðåíèå èçìåðèòåëüíûé àïïàðàò êàê äîïîëíèòåëüíóþ êâàíòîâóþ ñèñòåìó [56-58].

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.2. Êàê ïîêàçàíî â [54-56] íà ïðèìåðå íåïðåðûâíîãî ñëåæåíèÿ çà êîîðäèíàòîé êâàíòîâîé ÷àñòèöû â ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîì ïîëå, ýòî ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðÿìûì ñëåäñòâèåì
, êîòîðàÿ ñ íåîáõîäèìîñòüþ âûòåêàåò èç ïðèíöèïà
íåðàçðóøåíèÿ äëÿ íåïðåðûâíûõ íàáëþäåíèé, ñôîðìóëèðîâàííîãî â
ðàáîòå [59] â âèäå ñëåäóþùåãî óñëîâèÿ êîììóòàòèâíîñòè ãåéçåíáåðãîâûõ îïåðàòîðîâ ÷àñòèöû X (t) è èçìåðÿåìûõ îïåðàòîðîâ Y (t) âûõîäíîãî ïîëÿ:

ëà âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ

ñèíãóëÿðíîñòè ïîòåíöèà-

[X (t) , Y (s)] , s ≥ t.
(178)
Àäåêâàòíûé ìàòåìàòè÷åñêèé àïïàðàò äëÿ îïèñàíèÿ ÊÌ èçìåðåíèé
äàåò ìåòîä êâàíòîâîãî ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî èñ÷èñëåíèÿ [60-62]. Íàïîìíèì,
÷òî èñõîäíûì äëÿ êâàíòîâîãî ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî èñ÷èñëåíèÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ
ïîíÿòèå êâàíòîâîãî áåëîãî øóìà, îïèñûâàåìîãî â áîçîííîì ñëó÷àå îïåðàòîðíûìè ôóíêöèÿìè óíè÷òîæåíèÿ A (t) è ðîæäåíèÿ A+ (t) è ïðåä

ñòàâëÿþùèìè â ïðîñòðàíñòâå Ôîêà F = ⊕ <(n) , <(n) = L2 Rn+ ñëån=0

68

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

äóþùèå êîììóòàöèîííûå ñîîòíîøåíèÿ

[A (t) , A (t0 )] = 0, [A (t) , A+ (t0 )] = min {t, t0 }
(179)
Îïåðàòîðíûå ôóíêöèè A (t) è A (t) ñâÿçàíû ñ îáû÷íûìè áîçîííûìè îáîáùåííûìè ïîëÿìè a (t) è a+ (t) ñëåäóþùèìè ñîîòíîøåíèÿìè
+

t

t

0

0

A (t) = ∫ a (τ ) dτ, A+ (t0 ) = ∫ a+ (τ ) dτ.
(180)

 ñèëó òåîðåìû Ñèãàëà, ãèëüáåðòîâî ïðîñòðàíñòâî

b = L2 (Ω, Σ, P) ,
H
çàäàííîå íàä âåðîÿòíîñòíûì ïðîñòðàíñòâîì (Ω, Σ, P), ãäå Ω - ïðîñòðàíñòâî íåïðåðûâíûõ òðàåêòîðèé ω : R+ → R âèíåðîâñêîãî ïðîöåññà W (t) ñî ñòàíäàðòíîé ãàóññîâñêîé ìåðîé, èçîìîðôíî ôîêîâñêîìó

ïðîñòðàíñòâó F = ⊕ <(n) . Ýòîò èçîìîðôèçì äîïóñêàåò ÿâíîå ïðåän=0
ñòàâëåíèå â âèäå ò. í. õàîòè÷åñêîãî ðàçëîæåíèÿ

φ (ω) =

P∞

n=0

∫ ... ∫ f (n) (t1 , ..., tn ) dW (t1 , ω) ...dW (tn , ω) ,

(181)

b ãäå
ñïðàâåäëèâîãî ëþáîé ôóíêöèè φ ∈ H,  

f = f (0) , f (1) , ..., f (n) , ... ∈ F,
ò. å.

kf kF =

P∞

n=0

2
∫ ... ∫ f (n) (t1 , ..., tn ) dt1 ...dtn < ∞.

(182)

Ïðè ýòîì ñïðàâåäëèâî ðàâåíñòâî kf kF = kφkH
b . Îïåðàòîð óìíîæåb
íèÿ íà W (t, ω) â H óíèòàðíî ýêâèâàëåíòåí îïåðàòîðó A (t) + A+ (t)
˙ (t) = w (t) . Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå êâàíòîâûå
è, çíà÷èò, a (t) + a+ (t) = W
èíòåãðàëû Õàäñîíà-Ïàðòàñàðàòè ôîðìàëüíî îïðåäåëåíû êàê
t

t

0

0

A+ (t, D) = ∫ dA+ (τ ) D (τ ) , A (t, D− ) = ∫ dA+ (τ ) D− (τ ) .
(183)

 ðàáîòå [62] îïåðàòîð A (t, D) êîððåêòíî îïðåäåëåí äëÿ ëþáîé
îïåðàòîðíî- çíà÷íîé êâàäðàòè÷íî-èíòåãðèðóìîé ôóíêöèè D (t)
:
+

69

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

F → F êàê îïåðàòîð A+ (t, D)
ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëå:

: F → F, äåéñòâóþùèé ñîãëàñíî

[A+ (t, D) f ] (τ ) =

P

[D (s) f ] (τ \s) ,

s∈[τ t ]

(184)

ãäå

τ = {t1 < ... < tn } ⊂ R+ , s = t1 ∨ ... ∨ tn , 

f (τ ) = f (n) (t1 , ..., tn ) , τ t = τ ∩ [0, t] .
Ôóíêöèÿ D (t) : F → F íàçûâàåòñÿ àäàïòèâíîé, åñëè
∀f (n) [(f (τ ) = g (τ t ) f (τ \ [τ t ])) ⇒ [D (t) f ] (τ ) = h (τ t ) f (τ \ [τ t ])] ,
(185)
ãäå h (τ t ) = [D (t) g] ([τ t ]) . Ðàññìîòðèì êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå äèôôåðåíöèàëüíîå óðàâíåíèå ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà 

dψ (t) + K + h¯i H ψ (t) dt = (L ⊗ dA+ (t) + L− ⊗ dA (t)) ψ (t)

(186)
b
b0.
ñ îïåðàòîðíî-çíà÷íûìè êîýôôèöèåíòàìè K, H, L, L
: H0 → H
b
Çäåñü K ≥ 0 - ïîëîæèòåëüíî-îïðåäåëåííûé îïåðàòîð â H0 ,
- ñîáñòâåííûé ãàìèëüòîíèàí ÷àñòèöû, ÿâëÿþùèéñÿ ñàìîñîïðÿæåííûì îïåb 0 , L, L− - ïðîèçâîëüíûå îïåðàòîðû â H
b 0 , çàäàþùèå ïðè
ðàòîðîì â H
L− = −L+ ñèíãóëÿðíûé ãàìèëüòîíèàí âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ Hint ñ áîçîííûì ïîëåì

Hint =

h
¯
i

H

(L ⊗ a+ (t) + L− ⊗ a (t)) .
(187)

Ðàññìîòðèì íåâîçìóùåííîå óðàâíåíèå 

dψ (t) + K + h¯i H ψ (t) dt = 0, ψ (0) = ψ0 .

(188)

Ïóñòü exp (−t=) , = = K + (i/¯h) H îáîçíà÷àåò îäíîïàðàìåòðè÷åñêóþ ñæèìàþùóþ ïîëóãðóïïó ðàçðåøàþùèõ îïåðàòîðîâ çàäà÷è Êîøè (188), à U (t) - ïîëóãðóïïà ðàçðåøàþùèõ îïåðàòîðîâ çàäà÷è Êîøè (186). Òîãäà îïåðàòîð-ôóíêöèÿ U (t) óäîâëåòâîðÿåò èíòåãðàëüíîìó
óðàâíåíèþ

U (t) =
t

exp (−t=) + ∫ exp [− (t − s) =] (L ⊗ dA+ (t) + L− ⊗ dA (t)) U (s) ,
0

(189)

70

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ãäå êâàíòîâûå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå èíòåãðàëû (183) îïðåäåëÿþòñÿ ñëåäóþb0 ⊗ F :
øèìè àäàïòèâíûìè îïåðàòîðíûìè ôóíêöèÿìè â H

D (s) = exp [− (t − s) =] (L ⊗ I) U (s) , D (s) =
exp [− (t − s) =] (L− ⊗ I) U (s) .

(190)

Êàê õîðîøî èçâåñòíî, äëÿ óíèòàðíîñòè ïîëóãðóïïû U (t) íåîáõîäèìî, ÷òîáû [60]

L− = −L+ , K = 12 L+ L, H + = H.

(191)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.3.  ðàáîòå [62] ïîêàçàíî, ÷òî â ñëó÷àå îãðàíè÷åííîãî îïåðàòîðà L ýòè óñëîâèÿ ÿâëÿþòñÿ òàêæå è äîñòàòî÷íûìè.
Çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.4. Îòìåòèì, ÷òî ïðè L+ = L êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå äèôôåðåíöèàëüíîå óðàâíåíèå (186) ìîæíî ðàññìàòðèâàòü
êàê ÷èñòî êëàññè÷åñêîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà îòíîñèòåëüíî âèíåðîâñêîãî ïðîöåññà (A+ (t) − A (t)) /i, èãðàþùåãî ðîëü ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî âîçìóùåíèÿ, ò. å. âõîäíîé ëàíæåâåíîâñêîé ñèëû äëÿ êâàíòîâîé ÷àñòèöû ñ ñîïðÿæåííîé êîîðäèíàòîé ¯
hL.
Ðàññìîòðèì òåïåðü êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå ïñåâäîäèôôåðåíöèàëüíîå óðàâíåíèå ñëåäóþùåãî îáùåãî âèäà    

b ⊗ dA+ (t) + L
b − ⊗ dA (t) ψ (t) ,
b ψ (t) dt = L
b + iH
dψ (t) + K
h
¯
ψ (0) = ψ0 ,
(192)
b H,
b L
b -¯
ãäå K,
h -ïñåâäîäèôôåðåíöèàëüíûå îïåðàòîðû, îïðåäåëÿåìûå
ñèìâîëàìè H, K, L êëàññà
T m1 , m2 , m1 , m2 ∈ N
[5], ψ (t) ∈ L2 (Rn ) ⊗ L (Ft → Ft ) , Ft = Γ (L2 [0, t]) -áîçîííîå ôîêîâñêîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî íàä L2 [0, t], èçîìîðôíîå, êàê èçâåñòíî, ïðîñòðàíñòâó L2 (Ωt ) êâàäðàòè÷íî èíòåãðèðóåìûõ ôóíêöèîíàëîâ íà ïðîñòðàíñòâå íåïðåðûâíûõ ôóíêöèé Ωt = C[0, t] ñ ìåðîé Âèíåðà. Äèôôåðåíöèàëû óíè÷òîæåíèÿ dA (t) è ðîæäåíèÿ dA+ (t) . Íàïîìíèì [5], ÷òî ôóíêöèÿ R (x, p) ∈ C ∞ (Rn × Rn ) íàçûâàåòñÿ ñèìâîëîì êëàññà T m1 , m2 , åñëè
äëÿ ëþáûõ ìóëüòèèíäåêñîâ α, β è âñåõ (x, p) ∈ Rnx × Rnp èìååò ìåñòî
ñëåäóþùàÿ îöåíêà

|α| |β|

∂ ∂

m
m
∂xα ∂pβ R (x, p) ≤ Cα, β (1 + |x|) 1 (1 + |p|) 2 .

(193)

71

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.1. Ôóíêöèÿ 

R (x, p) ∈ C ∞ Rnx × Rnp \Σ ,


ãäå Σ = (xi , pj ) ∈ Rnx × Rnp |1 ≤ i ≤ k, 1 ≤ j ≤ l , íàçûâàåòñÿ ñèìâîëîì êëàññà Tm1 , m2 (Σ) , åñëè äëÿ ëþáûõ ìóëüòèèíäåêñîâ α, β è âñåõ
(x, p) ∈
/ Σ èìååò ìåñòî ñëåäóþùàÿ îöåíêà
|α| |β|

P
∂ ∂

−(m1 +|α|)
−(m2 +|β|)
|p − pj |
.
∂xα ∂pβ R (x, p) ≤ Cα, β |x − xi |
i, j

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.2. Ôóíêöèÿ 

R (x, p) ∈ C ∞ Rnx × Rnp \Σ , 

ãäå Σ = (xi , pj ) ∈ Rnx × Rnp |1 ≤ i ≤ k, 1 ≤ j ≤ l , íàçûâàåòñÿ ñèìâî2
ëîì êëàññà Tkm1 ,1k, m
(Σ) , åñëè äëÿ ëþáûõ ìóëüòèèíäåêñîâ α, β è âñåõ
2
(x, p) ∈
/ Σ èìååò ìåñòî ñëåäóþùàÿ îöåíêà

∂ |α| ∂ |β| R (x, p) ≤
∂xα ∂pβ 

Cα, β max 

P

|x − xi |−(m1 +|α|) |p − pj |−(m2 +|β|) , (1 + |x|)m1 (1 + |p|)m2

.

i, j

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.3. Ôóíêöèÿ R (t, x, p) ∈ C ∞ (Rn × Rn ) íàçûâàåòñÿ ñèìâîëîì êëàññà TLm1 , m2 , åñëè âûïîëíåíû ñëåäóþùèå óñëîâèÿ:
(i) äëÿ ëþáûõ ìóëüòèèíäåêñîâ α, β è âñåõ (x, p) ∈ Rnx × Rnp èìååò
ìåñòî îöåíêà

|α| |β|
∂ ∂

m
m
∂xα ∂pβ R (t, x, p) ≤ Cα, β (t) (1 + |x|) 1 (1 + |p|) 2 ,

(194)

(ii) â îáëàñòè
×
× {t > t0 } cóùåñòâóåò ôóíêöèÿ Ëÿïóíîâà
V (t, x, p) , óäîâëåòâîðÿþùàÿ ïðè íåêîòîðîì c1 > 0 ñëåäóþùèì óñëîâèÿì

Rnx

VR =

Rnp

V (t, x, p) → ∞ ?@8 R → ∞

inf
(x, p, t)∈UR ×{t>t0 }

(195)

è
d0 V
dt

≤ c1 V.

(196)

72

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé... 

Çäåñü UR = (x, p) ∈ Rnx × Rnp |x2 + p2 < R2 -ñôåðà â Rnx × Rnp ,
UR = Rnx × Rnp \UR , d0 V /dt - îïåðàòîð Ëÿïóíîâà, îòâå÷àþùèé ñëåäóþùåé ñèñòåìå Ãàìèëüòîíà
x˙ =

∂R
∂p ,

p˙ = − ∂R
∂x ,

+

∂V
∂x

(197)

ò. å.
d0 V
dt

=

dV
dt  


R − ∂V
R
.
∂p
(198)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.5. Íàïîìíèì ÷òî â ñèëó êëàññè÷åñêîé òåîðåìû
òåîðèè îáûêíîâåííûõ äèôôåðåíöèàëüíûõ óðàâíåíèé (ñì. [63] Ãë.1,
òåîðåìà 2.2), èç óñëîâèé (195) è (196) àâòîìàòè÷åñêè ñëåäóåò, ÷òî ðåøåíèå çàäà÷è Êîøè äëÿ ñèñòåìû Ãàìèëüòîíà (197) ïðè êàæäîì t ≥ t0
îïðåäåëåíî è åäèíñòâåííî, ò. å. íåîãðàíè÷åííî ïðîäîëæàåìî ïðè t ≥ t0
âïðàâî.
Çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.6. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî â òîì ñëó÷àå, êîãäà L ∈ T m =

b âîîáùå ãîâîðÿ
T
êàê ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ â ðàáîòå [40], îïåðàòîð L
íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ îãðàíè÷åííûì, ÷òî äàåò íåóíèòàðíîñòü ðàçðåøàþùåé ïîëóãðóïïû îïåðàòîðîâ U (t), ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåé çàäà÷å Êîøè (192) (ñì.
çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.2).
m, m

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.7. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî â ñèëó ïðèíöèïà íåðàçðóøåíèÿ äëÿ íåïðåðûâíûõ íàáëþäåíèé, ïîòåíöèàë ñ íåîáõîäèìîñòüþ èìååò
òî÷å÷íûå ñèíãóëÿðíîñòè (ñì. çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.2), à òåì ñàìûì è ñèìâîë
(x, p) äîëæåí áûòü ñèíãóëÿðíîé ôóíêöèåé ïî ïåðåìåííîé x, ÷òî íåñîâìåñòèìî ñ îöåíêàìè (193) è (194).
Ðàññìîòðèì çàäà÷ó Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ (192) ñ áûñòðîîñöèëëèðóþùèìè íà÷àëüíûìè äàííûìè ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

ψ (0, x) = ψ0 (x) = ϕ (x) exp 

i

h
¯ S0

(x) ⊗ vac,

(199)
ãäå vac -âàêóóìíûé âåêòîð â Γ (L2 (R+ )) , ôóíêöèè ϕ è S0 ãëàäêèå è
ϕ ôèíèòíàÿ èëè áûñòðî óáûâàþùàÿ íà áåñêîíå÷íîñòè ôóíêöèÿ.

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.8.  ðàáîòå [40] ìåòîäîì êàíîíè÷åñêîãî îïåðàòîðà Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà áûëà ïîñòðîåíà ôîðìàëüíàÿ êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ
àñèìïòîòèêà ðåøåíèÿ çàäà÷è Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ (192) ñ íà÷àëüíûìè
äàííûìè (194). Òåì íå ìåíåå ñôîðìóëèðîâàííûå â ðàáîòå [40] óñëîâèÿ,
íåîáõîäèìûå äëÿ ñïðàâåäëèâîñòè îñíîâíûõ òåîðåì (ñì. [40], Òåîðåìà1,
óñë.1 è Òåîðåìà 2), çàâåäîìî íå âûïîëíÿþòñÿ äëÿ ïðîèçâîëüíûõ ñèìâîëîâ êëàññà T m , ïåðâîíà÷àëüíî çàÿâëåííîãî ïðè èñõîäíîé ôîðìóëèðîâêå çàäà÷è Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ (192). Ïî ñóùåñòâó ôîðìàëüíàÿ

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

73

êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà, ïîñòðîåíàÿ â ðàáîòå [40], ñïðàâåäëèâà òîëüêî äëÿ î÷åíü óçêîãî êëàññà ñèìâîëîâ TLm1 , m2 6=⊂ T m1 , m2 .

Òåîðåìà 15.4.1. [40] Ïóñòü T - ôèêñèðîâàíûé ìîìåíò âðåìåíè è
ïðè ýòîì âûïîëíåíû ñëåäóþùèå óñëîâèÿ:
(i) Ïóñòü äàíà çàäà÷à Êîøè äëÿ ñèñòåìû Ãàìèëüòîíà
∂H
∂p ,

x˙ =

p˙ = − ∂H
∂x , x (0) = y, p (0) =

∂S0 (y)
∂y ,

(200)
ãäå ôóíêöèÿ H (t, x, p) ∈ TLm1 , m2 (òåì ñàìûì ∀y (y ∈ Rn ) ðåøåíèå çàäà÷è Êîøè (200) ïðè êàæäîì t ≥ t0 îïðåäåëåíî è åäèíñòâåííî, ò. å.
íåîãðàíè÷åííî ïðîäîëæàåìî ïðè t ≥ t0 ñì. çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.4) è

x (t, y) , p (t, y) ∈ C ∞ ([0, T ] × Rn ) .
(201)
(ii) Îòîáðàæåíèå y → x(t, y) ïðè êàæäîì t ∈ [0, T ] åñòü äèôôåîìîðôèçì, òàê ÷òî äëÿ âñÿêîãî x ∈ Rn ñóùåñòâóåò è åäèíñòâåííî òàêîå
y ∈ Rn , ÷òî x = x(t, y).
Òîãäà ôóíêöèÿ

ψ (t, x, ω) = α
b (t, x, ω [0, t]) ϕ (t, x) exp 

i

h
¯S

(t, x)

(202)
ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôîðìàëüíûì àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèì ðåøåíèåì çàäà÷è Êîøè (192)
ñ íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (202), ò. å. îíà óäîâëåòâîðÿåò óðàâíåíèþ (192) ñ
òî÷íîñòüþ äî àääèòèâíîé íåâÿçêè F (t, x, ω [0, t]) = O (¯
h). Çäåñü ôàçà
S(t, x) óäîâëåòâîðÿåò óðàâíåíèþ Ãàìèëüòîíà  ßêîáè
∂S
∂t

+ H x,

∂S
∂x 

= 0, S(0, x) = S0 (x)

è èìååò ñëåäóþùèé êàíîíè÷åñêèé âèä 

t
S(t, x) = ∫ dτ p (τ, y)
0

∂x(τ, y)
∂τ 

− H (x, p (τ, y)) + S0 (y) ,

à ôóíêöèÿ ϕ (t, x) ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåøåíèåì óðàâíåíèÿ ïåðåíîñà
∂ϕ
∂t

+

∂ϕ ∂H
∂x ∂p

x,

∂S
∂x 

(203)

+ tr 

∂2H ∂2S
∂p2 ∂x 

(204)

=0
(205)

74

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ñ íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì ϕ (t, x) = ϕ0 (x) è èìååò ñëåäóþùèé êàíîíè÷åñêèé âèä  

2  

−1/2 

t
∂ H(x, p(t, y))
y)
1
×
exp


tr
ϕ (t, x) = ϕ (y) det ∂x(t,
.
∂y
2
∂x∂p
0

(206)

Ñëó÷àéíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ α
b (t, x, ω [0, t]) ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåøåíèåì êâàíòîâîãî
ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî óðàâíåíèÿ

h

db
α+

L

∂H
∂p

x,

x,

∂S
∂x

∂S
∂x 

α
bdA + L x, 

i

∂S
b dt
∂x α 

∂S
bdA+
∂x α 

∂α
b
∂x + K x,

(207)

=

ñ íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì α
b|t=0 = vac è èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä 

exp

t

α
b (t, x, ω) =

∫L 

(x (τ, y) , p (τ, y)) dA (τ ) + L (x (τ, y) , p (τ, y)) dA+ (τ )

×

0 

exp

t

−∫
0 

K (x (τ, y) , p (τ, y)) +

1
2 

t

∫ L− (x (τ, y) , p (τ, y)) L (x (τ, y) , p (τ, y)) 

×

0

vac.
(208)

Äëÿ îñòàòî÷íîãî ÷ëåíà < (t, x) ñïðàâåäëèâà îöåíêà: äëÿ ëþáûõ r >
1, δ > 0 ñóùåñòâóåò ïîñòîÿííàÿ Cr, α, δ òàêàÿ, ÷òî ñ âåðîÿòíîñòüþ 1 −
δ :
−r

|Dxα < (t, x, ω, ¯
h)| ≤r, α, δ h
¯ r−|α| (1 + |x|)

.
(209)

Òåîðåìà 15.4.2. [40] Ïóñòü âûïîëíåíî óñëîâèå (i) òåîðåìû 1. Ïóñòü
1/¯
h
KΛn (t) - êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Ìàñëîâà, îïðåäåëåííûé íà ëàãðàíæåâîì ìíîãîîáðàçèè Λn (t) -îáðàçå ïîâåðõíîñòè
n
Λn0 = x = y, p =

∂S0 (y)
∂y ,

y ∈ Rn

o

(210)
ïîä äåéñòâèåì ãàìèëúòîíîâà ïîòîêà (200) ñ íà÷àëüíîé òî÷êîé r0 (t) ∈
Λn (t) - îáðàçîì íåêîòîðîé òî÷êè r0 ∈ Λn0 . Òîãäà ôîðìàëüíûì àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèì ðåøåíèåì çàäà÷è Êîøè (192) ñ íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (202),
ñ òî÷íîñòüþ äî îñòàòî÷íîãî ÷ëåíà, óäîâëåòâîðÿþùåãî îöåíêàì (209),

75

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñëó÷àéíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ
1/¯
h
ψb (t, x, ω [0, t]) = KΛn (t) [b
α (t, x, ω [0, t]) ϕ (t, x)] exp {iΘ (t, x)} ,
(211)
ãäå ϕ (t, x) è α
b (t, x, ω [0, t]) çàäàþòñÿ ôîðìóëàìè (206) è (208) ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, â êîòîðûõ èíòåãðàë ïî dτ áåðåòñÿ âäîëü òðàåêòîðèè ãàìèëüòîíîâà ïîòîêà (200), îêàí÷èâàþùåéñÿ â òî÷êå r ∈ Λn (t) è ãäå 

Θ (t, x) =

1
h
¯

t

S0 (y) + ∫ dτ p (τ, y)

∂x(τ, y)
∂τ

− H (x, p (τ, y))  

π
2 ind (γ) .

0

(212)

 ôîðìóëå (212) èíòåãðàë âçÿò âäîëü èíòåãðàëüíîé êðèâîé γ ãàìèëüòîíîâà ïîòîêà (200), ñîåäèíÿþùåé òî÷êè r0 è r0 (t), à ind ind (γ) åå èíäåêñ Ìîðñà.  ÷àñòíîñòè, åñëè ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðîåêöèåé ëèøü íåîñîáûõ òî÷åê rj ìíîãîîáðàçèÿ Λn (t), òî ÷èñëî ýòèõ òî÷åê àâòîìàòè÷åñêè
êîíå÷íî è àñèìïòîòè÷åñêîå ðåøåíèå ψb (t, x, ω [0, t]) â îêðåñòíîñòè ýòîé
òî÷êè ïðåäñòàâèìî â âèäå ñóììû âêëàäîâ ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì

x

n
P

b (t, x, ω [0, t]) =
ψ

j=1

α
bj (t, x, ω [0, t]) ϕj (t, x) exp 

i

h
¯ Sj

(t, x) −


2 ind (γj )

,
(213)

ãäå ôóíêöèè α
bj , ϕj Sj âû÷èñëÿþòñÿ ïî ôîðìóëàì (208), (206), (204)
âäîëü òðàåêòîðèé γj , a ind (γj ) - èíäåêñ Ìîðñà ýòèõ òðàåêòîðèé.
Äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ðàñøèðèòü îáëàñòü ïðèìåíåíèÿ Òåîðåì 1 è 2 ðàáîb H,
b L
b ÿâëÿþòñÿ ¯h - ïñåâäîäèôôåðåíòû [39] íà îáùèé ñëó÷àé, êîãäà K,
öèàëüíûìè îïåðàòîðàìè, îïðåäåëÿåìûìè ïðîèçâîëüíûìè ñèìâîëàìè
H, K, L êëàññà T m1, m2 , ëèáî ñèìâîëàìè H, K, L êëàññà Tm1, m2 (Σ) è
k1 , k2
Tm
(Σ) , ìû ââåäåì â ðàññìîòðåíèå îáîáùåííûå ðåøåíèÿ óðàâíåíèÿ
1, m2
(192). Äëÿ ýòîãî ìû ðàññìîòðèì êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå ïñåâäîäèôôåðåíöèàëüíîå óðàâíåíèå ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

(dψε (t))ε + 


L 

ε 


K 

+
ε

i

hε )ε 


H 




ãäå K  

ε


, H  

ε

(ψε (t) dt)ε = 

 

b − ⊗ dA (t) (ψε (t)) ,
⊗ dA+ (t) + L
ε
ε
ε

ψ (0) = (ψ0, ε )ε , 

ε


, L 

ε

(214)

- (¯
hε )ε - ïñåâäîäèôôåðåíöèàëüíûå îïåðàòî-

ðû, îïðåäåëÿåìûå îáîáùåííûìè ñèìâîëàìè
(Hε )ε , (Kε )ε , (Lε )ε , òàê 

÷òî [(Hε )ε ] , [(Kε )ε ] , [(Lε )ε ] ∈ G Rnx × Rnp .

76

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ðàññìîòðèì çàäà÷ó Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ (214) ñ áûñòðîîñöèëëèðóþùèìè íà÷àëüíûìè äàííûìè ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

o 

n
⊗ vac.
(ψε (0, x))ε = (ψ0, ε (x))ε = ((ϕε (x))ε ) exp h¯iε S0, ε (x)
ε

(215)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.4. Ðåøåíèå (ψε (t, x; h
¯ ε ))ε Êîëîìáåàó çàäà÷è
Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ (214) íàçûâàåòñÿ îáîáùåííûì ðåøåíèåì (â ñìûñëå íåëèíåéíûõ îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé) çàäà÷è Êîøè (192).
Ìû êðàòêî ðàññìîòðèì ïðîöåäóðó ïîñòðîåíèÿ ôîðìàëüíîãî àñèìïòîòè÷åñêîãî ðåøåíèÿ (ψε (t, x; h
¯ ε ))ε Êîëîìáåàó äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ (214) ñ
áûñòðîîñöèëëèðóþùèìè íà÷àëüíûìè äàííûìè (215).

Òåîðåìà 15.4.3. Ïóñòü T - ôèêñèðîâàíûé ìîìåíò âðåìåíè è ïðè
ýòîì âûïîëíåíû ñëåäóþùèå óñëîâèÿ:
(i) Ïóñòü äàíà çàäà÷à Êîøè äëÿ îáîáùåííîé ñèñòåìû Ãàìèëüòîíà

(x˙ ε )ε = 

∂Hε
∂p 

ε

, (p)
˙ ε=−

x (0) = y, (pε (0))ε = 

∂Hε
∂x ε

∂S0, ε (y)
∂y 

, 

,
ε

(216) 

ãäå ôóíêöèÿ (Hε (t, x, p))ε ∈ G Rnx × Rnp (òåì ñàìûì ∀y (y ∈ Rn ) ðåøåíèå çàäà÷è Êîøè (216) ïðè êàæäîì t ≥ t0 îïðåäåëåíî è åäèíñòâåííî,
ò. å. íåîãðàíè÷åííî ïðîäîëæàåìî ïðè t ≥ t0 , ñì. çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.4) è
∀ε ∈ (0, 1]

xε (t, y) , pε (t, y) ∈ C ∞ ([0, T ] × Rn ) .

(217)

(ii) ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] îòîáðàæåíèå y → xε (t, y) ïðè êàæäîì t ∈ [0, T ] åñòü
äèôôåîìîðôèçì, òàê ÷òî äëÿ âñÿêîãî x ∈ Rn ñóùåñòâóåò è åäèíñòâåííî òàêîå y ∈ Rn , ÷òî x = xε (t, y). Òîãäà îáîáùåííàÿ ôóíêöèÿ

(ψε (t, x, ω [0, t]))ε = n
o
((b
αε (t, x, ω [0, t]))ε ) ((ϕε (t, x))ε ) exp h¯iε Sε (t, x)

ε

(218)
ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôîðìàëüíûì àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèì ðåøåíèåì çàäà÷è Êîøè (214)
ñ íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (215), ò. å. îíà óäîâëåòâîðÿåò óðàâíåíèþ (214) ñ
òî÷íîñòüþ äî àääèòèâíîé íåâÿçêè F (t, x, ω [0, t]) = O (¯
h). Çäåñü ôàçà
(Sε (t, x))ε óäîâëåòâîðÿåò îáîáùåííîìó óðàâíåíèþ Ãàìèëüòîíà  ßêî-

77

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

áè

∂Sε
∂t ε 

+ Hε x,

∂Sε
∂x 

ε

= 0, (Sε (0, x))ε = (S0, ε (x))ε

è èìååò ñëåäóþùèé êàíîíè÷åñêèé âèä  

t
∫ dτ pε (τ, y)
0

(Sε (t, x))ε =
∂xε (τ, y)
∂τ

− Hε (x, pε (τ, y)) 

(219)

+ (S0, ε (y))ε ,
ε

(220)
à îáîáùåííàÿ ôóíêöèÿ (ϕε (t, x))ε ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåøåíèåì îáîáùåííîãî
óðàâíåíèÿ ïåðåíîñà 

∂ϕε
∂t 

+
ε 

∂ϕε ∂Hε
∂x ∂p

x,

∂Sε
∂x 

ε 

 2 

2
+ tr ∂∂pH2ε ∂∂xSε
=0
ε

(221)
ñ íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (ϕε (t, x))ε = (ϕ0, ε (x))ε è èìååò ñëåäóþùèé
êàíîíè÷åñêèé âèä

(ϕε (t, x))ε = ((ϕε (y))ε ) 

(t, y)
det ∂xε∂y 

−1/2

×

ε 

 
2 

t
∂ Hε (x, pε (t, y))
1
exp 2 ∫ dτ tr
.
∂x∂p
0

ε

(222)

Îáîáùåííàÿ ñëó÷àéíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ (b
αε (t, x, ω [0, t]))ε ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåøåíèåì êâàíòîâîãî ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî óðàâíåíèÿ

(db
αε )ε +

h

L−
ε x,

∂Hε
∂p
∂Sε
∂x

x,

∂Sε
∂x 


ε  

  ∂ α
bε +
∂x
ε

((b
αε )ε ) dA +

ε

Kε x,

Lε x,

∂Sε
∂x

∂Sε
∂x 


ε 


ε

i
(b
αε )ε dt =

((b
αε )ε ) dA+

(223)

78

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ñ íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (b
αε )ε |t=0 = vac è èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä 

(b
αε (t, x, ω))ε = exp  

t
(x
(τ,
y)
,
p
(τ,
y))
dA

)
+
∫ L−
ε
ε
0

ε 


t
+
∫ Lε (xε (τ, y) , pε (τ, y)) dA (τ )
×
0

ε 

 

t
exp − ∫ (Kε (xε (τ, y) , pε (τ, y))) dτ −
0

− 12 

t


0

[L−
ε

ε 


× vac.

(xε (τ, y) , pε (τ, y)) Lε (xε (τ, y) , pε (τ, y))] dτ
ε

(224)

Äëÿ îñòàòî÷íîãî ÷ëåíà (<ε (t, x))ε ñïðàâåäëèâà îöåíêà: äëÿ ëþáûõ
r > 1, δ > 0, ε ∈ (0, 1] ñóùåñòâóåò ïîñòîÿííàÿ (Cε, r, α, δ )ε òàêàÿ, ÷òî ñ
âåðîÿòíîñòüþ 1 − δ :

h))ε | ≤
|(Dxα <ε (t, x, ω, ¯ 

hεr−|α|
ε, r, α, δ ¯

−r

(1 + |x|) 

.
ε

(225) 

Òåîðåìà 
15.4.4. Ïóñòü âûïîëíåíî óñëîâèå (i) òåîðåìû 3. Ïóñòü
1/¯

KΛn (t)
[·] - îáîáùåííûé êàíîíè÷åñêèé îïåðàòîð Ìàñëîâà, îïðåäåε

ε

ëåííûé íà îáîáùåííîì ëàãðàíæåâîì ìíîãîîáðàçèè (Λnε (t))ε - îáðàçå
îáîáùåííîé ïîâåðõíîñòè

n  

o
∂S0, ε (y)
n
Λn0, ε = x = y, (pε )ε =
,
y

R
∂y
ε

(226)
ïîä äåéñòâèåì îáîáùåííîãî ãàìèëüòîíîâà ïîòîêà (216) ñ íà÷àëüíîé 

òî÷êîé (r0, ε (t))ε ∈ (Λnε (t))ε - îáðàçîì íåêîòîðîé òî÷êè (r0, ε )ε ∈ Λn0, ε ε .
Òîãäà ôîðìàëüíûì àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèì ðåøåíèåì çàäà÷è Êîøè (214) ñ
íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (215), ñ òî÷íîñòüþ äî îñòàòî÷íîãî ÷ëåíà, óäîâëåòâîðÿþùåãî îöåíêàì (226), ÿâëÿåòñÿ îáîáùåííàÿ ñëó÷àéíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ 

1/¯
h 

ψbε (t, x, ω [0, t]) =
ε

ε
KΛn (t)
[((b
αε (t, x, ω [0, t]))ε ) ((ϕε (t, x))ε )] exp {i (Θε (t, x))ε } ,
ε

(227)
ãäå (ϕε (t, x))ε è α
bε (t, x, ω [0, t]) çàäàþòñÿ ôîðìóëàìè (206) è (208)
ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, â êîòîðûõ èíòåãðàë ïî dτ áåðåòñÿ âäîëü òðàåêòîðèè

79

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

îáîáùåííîãî ãàìèëüòîíîâà ïîòîêà (216), îêàí÷èâàþùåéñÿ â òî÷êå (rε )ε ∈
(Λnε (t))ε è ãäå

(Θε (t, x))ε =   

t
(S0, ε (y))ε + ∫ dτ pε (τ, y)
0

π
2 

1
h
¯ε

∂xε (τ, y)
∂τ 



×

ε

− Hε (x, pε (τ, y)) 



ε

(ind (γε ))ε .

(228)

 ôîðìóëå (228) èíòåãðàë âçÿò âäîëü èíòåãðàëüíîé êðèâîé γε îáîáùåííîãî ãàìèëüòîíîâà ïîòîêà (216), ñîåäèíÿþùåé òî÷êè (r0, ε )ε è

(r0, ε (t))ε ,

x

à (ind (γε ))ε - åå èíäåêñ Ìîðñà.  ÷àñòíîñòè, åñëè ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðîåêöèåé ëèøü íåîñîáûõ òî÷åê (rj, ε )ε îáîáùåííîãî ìíîãîîáðàçèÿ (Λnε (t))ε ,
òî ÷èñëî
ýòèõ òî÷åê 
àâòîìàòè÷åñêè êîíå÷íî è àñèìïòîòè÷åñêîå ðåøå
b
íèå ψε (t, x, ω [0, t]) â îêðåñòíîñòè ýòîé òî÷êè ïðåäñòàâèìî â âèäå
ε
ñóììû âêëàäîâ ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì 

n
P
j=1

bε (t, x, ω [0, t])
ψ
α
bj,ε (t, x, ω [0, t]) 

(ϕj, ε (t, x))ε

ε 

exp 

ε

=

i

hε )ε

(Sj,ε (t, x))ε −


2

(ind (γj, ε ))ε

(229)

ãäå îáîáùåííûå ôóíêöèè α
bj , ϕj , Sj âû÷èñëÿþòñÿ ïî ôîðìóëàì (224),
(222), (220) âäîëü òðàåêòîðèé (γj, ε )ε , a (ind (γj, ε ))ε - èíäåêñ Ìîðñà
ýòèõ òðàåêòîðèé.
Âàæíûé ÷àñòíûé ñëó÷àé óðàâíåíèÿ (214) ýòî ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå [58]
èëè àïîñòåðèîðíîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà [40]:

d (ψε )ε +  

i

hε )ε

√  

b ε (x, t) + λ R2 (x) ((ψε ) ) dt =
H
ε
2
ε

λR (x) ((ψε )ε ) dW (t) ,

(230)  

b ε (x, t) = − ((¯hε ) ) /2∆ + (Vε (x, t)) - êâàíòîâî-ìåõàíè÷åñêèé
ãäå H
ε
ε
ε

ãàìèëüòîíèàí, W (t) - âèíåðîâñêèé ïðîöåññ, λ -ïîëîæèòåëüíûé ïàðàìåòð, èìåþùèé ñìûñë òî÷íîñòè ïðîöåññà ÊÌ èçìåðåíèÿ. Ìû áóäåì
ðàññìàòðèâàòü òàêæå áîëåå îáùåå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèí-

,

80

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ãåðà cî ñëó÷àéíûì ïîòåíöèàëîì

d (ψε )ε +  

i

hε )ε

b ε (x, t, ω)
H

√ 

+
ε

λ
2 


Rε2 (x) ε (ψε )ε dt =

λ (Rε (x))ε (ψε )ε dW (t) ,

(231) 

b
ãäå Hε (x, t, ω) = − ((¯
hε )ε ) /2∆ + (Vε (x, t, ω))ε ýòî ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèé
ε
êâàíòîâî- ìåõàíè÷åñêèé ãàìèëüòîíèàí è ãäå 

(Vε (x, t, ω))ε = ς (t, x) (Vε (x, t))ε , ς (t, x)
- îáîáùåííàÿ ñëó÷àéíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ.
Òàêèì îáðàçîì, íåîáõîäèìî ââåñòè â ðàññìîòðåíèå ðåãóëÿðèçîâàííîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà cî ñëó÷àéíûì ïîòåíöèàëîì

d (ψε )ε +  

i

hε )ε

b ε (x, t, ω)
H 

+
ε

λ
2 


Rε2 (x) ε (ψε )ε dt =

λ (Rε (x))ε (ψε )ε d (Wε (t))ε ,

(232)
ãäå (Vε (x, t, ω))ε = (ςε (t, x))ε (Vε (x, t))ε , (ςε (t, x))ε -íåëèíåéíàÿ îáîáùåííàÿ ñëó÷àéíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ â ñìûñëå òåîðèè Êîëîìáåàó. Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì ìîæåò áûòü ïîëó÷åíî ðåãóëÿðèçîâàííîå êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå ïñåâäîäèôôåðåíöèàëüíîå óðàâíåíèå ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåå óðàâíåíèþ (214). Ââåäåì â ðàññìîòðåíèå ðåãóëÿðèçîâàííûå îïåðàòîðíûå
ôóíêöèè óíè÷òîæåíèÿ Aε (t) è ðîæäåíèÿ A+
ε (t) , ε ∈ (0, 1] òàê, ÷òîáû
â ñìûñëå îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé âûïîëíÿëèñü ñëåäóþùèå ðàâåíñòâà

lim Aε (t) = A (t) , lim A+
ε (t) = A (t) .

ε→0

ε→0

(233)

Îáîáùåííûå îïåðàòîðíûå ôóíêöèè (Aε (t))ε è
(t))ε ñâÿçàíû
ñ ðåãóëÿðèçîâàííûìè ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì îáðàçîì áîçîííûìè ïîëÿìè
aε (t) è a+
ε (t) ñëåäóþùèìè ñîîòíîøåíèÿìè

(A+
ε

(Aε (t))ε =    

t
t
0
+
∫ aε (τ ) dτ , (A+
(t
))
=

a

)

.
ε
ε
ε
0

0

ε

(234)

Ïóñòü Wε (t, ω) - ðåãóëÿðèçîâàííûé Âèíåðîâñêèé ïðîöåññ. Ââåäåì

81

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

â ðàññìîòðåíèå îáîáùåííîå õàîòè÷åñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå

φε (ω) =

P∞ 
n=0

(n)

∫ ... ∫ fε

(t1 , ..., tn ) dWε (t1 , ω) ...dWε (tn , ω) 

,
ε

(235)
ñïðàâåäëèâîå äëÿ ëþáîé îáîáùåííîé ôóíêöèè [(φε )ε ] ∈ G1 ⊂ GH
, ãäå
b
b
H
1
G - íåòðèâèàëüíàÿ ïîäàëãåáðà àëãåáðû GH
b,
b
H     

(fε )ε =
fε(0) , fε(1) , ..., f (n) , ... ,
ε

ε

[(fε )ε ] ∈ G1F , G1F - íåòðèâèàëüíàÿ ïîäàëãåáðà àëãåáðû GF è ãäå

k(fε )ε kG1 =

P∞

n=0

F  

2

(n)
∫ ... ∫ fε (t1 , ..., tn ) dt1 ...dtn < ∞.
ε

(236)

Ïðè ýòîì ìû ïðåäïîëàãàåì, ÷òî ñïðàâåäëèâî ðàâåíñòâî k(fε )ε kG1 =
F

k(φε )ε kG1 . Îïåðàòîð óìíîæåíèÿ íà [(Wε (t, ω))ε ] â G1 óíèòàðíî ýêb
H
H
b
+
+
âèâàëåíòåí
îïåðàòîðó
[(A
(t)
+
A
(t))
]
è
çíà÷èò
(a
ε
ε (t) + aε (t))ε =
ε
ε  

˙ ε (t) = (wε (t)) . Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèå êâàíòîâûå èíòåãðàëû ÊîëîìáåàóW
ε
ε
Õàäñîíà- Ïàðòàñàðàòè îïðåäåëåíû êàê  

t
∫ dA+

)
D

)
,
ε
ε 
0 

t

(Aε (t, D− ))ε = ∫ dA+
,
ε (τ ) D (τ )
(A+
ε (t, D))ε =

0 

(Wε (t, D))ε =

ε 

t

∫ D (τ ) dWε (τ ) = (A+
ε (t, D))ε + (Aε (t, D ))ε .
0

ε

(237)

Ââåäåì â ðàññìîòðåíèå ðåãóëÿðèçîâàííîå êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå
ïñåâäîäèôôåðåíöèàëüíîå óðàâíåíèå ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

(dψε (t))ε + 


L 

ε 


K 

+
ε 

i

hε )ε


H 


ε

(ψε (t) dt)ε = 

 

b − ⊗ dAε (t) (ψε (t)) ,
⊗ dA+
ε (t) + Lε
ε
ε

(ψε (0))ε = (ψ0, ε )ε .

(238)

82

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ïóñòü (Θ, F, P) - ôèêñèðîâàííîå âåðîÿòíîñòíîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.5. [28-34]. Ïóñòü E (Rn , Θ) îáîçíà÷àåò ìíîæåñòâî âñåõ ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòåé (uε (ω, x))ε , ω ∈ Θ, x ∈ Rn , ε ∈ I, òàêèõ
÷òî äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ (ï.â) ω ∈ Θ ñïðàâåäëèâî âêëþ÷åíèå (uε (ω, ·))ε ∈
E (Rn ) , è äëÿ ëþáîãî x ∈ Rn ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü (uε (·, x))ε ýòî ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü F - èçìåðèìûõ ôóíêöèé íà ìíîæåñòâå Θ. Îïðåäåëèì
òåïåðü ñëåäóþùèå ìíîæåñòâà

EM (Rn , Θ) =
{(uε )ε ∈ E (Rn , Θ) | (for a.e. ω ∈ Θ) (∀K ⊆ Rn ) (∀α ∈ N∞
0 )  

(∃p ∈ N) sup |∂ α uε (ω, x)| = O (ε−p )
,
x∈K

N (Rn , Θ) =
{(uε )ε ∈ E (Rn , Θ) | (for a.e. ω ∈ Θ) (∀K ⊆ Rn ) (∀α ∈ N∞
0 )  

(∀q ∈ N) sup |∂ α uε (ω, x)| = O (εq )
,
x∈K

G (Rn , Θ) = EM (Rn , Θ) /N (Rn , Θ) .

(239)

Ýëåìåíòû ìíîæåñòâà EM (R , Θ) íàçûâàþòñÿ îãðàíè÷åííûìè
ñëó÷àéíûìè ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòÿìè, à ýëåìåíòû ìíîæåñòâà N(Rn , Θ)
íàçûâàþòñÿ ïðèíåáðåæèìûìè ñëó÷àéíûìè ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòÿìè.
n

EM (Rn , Θ)

ýòî äèôôåðåíöèàëüíàÿ àëãåáðà ñ ïîòî÷å÷íî çàäàííûìè îïåðàöèÿìè.
Îòìåòèì, ÷òî EM (Rn , Θ) ýòî ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ ïîäàëãåáðà â E (Rn , Θ) ,
äëÿ êîòîðîé ïîäàëãåáðà N (Rn , Θ) åñòü äèôôåðåíöèàëüíûé èäåàë. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, G (Rn , Θ) - êîììóòàòèâíàÿ è àññîöèàòèâíàÿ äèôôåðåíöèàëüíàÿ àëãåáðà.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.6. [28-34]. Îáîçíà÷èì

I

EM (Rn , Lp (Θ)) = (C ∞ (Rn , , Lp (Θ))) .

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

83

Îïðåäåëèì òåïåðü ñëåäóþùèå ìíîæåñòâà

EM (Rn , Lp (Θ)) =
{(uε )ε ∈ E (Rn , Lp (Θ)) | (∀K ⊆ Rn ) (∀α ∈ N∞
0 ) 
o 

(∃p ∈ N) k∂ α uε (ω, x)k?p = O (ε−p ) ,
N (Rn , Lp (Θ)) =
{(uε )ε ∈ E (Rn , Lp (Θ)) | (∀K ⊆ Rn ) (∀α ∈ N∞
0 )  

(∀q ∈ N) sup |∂ α uε (ω, x)| = O (εq )
,
x∈K

G (Rn , Lp (Θ)) = EM (Rn , Lp (Θ)) /N (Rn , Lp (Θ)) .

(240)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.7. [35]. Ïóñòü (Θ, F, P) - âåðîÿòíîñòíîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî.
F - èçìåðèìîå â ñëàáîì ñìûñëå îòîáðàæåíèå X : Θ → 

D0 Rd íàçâàåòñÿ îáîáùåííîé ñëó÷àéíîé ôóíêöèåé îïðåäåëåííîé íà
Θ. 

Ïîä÷åðêíåì,
÷òî äëÿ ëþáîé ôóíêöèè ϕ ∈ D Rd îòîáðàæåíèå 

ϕ ∈ D Rd , çàäàííîå ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëîé ω → hX (ω) , ϕi, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñëó÷àéíîé âåëè÷èíîé, îïðåäåëåííîé íà Θ. Ìíîæåñòâî
îáîáùåííûõ 

ñëó÷àéíûõ ôóíêèé ìû îáîçíà÷èì êàê D0 Θ, Rd .
Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.8. Õàðàêòåðèñòè÷åñêèé ôóíêöèîíàë
CX (ϕ) , ϕ ∈ D Rd 

îáîáùåííîé ñëó÷àéíîé ôóíêöèè êîððåêòíî îïðåäåëåí ñîãëàñíî ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëå

CX (ϕ) = ∫ exp [i hX (ω) , ϕi] dP (ω) .

(241)

˙ (x) íà R çàäàåòñÿ ñëåÊàíîíè÷åñêàÿ êîíñòðóêöèÿ áåëîãîøóìà W
äóþùèì îáðàçîì. Ïóñòü Θ = S 0 Rd , à F - Áîðåëåâñêàÿ σ - àëãåá
ðà, êîòîðàÿ ãåíåðèðóåòñÿ êàíîíè÷åñêîé ñëàáîé òîïîëîãèåé íà S 0 Rd .
Òîãäà ñóøåñòâóåò åäèíñòâåííàÿ âåðîÿòíîñòíàÿ ìåðà µ íà âåðîÿòíîñòíîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå (Θ, F ) òàê, ÷òî äëÿ ëþáîé îáîáùåííîé ôóíêöèè
d

84

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ϕ ∈ S 0 Rd 

:  

2
∫ exp [i hX (ω) , ϕi] dµ (ω) = exp − 12 kϕkL2 (Rd ) .
(242)

Îïðåäåëåíèå
15.4.9. Îïðåäåëèì òåïåðü áåëûé øóì W˙ (ω) : 

Θ → D0 Rd êàê îáîáùåííóþ ñëó÷àéíóþ ôóíêöèþ, êîòîðàÿ çàäàíà
ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëîé
D
E
˙ (ω) , ϕ = hω, ϕi ,
W
(243) 

ñïðàâåäëèâîé äëÿ ëþáîé ïðîáíîé ôóíêöèè ϕ ∈ D Rd .

˙ (ϕ) ýòî îáîáùåííàÿ Ãàóññîâñêàÿ ñëó÷àéíàÿ ôóíêÒàêèì îáðàçîì, W
i
h
˙ (ϕ) = 0 è äèñïåðñèåé ðàâíîé
öèÿ ñ íóëåâûì ñðåäíèì E W
h
i
h
i
˙ (ϕ) = E W
˙ 2 (ϕ) = kϕk2 d .
D W
L2 (R )
(244)

˙ (ϕ) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä
Êîâàðèàöèÿ äëÿ W
h
i
˙ (ϕ) W
˙ (φ) = ∫ ϕ (x) φ (x) dx.
E W
?d

(245)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.10. [35]. Äëÿ ïðîèçâîëüíîãî x ∈ R ìû îïðåäåëèì çíàêîïåðåìåííóþ èíäèêàòîð-ôóíêöèþ êàê
d

ν (x, y) =

d
Q

sign (xj ) κ (x, y) ,

j=1

(246)
ãäå κ (x, y) - èíäèêàòîð-ôóíêöèÿ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî d - ìåðíîãî èíòåðâàëà.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.11. Âèíåðîâñêèé ïðîöåññ B (x) íà Rd îïðåäå-

ëåí êàê L2 (Ω) -ïðåäåë

E
D
˙ , ν (x, y) ∗ ϕε (y) ,
B (x) = lim W
ε→0  

ϕε (y) = ε1d ϕ yε , ϕ ∈ D Rd .

(247)

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

85

Îòîáðàæåíèå (x, ω) → B (x, ω) çàäàåò Âèíåðîâñêèé ïðîöåññ íà Rd ,
ïîñêîëüêó

˙ (x, ω) = ∂x ...∂x B (x, ω)
W
1
d 

ïî÷òè íàâåðíîå â D0 Rd .

(248)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.12. Ñãëàæåííûé ñëó÷àéíûé ïðîöåññ áåëîãî
˙ ε (t, ω) íà R+ îïðåäåëåí êàê
Øóìà W
D
E
˙ ε (t, ω) = W
˙ (t, ω) , ϕε (s − t) ,
W
˙ (t, ω) - áåëûé øóì, à ϕε - äåëüòà ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü.
ãäå W

(249)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.13. [35]. Ïóñòü çàäàíî âåðîÿòíîñòíîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî (Ω, Σ, P) . Îáîçíà÷èì ñèìâîëîì EΩ (n, [0, ∞)) ïðîñòðàíñòâî ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòåé (Xε (t))ε , ε ∈ (0, 1], ãäå Xε (t) - ï.í. íåïðåðûâíûé ñëó÷àéíûé ïðîöåññ. Ýêâèâàëåíòíûì îáðàçîì, Xε ýòî îòîáðàæåíèå Xε : (0, 1] × [0, ∞) × Ω → Rn , äëÿ êîòîðîãî ñïðàâåäëèâû ñëåäóþùèå óñëîâèÿ: îòîáðàæåíèå (t, ω) → Xε (t, ω) èçìåðèìî äëÿ ëþáîãî
ε ∈ (0, 1] , îòîáðàæåíèå t → Xε (t, ω) ï.í. ïðèíàäëåæèò ïðîñòðàíñòâó
C ∞ ([0, ∞)) äëÿ ëþáîãî ε ∈ (0, 1] .
Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.14. Ïóñòü çàäàíî âåðîÿòíîñòíîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî
(Ω, Σ, P) . Îáîçíà÷èì ñèìâîëîì EΩ
M (n, [0, ∞)) ïðîñòðàíñòâî ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòåé (Xε (t))ε ∈ EΩ (n, [0, ∞)) , òàêîå, ÷òî äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ
ω ∈ Ω, äëÿ âñåõ T > 0 è α ∈ N0 ñóùåñòâóþò êîíñòàíòû N, C > 0 è
ε0 ∈ (0, 1] , òàêèå, ÷òî
"
∀ε (ε ≤ ε0 )

#
α

−N

sup k∂ Xε (t, ω)k ≤ Cε

.

t∈[0, T ]

(250)
Îáîçíà÷èì ñèìâîëîì N (n, [0, ∞)) ïðîñòðàíñòâî ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòåé (Xε (t))ε ∈ EΩ (n, [0, ∞)) , òàêîå, ÷òî äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω, äëÿ
âñåõ T > 0 , α ∈ N0 , ν ∈ R+ ñóùåñòâóþò êîíñòàíòû C > 0, ε0 ∈ (0, 1]
òàêèå, ÷òî

"
∀ε (ε ≤ ε0 )

#
sup k∂ α Xε (t, ω)k ≤ Cεν .
t∈[0, T ]

(251)
Ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü (Xε (t))ε ∈

EΩ
M

(n, [0, ∞)) íàçûâàåòñÿ îãðàíè-

86

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

÷åííîé ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòüþ, à ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü

(Xε (t))ε ∈ NΩ (n, [0, ∞))
íàçûâàåòñÿ ïðèíåáðåæèìîé ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòüþ.
Îïðåäåëèì òåïåðü àëãåáðó GΩ
n êàê



GΩ
n = Gn (n, [0, ∞)) = EM (n, [0, ∞)) /N (n, [0, ∞)) .

(252)

Àëãåáðà GΩ
n ýòî äèôôåðåíöèàëüíàÿ àëãåáðà, êîòîðàÿ íàçûâàåòñÿ
àëãåáðîé Êîëîìáåàó îáîáùåííûõ ñëó÷àéíûõ ïðîöåññîâ. Ýëåìåíòû àëãåáðû GΩ
n ìû îáîçíà÷àåì [(Xε )ε ] èëè cl {(Xε )ε } , ãäå (Xε (t))ε ïðåäñòàâèòåëü ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî êëàññà ýêâèâàëåíòíîñòè.

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.9. Íåîáõîäèìî îòìåòèòü, ÷òî êàíîíè÷åñêîå Áðîóíîâñêîå äâèæåíèå è ïðîöåññ áåëîãî øóìà, îïðåäåëåííûå âûøå, ìîãóò
áûòü ïðåäñòàâëåíû ýêâèâàëåíòíûì îáðàçîì êàê îáîáùåííûå ñëó÷àéíûå ïðîöåññû â ñìûñëå òåîðèè Êîëîìáåàó íåëèíåéíûõ îáîáùåííûõ
ôóíêöèé.
Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.15. Ïóñòü çàäàíî âåðîÿòíîñòíîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî
(Ω, Σ, P) . Îáîçíà÷èì ñèìâîëîì EΩ
M, C k (n, [0, ∞)) ïðîñòðàíñòâî ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòåé òàêîå, ÷òî äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω, äëÿ âñåõ T > 0 è
α ∈ N0 ñóùåñòâóþò êîíñòàíòû N, C > 0 è ε0 ∈ (0, 1] , òàêèå, ÷òî
"

#
sup k∂ m Xε (t, ω)k ≤ Cε−N .

∀ε (ε ≤ ε0 ) ∀m (0 ≤ m ≤ k)

t∈[0, T ]

(253)
Îáîçíà÷èì ñèìâîëîì
(n, [0, ∞)) ïðîñòðàíñòâî ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòåé (Xε (t))ε ∈ EΩ (n, [0, ∞)) , òàêîå, ÷òî äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω, äëÿ
âñåõ T > 0 , α ∈ N0 , ν ∈ R+ ñóùåñòâóþò êîíñòàíòû C > 0, ε0 ∈ (0, 1]
òàêèå, ÷òî

NΩ
Ck

"
∀ε (ε ≤ ε0 ) ∀m (0 ≤ m ≤ k)

#
sup k∂ m Xε (t, ω)k ≤ Cεν .
t∈[0, T ]

(254)
Îïðåäåëèì òåïåðü àëãåáðó

GΩ
Ck

(n, [0, ∞)) êàê




GΩ
n, C k = Gn, C k (n, [0, ∞)) = EM, C k (n, [0, ∞)) /NC k (n, [0, ∞)) .
(255)

15.4. Êâàíòîâîå ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà...

87

Òåîðåìà 15.4.5. Ðàññìîòðèì îáîáùåííóþ ñòîõàñòè÷åñêóþ çàäà÷ó
Êîøè ñ íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì  

p
Ψε (x, x0 ) ,
(Ψ0, ε (x))ε =
ε

ãäå

Ψε (x, x0 ) =

ηεn/2
n/2

(2π)

n/2
h
¯ε  

2
0)
exp − ηε (x−x
,
h
¯ε

0<¯
hε  ηε  1, ¯hε → 0 5A; 8 ε → 0.

(256)

Ïóñòü Vε (x, t, ω)|ε=0 = V (x, t, ω) : R → R è ïðè ëþáîì ôèêñèðîâàííîì t ∈ R+ ôóíêöèÿ V (x, t, ω) åñòü ïîëèíîì îò ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûõ ïåðåìåííûõ x = (x1 , ...xn ) , ò. å.
n

V (x, t, ω) =

P

gα (t, ω) xα ,

kαk?n
P

α = (i1 , ..., in ) , kαk =

r=1 ir ,

i = 1, ..., n,

xα = xi11 xi22 ...xinn .

(257)

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç

u (τ, t, λ, x, ω) = (u1 (τ, t, λ, x, ω) , ..., un (τ, t, λ, x, ω))
ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé ëèíåéíîé ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîé êðàåâîé
çàäà÷è
d2 uT (τ, t, λ, x, ω)
dτ 2

h 0
iT
= Hess [V (λ, τ, ω)] uT (τ, t, λ, x, ω) + V (λ, τ, ω) ,

u (0, t, λ, x, y, ω) = y, u (t, t, λ, x, ω) = x,
(258)

ãäå

T

uT (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω) = (u1 (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω) , ..., un (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω)) ,  

0
τ, ω)
τ, ω)
V (λ, τ, ω) = ∂V (x,
, ..., ∂V (x,
,
∂x1
∂xn
x=λ

λ = (λ1 , ..., λn )

(259)

88

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

è Hess [V (λ, τ, ω)] ýòî Ãåññèàí îòîáðàæåíèÿ V (·, τ, ω)
âû÷èñëåííûé â òî÷êå x= λ, ò. å.

Hessij [V (λ, τ, ω)] =

h

∂ 2 V (x, τ, ω)
∂xi ∂xj

i

: Rn → R,

.
x=λ

(260)

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç S (t, λ, x, y, ω) ôóíêöèþ, çàäàííóþ ñëåäóþùåé
ôîðìóëîé

S (t, λ, x, y, ω) =
t

b (u˙ (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω) , u (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω) , τ, ω) dτ,
∫L
0

(261)

ãäe

b (u˙ (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω) , u (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω) , τ, ω) =
L
2

m u˙

(τ, t, λ, x, y, ω)
2

− Vb (u (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω) , τ, ω) ,

Vb (u (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω) , τ ) =
u (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω) Hess [V (λ, τ, ω)] uT (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω) +
h 0
i
V (λ, τ, ω) uT (τ, t, λ, x, y, ω) .
(262)
Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç ycr = ycr (t, λ, x, ω) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñèñòåìû
ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé
∂S(t, λ, x, y, ω)
∂yi

= 0,

i = 1, ..., n.
(263)

b=u
b (t, x0 , λ, ω) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñèÎáîçíà÷èì äàëåå ÷åðåç x
ñòåìû ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé
b, ω) + λ − x0 = 0.
ycr (t, λ, x

(264)

Ïðåäïîëîæèì òàêæå, ÷òî äëÿ äàííûõ çíà÷åíèé ïàðàìåòðîâ t, λ,
b=u
b (t, x0 , λ, ω) íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôîêàëüíîé òî÷êîé íà òðàåêòîðèè,
òî÷êà x

89

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...

çàäàííîé ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ðåøåíèåì êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (258). Òîãäà äëÿ
ÊÌ ñðåäíåãî  

2

∫ xi |Ψ(x, t, x0 , ω;¯
hε )| d x
n

R
(hi, t, x0 , ω; h
¯ ε i)ε =  

ε , i = 1, ..., n,
2

∫ |Ψ(x, t, x0 , ω;¯
hε )| d x
Rn

ε

ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî ðåøåíèþ Êîëîìáåàó ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîé çàäà÷è Êîøè
(232) ñ íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (256) ñïðàâåäëèâî ñëåäóþùåå íåðàâåíñòâî

lim inf |hi, t, x0 , ω; h
¯ ε i − λi | ≤ sup |b
ui (t, x0 , λ, ω)| , i = 1, ..., n.

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

ε→0

(265)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âû÷èñëåíèå êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêîé òðàåêòîðèè ñâîäèòñÿ ê ÷èñëåííîìó ðåøåíèþ ñèñòåìû òðàíñöåíäåíòíûõ óðàâíåíèé âèäà

u
bi (t, x0 , λ, ω) = 0,
i = 1, ..., n.
(266)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.4.10. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî â íåðàâåíñòâå (15.4.89) íèæ-

íèé ïðåäåë

lim

inf

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

|hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε , αi − λi |

â îáøåì ñëó÷àå íåëüçÿ çàìåíèòü ïðîñòûì ïðåäåëîì

lim

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

|hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε i − λi | .

Âñëåäñòâèå ýòîãî ñèñòåìà (266) â îáùåì ñëó÷àå èìååò ìíîæåñòâî ðåøåíèé.

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî
äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî âðåìåíè. Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé èíòåãðàë
ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì äëÿ îáîáùåííîãî Ëàãðàíæèàíà,
ñîäåðæàùåãî îïåðàòîðû äðîáíîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî
âðåìåíè.
Íàïîìíèì íåêîòîðûå îñíîâíûå îïðåäåëåíèÿ è òåîðåìû òåîðèè äðîáíîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ è äðîáíîé Ëàãðàíæåâîé äèíàìèêè [37-39],
[41-43].

90

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.5.1. [72-73]. (i) Ïóñòü f (t) ∈ L1 ([a, b]) , 0 < α <
+∞. Ëåâûé äðîáíûé èíòåãðàë Ðèìàíà-Ëèóâèëëÿ ïîðÿäêà α çàäàòñÿ
ôîðìóëîé

α
a It f

(t) =

1
Γ(α)

t

∫ (t − τ )

α−1

f (τ ) dτ,

a

(267)

ãäå t ∈ (a, +∞) .

(ii) Ïðàâûé äðîáíûé èíòåãðàë Ðèìàíà-Ëèóâèëëÿ ïîðÿäêà α çàäàòñÿ ôîðìóëîé

α
t Ia f

(t) =

1
Γ(α)

b

α−1

∫ (τ − t)

f (τ ) dτ,

t

(268)

ãäå t ∈ (−∞, b) .

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.5.1. Äëÿ ïðîèçâîëüíûõ α ∈ C èíòåãðàëû a Itα f (t)

è t Iaα f (t) îäíîçíà÷íî îïðåäåëåíû ïî÷òè âñþäó ïîñðåäñòâîì êàíîíè÷åñêîé ïðîöåäóðû àíàëèòè÷åñêîãî ïðîäîëæåíèÿ [73]. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî â
ñëó÷àå êîãäà Reα < 0, âåëè÷èíû a Itα f (t)|t=a è t Iaα f (t)|t=a íå îïðåäåëåíû, ïîñêîëüêó ìîãóò ïðèíèìàòü áåñêîíå÷íûå çíà÷åíèÿ. Òàê, íàïðèβ−1
β−1
ìåð, äëÿ f1 (t) = (t − a)
, f2 (t) = (a − t)
è Reα < 0, Reβ > 0 ìû
èìååì [73]

α+β−1

,

α+β−1

.

α
a It f1

(t) =

Γ(β)
Γ(α+β)

(t − a)

α
t Ia f2

(t) =

Γ(β)
Γ(α+β)

(a − t)

(269)

Äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû èñêëþ÷èòü âûøåóêàçàííûé íåäîñòàòîê êëàññè÷åñêîé îïåðàöèè äðîáíîãî èíòåãðèðîâàíèÿ, ìû ââåäåì â ðàññìîòðåíèå
èõ ñïåöèàëüíîå îáîáùåíèå.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.5.2. (i) Ïóñòü f (t) ∈ L1 ([a, b]) , −∞ < α < ∞.
Ëåâûé äðîáíûé êîìïëåêñíûé (âåùåñòâåííûé) èíòåãðàë Ðèìàíà-Ëèóâèëëÿ-Êîëîìáåàó ïîðÿäêà α ∈ (−∞, 1) çàäàòñÿ ôîðìóëàìè (270) 

b α
C
a It, ε f 

(t) =
ε

1
Γ(α) 

t

α−1

∫ (t − τ + iγε )
a 

f (τ ) dτ
ε

(270)

91

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...

è (271) 

b α
R
a It, ε f

(t) 

1
Γ(α) Re

=

ε  

t
α−1
∫ (t − τ + iγε )
f (τ ) dτ
a

ε

(271)

b
ñîòâåòñòâåííî, ãäå t ∈ [a, +∞) è limε→0 γε = 0, [(γε )ε ] ∈ R.
(ii) Ïðàâûé äðîáíûé êîìïëåêñíûé (âåùåñòâåííûé) èíòåãðàë ÐèìàíàËèóâèëëÿ- Êîëîìáåàó ïîðÿäêà α ∈ (−∞, ∞) çàäàþòñÿ ôîðìóëàìè
(272) 

b α
C
t Ia, ε f

(t) 

=
ε

1
Γ(α) 

a

α−1

∫ (τ − t + iγε ) 

f (τ ) dτ

t

ε

(272)

è (273) 

b α
R
t Ia, ε f

(t) 

1
Γ(α) Re

=
ε 

a

∫ (τ − t + iγε )

α−1 

f (τ ) dτ

t

ε

(273)

b
ñîòâåòñòâåííî, ãäå t ∈ (−∞, a] è limε→0 γε = 0, [(γε )ε ] ∈ R.

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.5.2. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî èíòåãðàëû 

b α
C
a It, ε f

(t) 

ε  

 
 

b α
b α
b α
, R
, C
, R
t Ia, ε f (t)
t Ia, ε f (t)
a It, ε f (t)
ε

ε

ε

b
êîððåêòíî îïðåäåëåíû äëÿ ëþáûõ t 6= ±∞, êàê ýëåìåíòû êîëüöà R.
β−1
β−1
Íàïðèìåð, äëÿ f1 (t) = (t − a)
, f2 (t) = (a − t)
è
Reα < 0, Reβ > 0
ìû èìååì  

b α
C
a It, ε f1 

(t) =

b α
C
t Ia, ε f2

(t)

ε 

=
ε

Γ(β+iγε )
Γ(α+β+iγε ) 

Γ(β+iγε )
Γ(α+β+iγε ) 

(t − a + iγε )

α+β−1

(a − t + iγε )

=

,
ε

α+β−1

Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî äëÿ t = a ìû èìååì
h 
i h 
i
bI α
b I α f (t)
C
C
f
(t)
=
=
1
2
a t=a, ε
t=a a, ε
ε 

ε

Γ (β + i [(γε )ε ])  α+β−1   b
iγε
∈ C.
ε
Γ (α + β + i [(γε )ε ]) 

.
ε

92

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.5.3. [72-73]. Ëåâàÿ a Dtα f (t) è ïðàâàÿ t Dbα f (t)

ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Ðèìàíà- Ëèóâèëëÿ ïîðÿäêà α çàäàþòñÿ ôîðìóëàìè (274)
è (275) ñîîòâåòñòâåííî
α
a Dt f

α
t Db f

(t) =

(t) = 

t f (τ ) dτ
d n
∫ (t−τ )α+1−n ,
dt
a

1
Γ(n−α)

(274) 

b f (τ ) dτ
d n
∫ (t−τ )α+1−n ,
dt
t

1
Γ(n−α)

(275)

ãäå n − 1 ≤ α < n.

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.5.3. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî åñëè α < 0, òî äëÿ ëþáîé ôóíêöèè f (τ ) ∈ C ([a, b]) ïðîèçâîäíûå a Dtα f (t) è t Dbα f (t) ñóùåñòâóþò è êîíå÷íû â ëþáîé òî÷êå t 6= ±∞. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî â ñëó÷àå êîãäà α > 0,
ïðîèçâîäíûå a Dtα f (t) è t Daα f (t) ìîãóò ïðèíèìàòü áåñêîíå÷íûå çíà÷å−µ
íèÿ ïðè t = a. Ïóñòü, íàïðèìåð, f (t) = (t − a) ∈ L1 ([a, b]) , 0 < µ <
Γ(1−µ)
α
1. Òîãäà, êàê èçâåñòíî [73], a Dt f (t) = Γ(1−µ−α) t−µ−α , 0 < α < ∞ è
r
α
a Dt=a f (t) = ±∞.  òîì ñëó÷àå, êîãäà f (t) ∈ C ([a, b]), íàøå óòâåðæäåíèå åñòü ñëåäñòâèå ôîðìóëû (276).
Òåîðåìà 15.5.1. [73]. Ïóñòü α > 0 è f (τ ) ∈ C [α]+1 ([a, b]) . Ïîëî-

æèì n = [α] + 1, òîãäà

α
a Dt f  

n−1
P f (k) (a) (t−a)k+1−{α}
d n
dt

Γ(k+2−α)

k=0

(t) =
+

1
Γ(n+1−{α})

b

f (n) (τ ) dτ
∫ (t−τ
)−n+{α}
t 

,
(276)

ãäå t 6= a.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.5.4. (i) Ëåâàÿ 

(t) ε êîìïëåêñíàÿ (âåùåñòâåííàÿ) ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Ðèìàíà- Ëèóâèëëÿ-Êîëîìáåàó ïîðÿäêà α, ãäå
n − 1 ≤ α < n çàäàþòñÿ ôîðìóëàìè (277) 

b α
C
a Dt, ε f

(t) 

=
ε

1
Γ(n−α)

α
a Dt, ε f 

d n
dt 

t


a

f (τ ) dτ
(t−τ +iγε )α+1−n 

ε

(277)

è (278) 

b α
R
a Dt, ε f 

(t) =
ε

1
Γ(n−α) Re  

d n
dt 

t


a

f (τ ) dτ
(t−τ +iγε )α+1−n 


ε

(278)

93

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...

b
ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ãäå t ∈ [a, +∞) è limε→0 γε = 0, [(γε )ε ] ∈ R,  

α
(ii) Ïðàâàÿ t Db,
êîìïëåêñíàÿ (âåùåñòâåííàÿ) ïðîèçâîäíàÿ
ε f (t)
ε
Ðèìàíà- Ëèóâèëëÿ-Êîëîìáåàó ïîðÿäêà α, ãäå n − 1 ≤ α < n çàäàþòñÿ
ôîðìóëàìè (279) 

b α
C
t Db, ε f 

(t) =
ε

1
Γ(n−α)  

d n
dt

b
t

f (τ ) dτ
(t−τ +iγε )α+1−n 

b

∫ 

ε

(279)

è (280) 

b α
R
t Db, ε f

(t) 

=
ε

1
Γ(n−α) Re  

d n
dt


t

f (τ ) dτ
(t−τ +iγε )α+1−n 


ε

(280)

b
ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ãäå t ∈ (−∞, b] è limε→0 γε = 0, [(γε )ε ] ∈ R.

Òåîðåìà 15.5.2. Ïóñòü α > 0 è f (τ ) ∈ C [α]+1 ([a, b]) . Ïîëîæèì

n = [α] + 1, òîãäà

b α
C
a Dt f 

n−1 (k)
P f (a) (t−a+i(γε )ε )k+1−{α}
+
Γ(k+2−α+i(γε )ε )
k=0 

b
f (n) (τ ) dτ
1
.
Γ(n+1−{α}) ∫ (t−τ +i(γ ) )−n+{α}
ε ε
t

(t) = 

d n
dt

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.5.5. [72]. Ëåâàÿ
(t) è ïðàâàÿ
èçâîäíàÿ Êàïóòî ïîðÿäêà α çàäàþòñÿ ôîðìóëàìè (282)
C α
a Dt f

C α
a Dt f

(t) =

1
Γ(n−α)

t

n−α−1

∫ (t − τ )
a 

d n

C α
t Db f

(t) =

1
Γ(n−α)

b

(282)

n−α−1

∫ (t − τ )
t

ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ãäå n − 1 ≤ α < n.

(t) ïðî-

f (τ ) dτ

è (283)

C α
t Db f

(281) 

d n

f (τ ) dτ
(283)

94

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ïóñòü 0 < α < 1, òîãäà ñïðàâåäëèâû ñëåäóþùèå ðàâåíñòâà

α
a Dt f

(t) =

C α
a Dt f 

(t) +

f (a)
1
Γ(1−α) (t−a)α ,

α
t Da f

(t) =

C α
t Da f 

(t) +

f (a)
1
Γ(1−α) (a−t)α ,

(284)

ãäå t ∈ (a, b) .

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.5.6. (i) Ëåâàÿ Cab CDtα f (t) è ïðàâàÿ Ctb CDbα f (t)

êîìïëåêñíàÿ ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Êàïóòî-Êîëîìáåàó ïîðÿäêà α çàäàþòñÿ ôîðìóëàìè (285)

b
C
α
a CDt f

1
Γ(n−α)

(t) = 

t

n−α−1

∫ (t − τ + iγε )
a 

d n
dτ 

f (τ ) dτ
ε

(285)

è (286)

b
C
α
t CDb f

(t) =

1
Γ(n−α) 

b
n−α−1
∫ (t − τ + iγε )
t 

d n
dτ 

f (τ ) dτ
ε

(286)

ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ãäå n − 1 ≤ α < n.

b
b
α
R
α
(ii) Ëåâàÿ R
a CDt f (t) è ïðàâàÿ t CDb f (t) âåùåñòâåííàÿ ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Êàïóòî-Êîëîìáåàó ïîðÿäêà α çàäàþòñÿ ôîðìóëàìè (287)

b
R
α
a CDt f

(t) =

1
Γ(n−α) Re 

t

∫ (t − τ + iγε )

n−α−1

a 

d n
dτ 

f (τ ) dτ
ε

(287)

è (593)

b
R
α
t CDb f

(t) =

1
Γ(n−α) Re 

b

n−α−1

∫ (t − τ + iγε )
t 

d n
dτ 

f (τ ) dτ

.
ε

(288)

95

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...

Ïóñòü 0 < α < 1, òîãäà ñïðàâåäëèâû ñëåäóþùèå ðàâåíñòâà

b α
C
a Dt f

(t) = 

b
C
α
a CDt f 

(t) +

f (a)
1
Γ(1−α) ((t−a+iγε )α )ε ,

b α
C
t Da f

(t) = 

b
α
C
t CDa f 

(t) +

f (a)
1
Γ(1−α) ((a−t+iγε )α )ε ,

b α
R
a Dt f

(t) = 

b
α
R
a CDt f 

(t) +

1
Γ(1−α) Re 

f (a)
((t−a+iγε )α )ε 

,

b α
R
t Da f

(t) = 

b
α
R
t CDa f 

(t) +

1
Γ(1−α) Re 

f (a)
((a−t+iγε )α )ε 

.
(289)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.5.4. Îòìåòèì, ÷òî ðàññìîòðåííûå âûøå îïåðàòîðû äðîáíîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ, îïðåäåëåííûå íà ðåãóëÿðíûõ ôóíêöèÿõ, êàíîíè÷åñêèì îáðàçîì ðàñïðîñòðàíÿþòñÿ íà ýëåìåíòû àëãåáðû
G (Rn ) , ò. å. äëÿ ëþáîãî [(fε )ε ] ∈ G (Rn ). Ëåâûå
h

è ïðàâûå

b α
C
a Dt fε

(t) 

i 
i h
b α
, R
a Dt fε (t)
ε

ε 

i 
i h
b α
b α
R
C
ïðîèçâîäíûå Ðèìàíà-Ëèó,
t Db fε (t)
t Db fε (t)

h

ε

ε

âèëëÿ-Êîëîìáåàó ïîðÿäêà α, çàäàþòñÿ ôîðìóëàìè (290)  

b α
C
a Dt fε

b α
R
a Dt fε 

(t) =
ε 

(t) =
ε 

d n
dt

1
Γ(n−α)

1
Γ(n−α) Re  

t


a 

d n
dt

fε (τ ) dτ
(t−τ +iγε )α+1−n 

t

a 

,
ε

fε (τ ) dτ
(t−τ +iγε )α+1−n 


ε

(290)

è (291)  

b α
C
t Db fε

b α
R
t Db fε 

(t) =
ε 

(t) =
ε

1
Γ(n−α)

1
Γ(n−α) Re 

d n
dt   

d n
dt

b


t

fε (τ ) dτ
(t−τ +iγε )α+1−n 

b

t

fε (τ ) dτ
(t−τ +iγε )α+1−n

ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Ëåâûå
h 
i h 
i
b
b
C
α
α
, R
a CDt fε (t)
a CDt fε (t)
ε 

ε

,
ε 


ε

(291)

96

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

è ïðàâûå

h

b
C
α
t CDb fε 

i h 
i
b
α
(t)
, R
ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Êàïóòî-Êît CDb fε (t)
ε

ε

ëîìáåàó ïîðÿäêà α, çàäàþòñÿ ôîðìóëàìè (292)  

b α
C
a Dt fε

b α
R
a Dt fε 

(t) =
ε 

(t) =
ε

1
Γ(n−α) 

t
n−α−1
∫ (t − τ + iγε )
a

1
Γ(n−α) Re  

d n
dτ 

fε (τ ) dτ

,
ε

t

∫ (t − τ + iγε )

n−α−1

a 

d n
dτ 


fε (τ ) dτ
ε

(292)

è (293)  

b α
C
t Db fε

b α
R
t Db fε 

(t) =
ε 

(t) =
ε

1
Γ(n−α) 

b
n−α−1
∫ (t − τ + iγε )

1
Γ(n−α) Re

t  

d n
dτ 

,

fε (τ ) dτ
ε

b

∫ (t − τ + iγε )

n−α−1

t 

d n
dτ 


fε (τ ) dτ

ñîîòâåòñòâåííî.

ε

(293)

Ïóñòü çàäàí äðîáíûé Ëàãðàíæèàí  

L t, qi ,a Dtα qi ,t Dbβ qi ,
à òàêæå äðîáíûé Ëàãðàíæèàí ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

(294)  

β
α
C
L t, qi ,C
a Dt qi ,t Db qi .
(295)
Òîãäà äðîáíûå óðàâíåíèÿ Ýéëåðà-Ëàãðàíæà äëÿ Ëàãðàíæèàíà (294)
èìåþò ñëåäóþùèé êàíîíè÷åñêèé âèä [37-39], [41-43]:
∂L
∂qi

+ t Dbα ∂

∂L
∂L
=0
+ a Dtβ ∂ D
(a Dtα qi )
(t bβ qi )
i = 1, ..., n.

(296)
è, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, äëÿ Ëàãðàíæèàíà (295) äðîáíûå óðàâíåíèÿ ÝéëåðàËàãðàíæà èìåþò ñëåäóþùèé âèä
∂L
∂qi

+ t Dbα ∂

∂L
+ a Dtβ ∂ C∂L
= 0.
(Ca Dtα qi )
(t Dbβ qi )
i = 1, ..., n.

(297)

97

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...  

Ëàãðàíæèàí L t, qi ,a Dtα qi ,t Dbβ qi èíäóöèðóåò îáîáùåííîå ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ëåæàíäðà ñîãëàñíî êàíîíè÷åñêîé ôîðìóëå
α
a Dt qi

(t) → piα =

α
t Db qi

(t) → piβ =

∂L
,
∂ (a Dtα qi )
∂L
.
∂ (t Dbβ qi )

(298)  

β
C
α
 ñëó÷àå Ëàãðàíæèàíà L t, qi ,C
a Dt qi ,t Db qi ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ëåæàíäðà èìååò âèä

α
a Dt qi

(t) → piα =

α
t Db qi

(t) → piβ =

∂L
,
α
∂ (C
a Dt qi )
∂L
.
β
∂ (C
t Db qi )

(299)

Ãàìèëüòîíèàí â ñëó÷àå Ëàãðàíæèàíà (294) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä  

H t, qi , piα , piβ = (a Dtα qi )

∂L
∂ (a Dtα qi )

piα (a Dtα qi ) + piβ  

+

β
t D b qi

β
t Db qi  

∂L
∂ (t Dbβ qi )

−L=

− L,

(300)
à â ñëó÷àå Ëàãðàíæèàíà (295) Ãàìèëüòîíèàí èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä  

H t, qi , piα , piβ =

C α
a Dt qi

piα

∂L 

C α
a Dt qi

∂(

C Dα q
a
t i 

+ piβ 

)

+ 

C β
t Db qi

C β
t D b qi  

∂L
β
∂ (C
t Db qi )

−L=

− L.
(301)

Äðîáíûå óðàâíåíèÿ Ãàìèëüòîíà â ñëó÷àå Ëàãðàíæèàíà (294) èìåþò ñëåäóþùèé âèä [41-43]:
∂H
∂t

= − ∂L
∂t ,
∂H
∂qi

∂H
∂piα

=

= (a Dtα qi ) , 

α i
a Dt pβ 

+

∂H
∂piβ

= (a Dtα qi ) ,

α i
t Db pα 

,

(302)
à â ñëó÷àå Ëàãðàíæèàíà (295) äðîáíûå óðàâíåíèÿ Ãàìèëüòîíà èìåþò

98

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ñëåäóþùèé âèä
∂H
∂t

= − ∂L
∂t ,
∂H
∂qi

∂H
∂piα

=

= 

C α
a Dt qi 

, 

α i
p
D
a t β +

∂H
∂piβ

C α
a Dt qi

=

α i
t Db pα  

,

.
(303)

Äðîáíûå óðàâíåíèÿ Ãàìèëüòîíà-ßêîáè â îáîèõ ñëó÷àÿõ èìåþò êàíîíè÷åñêèé âèä [41-43]:

−H =

∂S
∂t .

(304)

Ïóñòü çàäàí ñèíãóëÿðíûé äðîáíûé Ëàãðàíæèàí   

b α
b α
C
Lε t, qi ,C
,
a Dt qi, ε ,t Db qi, ε
ε

(305) 
i
h 
∈ G (Rn ) , à òàêæå ñèíãóëÿðíûé
ãäå ∀t ∈ R+ , Lε t, qi , piα , piβ
ε
äðîáíûé Ëàãðàíæèàí ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà   

b CDα q ,C
b CDα q
Lε t, qi ,C
,
i,
ε
i,
ε
a
t
t
b
ε

(306)
h  
i
i
i
n
ãäå ∀t ∈ R+ , Lε t, qi , pα , pβ
∈ G (R ) . Òîãäà äðîáíûå óðàâíåε

íèÿ Ýéëåðà-Ëàãðàíæà â ñëó÷àå Ëàãðàíæèàíà (305) èìåþò ñëåäóþùèé
âèä

 

∂Lε
∂qi, ε 

ε

b β   ∂Lε   = 0
b α   ∂Lε   + C
+ C
t Db
a Dt
α
C Dβ q
b
C
∂ a Dt qi, ε
∂ b
t
b i, ε
ε

ε

(307)
è, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, äëÿ Ëàãðàíæèàíà (306) äðîáíûå óðàâíåíèÿ ÝéëåðàËàãðàíæà èìåþò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

 

∂Lε
∂qi, ε 

ε

b α   ∂Lε   +
+ C
t Db
C CD α q
∂ b
a
t i, ε
ε


b β
C
a Dt

  ∂Lε   = 0.
C CD α q
∂ b
i, ε
t
b

ε

(308)

99

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ... 

 

b α
b β
C
Ëàãðàíæèàí Lε t, qi ,C
èíäóöèðóåò îáîáùåía Dt qi, ε ,t Db qi, ε
ε
íîå ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ëåæàíäðà ñîãëàñíî êàíîíè÷åñêîé ôîðìóëå

   

b α
C
a Dt qi, ε (t)

b α
C
t Da qi, ε

ε 

(t)
ε

→ piα, ε 

ε

=   ∂Lε   ,
C Dα q
∂ b
a
t i, ε
ε
  

→ piβ, ε =   ∂Lε   .
C Dα q
ε
∂ b
a i, ε
t
ε

(309)  


β
b
b
C
α
ïðåîáðà ñëó÷àå Ëàãðàíæèàíà Lε t, qi ,C
a CDt qi, ε ,t CDb qi, ε
ε
çîâàíèå Ëåæàíäðà èìååò âèä

   

b α
C
a Dt qi, ε (t)

b α
C
t Da qi, ε

ε 

(t)
ε

→ piα, ε 

ε

=   ∂Lε   ,
C CD α q
∂ b
a
t i, ε
ε
  

→ piβ, ε =   ∂Lε   .
C CD β q
ε
∂ b
a i, ε
t
ε

(310)

Ãàìèëüòîíèàí äëÿ Ëàãðàíæèàíà (305) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä   

Hε t, pi,ε , piα,ε , piβ,ε
=
ε

 

b α
C
a Dt

  

 

b t
  ∂Lε   − (Lε )
(qi,ε )ε   ∂Lε   + C
a Db (qi,ε )ε
ε
C Dβ q
C Dα q
∂ b
∂ b
a
t i,ε
t
b i,ε
ε 

ε

(Lε )ε =   

 
  

b Dα (q ) + pi
b Dt (q ) .
C
piα,ε ε C
i,ε
i,ε
a t
a b
β, ε
ε
ε
ε

(311)

100

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ãàìèëüòîíèàí äëÿ Ëàãðàíæèàíà (306) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä   

=
Hε t, qi, ε , piα, ε , piβ, ε
ε

 

 

(qi, ε )ε   ∂Lε   +
C CD α q
∂ b
a
t i, ε
 ε
  

β
b
C
  ∂Lε   − (Lε )
b CDt (qi, ε )ε
ε
C CD β q
∂ b
i, ε
t
b
C
α
a CDt

b 

(312)

ε

(Lε )ε =   

  

 

b CDα (q ) + pi
b CDβ (q ) .
C
C
piα, ε ε
i, ε ε
i, ε ε
t
a
t
β, ε
b
ε

Äðîáíûå óðàâíåíèÿ Ãàìèëüòîíà â ñëó÷àå Ãàìèëüòîíèàíà (305) èìåþò ñëåäóþùèé âèä
∂Hε
∂t ε 

=−

∂Lε
∂t ε 

∂H
∂piβ, ε 

∂Hε
∂qi, ε 

= 

ε

, 

=

b α
C
a Dt 

∂Hε
i 
∂pα, ε
b β
C
t Db

piβ, ε  

b Dα (q ) ,
= C
i,
ε
ε
ε 
a t
(qi, ε )ε ,  



(313)  

b Dβ pi  .
+ C
t
α, ε ε
b

ε

Äðîáíûå óðàâíåíèÿ Ãàìèëüòîíà â ñëó÷àå Ãàìèëüòîíèàíà (306) èìåþò ñëåäóþùèé âèä
∂Hε
∂t ε  

∂H
∂piβ, ε 

∂Hε
∂qi, ε 

=
ε  

b CDα (q ) ,
= C
i,
ε
a
ε
ε  

t
β
b
C
= t CDb (qi, ε )ε ,

∂Lε
∂t ε

=− 

,

b α
C
a Dt 

∂Hε
∂piα, ε   

  

b Dβ pi  .
piβ, ε
+ C
t
α, ε ε
b
ε

(314)

Äðîáíûå óðàâíåíèÿ Ãàìèëüòîíà-ßêîáè èìåþò ñëåäóþùèé êàíîíè÷åñêèé âèä

(Hε )ε = −

∂Sε
∂t ε 

(315)

101

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...

Ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèé ðåãóëÿðíîìó äðîáíîìó Ëàãðàíæèàíó  

L t, qi ,a Dtα qi ,t Dbβ qi
èíòåãðàë ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì áûë ðàññìîòðåí ìíîãèìè àâòîðàìè, ñì., íàïðèìåð [38].
Äðîáíûé Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé ïðîïàãàòîð K (xb tb |xa ta ) â ôîðìå èíòåãðàëà ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä


qi (tb ) = xb
qi (ta ) = xa

n
Q
i=1

Kα (xb tb |xa ta ) =  


tb
D [qi (t)] exp h¯i ∫ L t, qi ,a Dtα qi ,t Dbβ qi dt .
ta

(316)
Äðîáíûé Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé ïðîïàãàòîð (Kε (xb tb |xa ta ))ε â ôîðìå èíòåãðàëà ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì äëÿ ñèíãóëÿðíîãî Ëàãðàíæèàíà 
 

b α
b β
C
Lε t, qi ,C
a Dt qi, ε ,t Db qi, ε
ε

èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä
(Kε (xb tb |xa ta ))ε = hxb tb |xa ta iε



n
Q


qi, ε (tb ) = xb
qi,ε (ta ) = xa 

D [qi,ε (t) , ε] × exp

i
h
¯ε

i=1

tb

∫ Lε 

ta 

ε

=

 


C
α
b
C
α
t, qi,ε ,b
dt 
a Dt qi,ε ,t Da qi,ε

.

ε

(317)   

b CDα q ,C
b CDβ q
C
Äëÿ ñèíãóëÿðíîãî Ëàãðàíæèàíà LC
t,
q
,
i a
ε
t i, ε t
b i, ε
ε
ñîîòâåòñòâåííî ìû èìååì 

KεC (xb tb |xa ta )

ε

= hxb tb |xa ta iC
ε




qi,ε (tb ) = xb
qi,ε (ta ) = xa

n
Q 

D [qi,ε (t) , ε] exp

i=1

i
h
¯ε

tb

∫ LC
ε 

ta 

ε

=

 


α
C
α
b
C
dt 
t, qi,ε ,b
a CDt qi,ε ,t CDa qi,ε

ε


n

=



qi,ε (tb ) = xb
qi,ε (ta ) = xa

Q
i=1

D [qi, ε (t) , ε] exp 

i
h
¯ε 



ε

SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ]

.
ε

(318)

102

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ãäå ìû îáîçíà÷èëè  

tb 

b
b
C
α
α
SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] ε = ∫ LC
t, qi, ε ,C
ε
a CDt qi, ε ,t CDa qi, ε dt.
ta

 äàëüíåéøåì ìû áóäåì ðàññìàòðèâàòü äðîáíûé ïðîïàãàòîð

(Kε (xb tb |xa ta ))ε
äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ ñèíãóëÿðíîãî äðîáíîãî Ëàãðàíæèàíà ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà   

b Dβ q
b Dα q ,C
=
Lε t, qi, ε ,C
tb i, ε
t i, ε t
ta
ε

m1
2
m2
2

m1
2

n 
P 

n
P
i=1

n
P 

i=1

b β
C
t Dtb qi, ε

b α
C
ta Dt qi, ε 

2 

+
ε 

2 

− (Vε (t, q1, ε ...qn, ε ))ε =
ε

piα, ε 

2
ε

i=1

+

m2
2 

piβ, ε 

2
ε

− (Vε (t, q1, ε ...qn, ε ))ε

(319)
è äëÿ ëàãðàíæèàíà ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà, ñîäåðæàùåãî ïðîèçâîäíûå Êàïóòî,   

β
b
b
α
C
LC
t, qi, ε ,C
=
ε
ta CDt qi ,t CDtb qi, ε
ε

m1
2
m2
2

m1
2

n 
P
i=1

n
P 

i=1

piα, ε

n
P 

i=1

b
C
α
ta CDt qi, ε

β
b
C
t CDtb qi, ε 

2 

+
ε 

2 

− (Vε (t, q1, ...qn ))ε =
ε 

2
ε

+

m2
2 

piβ, ε 

2
ε

− (Vε (t, q1, ε ...qn, ε ))ε .
(320)

Îòìåòèì, ÷òî äðîáíîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ìîæíî ïîëó÷èòü òîëüêî äëÿ ïðîïàãàòîðà òèïà (317)-(328) ñ ëàãðàíæèàíîì âèäà (319)-(320)
è m2 = 0. Äëÿ ëàãðàíæèàíà òèïà (319) è (320) â òîì ñëó÷àå, êîãäà
m1, 2 6= 0, Ôåéíìàíîâñêîå êâàíòîâàíèå íå ýêâèâàëåíòíî Øðåäèíãåðîâñêîìó êâàíòîâàíèþ.
Ðàññìîòðèì âàðèàöèþ òðàåêòîðèè (qε (t))ε = (q1, ε (t) , ..., qn, ε (t))ε ,
δ : (qε (t))ε → (qε (t))ε + (δqε (t))ε ñ çàêðåïëåííûìè êîíöàìè, òàê ÷òî

103

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...

(δxε (tb ))ε = (δxε (ta ))ε = 0. Â ñèëó òðàíñëÿöèîííîé èíâàðèàíòíîñòè
èíòåãðàëà ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì ìû èìååì ñëåäóþùåå òîæäåñòâî

 
 




D [qε (t) , ε] exp h¯i SεC [qε (t) + δqε (t) , ta , tb ] ε  =


 q (t ) = x
ε b
b
qε (ta ) = xa
ε

  





D [qε (t) , ε] exp h¯i SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] ε  .

 q (t ) = x

ε b
b
qε (ta ) = xa
ε
Ãäå ìû îáîçíà÷èëè D [qε (t) , ε] =

n
Q

(321)

D [qi, ε (t) , ε] . Â ñèëó òîæäå-

i=1

ñòâà (321) ìû èìååì



D [qε (t) , ε] exp
qε (tb ) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa


 

i
h
¯ 


SεC [qε (t) + δqε (t) , ta , tb ]

ε
ε




D [qε (t) , ε] exp

qε (tb ) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa

D [qε (t) , ε]

qε (tb ) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa

i
h
¯ 

i 



ε

SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ]

h
¯

=

ε

δSεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] 

ε

exp 

i
h
¯

SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] 

ε

= 0.

(322)

 ñèëó òîæäåñòâà   

δSεC [qε (t)] ε = SεC [qε (t) + δqε (t)] ε − SεC [qε (t)] ε =
n
P

tb

∫ dt (δqi, ε (t))ε ×

i=1 ta

 
∂LC
ε

b α 
C 
  +
t Dtb
C Dα q
∂ b
t
t i, ε
a

ε

h

∂LC
ε
∂qi, ε


b β
C
ta Dt 

+
ε

 


∂LC
ε

  
  ,
C Dβ q
∂ b
i, ε
t
t
b

ε

(323)

104

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ìû ìîæåì çàïèñàòü ïîñëåäíåå ðàâåíñòâî â (322) â ñëåäóþùåì ýêâèâàëåíòíîì âèäå

 
 




D [qε (t) , ε] exp h¯i SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] ε  ×


 q (t ) = x
ε b
b
qε (ta ) = xa
ε
i
h
¯ 

δSεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] ε =

 
 




D [qε (t) , ε] exp h¯i SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] ε  ×

 q (t ) = x

ε b
b
qε (ta ) = xa
ε
i
h
¯

n
P

∫ dt (δqi, ε (t))ε 

h ∂LCε 
∂qi, ε

i=1 ta

tb

 

+

ε

∂LC
ε

 
∂LC
ε

b α 
b β 
C 
  + C 
  = 0.
t Dtb
ta Dt
C Dα q
C Dβ q
∂ b
∂ b
i, ε
t
t i, ε
t
t
a

b

ε

ε

(324)

 ñèëó ïðîèçâîëüíîñòè âàðèàöèè (δqε (t))ε , ìû èìååì îêîí÷àòåëüíî
ñëåäóþùèå òîæäåñòâà




D [qε (t) , ε] exp
qε (tb ) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa

 

i
h
¯

SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] 



ε

i
h
¯

h

∂LC
ε
∂qi, ε 

+
ε

ε



∂LC
ε

 
∂LC
ε

β 
C α  
C
b 
  + b  

  = 0.
ta Dt
t Dtb
C Dα q
C Dβ q
∂ b
∂ b
t
t i, ε
t
t i, ε
a

b

ε

ε

i = 1, ..., n.
(325)

òåïåðü âàðèàöèþ
δb : (qε (t))
(t))ε + 
Ðàññìîòðèì  

òðàåêòîðèè  

ε → (qε
b ε (t) òàêóþ, ÷òî δq
b ε (ta ) = 0 è δq
b j, ε (tb ) 6= 0, δq
b i, ε (tb ) = 0
δq
ε

ε

ε

ε

105

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...

äëÿ i 6= j. Òîãäà ìû èìååì 

D
EC   

C
b
xb + δqε (tb ) , tb |xa , ta
− hxb , tb |xa , ta iε
=
ε 


∂xj, a

C

hxb , tb |xa , ta iε

(326)

ε

ε  

b j, ε (tb ) .
δq
ε

 ýòîì ñëó÷àå ìû òàêæå èìååì ñëåäóþùåå ðàâåíñòâî 

xb + b
δ qε (tb ) , tb |xa , ta

C 
ε

− hxb , tb |xa , ta iC
ε 

ε

ε

=




D [qε (t) , ε] exp 

i
h
¯

qε (tb ) = xb + b
δ qε (tb )
qε (ta ) = xa 


SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ]

ε
ε


−



D [qε (t) , ε] exp
qε (tb ) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa 

i
h
¯

SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb )] 



ε

=
ε





D [qε (t) , ε] exp
qε (tb ) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa 

i 

SεC qε (t) + b
δ qε (t) , ta , tb

h
¯ 



ε
ε


−


D [qε (t) , ε] exp
qε (tb ) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa 

i
h
¯

SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb )] 



ε

=
ε


i
h
¯


D [qε (t) , ε]

qε (tb ) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa

b
δ SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] 

ε

exp 

i
h
¯

SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] 

.
ε

xb + b
δ qε (tb ) , tb |xa , ta

C 
ε

− hxb , tb |xa , ta iC
ε
ε 

ε

=



 



ε
(327)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìû èìååì

i
h
¯



D [qε (t) , ε]
qε (tb ) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa

δSεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] 

ε

exp 

i
h
¯

SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] 



ε

.
ε

(328)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.5.5. Îòìåòèì, ÷òî äëÿ ëþáîãî ε ∈ (0, 1] ðàâåíñòâà
(326) cïðàâåäëèâû äëÿ ëþáîãî t ∈ {t| |t − tb | ≤ δε } , ãäå δε → 0 åñëè

106

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ε → 0. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìû èìååì 
D  

EC 
C
b ε (t) , t|xa , ta
=
− hxb , t|xa , ta iε
xb + δq
ε 

C


∂xj, a

hxb , t|xa , ta iε 

(329)

ε

ε 

b j, ε (tb ) + O ((δε ) )
δq
ε
ε

è 

xb + b
δ qε (t) , t|xa , ta

C 
ε

− hxb , t|xa , ta iC
ε 

ε

ε

=


i
h
¯



D [qε (t) , ε]

qε (t) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa 

δSεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] 

ε

exp 

i 
h
¯ 



ε

SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ]

+

ε 

+O (δε )ε .
(330)

Ïóñòü 0 < α < 1, 0 < β < 1, òîãäà âàðèàöèÿ äåéñòâèÿ 

δSεC [qε (t) , ta , tb )] ε
ïðè
âàðèàöèè òðàåêòîðèè δb :  

âûøåóêàçàííîé
b ε (t) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä [43], [71]:
δq

(qε (t))ε → (qε (t))ε +

ε 

δSεC [qε (t) , ta , tb )] ε = 

h
i 

b ε (t) , ta , tb
SεC qε (t) + δq
− SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] ε =
ε

tb

b Dα−1 
b

C 

δqi, ε (t) −
tb
t
C CD α q
∂ b

ta
t i, ε

∂LC
ε

ε

ta

tb  

tb

b Dβ−1 
b
b i, ε (t) ×
C
 

δqi, ε (t) + ∫ dt δq
ta t
C CD β q
ε
ta
∂ b

t
tb i, ε

∂LC
ε

ε 

∂LC
ε
∂qi, ε  

b α
C
t Dtb

+
ε

b β−1
C
ta Dt

ãäå
è
ñîîòâåòñòâåííî.

b α−1
C
t Dtb 

∂LC
ε
∂ (ta CDtα qi, ε )

ta 

 

+

ε

b β
C
ta Dt  



∂LC
ε

β
t CDt qi, ε
b

, 

ε

(331)
- äðîáíûå èíòåãðàëû ïîðÿäêîâ 1 − α è 1 − β

107

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...  

b ε (ta ) = 0, ìû
Ïîäñòàâèâ â òîæäåñòâî (331) ãðàíè÷íîå óñëîâèå δq 

ε
ïîëó÷èì
δSεC [qε (t) , ta , tb )] ε = 

h
i 

b ε (t) , ta , tb
SεC qε (t) + δq
− SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb ] ε =
ε

b Dα−1 
b i, ε (t)

C 

δq
tb
t

C CD α q
∂ b

ta
t i, ε

∂LC
ε

ε


t=tb


b Dβ−1  ∂LCε
b

C 

δqi, ε (t)
+
ta t
C CD β q
∂ b

t
tb i, ε  

hε C  t=tb
tb
∂L
b
∫ dt δqi, ε (t) × ∂qi,εε +

ε

ε

ta

 

∂LC
ε

 
∂LC
ε

b α 
b β 
C 
  + C 
  .
t Dtb
ta Dt
C CD α q
b
C CD β q
∂ b

i,
ε
i,
ε
t
t
t
t
a

b

ε

ε

(332)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.5.6. Îòìåòèì, ÷òî äëÿ ëþáîãî ε ∈ (0, 1] ðàâåíñòâà
cïðàâåäëèâû äëÿ ëþáîãî t ∈ {t| |t − tb | ≤ δε } ñ òî÷íîñòüþ äî àääèòèâíîãî ÷ëåíà ïîðÿäêà O ((δε )ε ) , ãäå ∀ε ∈ (0, 1]
(0 < δε  1) . Òàêèì
îáðàçîì, äëÿ ëþáîãî t ∈ {t| |t − tb | ≤ δε } ìû
èìååì 

δSεC [qε (t) , ta , t)] ε = 

h
i 

b ε (t) , ta , t
SεC qε (t) + δq
− SεC [qε (t) , ta , t] ε =
ε


∂LC
ε

b α−1 
b i, ε (tb ) −
C 
 δq
t Dtb
C CD α q
∂ b
t
t i, ε
a

ε

  

h C 
tb
∂Lε
b β−1  ∂LCε
b i, ε (tb ) + ∫ dt δq
b i, ε (t) ×
C 
 δq
+
ta Dt
∂qi, ε
β
b
C
ε
ε
t
∂ t CDt qi, ε
a
b

ε

 

∂LC
ε

 
∂LC
ε

b α 
b β 
C 
  + C 
  +
t Dtb
ta Dt
b
C
α
C CD β q
∂ t CDt qi, ε
∂ b
i, ε
t
t
a

ε

b

ε

+O ((δε )ε ) .
Ïîäñòàâèâ ðàâåíñòâî (333) â ðàâåíñòâî (330), ìû ïîëó÷èì

(333)

108

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé... 

xb + b
δ qε (t) , t|xa , ta

C 
ε

− hxb , t|xa , ta iC
ε

ε 

ε

=


i
h
¯


δSεC [qε (t) , ta , t]


D [qε (t) , ε]
qε (t) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa


 

ε

exp 

i
h
¯

SεC [qε (t) , ta , t] 



ε

+
ε

+O (δε )ε 

=

+
*
∂LC
C α−1 
i
ε
b 
 b
δ qi, ε (tb ) −
t Dtb
h
¯
b
C

CD α qi, ε
t
t
a

ε

+
*
C
∂L
β−1
C
i
ε
b  

 b
δ qi, ε (tb ) +
ta Dt
h
¯
C CD β q
∂ b
t i, ε
t
b 

i
h
¯

tb

∫ dt b
δ qi, ε (t)



×

ε

ta

ε 

h

∂LC
ε
∂qi, ε 

+
ε

 +

C
∂LC
β 
C α  
C
ε
b 
  + b 
∂Lε 
 
t Dtb
ta Dt
C CD α q
b
C CD β q
∂ b

t i, ε
t
t i, ε
t
a

b

ε

+

ε 

+O (δε )ε .

Ó÷èòûâàÿ òåïåðü ðàâåíñòâî (325), â ñèëó (334) ìû ïîëó÷èì

D

(334) 


δSεC [qε (t) , ta , t] ε =

h
i E 


b ε (t) , ta , t
SεC qε (t) + δq
− SεC [qε (t) , ta , t] ε =
ε

*
i
h
¯

 +

∂LC
ε

b α−1 
C 

t Dtb
C CD α q
∂ b
t
t i, ε
a

*
i
h
¯

b β−1
C
ta Dt

∂LC
ε

(335)

ε

 +  


b
C CD β q
i, ε
t
t
b

b i, ε (tb ) −
δq

b i, ε (tb ) + O ((δε ) ) .,
δq
ε
ε

i = 1, ..., n.
Îòêóäà, ó÷èòûâàÿ ðàâåíñòâî (329), ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå ðàâåí-

109

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...

ñòâî 


∂xj, b

C

hxb , t|xa , ta iε 


ε

b j, ε (tb )
δq 

=
ε

 





D [qε (t) , ε] exp h¯i (Sε [qε (t) , ta , tb )])ε  ×

 q (t) = x

ε
b
qε (ta ) = xi
ε
i
h
¯ 

b α−1 j
C
t Dtb pα, ε   

 

b β−1 pj (t)
b j, ε (tb ) + O ((δε ) ) .
(t) − C
δq
ta Dt
ε
β, ε
ε

ε 

b j, ε (tb )
Îòêóäà â ñèëó óñëîâèÿ δq  

ε

(336)

6= 0, ìû îêîí÷àòåëüíî ïîëó÷àåì

C


∂xj, b

ε

hxb , t|xa , ta iε 

=
ε

 





D [qε (t) , ε] exp h¯i (Sε [qε (t) , ta , tb )])ε  ×


 q (t) = x
ε
b
qε (ta ) = xi
ε
i
h
¯ 

b α−1 j
C
t Dtb pα, ε   


b Dβ−1 pj (t)
(t) − C
+ O ((δε )ε ) .
ta t
β, ε
ε

ε

(337)

Ïóñòü òåïåðü â âûðàæåíèè (320) m2 = 0, m1 6= 0. Òîãäà â ñèëó
óðàâíåíèÿ (337) ìû èìååì 


∂xj, b

hxb , t|xa , ta iC
ε 

=
ε





D [qε (t) , ε] exp
qε (tb ) = xb
qε (ta ) = xi 

i
h
¯

(Sε [qε (t) , ta , tb )])ε


i
h
¯ 

b
C α−1 j
D
p
t

tb

α, ε 

(t)

ε

ε 

+O (δε )ε .
(338)

 ñëó÷àå, êîãäà m1 = 0, m2 6= 0, â ñèëó óðàâíåíèÿ (337) ìû èìååì

110

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì 


∂xj, b

C

hxb , t|xa , ta iε 

=
ε


 




D [qε (t) , ε] exp h¯i (Sε [qε (t) , ta , tb )])ε  ×

 q (t ) = x

ε b
b
qε (ta ) = xi
ε  

b β−1 pj (t) + O ((δ ) ) .
− h¯i C
ε ε
ta Dt
β, ε
ε

(339)

Ïðåäïîëîæèì, ÷òî

h
i
C
∀ε ∈ (0, 1] ϕ (t) = hxb , t|xa , ta iε ∈ L1 ([ta , tb ]) .

Ïðèìåíèâ ê ïðàâîé è ëåâîé ÷àñòè ðàâåíñòâà (339) îïåðàòîð äðîáb 1−β ïîðÿäêà 1 − β, â ñèëó ðàâåíñòâà
C
íîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ
ta Dt  

b D1−β C
b Dβ−1 ϕ (t) = ϕ (t) + O ((γ ) ) ìû èìååì
C
ta

t

ta

ε ε

t 

b 1−β ∂
C
ta D t
∂xj, b

C

hxb , t|xa , ta iε 

=

ε


 




D [qε (t) , ε] exp h¯i (Sε [qε (t) , ta , tb )])ε  ×


 q (t ) = x
ε b
b
qε (ta ) = xi
ε  

− h¯i pjβ, ε (t) + O ((δε )ε ) + O ((γε )ε ) .
ε

(340)

111

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...

Ïîäñòàâèâ â (340) çíà÷åíèå t = tb , ìû îêîí÷àòåëüíî ïîëó÷àåì 

C

b 1−β ∂
C
ta Dtb
∂xj, b

hxb , tb |xa , ta iε 

=
ε


 




D [qε (t) , ε] exp h¯i (Sε [qε (t) , ta , tb )])ε  ×

 q (t ) = x

ε b
b
qε (ta ) = xi
ε  

− h¯i pjβ, ε (tb ) + O ((δε )ε ) + O ((γε )ε ) .
ε

(341)

Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì â ñèëó ðàâåíñòâà (338) ìû èìååì 

b 1−α ∂
C
tb Dtb
∂xj, b

C

hxb , tb |xa , ta iε 

=
ε

 





D [qε (t) , ε] exp h¯i (Sε [qε (t) , ta , tb )])ε  ×

 q (t ) = x

ε b
b
qε (ta ) = xi
ε
i
h
¯

pjα, ε (tb ) 

ε

+ O ((δε )ε ) + O ((γε )ε ) .

(342)

Ðàâåíñòâà (341) è 
(342)î÷åâèäíî âûðàæàþò êîîðäèíàòíîå ïðåäñòàâëåíèå îïåðàòîðîâ pbjβ, ε
ε

 

pbjβ, ε 

=
ε

h
¯
i

∂LC
ε

  

C CD β q
∂ b
i, ε
t
t
a

è pbjα, ε

b

ε

(343) 

ε


pbjα, ε

∂LC
ε 

ε 


= − h¯i  
C CD β q
∂ b
i, ε
t
t
b

b

ε

(344)

112

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Ó÷èòûâàÿ òåïåðü äðîáíûå óðàâíåíèÿ Ãàìèëüòîíà-ßêîáè (314), ìû èìååì

∂tb

hxb , tb |xa , ta iε 

ε

=




D [qε (t) , ε] exp
qε (tb ) = xb
qε (ta ) = xa 

i
h
¯

(Sε [qε (t) , ta , tb )])ε

Hε t, pi, ε , piα, ε , piβ,ε 



ε
ε

(345)

Ïóñòü m2 = 0, m1 6= 0. Ó÷èòûâàÿ òåïåðü ÿâíûé âèä Ãàìèëüòîíèàíà   

β
b
α
Hε t, qi, ε ,C
=
ta CDt qi ,t Db qi, ε
ε

m1
2

n 
P

piα, ε 

2

i=1

ε

+ (Vε (t, q1, ...qn ))ε

(346)
è ôîðìóëó (344) ìû ïîëó÷àåì óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà


h
1
2m1 

b α h¯ ∂
C
t Dt i ∂xi 

2


∂t

hx, t|xa , ta iε 

ε

=

(hx, t|xa , ta iε )ε + (Vε (x) hx, t|xa , ta iε )ε .
(347)

Ïóñòü òåïåðü m1 = 0, m2 6= 0. Ó÷èòûâàÿ òåïåðü ÿâíûé âèä Ãàìèëüòîíèàíà   

β
b
b
α
C
Hε t, qi, ε ,C
=
ta CDt qi ,t CDtb , ε qi, ε
ε

m2
2

n 
P
i=1

piβ, ε 

2
ε

+ (Vε (t, q1, ...qn ))ε

(348)
è ôîðìóëó (343), ìû ïîëó÷àåì óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñëåäóþùåãî
âèäà


h
1
2m1 

b α h¯ ∂
C
ta Dt i ∂xi 

2


∂t

hx, t|xa , ta iε 

ε

=

(hx, t|xa , ta iε )ε + (Vε (x) hx, t|xa , ta iε )ε .
(349)

.

113

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.5.7. Ïóñòü
b α
C
ta Dt, ε f
è

(t) =

1
Γ(n−α)

t

∫ (t − τ + iγε )

n−α−1

ta 

d n

f (τ ) dτ,
(350)

I

E (Rn ) = (C ∞ (Rn × R+ )) , I = (0, 1] ,

n

M
n 
(R × R+ ) =
⊂ n
n
(uε )ε ∈ E (R × R+ ) | ∀K K6= R × R+ ∀α (α ∈ Nn0 ) ∃p (p ∈ N)  

b Dα ∂ α u (x, t) | = O(ε−p ) 5A; 8 ε → 0 ,
sup |C
ε
ta t, ε

x∈K

n  



Nα (Rn × R+ ) = (uε )ε | ∀K K6=
M , ∀α (α ∈ Nn0 ) ∀q (q ∈ N )  

b Dα ∂ α u (x)| = O(εq ) 5A; 8 ε → 0 .
sup |C
ε
ta t, ε

x∈K

n
n
Gα (Rn × R+ ) = Eα
M (R × R+ ) /N α (R × R+ ).

(351)

n
íàçûâàþòñÿ îãðàíè÷åííûÝëåìåíòû ìíîæåñòâà Eα
M (R × R+ )
ìè ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòÿìè, à ýëåìåíòû ìíîæåñòâà Nα (Rn × R+ ) íàn
çûâàþòñÿ ïðèíåáðåæèìûìè ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòÿìè. Eα
M (R × R+ ) ýòî
äèôôåðåíöèàëüíàÿ àëãåáðà ñ ïîòî÷å÷íî çàäàííûìè îïåðàöèÿìè. Îòn
n
ìåòèì, ÷òî Eα
M (R × R+ ) ýòî ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ ïîäàëãåáðà â E (R × R+ ) ,
äëÿ êîòîðîé ïîäàëãåáðà Nα (R+ × Rn ) åñòü äèôôåðåíöèàëüíûé èäåàë.
Òàêèì îáðàçîì, Gα (Rn × R+ ) - êîììóòàòèâíàÿ è àññîöèàòèâíàÿ äèôôåðåíöèàëüíàÿ àëãåáðà. Ýëåìåíòû àëãåáðû Gα (Rn ) ìû îáîçíà÷àåì
[(uε )ε ] èëè cl {(uε )ε } , ãäå (uε (x, t))ε ïðåäñòàâèòåëü ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî
êëàññà ýêâèâàëåíòíîñòè.

Òåîðåìà 15.5.3. Ïóñòü H -ñåïàðàáåëüíîå Ãèëüáåðòîâî ïðîñòðàíñòâî ñî ñêàëÿðíûì ïðîèçâåäåíèåì h·, ·i . Ðàññìîòðèì ñëåäóþùóþ îáîáùåííóþ çàäà÷ó Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà òèïà (349). Çàïèøåì
ýòî óðàâíåíèå â ñëåäóþùåé îáùåé ôîðìå.    

∂Ψα
ε (t)
b ε, α (t) Ψα
−i h
¯ ε ∂t
+ H
= 0,
ε (t)
ε

ε

(Ψε (0))ε = (Ψ0, ε (x))ε , x ∈ Rn ,

(352)
ãäå ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] Ψε (t) : R → H è îïåðàòîð Hε, α (t) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé

114

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

âèä

h
¯2

ε
Hε, α (t) = − 2m

hε ≤ O ε
¯
óñëîâèÿ:

k 

n 
P
b
C


α
ta Dε, t ∂xi

i=1 

2

+ Vε (x, t) .
(353)

, k ∈ N, åñëè ε → 0. Ïóñòü òàêæå âûïîëíåíû ñëåäóþùèå

(i) cl {(Vε (x, t))ε } ∈ Gα (Rn × R+ ) ,
(ii) ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] è ∀t ∈ R+ îïåðàòîð Hε, α (t) ñàìîñîïðÿæåí
â ñóT
α
=
ùåñòâåííîì íà ïëîòíîì â H ìíîæåñòâå âåêòîðîâ Dα
D
ε
t, ε , ãäå
t∈R+
=
D
(H
(t))
,

ε, α
t, ε

b ε, α (t) ýòî çàìûêàíèå îïåðàòîðà Hε, α (t)
(iii) ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] îïåðàòîð H
â H, 

(iv) cl (Ψ0, ε (x))ε ∈ G (Rn ) .
Òîãäà çàäà÷à Êîøè (352) èìååò åäèíñòâåííîå îáîáùåííîå ðåøåíèå
(Ψα
¯ ε ))ε , è ýòî ðåøåíèå ìîæíî ïðåäñòàâèòü â çàìêíóòîé ôîðìå
ε (x, t; h
â âèäå îáîáùåííîãî Ôåéíìàíîâñêîãî èíòåãðàëà ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì

(Ψα
¯ ε ))ε =
ε (x, t; h 

Ψ0, ε (qε (0)) exp

qε (t)=x

i
h
¯ε

h
b
C
CD α 

t, ε qε (τ )

0

, qε (τ ) , t

io Q
n 

D [qi, ε (τ )]

i=1

h
b
C α
D
0

n

t, ε qε

i

t

(τ ) , qε (τ ) , t = ∫

h 
b
C
m
CD α
0

2

τ, ε qε 

2

(τ )

,
ε

i

− Vε (qε (τ ) , τ )

dτ.

0

(354)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.5.8. Îáîáùåííîå ðåøåíèå (Ψαε (x, t; h
¯ ε ))ε íàçûâàåòñÿ îáîáùåííûì ðåøåíèåì â ñìûñëå íåëèíåéíûõ îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé
èëè ðåøåíèåì Êîëîìáåàó [35].
Ðàññìîòðèì çàäà÷ó âû÷èñëåíèÿ òî÷íîé êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêîé àñèìïòîòèêè ( ¯hε → 0, åñëè ε → 0 ) ñðåäíåãî çíà÷åíèÿ îïåðàòîðà êîîðäèíàòû

∫ xi |Ψα
hε )|2 d x
ε (x, t, x0 ;¯

hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε , αi =

Rn

∫ |Ψα (x, t, x0 ;¯
hε )|2 d x

,

Rn

i = 1, ..., n.
(355)

Òåîðåìà 15.5.4. Ïóñòü 0 < α < 1. Ðàññìîòðèì îáîáùåííóþ çàäà÷ó

115

15.5. Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî ...

Êîøè (352) ñ íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (Ψ0, ε (x))ε =

Ψε (x, x0 ) =

ηεn/2
n/2

(2π)n/2 h
¯ε 

p 

Ψε (x, x0 ) , ãäå
ε  

2
0)
exp − ηε (x−x
,
h
¯ε

0<¯
hε  ηε  1, ¯
hε → 0 5A; 8 ε → 0.

(356)

Ïóñòü Vε (x, t)|ε=0 = V (x, t) : R × R+ → R è ïðè ëþáîì ôèêñèðîâàííîì t ∈ R+ ôóíêöèÿ V (x, t) åñòü ïîëèíîì îò ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûõ
ïåðåìåííûõ x = (x1 , ...xn ) , ò. å.
n

V (x, t) =

P

gα (t) xα , α = (i1 , ..., in ) , kαk =

P

kαk≤n

r=1 ir ,

i = 1, ..., n,

xα = xi11 xi22 ...xinn .

(357)

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç

uε (τ, t, λ, x, α) = (u1, ε (τ, t, λ, x, α) , ..., un, ε (τ, t, λ, x, α))
ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé ëèíåéíîé êðàåâîé çàäà÷è 

α
T
=
CD
u
(τ,
t,
λ,
x,
α)
τ,
ε
ε
0
h 0
iT
Hess [V (λ, τ )] uT
,
ε (τ, t, λ, x, α) + V (λ, τ )
b α
C
τ Dt, ε 

b
C

(358)

uε (0, t, λ, x, y, α) = y, uε (t, t, λ, x, α) = x,
ãäå

λ = (λ1 , ..., λn ) , uT
ε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α) =
T
(u1, ε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α) , ..., un, ε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α)) , 

h 0
i 
∂V (x, τ )
(x, τ )
,
...,
V (λ, τ ) = ∂V∂x
∂xn
1

(359)

x=λ

è Hess [V (λ, τ )] ýòî Ãåññèàí îòîáðàæåíèÿ V (·, τ )
ëåííûé â òî÷êå x= λ, ò.å.

Hessij [V (λ, τ )] =

h

∂ 2 V (x, τ )
∂xi ∂xj

i

: Rn → R, âû÷èñ-

.
x=λ

116

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç S (t, λ, x, y) ôóíêöèþ, çàäàííóþ ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëîé

t


∫L 

0

Sα, ε (t, λ, x, y) =  

b
C
α
CDτ,
ε uε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α) , uε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α) , τ dτ,
0
(360)

ãäå  

b CDα u (τ, t, λ, x, y, α) , u (τ, t, λ, x, y, α) , τ =
b C
L
ε
τ, ε ε
0 
2 

b
C
CD α
m

0

τ, ε uε (τ, t, λ, x, y,α)

2

− Vb (uε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α) , τ ) ,

Vb (uε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α) , τ ) =
uε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α) Hess [V (λ, τ )] uT
ε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α) +
h 0
i
V (λ, τ ) uT
ε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α) .
(361)

= ycr,ε (t, λ, x, α) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñèñòåÎáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç
ìû ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé
α
ycr,ε

h

∂Sα, ε (t, λ, x, y)
∂yi

i
y=yα
cr, ε

= 0.

i = 1, ..., n.
(362)

bα, ε = u
b ε (t, x0 , λ, α) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé
Îáîçíà÷èì äàëåå ÷åðåç x
ñèñòåìû ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé
α
b) + λ − x0 = 0.
ycr,ε
(t, λ, x

(363)

Ïðåäïîëîæèì òàêæå, ÷òî äëÿ äàííûõ çíà÷åíèé ïàðàìåòðîâ t, λ,
bα, ε = u
b ε (t, x0 , λ, α) íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôîêàëüíîé òî÷êîé íà òðàòî÷êà x
åêòîðèè, çàäàííîé ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ðåøåíèåì êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (358).
Òîãäà äëÿ ÊÌ ñðåäíåãî (355) ñïðàâåäëèâî ñëåäóþùåå íåðàâåíñòâî

lim inf |hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε , αi − λi | ≤ |b
ui, ε (t, x0 , λ, α)| , i = 1, ..., n.

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

(364)

15.6. Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ...

117

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âû÷èñëåíèå êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêîé òðàåêòîðèè ñâîäèòñÿ ê ÷èñëåííîìó ðåøåíèþ ñèñòåìû òðàíñöåíäåíòíûõ óðàâíåíèé âèäà

u
bi, ε (t, x0 , λ, α) = 0.

(365)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.5.7. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî â íåðàâåíñòâå (15.5.100) íèæíèé ïðåäåë lim inf h¯ ε →0, ε→0 |hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε , αi − λi | â îáøåì ñëó÷àå íåëüçÿ çàìåíèòü ïðîñòûì ïðåäåëîì limh¯ ε →0, ε→0 |hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε i − λi | . Âñëåäñòâèå ýòîãî ñèñòåìà (365) â îáùåì ñëó÷àå èìååò ìíîæåñòâî ðåøåíèé.
Çàìå÷àíèå 15.5.8. Äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà (15.5.82) ñïðàâåäëèâà àíàëîãè÷íàÿ òåîðåìà. Ïðè ýòîì âìåñòî óðàâíåíèÿ (358) íåîáõîäèìî âçÿòü óðàâíåíèå ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà 

(τ, t, λ, x, α) =
h 0
iT
Hess [V (λ, τ )] uT
.
ε (τ, t, λ, x, α) + V (λ, τ )
b α
C
0 Dτ, ε 

b
C
α
T
τ CDt, ε uε

(366)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.5.9. Äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ ñèíãóëÿðíîãî äðîáíîãî Ëàãðàíæèàíà (319) îáùåãî âèäà, ò. å. m1, 2 6= 0 ÊÌ ñðåäíèå (355) ïî îïðåäåëåíèþ Ôåéíìàíîâñêîãî êâàíòîâàíèÿ âûðàæàþñÿ êàíîíè÷åñêèì îáðàçîì
÷åðåç ïðîïàãàòîð (328). Ïðè ýòîì âìåñòî óðàâíåíèÿ (358) íåîáõîäèìî
âçÿòü óðàâíåíèå ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà
b α
C
τ Dt, ε
b α
C
0 Dτ, ε  

α
T
CD
u
(τ,
t,
λ,
x,
α)
+
τ, ε ε 
0 

b
C
CDα uT (τ, t, λ, x, α) =
b
C
τ

t, ε ε

h 0
iT
Hess [V (λ, τ )] uT
(τ,
t,
λ,
x,
α)
+
V
(λ,
τ
)
.
ε
(367)

15.6. Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ
îïåðàòîðîì äðîáíîãî äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî âðåìåíè.
Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé èíòåãðàë ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì äëÿ îáîáùåííîãî
Ëàãðàíæèàíà, ñîäåðæàùåãî îïåðàòîðû äðîáíîãî
äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïî âðåìåíè.
 ýòîì ïàðàãðàôå ìû áóäåì ðàññìàòðèâàòü äðîáíûé ïðîïàãàòîð
(Kε (xb tb |xa ta ; ω))ε äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî ñèíãóëÿðíîãî äðîáíîãî

118

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ëàãðàíæèàíà ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà   

b α
b β
C
Lε t, qi, ε ,C
=
ta Dt qi, ε ,t Dtb qi, ε , ω
ε

m1
2 

n
P
i=1

b α
C
ta Dt qi, ε 

2 

(Vε (t,
m1
2

n 
P

piα, ε

i=1 

2
ε

+

m2
2

m2
2

+

n
P 

i=1
ε
q1, ε ...qn, ε , ω))ε 

piβ, ε 

2

b β
C
t Dtb qi, ε 

2 


ε

=

− (Vε (t, q1, ε ...qn, ε , ω))ε

ε

(368)
è äëÿ ëàãðàíæèàíà ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà, ñîäåðæàùåãî ïðîèçâîäíûå Êàïóòî   

b CDα q ,C
b CDβ q , ω
C
LC
t,
q
,
=
i,
ε
i
i,
ε
tb
ε
ta
t
t
ε

m1
2 

n
P
i=1

b
C
α
ta CDt qi, ε 

2 

(Vε (t,
m1
2

n 
P

piα, ε

i=1 

2
ε

+

m2
2

+

m2
2

n
P 

i=1
ε
q1, ε, ...qn, ε , , ω))ε 

piβ, ε 

2
ε

β
b
C
t CDtb qi, ε 

2 


ε

=

− (Vε (t, q1, ε ...qn, ε , ω))ε .
(369)

Äðîáíûé Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé ïðîïàãàòîð (Kε (xb tb |xa ta ))ε â ôîðìå èíòåãðàëà ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì äëÿ ñèíãóëÿðíîãî Ëàãðàíæèàíà 
 

b α
b β
C
Lε t, qi ,C
a Dt qi, ε ,t Db qi, ε , ω
ε

èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

(Kε (xb tb |xa ta , ω))ε = hxb tb |xa ta , ωiε

"

n


R

Q

qi,ε (tb ) = xb
qi,ε (ta ) = xa

i=1

D [qi,ε (t) , ε] exp

i
h
¯ε

Rtb

Lε  

ε

=

α
b
C
α
C
t, qi,ε ,b
a Dt qi,ε ,t Da qi,ε , ω

ta

Äëÿ ñèíãóëÿðíîãî Ëàãðàíæèàíà   

β
b
b
α
C
LC
t, qi ,C
ε
a CDt qi, ε ,t CDb qi, ε , ω 


#

dt 
ε

.

(370)

ε

119

15.6. Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ...

ñîîòâåòñòâåííî ìû èìååì 

KεC (xb tb |xa ta , ω)

"

n


R

Q

D [qi,ε (t) , ε] exp

ε

tb

R

i
h
¯ε

qi,ε (tb ) = xb i=1
qi,ε (ta ) = xa

= hxb tb |xa ta , ωiC
ε 

ε

=

h

C
α
b
C
α
LC
t, qi,ε ,b
ε
a CDt qi,ε ,t CDa qi,ε , ω dt

ta



=

ε


=

#

i

n
Q

R
qi,ε (tb ) = xb
qi,ε (ta ) = xa

D [qi,ε (t) , ε] exp 

i
h
¯ε 



ε

SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb , ω]

i=1

.
ε

Äëÿ ñèíãóëÿðíîãî Ëàãðàíæèàíà   

β
b
b
α
C
LC
t, qi ,C
ε
a CDt qi, ε ,t CDb qi, ε , ω

(371)

ε

ñîîòâåòñòâåííî ìû èìååì 

KεC (xb tb |xa ta , ω)

"

n


R

Q

D [qi,ε (t) , ε] exp

qi,ε (tb ) = xbi=1
qi,ε (ta ) = xa

ε

= hxb tb |xa ta , ωiC
ε

tb

i
h
¯ε

R 

ε

=

h

C
α
b
C
α
LC
t, qi,ε ,b
ε
a CDt qi,ε ,t CDa qi,ε , ω

ta

ε


=



qi,ε (tb ) = xb
qi,ε (ta ) = xa

n
Q

D [qi,ε (t) , ε] exp

i=1

[qε (t) , ta , tb , ω] 

i
h
¯ε

SεC [qε (t) , ta , tb , ω] 



ε
ε

Ãäå ìû îáîçíà÷èëè

SεC


#

dt  =

i

Ztb 

ε

=

.

(372)  

b CDα q ,C
b CDα q , ω dt.
C
LC
t,
q
,
i,
ε
i,
ε
i,
ε
ε
a
t
t
a

ta

Îòìåòèì, ÷òî ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå äðîáíîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ìîæíî ïîëó÷èòü òîëüêî äëÿ ïðîïàãàòîðà òèïà (370) è (372) ñ ëàãðàíæèàíîì âèäà (368) è (369), ãäå m1 = 0 ∨ m2 = 0 . Äëÿ ëàãðàíæèàíà òèïà
(368) è (369) â òîì ñëó÷àå, êîãäà m1, 2 6= 0 Ôåéíìàíîâñêîå êâàíòîâàíèå, êàê áûëî îòìå÷åíî â ïðåäûäóùåì ïàðàãðàôå, íå ýêâèâàëåíòíî
Øðåäèíãåðîâñêîìó êâàíòîâàíèþ.

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.6.1. Íåîáõîäèìî îòìåòèòü, ÷òî îïåðàòîð äðîáíîãî
äèôôåðåíöèðîâàíèÿ ïîðÿäêà α îò îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà

120

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ GΩ
n (0, ∞] íå ìîæåò áûòü ââåäåí íåïîñðåäñòâåííî êàê â
äåòåðìèíèðîâàííîì ñëó÷àå, à îáëàäàåò äîïîëíèòåëüíîé íåòðèâèàëüíîé ñïåöèôèêîé. Ñ öåëüþ ïîëíîòû èçëîæåíèÿ, ìû ïðèâîäèì íèæå
íåîáõîäèìûå îïðåäåëåíèÿ, ñëåäóÿ â îñíîâíîì ðàáîòå [35].

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.6.1. [35]. Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ GΩn (0, ∞] . ÏðîèçC α

âîäíàÿ Êàïóòî 0 Dt ξε (t) ε ïîðÿäêà α îò ïðîèçâîëüíîãî ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿ (ξε (t))ε îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà cl [(ξε (t))ε ] îïðåäåëåíà
êàê

C α
0 D t ξε

(t) 

ε

=









1
Γ(m−α) 

(m)

ξε 

t


0

ξε(m) (τ ) dτ
(t−τ )α+1−m 

(t) =
ε 

dm
dtm ξε

, m − 1 < α < m,
ε 

(t) ε , α = m ∈ N.
(373)

(0, ∞] . ÒîÏðåäëîæåíèå 15.6.1. [35]. (i) Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈
ãäà äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω äëÿ ëþáîãî T > 0 è äëÿ ëþáîãî α > 0 :
∃ (C > 0) , ∃N (N > 0) , ∃ε0 (ε0 ∈ (0, 1]) òàêèå, ÷òî äëÿ ëþáîãî ε ≤ ε0
âûïîëíåíî íåðàâåíñòâî
GΩ
n

−N
α

.
sup C
0 Dt ξε (t, ω) ≤ Cε
t∈[0, T ]

(374)
(ii) Ïóñòü (ξ1, ε (t))ε ∈ cl [(ξε (t))ε ] è (ξ2, ε (t))ε ∈ cl [(ξε (t))ε ] , ãäå
cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ GΩ
n (0, ∞] . Òîãäà äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω äëÿ ëþáîãî T > 0,
äëÿ ëþáîãî q ∈ N è äëÿ ëþáîãî α > 0 : ∃ (C > 0) , ∃ε0 (ε0 ∈ (0, 1])
òàêèå, ÷òî äëÿ ëþáîãî ε ≤ ε0 âûïîëíåíî íåðàâåíñòâî

sup

C α
0 Dt ξ1, ε (t, ω) −

C α
0 Dt ξ2, ε

(t, ω) ≤ Cεq .

t∈[0, T ]

(375)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.6.2. Î÷åâèäíî,
÷òî â ñèëó Ïðåäëîæåíèÿ 15.6.1 Ïðî
α
èçâîäíàÿ Êàïóòî C
0 Dt ξε (t) ε ïîðÿäêà α îò ïðîèçâîëüíîãî ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿ îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà cl [(ξε (t))ε ] îïðåäåëÿåò ýëåìåíò àëãåáðû GΩ
(0, ∞] (ñì. ïàð. 15.4, Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.4.15), ò. å.  

 n, C 0 Ω
α
cl C
D
ξ
(t)

G
t ε
0
n, C 0 (0, ∞] .
ε

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.6.2. [35]. 
Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ Gn (0, ∞] . ÏðîèçC α

âîäíàÿ Êàïóòî cl 0 Dt ξε (t) ε ïîðÿäêà α > 0 îò îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ýòî ýëåìåíò àëãåáðû GΩ
n, C 0 (0, ∞] , óäîâëåòâîðÿþùèé óñëîâèÿì (373).

121

15.6. Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ...


Ïðåäëîæåíèå 15.6.2. [35]. (i) Ïóñòü 
 cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ Gn (0, ∞] . Òî-

ãäà äëÿ m − 1 < α < m cl
(m)
ξε

(0) =

(m+1)
ξε

(0) =

C α
0 Dt ξε (t) ε ∈
(m+2)
ξε
(0) = ... = 0.

GΩ
n (0, ∞] , ãäå m ∈ N, åñëè

(ii) Ïóñòü ξε (0) = 0 äëÿ ëþáîãî m ∈ N, òîãäà cl

Gn (0, ∞] äëÿ ëþáîãî α > 0.
(m) 

C α
0 Dt ξε

(t) 


ε

Çàìå÷àíèå
15.6.3.
 ñèëó Ïðåäëîæåíèÿ 15.6.2 ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Êà 

α
ïóòî cl C
0 Dt ξε (t) ïîðÿäêà α îò îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà
cl [(ξε (t))ε ] åñòü îáîáùåííûé ñëó÷àéíûé ïðîöåññ Êîëìáåàó, â òîì è
òîëüêî â òîì ñëó÷àå, åñëè cl [(ξε (t))ε ] óäîâëåòâîðÿåò íåêîòîðûì ñïåöèàëüíûì óñëîâèÿì.
Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.6.3. [35]. Ïóñòü cl[(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ GΩn . Ðåãóëÿðè-

çîâàííàÿ ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Êàïóòî

C bα
0 D t ξε

(t)

ε

ïîðÿäêà α > 0 îò ïðî-

èçâîëüíîãî ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿ (ξε (t))ε îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà
cl [(ξε (t))ε ] îïðåäåëåíà êàê 

C bα
0 Dt ξε

(t) 

=
ε





C α
0 Dt ξε 

(m)

ξε

(t) ∗ ϕε (t) 

(t) =
ε 

ε

, m − 1 < α < m,

dm
dtm ξε 

(t) ε , α = m ∈ N,
(376)

ãäå

C α
0 Dt ξε 

(t) ∗ ϕε (t) ε = 

t

∫ ds
0

C α
0 Dt ξε 

(s) ϕε (t − s)

(ϕε (t))ε = δ (t) . 

,
ε

(377)

Ïðåäëîæåíèå 15.6.3. [35]. (i) Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ GΩn . Òîãäà äëÿ
ëþáîãî α > 0 è ëþáîãî k = 0, 1, 2, ..., äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω, äëÿ ëþáîãî
T > 0 : ∃ (C > 0) , ∃N (N > 0) , ∃ε0 (ε0 ∈ (0, 1]) òàêèå, ÷òî äëÿ ëþáîãî
ε ≤ ε0 âûïîëíåíî íåðàâåíñòâî
k 

d

C bα
sup dt
D
ξ
(t)
≤ Cε−N .
k
t ε
0

t∈[0, T ]

(378)
(ii) Ïóñòü (ξ1, ε (t))ε ∈ cl [(ξε (t))ε ] è (ξ2, ε (t))ε ∈ cl [(ξε (t))ε ] . Òîãäà
äëÿ ëþáîãî α > 0 è ëþáîãî k = 0, 1, 2, ... äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω äëÿ
ëþáîãî q ∈ N, äëÿ ëþáîãî T > 0 : ∃ (C > 0) , ∃ε0 (ε0 ∈ (0, 1]) òàêèå, ÷òî

122

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

äëÿ ëþáîãî ε ≤ ε0 âûïîëíåíî íåðàâåíñòâî

sup
t∈[0, T ]

k
d
dtk

C α
0 Dt ξ1, ε 

(t, ω) −

dk
dtk

C α
0 Dt ξ2, ε 

(t, ω) ≤ Cεq .
(379)

Ïðåäëîæåíèå 15.6.4.

i

[35]. ( ) Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ GΩ
n îáîáùåíÒîãäà ∃ (C > 0) , ∃N (N > 0) , ∃ε0 (ε0 ∈ (0, 1])

íûé ñëó÷àéíûé ïðîöåññ.
òàêèå, ÷òî äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω äëÿ ëþáîãî ôèêñèðîâàííîãî α > 0
è ëþáîãî α0 ∈ N ïðè ëþáîì T > 0 äëÿ ëþáîãî ε ≤ ε0 ñïðàâåäëèâî
íåðàâåíñòâî

sup

C α+α0
ξε
0 Dt 

(t) ≤ Cε−N .

t∈[0, T ]

(380)
(ii) Ïóñòü (ξ1, ε (t))ε ∈ cl [(ξε (t))ε ] è (ξ2, ε (t))ε ∈ cl [(ξε (t))ε ] . Òîãäà
∃ (C > 0) , ∃ε0 (ε0 ∈ (0, 1]) òàêèå, ÷òî äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω äëÿ ëþáîãî
q ∈ N, ëþáîãî ôèêñèðîâàííîãî α > 0 è ëþáîãî α0 ∈ N ïðè ëþáîì
T > 0 äëÿ ëþáîãî ε ≤ ε0 ñïðàâåäëèâî íåðàâåíñòâî

sup

C α+α0
ξ1, ε
0 Dt

(t, ω) −

C α+α0
ξ2, ε
0 Dt 

(t, ω) ≤ Cεq .

t∈[0, T ]

(381)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.6.4. Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t)) 
ε ] ∈ Gn - îáîáùåííûé ñëó-

α
÷àéíûé ïðîöåññ. Ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Êàïóòî cl C
0 Dt ξε (t) ïîðÿäêà α îò îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà cl [(ξε (t))ε ] èìååò òèï Êîëîìáåàó, åñëè
ñïðàâåäëèâî íåðàâåíñòâî (380).

Ïðåäëîæåíèå 15.6.5. Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ GΩn îáîáùåííûé ñëó-

÷àéíûé ïðîöåññ. Òîãäà äëÿ ëþáîãî α > 0 ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Êàïóòî  

α
cl C
0 Dt ξ2, ε (t)
èìååò òèï Êîëîìáåàó.


Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.6.5. Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t)) 
ε ] ∈ Gn îáîáùåííûé ñëó-

α
÷àéíûé ïðîöåññ. Ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Êàïóòî cl C
0 Dt ξε (t) ïîðÿäêà α îò îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà cl [(ξε (t))ε ] íàçûâàåòñÿ äðîáíûì ïðîèçâîäíûì ñëó÷àéíûì
α , åñëè äëÿ ëþáîãî ïðåäñòàâè ïðîöåññîì 
C α ïîðÿäêà 

α
òåëÿ C
D
ξ
(t)

cl
D
ξ
(t)
,
äëÿ
ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω äëÿ ëþáîãî
ε
ε
t
t
0
0
ε
β ≥ 0 è ëþáîãî T > 0 : ∃ (C > 0) , ∃N (N > 0) , ∃ε0 (ε0 ∈ (0, 1]) òàêèå,
÷òî äëÿ ëþáîãî ε ≤ ε0 ñïðàâåäëèâî íåðàâåíñòâî

β
sup C
0 Dt

t∈[0, T ]

C α
0 Dt ξε 

(t) ≤ Cε−N .

(382)

123

15.6. Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ...

Ïðåäëîæåíèå 15.6.6. Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ GΩn - îáîáùåííûé
ñëó

α
÷àéíûé ïðîöåññ è ïóñòü α > 0. Åñëè β ∈
/ N, òî C
0 Dt ξε (t) ε ÿâëÿåòñÿ äðîáíûì ïðîèçâîäíûì ñëó÷àéíûì ïðîöåññîì, åñëè è òîëüêî åñëè
(j)
ξε (t) = 0, äëÿ âñåõ j = 1, 2, ... .

Ïðåäëîæåíèå 15.6.7. Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ GΩn - îáîáùåííûé ñëó(j)

÷àéíûé ïðîöåññ, äëÿ êîòîðîãî âûïîëíåíî óñëîâèå ξε (t) = 0, äëÿ âñåõ
j = 1, 2, ... è ïóñòü òàêæå âûïîëíåíû óñëîâèÿ (ξ1, ε (t))ε ∈ cl [(ξε (t))ε ]
è (ξ2, ε (t))ε ∈ cl [(ξε (t))ε ] . Òîãäà äëÿ âñåõ α, β > 0
: ∃ (C > 0) ,
∃ε0 (ε0 ∈ (0, 1]) òàêèå, ÷òî äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω äëÿ ëþáîãî q ∈ N,
ïðè ëþáîì T > 0 äëÿ ëþáîãî ε ≤ ε0 ñïðàâåäëèâî íåðàâåíñòâî

sup
t∈[0, T ]

β
Dt

C α
0 Dt ξ1, ε

(t, ω) −

C α
0 Dt ξ2, ε 

(t, ω) ≤ Cεq .
(383)

- îáîáùåííûé ñëóÎïðåäåëåíèå 15.6.6. Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈
÷àéíûé ïðîöåññ. Ìû áóäåì ãîâîðèòü, ÷òî ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Êàïóòî  

α
cl C
0 Dt ξε (t)

GΩ
n

ïîðÿäêà α îò îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ÿâëÿåòñÿ
ïðîèçâîäíîé Êîëîìáåàó ïîðÿäêà α îò îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà cl [(ξε (t))ε ], åñëè ñïðàâåäëèâî íåðàâåíñòâî (382).

Ïðåäëîæåíèå 15.6.8. Ïóñòü cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ GΩn - îáîáùåííûé ñëó-

÷àéíûé
ïðîöåññ
/ N, òî ïðîèçâîäíàÿ Êàïóòî  

 è ïóñòü α > 0. Åñëè α ∈
α
cl C
0 Dt ξε (t) ε ïîðÿäêà α ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðîèçâîäíîé Êîëîìáåàó ïîðÿäêà
(j)

α îò îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà cl [(ξε (t))ε ] , åñëè ξε (0) , äëÿ
âñåõ j = 1, 2, ... .
Ïóñòü ξ (t) = cl [(ξε (t))ε ] ∈ GΩ
n - îáîáùåííûé ñëó÷àéíûé ïðîöåññ
è ïóñòü α > 0. Ðàññìîòðèì ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ
äðîáíîé ïðîèçâîäíîé ïî âðåìåíè
i (¯
hε )ε
1
2m1 

b
C

ta

t, ε


hε )ε ∂
i
∂xi 

2


∂t

hx, t|xa , ta , ωiε

hx, t|xa , ta , ωiε 

ε 

ε

=

+ Vε (x, t, ξε (t)) hx, t|xa , ta , ωiε

hx, ta |xa , ta , ωiε = (Ψε (x − xa ))ε ,

b α
C
ta Dt, ε fε

(t, ω) 

=
ε

1
Γ(n−α) 

t

n−α−1

∫ (t − τ + iγε )
ta

ε

,

(384)

ãäå   

d n
dτ 

fε (τ, ω) dτ
ε

(385)

124

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ω ∈ Ω. Çäåñü cl [(ξε (t))ε ] 3 (ξε (t))ε - çàäàííûé ïðåäñòàâèòåëü îáîáùåííîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà ξ (t) . Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà (384) ýòî íåïîñðåäñòâåííûé ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèé àíàëîã óðàâíåíèÿ (349).

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.6.7. Ðåøåíèå Êîëîìáåàó ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîé çàäà÷è
Êîøè (384) íàçûâàåòñÿ ðåøåíèåì Êîëîìáåàó, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ïðåäñòàâèòåëþ (ξε (t))ε .
Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.6.8. Ïóñòü
I

E (Rn × R+ × Ω) = (C ∞ (Rn × R+ × Ω)) , I = (0, 1] ,


Eα,
(Rn × R+ × Ω) =
M 

(uε )ε ∈ E (Rn × R+ × Ω) | b
∀ω (ω ∈ Ω) ∀K (K?Rn × R+ ) ∀α (α ∈ Nn
0 ) ∃p (p ∈ N)  

α
t, ε ∂x

C
sup |b

x∈K

ta

uε (x, t, ω) | = O(ε

−p

) 5A; 8 ε → 0

,

Nα, Ω (Rn × R+ × Ω) = 

(uε )ε | b
∀ω (ω ∈ Ω) ∀K (K?M ) , ∀α (α ∈ Nn
0 ) ∀q (q ∈ N )  

C
α
α
q
sup |b
ta Dt, ε ∂x uε (x, t, ω)| = O(ε ) 5A; 8 ε → 0

.

x∈K

α, Ω
n
GΩ
(Rn × R+ × Ω) /N α, Ω (Rn × R+ × Ω),
α (R × R+ × Ω) = EM

(386)

ãäå b
∀ω (ω ∈ Ω) - ñîêðàùåííàÿ çàïèñü ëîãè÷åñêîé ôîðìóëû: äëÿ ïî÷òè
âñåõ ω ∈ Ω.

Òåîðåìà 15.6.1. Ïóñòü H - ñåïàðàáåëüíîå Ãèëüáåðòîâî ïðîñòðàíñòâî ñî ñêàëÿðíûì ïðîèçâåäåíèåì h·, ·i . Ðàññìîòðèì îáîáùåííóþ çàäà÷ó Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà (386). Çàïèøåì ýòî óðàâíåíèå
â ñëåäóþùåé îáùåé ôîðìå.    

∂Ψα (t, ω)
b ε, α (t, ω) Ψα (t, ω) = 0,
−i h
¯ ε ε∂t
+ H
ε
ε

ε

(Ψε (0))ε = (Ψ0, ε (x − x0 ))ε , x ∈ Rn ,
ãäå ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] Ψε (t)
ñëåäóþùèé âèä

: R+ → H è ãäå îïåðàòîð

h
¯2

ε
Hε, α (t, ω) = − 2m

n 
P
b
C
i=1


α
ta Dε, t ∂xi 

2

Hε, α (t, ω)

(387)
èìååò

+ Vε (x, t, ξε (t)) ,

(388) 

ãäå ¯
hε ≤ O εk , k ∈ N, åñëè ε → 0. Ïóñòü òàêæå âûïîëíåíû ñëåäóþùèå óñëîâèÿ:

125

15.6. Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ...

n
(i) cl {(Vε (x, t, ω))ε } ∈ GΩ
α (R × R+ × Ω) ,

(ii) b
∀ω (ω ∈ Ω) , ∀ε (ε ∈ (0, 1]) è ∀t ∈ R+ îïåðàòîð Hε, α (t, ω) ñàìîñîïðÿæåí â ñóùåñòâåííîì íà ïëîòíîì â H ìíîæåñòâå âåêòîðîâ

\


ε, ω =


t, ε, ω ,

t∈R+

ãäå


t, ε, ω = D (Hε, α (t, ω)) .

b ε, α (t) ýòî çàìûêàíèå îïåðàòîðà Hε, α (t)
(iii) ∀ε ∈ (0, 1] îïåðàòîð H
â H, 

(iv) cl (Ψ0, ε (x))ε ∈ G (Rn ) .
Òîãäà çàäà÷à Êîøè (387) èìååò åäèíñòâåííîå îáîáùåííîå ðåøåíèå
¯ ε ))ε , è ýòî ðåøåíèå ìîæíî ïðåäñòàâèòü â çàìêíóòîé ôîð(Ψα
ε (x, t, ω; h
ìå â âèäå îáîáùåííîãî Ôåéíìàíîâñêîãî èíòåãðàëà ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì

(Ψα
¯ ε ))ε =
ε (x, t, ω; h



R

Ψ0,ε (qε (0)) exp

n

i
h
¯ε

h
b
C α

D
0

t,ε qε 

(τ )

, qε (τ ) , ξε (τ ) , t

io Q
n
i=1

qε (t) = x
qε (0) = x0

D [qi,ε (τ )],
ε

h
i
C α
Sε b
0 Dt, ε qε (τ ) , qε (τ ) , ξε (τ ) , t =
i 
2
Rt h m b
C α
− Vε (qε (τ ) , τ, ξε (τ )) dτ.
D
qε (τ )
2

0

τ, ε

0

(389)

Ðàññìîòðèì òåïåðü çàäà÷ó âû÷èñëåíèÿ òî÷íîé êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêîé
àñèìïòîòèêè (¯
hε → 0, åñëè ε → 0 ) ñðåäíåãî çíà÷åíèÿ îïåðàòîðà êîîðäèíàòû

∫ xi |Ψα
hε )|2 d x
ε (x, t, ω, x0 ;¯

hi, t, ω, x0 ; h
¯ ε , αi =

Rn

∫ |Ψα
hε )|2 d x
ε (x, t, ω, x0 ;¯

,

Rn

i = 1, ..., n.
(390)

Òåîðåìà 15.6.2. Ïóñòü 0 < α < 1. Ðàññìîòðèì îáîáùåííóþ çàäà÷ó

126

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Êîøè (387) ñ íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (Ψ0, ε (x))ε =

Ψε (x, x0 ) =

ηεn/2
n/2

(2π)n/2 h
¯ε 

p 

Ψε (x, x0 ) , ãäå
ε  

2
0)
exp − ηε (x−x
,
h
¯ε

0<¯
hε  ηε  1, ¯
hε → 0 5A; 8 ε → 0.

(391)

Ïóñòü Vε (x, t, ω)|ε=0 = V (x, t, ω)
: R × R+ × Ω → R è ïðè
ëþáîì ôèêñèðîâàííîì t ∈ R+ è ëþáîì ôèêñèðîâàííîì ω ∈ Ω ôóíêöèÿ V (x, t, ω) åñòü ïîëèíîì îò ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûõ ïåðåìåííûõ x =
(x1 , ...xn ) , ò. å.
n

P

V (x, t, ω) =

gα (t, ω) xα , α = (i1 , ..., in ) , kαk =

kαk≤n
P

r=1 ir ,

i = 1, ..., n,

xα = xi11 xi22 ...xinn .

(392)

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç

uε (τ, t, λ, x, α) = (u1, ε (τ, t, λ, x, α) , ..., un, ε (τ, t, λ, x, α))
ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé còîõàñòè÷åñêîé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé ëèíåéíîé êðàåâîé
çàäà÷è

b α
C
τ Dt, ε 

b
C
0 

α
T
CDτ,
ε uε (τ, t, λ, x, α, ω) =

h 0
iT
Hess [Vε (λ, τ, ξε (τ ))] uT
(τ,
t,
λ,
x,
α,
ω)
+
V
(λ,
τ,
ξ

))
,
ε
ε
uε (0, t, λ, x, y, α, ω) = y, uε (t, t, λ, x, α, ω) = x,
ãäå

(393)

λ = (λ1 , ..., λn ) ,
uT
(τ,
t, λ, x, y, α, ω) =
ε
T
(u1, ε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α, ω) , ..., un, ε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α, ω)) 

h 0
i 
∂V (x, τ, ξε (τ ))
τ, ξε (τ ))
,
...,
V (λ, τ, ξε (τ )) = ∂V (x,∂x
∂xn
1

x=λ

(394)

127

15.6. Ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ...

è ãäå Hess [V (λ, τ, ω)] ýòî Ãåññèàí îòîáðàæåíèÿ V (·, τ, ω)
R+ × Ω → R, âû÷èñëåííûé â òî÷êå x= λ, ò. å.

Hessij [V (λ, τ, ω)] =

h

∂ 2 V (x, τ, ω)
∂xi ∂xj

i

: Rn ×

.
x=λ

(395)

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç Sα, ε (t, λ, x, y, ω) ñëó÷àéíóþ ôóíêöèþ, çàäàííóþ ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëîé
Sα, ε (t, λ, x, y, ω) =   

C α
bε b
Dτ, ε uε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α, ω) , uε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α, ω) , τ, ξε (τ ) dτ,
∫L
0
t

0

(396)

ãäå  

b Dα u (τ, t, λ, x, y, α, ω) , u (τ, t, λ, x, y, α, ω) , τ, ξ (τ ) =
b C
L
ε
ε
τ, ε ε
0 

b
C α
D
m

0

τ, ε uε (τ, t, λ, x, y,α, ω)

2 

2
− Vb (uε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α, ω) , τ, ξε (τ )) ,

Vb (uε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α, ω) , τ, ξε (τ )) =
uε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α, ω) Hess [V (λ, τ, ξε (τ ))] uT
ε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α, ω) +
h 0
i
V (λ, τ, ξε (τ )) uT
ε (τ, t, λ, x, y, α, ω) .
(397)
α
Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç ycr,ε
= ycr,ε (t, λ, x, α, ω) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñèñòåìû ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé

∂Sα, ε (t, λ, x, y, ω)
∂yi

= 0.

i = 1, ..., n.
(398)

bα, ε = u
b ε (t, x0 , λ, α, ω) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþÎáîçíà÷èì äàëåå ÷åðåç x
ùåé ñèñòåìû ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé
α
b, ω) + λ − x0 = 0.
ycr,ε
(t, λ, x

(399)

Ïðåäïîëîæèì òàêæå, ÷òî äëÿ äàííûõ çíà÷åíèé ïàðàìåòðîâ t, λ,
bα, ε = u
b ε (t, x0 , λ, α, ω) íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôîêàëüíîé òî÷êîé íà òðàåêòî÷êà x
òîðèè, çàäàííîé ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ðåøåíèåì còîõàñòè÷åñêîé êðàåâîé

128

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

çàäà÷è (393). Òîãäà äëÿ ÊÌ ñðåäíåãî (390) ñïðàâåäëèâî ñëåäóþùåå
íåðàâåíñòâî

lim inf |hi, t, ω, x0 ; h
¯ ε , αi − λi | ≤ lim sup |b
ui, ε (t, ω, x0 , λ, α)| ,

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

ε→0

i = 1, ..., n.
(400)
Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âû÷èñëåíèå ñëó÷àéíîé êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêîé òðàåêòîðèè ñâîäèòñÿ ê ÷èñëåííîìó ðåøåíèþ ñèñòåìû òðàíñöåíäåíòíûõ óðàâíåíèé âèäà

(b
ui, ε (t, x0 , λ, α, ω))ε = 0,
i = 1, ..., n.
(401)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.6.4. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî â íåðàâåíñòâå (400) íèæíèé

ïðåäåë

lim

inf

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

|hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε , αi − λi |

â îáøåì ñëó÷àå íåëüçÿ çàìåíèòü ïðîñòûì ïðåäåëîì

lim

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

|hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε i − λi | .

Âñëåäñòâèå ýòîãî ñèñòåìà (401) â îáùåì ñëó÷àå èìååò ìíîæåñòâî ðåøåíèé.

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.6.5. Äëÿ ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà

âèäà

i (¯
hε )ε
1
2m1 


∂t

hx, t|xa , ta , ωiε

b α (¯hε )ε ∂
C
t Dt
i ∂xi 

2 

ε

=

(hx, t|xa , ta , ωiε )ε +

(402)

(Vε (x, t, , ξε (t)) hx, t|xa , ta , ωiε )ε .
ñïðàâåäëèâà àíàëîãè÷íàÿ òåîðåìà. Ïðè ýòîì âìåñòî óðàâíåíèÿ (393)
íåîáõîäèìî âçÿòü óðàâíåíèå ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

b α
C
0 Dτ, ε 

b α T
C
τ Dt, ε uε 

(τ, t, λ, x, α, ω) =

h 0
iT
Hess [V (λ, τ, ξε (t))] uT
(τ,
t,
λ,
x,
α,
ω)
+
V
(λ,
τ,
ξ
(t))
.
ε
ε
(403)

129

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå ...

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.6.6. Äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ ñòîõàñòè÷åñêîãî ñèíãóëÿðíîãî äðîáíîãî Ëàãðàíæèàíà îáùåãî âèäà   

b Dβ q , ω
b D α q ,C
=
Lε t, ξε (t) , qi, ε ,C
i,
ε
i,
ε
tb
t
t
ta
ε

m1
2 

n
P
i=1

b α
C
ta Dt qi, ε 

2 

+

m2
2

ε 

n
P
i=1

b β
C
t Dtb qi, ε 

2 

ε

(Vε (t, ξε (t) , q1, ε ...qn, ε ))ε ,

(404)
ãäå m1, 2 6= 0, ÊÌ ñðåäíèå (390) ïî îïðåäåëåíèþ Ôåéíìàíîâñêîãî êâàíòîâàíèÿ âûðàæàþñÿ êàíîíè÷åñêèì îáðàçîì ÷åðåç ïðîïàãàòîð ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà
hxb tb |xa ta , ωiε

"

n


R
qi, ε (tb ) = xb
qi,ε (ta ) = xa

Q

D [qi,ε (t) , ε] exp

i
h
¯ε

i=1

Rtb

Lε  

ε

=

C
α
b
C
α
t, ξε (t) , qi,ε ,b
a Dt qi,ε ,t Da qi,ε

ta 


#

dt 

.

ε

(405)

Ïðè ýòîì âìåñòî óðàâíåíèÿ (393) íåîáõîäèìî âçÿòü óðàâíåíèå ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

b α
C
τ Dt, ε  

α
T
D
u
(τ,
t,
λ,
x,
α,
ω)
+
τ,
ε
ε
0

b α
C
0 Dτ, ε 

b
C

b α T
C
τ Dt, ε uε 

(τ, t, λ, x, α, ω) =

h 0
iT
Hess [V (λ, τ, ξε (t))] uT
.
ε (τ, t, λ, x, α) + V (λ, τ, ξε (t))

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå.
Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñ ïîòåíöèàëîì, óáûâàþùèì íà
áåñêîíå÷íîñòè.
Ñôîðìóëèðóåì îáîáùåíèå Òåîðåìû 15.3.2 äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ, êîãäà êëàññè÷åñêèé ãàìèëüòîíèàí H (p, x) çàäàí íà ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå R2n
x, p =
Rnx ×Rnp è ÿâëÿåòñÿ äîñòàòî÷íî ãëàäêîé ôóíêöèåé 2n ïåðåìåííûõ ñ ïðîèçâîëüíûì ïîêàçàòåëåì ðîñòà íà áåñêîíå÷íîñòè.  ýòîì ñëó÷àå ôîðìàëüíûé Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé ïðîïàãàòîð èìååò ñëåäóþùèé êàíîíè÷åñêèé

130

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

âèä [46]

K (xb , tb |xa , ta ) =
x(tb )=xb

D3 [x (t)] D3 [p (t)] exp 

x(ta )=xa

i
h
¯ 

∫ [p (t) ·x˙ (t) − H (p (t) , x (t))] dt .

tb

ta

(406)

Êàê îòìåòèë åùå Ýäâàðä Íåëñîí [49], ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë
(406) èìååò ñòðîãèé ìàòåìàòè÷åñêèé ñìûñë è òåì ñàìûì ÿâëÿåòñÿ çàìêíóòûì âûðàæåíèåì, äëÿ ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà

b x, p
b ) Ψ = 0,
−i¯
h ∂Ψ
∂t + H (b
Ψ (0, x) = Ψ0 (x) .

(407)
Ââåäåì â ðàññìîòðåíèå ðåãóëÿðèçîâàííûé Ãàìèëüòîíèàí Hε (p, x) , ε∈
(0, 1] òàêîé, ÷òî Hε (p, x)|ε=0 = H (p, x) è [(Hε (p, x))ε ] ∈ G R2n
x, p .
Ðàññìîòðèì òåïåðü îáîáùåííóþ çàäà÷ó Êîøè äëÿ óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

−i¯
h

∂Ψε
∂t ε 

+ 

b ε (b
b)
H
x, p 


ε

(Ψε )ε = 0,

(Ψε (0, x))ε = (Ψ0, ε (x))ε .

(408)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.7.1. [26] Ïóñòüçàäà÷à Êîøè (408) èìååò ðåøåíèå
[(Ψε (t, x))ε ] ∈ G (Rn ) è (Ψ0, ε (x))ε = Ψ0 (x) . Òîãäà [(Ψε (t, x))ε ] íàçûâàåòñÿ îáîáùåííûì ðåøåíèåì (â ñìûñëå Êîëîìáåàó) çàäà÷è Êîøè
(407).
Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.7.2.
Ïóñòü çàäà÷à Êîøè (408) èìååò ðåøåíèå 

[(Ψε (t, x))ε ] G R2 è (Ψ0, ε (x))ε = δ (x−x0 ) . Òîãäà [(Ψε (t, x))ε ] íàçûâàåòñÿ îáîáùåííûì ôóíäàìåíòàëüíûì ðåøåíèåì (â ñìûñëå Êîëîìáåàó) çàäà÷è Êîøè (407).
Îáùåå îïðåäåëåíèå îáîáùåííîãî ôóíäàìåíòàëüíîãî ðåøåíèÿ êàê
ýëåìåíòà äóàëüíîé àëãåáû  

b
Gc (Rn ) , R

L

äàíî â ðàáîòå [50].

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.7.3. Ïóñòü ∈ Rn , n ≥ 1, ξ ∈ Rn - âåùåñòâåí-

íûå ïåðåìåííûå. Ïóñòü, äàëåå R = (R1 , ..., Rn ) , ãäå 0 < Rj ≤ +∞,

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå ...

131

(j = 1, ..., n) è


P

a (x, ξ) =

aα (x) ξ 2α ,

|α|=0

(409)

ãäå:

(i) ïðè ëþáîì ôèêñèðîâàííîì x ∈ Rn , a (x, ξ) - àíàëèòè÷åñêàÿ â
ïàðàëëåëåïèïåäå

SR = {ξ||ξj | < Rj (j = 1, ..., n)}
ôóíêöèÿ è
(ii)

sup
|α|∈N, x∈Rn

|aα (x)| < ∞. (Çäåñü α = (α1 , ..., αn ) - öåëî÷èñëåííûé

ìóëüòè-èíäåêñ, α1 ≥ 0, ..., αn ≥ 0, |α| = α1 + ... +αn , ξ 2α = ξ12α1 ...ξn2αn .
Åñëè äëÿ âñåõ j, Rj = ∞, òî a (x, ξ) - öåëàÿ ôóíêöèÿ ïåðåìåííûõ
ξ1 , ..., ξn . Ïîëîæèì ϕ : Rn → C, ò. å. ϕ (x) -ôóíêöèÿ, îïðåäåëåííàÿ
íà âñåì åâêëèäîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå Rn è ïðèíèìàþùàÿ, âîîáùå ãîâîðÿ,
êîìïëåêñíûå çíà÷åíèÿ.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.7.4. Îñíîâíûì ïðîñòðàíñòâîì H ∞ (Rn , SR ) íàçûâàåòñÿ ïðîñòðàíñòâî ôóíêöèé ϕ (x) ∈ L2 (Rn ) , óäîâëåòâîðÿþùèõ
äâóì óñëîâèÿì:
(i) ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ôóðüå ϕ
b (ξ) ôóíêöèè ϕ (x) ïî÷òè âñþäó ðàâíî
íóëþ âíå ïàðàëëåëåïèïåäà SR , ò. å. ϕ
b (ξ) = 0 ïðè ξ ∈
/ SR ,

(ii) äëÿ ëþáîé ôóíêöèè a (x, ξ) âèäà (409) ñïðàâåäëèâî íåðàâåíñòâî

2

||ϕ||2 = sup ∫ a (x, ξ) |ϕ
b (ξ)| < ∞.

(410)

x∈Rn SR

Èñïîëüçóÿ èíòåãðèðîâàíèå ïî âñåìó ïðîñòðàíñòâó äâîéñòâåííûõ
ïåðåìåííûõ, ìîæíî îïðåäåëèòü H ∞ (Rn , SR ) ñëåäóþùèì ýêâèâàëåíòíûì ñïîñîáîì. Ïîëîæèì

a (x, ξ) =


P

aα (x) ξ 2α , ξ ∈ SR ,

|α|=0

a (x, ξ) = +∞, ξ ∈
/ SR ,

(411)

132

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

òîãäà

H ∞ (Rn , SR ) = 

2
b (ξ)| < ∞ ,
ϕ (x) ∈ L2 (Rn ) ∀x ∈ Rn : ||ϕ||2 = sup ∫ SR a (x, ξ) |ϕ
x∈Rn
(412)
ãäå a (x, ξ) - ïðîèçâîëüíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ, îïðåäåëåííàÿ ôîðìóëîé (411).
ßñíî, ÷òî êîíå÷íîñòü íîðì ||ϕ||2 íåìåäëåííî âëå÷åò òîæäåñòâî ϕ
b (ξ) =
0 äëÿ ïî÷òè âñåõ ξ ∈
/ SR è, ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, èíòåãðèðîâàíèå â äåéñòâèòåëüíîñòè ïðîèçâîäèòñÿ ïî S R . 

Îòìåòèì îñîáî ñëó÷àé Rj = +∞ (j = 1, ..., n), âåñüìà ÷àñòî âñòðå÷àþùèéñÿ â ìàòåìàòè÷åñêîé ôèçèêå è óðàâíåíèÿõ ñ ÷àñòíûìè ïðîèçâîäíûìè.  ýòîì ñëó÷àå òðåáîâàíèå (i) â îïðåäåëåíèè ïðîñòðàíñòâà H ∞ (Rn , SR ) = H ∞ (Rn , Rn ) èçëèøíå è î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî ϕ (x) ∈
H ∞ (Rn , SR ) ⇔ ϕ
b (ξ) ∈ L2, a (Rn ) . Âàæíûìè ïðèìåðàìè îñíîâíûõ

ôóíêöèé ϕ ∈ H (Rn , SR ) ÿâëÿþòñÿ ôóíêöèè [51]
2
sin rx exp(irx)−1 sin (rx/2)
,
,
x ,
x
x

r > 0.
(413)

Äåéñòâèòåëüíî

F 

sin rx 

F

h

F

x

h 

1/2, x ∈ (−r, r)
0, x ∈
/ (−r, r)

=

exp(irx)−1
x

sin2 (rx/2)
x

i

i 

=
(

=

i, x ∈ (0, r)
0, x ∈
/ (0, r)

−i, x ∈ (0, r)
i, x ∈ (−r, 0)
0, x ∈
/ (−r, r) .
n

Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî åñëè ϕ
b (ξ) ∈ L2 (Rn ) è supp ϕ
b (ξ) ⊂ (−r, r) , òî ôóíêöèÿ
F −1 [ϕ
b (ξ)] åñòü îñíîâíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ â ëþáîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå H ∞ (SR ) .

Òåîðåìà 15.7.1. Äëÿ ëþáîé ôóíêöè ϕ (x) âêëþ÷åíèå ϕ (x) ∈
H ∞ (Rn , SR ) èìååò ìåñòî òîãäà è òîëüêî òîãäà, êîãäà ñóùåñòâóþò ÷èñëà rj < Rj (j = 1, ..., n) òàêèå, ÷òî supp ϕ
b (ξ) ⊂ Sr .

Èç òåîðåìû 15.7.1 è òåîðåìû Ïýëè-Âèíåðà âûòåêàåò ñëåäóþùàÿ
òåîðåìà.

Òåîðåìà 15.7.2. Ôóíêöèÿ ϕ (x) ∈ L2 (Rn ) ÿâëÿåòñÿ îñíîâíîé ôóíê-

öèåé èç ïðîñòðàíñòâà H ∞ (Rn , SR ) òîãäà è òîëüêî òîãäà, êîãäà îíà

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå ...

133

äîïóñêàåò àíàëèòè÷åñêîå ïðîäîëæåíèå ϕ (z) , z = x + iy â ïîëíîå êîìïëåêñíîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî Cn , óäîâëåòâîðÿþùåå íåðàâåíñòâó

|ϕ (z)| ≤ C exp
ãäå rj < Rj , j = 1, ..., n è 

P

n
j=1 rj yj 

,

C ýòî íåêîòîðûå êîíñòàíòû.

(414)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.7.1. Ïîñêîëüêó ëèíåéíîå ïîäïðîñòðàíñòâî, ñîñòîÿùåå èç ôèíèòíûõ ôóíêöèé, âñþäó ïëîòíî â L2 (Rn ) , òî Ôóðüå-îáðàç
F [H ∞ (Rn , Rn )] ïðîñòðàíñòâà H ∞ (Rn , Rn ) âñþäó ïëîòåí â L2 (Rn ) è,
ñëåäîâàòåëüíî (â ñèëó ðàâåíñòâà Ïàðñåâàëÿ) ïðîñòðàíñòâî H ∞ (Rn , Rn )
òàêæå âñþäó ïëîòíî â L2 (Rn ) .
Åñëè SR 6=⊂ Rn , òî ïðîñòðàíñòâî H ∞ (Rn , SR ) ïëîòíî òîëüêî â ñîáñòâåííîì ïîäïðîñòðàíñòâå ïðîñòðàíñòâà L2 (Rn ) , à èìåííî, â ïîäïðîñòðàíñòâå ôóíêöèé ϕ (x) ∈ L2 (Rn ) , äîïóñêàþùèõ àíàëèòè÷åñêîå ïðîäîëæåíèå ϕ (z) â ïîëíîå êîìïëåêñíîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî Cn òàêîå, ÷òî èìååò
ìåñòî íåðàâåíñòâî

|ϕ (z)| ≤ C 0 exp
ãäå

C

0 

P

n
j=1 

Rj yj ,

ýòî íåêîòîðàÿ êîíñòàíòà.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.7.5. Ïî îïðåäåëåíèþ ϕn (x) → ϕ (x) (n → ∞)
2
â ïðîñòðàíñòâå H ∞ (Rn , SR ) , åñëè kϕn (x) − ϕ (x)ka → 0 äëÿ ëþáîé
ôóíêöèè a (x, ξ) âèäà (409).
Ââåäåííàÿ ñõîäèìîñòü ìîæåò áûòü îõàðàêòåðèçîâàíà è áåç èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ âåñîâûõ ôóíêöèé a (x, ξ) . Èìåííî, èìååò ìåñòî ñëåäóþùàÿ
òåîðåìà.

Òåîðåìà 15.7.3. Ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü ϕn (x) → ϕ (x) (n → ∞) â
ïðîñòðàíñòâå H ∞ (Rn , SR ) â òîì è òîëüêî â òîì ñëó÷àå, åñëè ñóùåñòâóþò ÷èñëà rj < Rj , j = 1, ..., n òàêèå, ÷òî
supp ϕ
bn (ξ) ⊂ Sr = {ξ| |ξj | < rj , j = 1, ..., n},

ϕ
bn (ξ) → ϕ
b (ξ) â L2 (SR ) .

Òåîðåìà 15.7.4. (Èíâàðèàíòíîñòü ïðîñòðàíñòâà H ∞ (Rn , SR )
îòíîñèòåëüíî äèôôåðåíöèàëüíûõ îïåðàòîðîâ áåñêîíå÷íîãî ïîðÿäêà.)
Ïóñòü D = (D1 , ..., Dn ) , Dj =

1 ∂
i ∂xj ,

A (x, D) =


P

j = 1, ..., n è
aα (x) Dα

|α|=0

(415)

134

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

äèôôåðåíöèàëüíûé îïåðàòîð áåñêîíå÷íîãî ïîðÿäêà, ñèìâîë êîòîðîãî

P

A (x, ξ) =

aα (x) ξ α

|α|=0

(416)
åñòü ôóíêöèÿ, àíàëèòè÷åñêàÿ â ïàðàëëåëåïèïåäå SR , è òàêîé, ÷òî
âñå êîýôôèöèåíòû aα (x) ïðèíàäëåæàò ïðîñòðàíñòâó H ∞ (Rn , SR ) .
Ïóñòü ôóíêöèÿ ϕ (x) ∈ H ∞ (Rn , SR ) , òîãäà ôóíêöèÿ A (x, D) ϕ (x) ∈
H ∞ (Rn , SR ) è îòîáðàæåíèå A (x, D) : H ∞ (Rn , SR ) → H ∞ (Rn , SR )
íåïðåðûâíî.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.7.6. Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç H −∞ (Rn , SR ) ïðîñòðàíñòâî îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé (â ñìûñëå Ë. Øâàðöà) íàä H ∞ (Rn , SR ), ò.
å. ñîâîêóïíîñòü âñåõ ëèíåéíûõ íåïðåðûâíûõ ôóíêöèîíàëîâ, îïðåäåëåííûõ íà îñíîâíîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå H ∞ (Rn , SR ) .
Òåîðåìà 15.7.5. Ïðîñòðàíñòâî H −∞ (Rn , SR ) èíâàðèàíòíî îòíî-

ñèòåëüíî ëþáûõ äèôôåðåíöèàëüíûõ îïåðàòîðîâ áåñêîíå÷íîãî ïîðÿäêà
âèäà (415) è óäîâëåòâîðÿþùèõ óñëîâèÿì òåîðåìû 15.7.4.
Äåéñòâèòåëüíî, ïóñòü h (x) ∈ H −∞ (Rn , SR ) òîãäà

hA (x, D) h (x) , ϕ (x)i = hh (x) , A (x, −D) ϕ (x)i ,
(417)
ïðè÷åì âûðàæåíèå â ïðàâîé ÷àñòè óðàâíåíèÿ (417) â ñèëó òåîðåìû
15.7.4 îïðåäåëåíî êîððåêòíî.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.7.7. Ââåäåì â H −∞ (Rn , SR ) ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ôó-

ðüå ïî ôîðìóëå

D
E
b
h (ξ) , ϕ
b (−ξ) = 2π n hh (x) , ϕ (x)i ,

(418)
ãäå ϕ (x) ∈ H −∞ (Rn , SR ) - ïðîèçâîëüíàÿ îñíîâíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ, ϕ
b (−ξ) åå êëàññè÷åñêîå ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ôóðüå.

Òåîðåìà 15.7.6. Âñÿêàÿ îáîáùåííàÿ ôóíêöèÿ h (x) ∈ H −∞ (Rn , SR )

ïðåäñòàâèìà â âèäå

h (x) =


P

aα D2α h0 (x) ,

|α|=0

(419)
ãäå aα -êîýôôèöèåíòû Òåéëîðà â íåêîòîðîé àíàëèòè÷åñêîé SR ôóíêöèè, à ôóíêöèÿ h0 (x) ∈ L2 (Rn ) òàêîâà, ÷òî b
h0 (ξ) = 0 âíå SR .

Òåîðåìà 15.7.7. Ðàññìîòðèì çàäà÷ó Êîøè (408). Ïóñòü H (x, ξ)

135

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå ...

b (b
b ) è H (x, ξ) óäîâëå- ñèìâîë äèôôåðåíöèàëüíîãî îïåðàòîðà H
x, p 

òâîðÿåò âñåì óñëîâèÿì òåîðåìû 15.7.4. Ïóñòü äàëåå (Ψ0, ε (x))ε =
[(δε (x−x0 ))ε ] , ãäå (δε (x−x0 ))ε -äåëüòà - ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü òàêàÿ, ÷òî
δε (x−x0 ) ∈ H ∞ (Rn , SR ) , ε ∈ (0, 1] . Òîãäà ñóùåñòâóåò îáîáùåííîå
ôóíäàìåíòàëüíîå ðåøåíèå (â ñìûñëå Êîëîìáåàó) (Kε (xb , tb |xa , ta ))ε
çàäà÷è Êîøè (407), è ýòî ðåøåíèå èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

(Kε (xb , tb |xa , ta ))ε =
x(tb )=xb

D3 [x (t) , ε] D3 [p (t) , ε] (δε (x (0) −xa )) ×


x(ta )=xa  

exp

i
h
¯ 

.
∫ [p (t) ·x˙ (t) − H (p (t) , x (t))] dt

tb

ta

ε

(420)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.7.8. Ïóñòü E∞ (Rn , SR ) = (H ∞ (Rn , SR ))I , I =
(0, 1] ,

n
E∞
M (R , SR ) = 

⊂ n
(uε )ε ∈ E∞ (Rn , SR ) | ∀K K6=
R 

∀α (α ∈ Nn
0 ) ∃p (p ∈ N)  

sup |∂ α uε (x)| = O(ε−p ) 5A; 8 ε → 0

,

x∈K

N (Rn , SR ) =  


(uε )ε ∈ E∞ (Rn , SR ) | ∀K K6=
M , ∀α (α ∈ Nn
0 ) ∀q (q ∈ N )  

sup |∂ α uε (x)| = O(εq ) 5A; 8 ε → 0

.

x∈K
n
n
G∞ (Rn , SR ) = E∞
M (R , SR ) /N (R , SR ).

Òåîðåìà 15.7.8. Ïóñòü D = (D1 , ..., Dn ) , Dj =

(Aε (x, D))ε =

M
P
|α|=0

1 ∂
i ∂xj ,

(421)

j = 1, ..., n è

(aα, ε (x) Dα )ε

(422)
äèôôåðåíöèàëüíûé îïåðàòîð êîíå÷íîãî ïîðÿäêà, êîýôôèöèåíòû êîòîðîãî ÿâëÿþòñÿ îáîáùåííûìè ôóíêöèÿìè èç G∞ (Rn , SR ) . Ïóñòü
îáîáùåííàÿ ôóíêöèÿ u (x) ∈ G∞ (Rn , SR ) , òîãäà îáîáùåííàÿ ôóíêöèÿ [(Aε (x, D) u (x))ε ] ∈ G∞ (Rn , SR ) .

Îïðåäåëåíèå 15.7.9. Ïóñòü E∞ (Rn , SR ) = (H ∞ (Rn , SR ))I , I =

136

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

(0, 1] ,
∆ 

n
E∞
EXP M (R , SR ) =

⊂ n
(uε )ε ∈ E∞ (Rn , SR ) | ∀K K6=
R 

α

sup |∂ uε (x)| = O(exp ε

−p  

∀α (α ∈ Nn
0 ) ∃p (p ∈ N) 

) 5A; 8 ε → 0

,

x∈K

N (Rn , SR ) =  


(uε )ε ∈ E∞ (Rn , SR ) | ∀K K6=
M , ∀α (α ∈ Nn
0 ) ∀q (q ∈ N )  

α

q

sup |∂ uε (x)| = O(ε ) 5A; 8 ε → 0

.

x∈K
n

n
n
G∞
EXP (R , SR ) = EEXP M (R , SR ) /N (R , SR ).

(423)

Òåîðåìà 15.7.9. Ðàññìîòðèì çàäà÷ó Êîøè (408). Ïóñòü
(Hε (x, p))ε
b ε (b
b ))ε , êîýôôèöèåíòû
- ñèìâîë äèôôåðåíöèàëüíîãî îïåðàòîðà (H
x, p
êîòîðîãî
ÿâëÿþòñÿ
îáîáùåííûìè
ôóíêöèÿìè
èç
G∞ (Rn , SR ) . Ïóñòü  


n
(Ψ0, ε (x))ε ∈ G (R , SR ) . Òîãäà ñóùåñòâóåò îáîáùåííîå ðåøåíèå
(â ñìûñëå Êîëîìáåàó) (Ψε (xb , tb |xa , ta ))ε çàäà÷è Êîøè (408), è ýòî
ðåøåíèå èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä
(Ψε (x, t))ε =
∫ dn y

x(t)=x

D3 [x (t) , ε] D3 [p (t) , ε] (Ψ0, ε (x (t0 ))) ×

x(t0 )=y  

exp

i
h
¯ 

∫ [p (t) ·x˙ (t) − Hε (p (t) , x (t))] dt
.

tb

ta

ε

(424)

Òåîðåìà 15.7.10. Ðàññìîòðèì 
îáîáùåííóþ çàäà÷ó Êîøè (408) ñ
íà÷àëüíûì óñëîâèåì (Ψ0, ε (x))ε = [(δε (x−x0 ))ε ] , ãäå (δε (x−x0 ))ε äåëüòà-ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü òàêàÿ, ÷òî δε (x−x0 ) ∈ H ∞ (Rn , SR ) , ε ∈
(0, 1] .
Ïóñòü Hε (x, p, t)|ε=0 = H (x, p, t) : R2n
x, p → R è ïðè ëþáîì ôèêñèðîâàííîì t ∈ R+ ôóíêöèÿ H (x, p, t) åñòü ïîëèíîì îò ïåðåìåííûõ
x = (x1 , ...xn ) , p= (p1 , ..., p2 ), ò. å.
H (x, p, t) =

P

gα (t) xα1 pα2 , α = (i1 , ..., in ) , kαk =

Pl
r=1

ir , i = 1, ..., l,

kα1 k ≤ n,
kα2 k ≤ m
i

i

il

i

i

il

xα1 = x11 x22 ...xn 1 , pα2 = p11 p22 ...pn 2 .

(425)

137

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå ...

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç

{u (τ, t, λ, x, y) , p (τ, t, λ, p0 )} ,
ãäå u (τ, t, λ, x, y) = (u1 (τ, t, λ, x, y) , ..., un (τ, t, λ, x, y)) è

p (τ, t, λ, p0 ) = (p1 (τ, t, λ, p0 ) , ..., pn (τ, t, λ, p0 ))
ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé ëèíåéíîé íà÷àëüíî-êðàåâîé çàäà÷è:
dp(τ, t, λ, p0 )

b p,τ )
= − ∂ H(u,
,
∂x

p (0, t, λ, p0 ) = p0 ,
du(τ, t, λ, x, y)

=

b p,τ )
∂ H(u,
,
∂p

u (0, t, λ, x, y) = y, u (t, t, λ, x) = x,
(426)

ãäå

λ = (λ1 , ..., λn ) , uT (τ, t, λ, x, y) =
T

(u1 (τ, t, λ, x, y) , ..., un (τ, t, λ, x, y)) , 

b (u, p, τ ) = (u ⊕ p) Hess [H (λ, λ, τ )] uT ⊕pT +
H
h 0
i
h 0
i
Hx (λ, λ, τ ) uT + Hp (λ, λ, τ ) pT ,
0

Hx (λ, λ, τ ) =
0

Hp (λ, λ, τ ) =  

∂H(x, p, τ )
p, τ )
, ..., ∂H(x,
∂x1
∂xn 

∂H(x, p, τ )
p, τ )
, ..., ∂H(x,
∂p1
∂pn 

,
x=λ, p=λ

,
x=λ, p=λ

(427)
: R2n

R,
x, p

è ãäå Hess [V (λ, λ, τ )] - Ãåññèàí îòîáðàæåíèÿ H (·, τ )
âû÷èñëåííûé â òî÷êå x= λ, p = λ, ò. å.

Hessij [V (λ, τ )] =

h

∂ 2 H(x, p, τ )
∂ξi ∂ξj

i

,
x=λ, p=λ

ξ = x ⊕ p.
(428)

138

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç S (t, λ, x, y, p0 ) ôóíêöèþ, çàäàííóþ ñëåäóþùåé
ôîðìóëîé
t

b (u (τ, t, λ, x, y) , p (τ, t, λ, p0 ) , τ ) dτ,
S (t, λ, x, y, p0 ) = ∫ L
0

(429)

ãäå

b (u (τ, t, λ, x, y) , p (τ, t, λ, p0 ) , τ ) =
L
p (τ, t, λ, p0 ) u˙ (τ, t, λ, x, y) −

(430)

b (u (τ, t, λ, x, y) , p (τ, t, λ, p0 ) , τ ) .
H
Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç {ycr , p0cr } = {ycr (t, λ, x) , p0cr (t, λ, x)} ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñèñòåìû ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé

h

h

∂S(t, λ, x, y, p0 )
∂yi

∂S(t, λ, x, y, p0 )
∂p0i

i

= 0,

y=ycr

i

= 0,

(431)

p0 =p0cr

i = 1, ..., n.
b=u
b (t, x0 , λ) ðåøåíèå ñëåäóþùåé ñèñòåÎáîçíà÷èì äàëåå ÷åðåç x
ìû ëèíåéíûõ àëãåáðàè÷åñêèõ óðàâíåíèé
b) + λ − x0 = 0.
ycr (t, λ, x

(432)

Ïðåäïîëîæèì òàêæå, ÷òî äëÿ äàííûõ çíà÷åíèé ïàðàìåòðîâ t, λ,
òî÷êà {b
x, p0cr } = {b
u (t, x0 , λ) , p0cr (t, λ, x)} íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôîêàëüíîé
òî÷êîé íà òðàåêòîðèè, çàäàííîé ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ðåøåíèåì íà÷àëüíî êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (426). Òîãäà äëÿ ÊÌ ñðåäíåãî (123) ñïðàâåäëèâî
ñëåäóþùåå íåðàâåíñòâî

lim inf |hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε i − λi | ≤ |b
ui (t, x0 , λ)| , i = 1, ..., n.

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

(433)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âû÷èñëåíèå êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêîé òðàåêòîðèè ñâîäèòñÿ ê ÷èñëåííîìó ðåøåíèþ ñèñòåìû òðàíñöåíäåíòíûõ óðàâíåíèé âèäà

u
bi (t, x0 , λ) = 0.

(434)

139

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå ...

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.7.2. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî â íåðàâåíñòâå (433) íèæíèé

ïðåäåë

lim

inf

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

|hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε i − λi |

â îáøåì ñëó÷àå íåëüçÿ çàìåíèòü ïðîñòûì ïðåäåëîì

lim

h
¯ ε →0, ε→0

|hi, t, x0 ; h
¯ ε i − λi | .

Âñëåäñòâèå ýòîãî ñèñòåìà (433) â îáùåì ñëó÷àå èìååò ìíîæåñòâî ðåøåíèé. Êàê ñëåäñòâèå, äëÿ ðåøåíèé óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà (407) êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà ( ¯
h → 0 ) ÊÌ ñðåäíèõ (123) íå îáëàäàåò
ñâîéñòâîì åäèíñòâåííîñòè.
 ïàðàãðàôå 15.3 ìû ðàññìîòðåëè ñëó÷àé óðàâíåíèÿ Øðåäèíãåðà ñ
ïîòåíöèàëîì, îáëàäàþùèì ïðîèçâîëüíîé ñòåïåíüþ ðîñòà íà ïðîñòðàíñòâåííîé áåñêîíå÷íîñòè.  ïðèëîæåíèÿõ ÷àñòî âñòðå÷àåòñÿ óðàâíåíèå
Øðåäèíãåðà ñ ïîòåíöèàëîì, óáûâàþùèì íà áåñêîíå÷íîñòè. Ïðîñòåéøèé ïðèìåð äàåò Óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà äëÿ àòîìà âîäîðîäà.  ýòîì
ñëó÷àå ôîðìàëüíûé Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé ïðîïàãàòîð èìååò ñëåäóþùèé êàíîíè÷åñêèé âèä [43]:

K (xb , tb |xa , ta ) = 
t
h
i
x b , tb
b
2
(t)
− V (x (t)) ,
∫ D3 [x (t)] D3 [p (t)] exp h¯i ∫ dt p (t) ·x˙ (t) − p2m
ta

x a , ta

(435)

ãäå
2

(436)

2

V (x) = − er , r = kxk .

Òåîðåìû 15.7.2 è 15.7.10 î÷åâèäíî íåïîñðåäñòâåííî íå ïðèìåíèìû
ê âû÷èñëåíèþ ÊÌ ñðåäíèõ ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ïðîïàãàòîðà (435). Òåì
íå ìåíåå, ââîäÿ ïîäõîäÿùóþ çàìåíó ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûõ êîîðäèíàò è
âðåìåíè, ìîæíî ñâåñòè çàäà÷ó ê ýêâèâàëåíòíîé çàäà÷å ñ ïðîïàãàòîðîì âèäà (406) è, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, âîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ òåîðåìîé 15.7.10.
 êà÷åñòâå ïðèìåðà ðàññìîòðèì óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà â ïîëÿðíûõ
êîîðäèíàòàõ


h ∂Ψ
∂t =
2

h
¯
− 2m

h

1 ∂
r 2 ∂r 

r2 ∂Ψ
∂r +

r2

1
∂2Ψ
sin2 θ ∂ϕ2

+

r2

1

sin θ ∂θ

sin θ ∂Ψ
∂θ 

i

+

e2
r .

(437)

140

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Óìíîæèâ óðàâíåíèå (437) íà r2 sin2 θ, ìû ïîëó÷èì


hr2 sin2 θ ∂Ψ
∂t =
h 


h
¯2
sin2 θ ∂r
r2 ∂Ψ
− 2m
∂r +

∂2Ψ
∂ϕ2


+ sin θ ∂θ
sin θ ∂Ψ
∂θ

h
2 ∂2Ψ
h
¯2
2
2r sin2 θ ∂Ψ
− 2m
∂r + r sin θ ∂r 2 +

∂2Ψ
∂ϕ2 

i

+ e2 r sin2 θ =

i
2 ∂2Ψ
+ sin θ cos θ ∂Ψ
∂θ + sin θ ∂θ 2 +

+e2 r sin2 θ.
(438)
Âûïîëíèì â (438) çàìåíó âðåìåíè t = t0 r2 sin θ , òîãäà Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé ïðîïàãàòîð (435) â êîîðäèíàòàõ t0 , r, θ, ϕ ïðèìåò ñëåäóþùèé
âèä
2   

0
0
K rb , tb |xa , ta =
0

r b , θ b , ϕ b , tb

D [r (t0 )] D [θ (t0 )] D [ϕ (t0 )] D [pθ (t0 )] D [pθ (t0 )] D [pϕ (t0 )] × 
t
h
b
exp h¯i ∫ dt pr (t0 ) r˙ (t0 ) +pθ (t0 ) θ˙ (t0 ) + pϕ (t0 ) ϕ˙ (t0 ) −

ra , θa , ϕa , t0a

ta

H (r (t0 ) , θ (t0 ) , ϕ (t0 ) , pr (t0 ) , pθ (t0 )) , pϕ (t0 )]} ,

(439)

 ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ óäîáíî âîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ çàìåíîé ïåðåìåííûõ â èñõîäíîì ôóíêöèîíàëüíîì èíòåãðàëå. Òàê, íàïðèìåð, èñïîëüçóÿ ïðèåì,
èçëîæåííûé â ðàáîòàõ [44-45], ìû ìîæåì ïðåîáðàçîâàòü ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë (435) â ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë ñ ãàìèëüòîíèàíîì
H (p (t) , x (t)) , ÿâëÿþùèìñÿ ïîëèíîìîì îò ïåðåìåííûõ (p (t) , x (t)) .
Ïîñðåäñòâîì çàìåíû ïåðåìåííûõ ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà [44-45]

t

s (t) = ∫
0


r(τ )

(440)

141

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå ...

Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé èíòåãðàë (435) ïðåîáðàçóåòñÿ ê âèäó

K (xb , tb |xa , ta ) =
(
)
h
i
sb =s(tb )
2
0
r(s)
p
(s)
∫ D3 [x (t)] D3 [p (t)] exp h¯i

ds p (s) ·x (s) − 2m
+e .
sa =s(ta )

(441)
Äëÿ âû÷èñëåíèÿ ÊÌ ñðåäíèõ ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ôóíêöèîíàëüíîãî
èíòåãðàëà(441) óæå íåïîñðåäñòâåííî ïðèìåíèìà Òåîðåìà 15.7.10. Äëÿ
ïðàêòè÷åñêèõ âû÷èñëåíèé, óäîáíî ïîëîæèòü r (s) = x2 (s) è âìåñòî
èíòåãðàëà (441) ðàññìàòðèâàòü ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà 

4

4

sb

i
h
¯

∫ d (x4 )b ∫ D [x (t)] D [p (t)] exp
−∞

h

0

∫ ds p (s) ·x (s)

x2 (s) p2 (s)

2m

i

2

+ Ex (s)

.

sa

(442)

 ðàáîòå [44] ïðåäïðèíèìàëàñü íåêîððåêòíàÿ ïîïûòêà âû÷èñëèòü íåãàóññîâñêèé ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë (441) ïóòåì ïðåîáðàçîâàíèÿ ýòîãî
èíòåãðàëà â ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë ãàóññîâñêîãî òèïà.
Ðàññìîòðèì ýòè âû÷èñëåíèÿ ïîäðîáíî. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî ñâÿçü (440)
ìîæíî ó÷åñòü ñ ïîìîùüþ áåñêîíå÷íîìåðíîé δ - ôóíêöèè. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìû èìååì

K (xb , tb |xa , ta ) = 

∫ dsb δ 

sb

tb − ta − ∫ dsr (s)

exp [ie (sb − sa )] ×

sa

sa 

rb ∫ D3 [x (s)] D3 [p (s)] exp

i
h
¯

sb =s(tb )

h

0

ds p (s) ·x (s) −

r(s) p2 (s)
2m

i

=

sa =s(ta ) 

dE

exp [iE (tb − ta )]

∫ dsb exp [ie (sb − sa )] rb ×
sa 

3

3

∫ D [x (t)] D [p (t)] exp

i
h
¯

sb =s(tb )

h

0

ds p (s) ·x (s)

r(s) p2 (s)

2m

i

+ Er (s)

.

sa =s(ta )

(443)

142

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Äàëåå âîñïîëüçóåìñÿ ýëåìåíòàðíûì òîæäåñòâîì

∫ d (x4 )b ×

−∞

(
i
h
¯

∫ D [x4 (t)] D [p4 (t)] exp

1
dp4 2π

(x4 )b , sb

(x4 )a , sa

)
h
i
0
r(s) p24 (s)
ds p4 (s) ·x4 (s) − 2m
= 

∫ d (x4 )b exp {ip4 [(x4 )b − (x4 )a ]} exp

−∞

p4
2m 

∫ r (s) ds = 1.

sb

sa

(444)

Òîæäåñòâî (444) ñïðàâåäëèâî äëÿ ïðîèçâîëüíîé íåïðåðûâíîé
ôóíêp
öèè r (s) è, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ìû ìîæåì ïîëîæèòü r (s) = (x2 (s)), ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò çàïèñàòü ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ïðàâîé ÷àñòè ðàâåíñòâà
(444) â ñëåäóþùåì âèäå 

∫ d (x4 )b ∫ D4 [x (s)] D4 [p (s)] exp

−∞

i
h
¯

sb

h

0

∫ ds p (s) ·x (s) −

r(s) p2 (s)
2m

+ Er

i

.

sa

(445)

Ñëåäóÿ ðàáîòå [44], ââåäåì ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå ïåðåìåííûõ (x, px ) →
(u, pu ) òàê, ÷òî r = u2 . Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìû èìååì [44]:

xa =

P4

b=1

Aab (u) ub , (a = 1, 2, 3) ,

dx4 = 2
pa =

1
2r

P4

b=1

P4

b=1

(446)

A4b (u) dub ,

Aab (u) (pu )b , (a = 1, 2, 3, 4) ,

ãäå


u

 3
−u2
A (u) =

 −u1
u4

u4
−u1
u2
−u3

u1
u4
u3
u2

u2
u3
−u4
−u1



.

(447)


 ðåçóëüòàòå èíòåãðàë (445) ïðåîáðàçóåòñÿ ê ãàóññîâñêîìó èíòåãðà-

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå ...

143

ëó ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

{xb , (x4 )b }, sb

D4 [u (s)] D4 [pu (s)] ×
−∞
{xa , (x4 )a }, sa 
s
i
h
b
0
p2 (s)
exp h¯i ∫ ds pu (s) ·u (s) − u2µ − 12 µωu2 (s) ,
1
16rb2

∫ d (x4 )b

sa

µ = 4m, ω 2 = −E/2m.
(448)
Èñïîëüçóÿ çàìåíó ïåðåìåííûõ


sin θ2 cos α+ϕ
2

√  sin θ2 sin α+ϕ
,
2
, u = r
α−ϕ
θ

 cos cos
2
2
cos θ2 sin α−ϕ
2

sin θ cos ϕ
sin θ sin ϕ
cos θ

x=r

!

(449)

èíòåãðàë (448) ìîæíî ñâåñòè ê èíòåãðàëó âèäà
1
16rb

∫ d (x4 )b
−∞ 

exp

sb

i
h
¯

{xb , (x4 )b }, sb
D4 [u (s)] D4 [pu (s)] ×

{xa , (x4 )a }, sa

h

0

∫ ds pu (s) ·u (s) −

p2
u (s)

2
1
2 µωu

i

(s)

=

sa
1
16rb

1
16

∫ dαb
0

1
16

∫ d (x4 )b K (ub (xb , αb ) , sa |ua (xa , αa ) , sa ) =
−∞

Pn=+∞
n=−∞

K (ub (xb , αb + 4πn) , sa |ua (xa , αa ) , sa ) =

∫ dαb [K (ub (xb , αb ) , sa |ua (xa , αa ) , sa ) + K (−ub (xb , αb ) , sa |ua (xa , αa ) , sa )] ,
0

(450)

ãäå K (ub (xb , αb ) , sa |ua (xa , αa ) , sa ) - ôóíêöèÿ Ãðèíà 4 - ìåðíîãî ãàðìîíè÷åñêîãî îñöèëëÿòîðà. Âíå ìàëûõ îêðåñòíîñòåé ôîêàëüíûõ òî÷åê,
êàê õîðîøî èçâåñòíî, òî÷íîå àíàëèòè÷åñêîå âûðàæåíèå äëÿ ôóíêöèÿ
Ãðèíà K (ub , sa |ua , sa ) ìîæíî ïîëó÷èòü â ÿâíîé ôîðìå [4]

K (ub , sa |ua , sa ) = F (sb − sa ) =
=

q

µω
2πi¯
h sin[ω(sb −sa )] .

(451)

144

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ïîäñòàâèâ ôîðìàëüíî âûðàæåíèå (451) â ïðàâóþ ÷àñòü ôîðìóëû
(450) è âû÷èñëèâ èíòåãðàë ïî ïåðåìåííîé αb , ìû ïîëó÷èì ñëåäóþùåå
âûðàæåíèå [44]:

Φω (ra , rb , sb − sa ) =
π
4
4rb F

(sb − sa ) I0

2πF 2 (sb − sa )

√ 

ra rb + xa ·xb × 

exp −πF 2 (sb − sa ) (ra + rb ) cos [ω (sb − sa )] ,
F (sb − sa ) =

q

µω
2πi¯
h sin[ω(sb −sa )] ,

sb − sa <

(452)

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.7.3. Íåîáõîäèìî ïîä÷åðêíóòü, ÷òî ôîðìóëà (451),
êàê õîðîøî èçâåñòíî, ñïðàâåäëèâà òîëüêî äëÿ ïðîìåæóòêîâ âðåìåíè
T = sb − sa òàêèõ, ÷òî 0 < sb − sa < π/ω [4], è âñëåäñòâèå ýòîãî ôîðìàëüíàÿ ïîäñòàíîâêà âûðàæåíèÿ (452) â âûðàæåíèå (409) íå ìîæåò
äàâàòü òî÷íîãî âûðàæåíèÿ äëÿ ïðîïàãàòîðà K (xb , tb |xa , ta ) âîïðåêè
òîìó, ÷òî îøèáî÷íî óòâåðæàåòñÿ â ðàáîòå [43]. Ôîðìàëüíàÿ ïîäñòàíîâêà âûðàæåíèÿ (452) â âûðàæåíèå (409), âûïîëíåííàÿ â ðàáîòå [44],
äàåò äëÿ ïðîïàãàòîðà K (xb , tb |xa , ta ) ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå ( ¯
h=1)

K (xb , tb |xa , ta ) = ∫

dE

exp [iE (tb − ta )] K (xb , tb |E) ,  

√ √
1

ρν
0
K (xb , tb |E) = −i mp


I
2p
r
r
+
x
·x
×
2
0
0
a
b
a
b
π
1−ρ
(1−ρ)
0

n
o
1+ρ
(ra + rb ) ,
exp −p0 1−ρ
(453)
ãäå ν = −me /2E
4 

1/2

1/2

, p0 = (−2mE)

.

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.7.4.  ñèëó çàìå÷àíèÿ 15.7.3 ôîðìóëà (453) ñïðàâåäëèâà òîëüêî êàê àñèìïòîòè÷åñêàÿ ôîðìóëà, êîòîðàÿ äàåò òî÷íîå
âûðàæåíèå äëÿ ïðîïàãàòîðà K (xb , tb |xa , ta ) òîëüêî â ïðåäåëå ω → 0.

145

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå ...

 ñàìîì äåëå

K (xb , tb |xa , ta ) = lim Kω (xb , tb |xa , ta ) =
ω→0 

lim

ω→0

−∞

dE

exp [iE (tb − ta )] ×
)

π/ω

∫ dsb exp [ie (sb − sa )] rb Φω (ra , rb , sb − sa )

=

sa


−∞

dE

exp [iE (tb − ta )] ×

(

)

π/ω

lim

ω→0


−∞

dE

∫ dsb exp [ie (sb − sa )] rb Φω (ra , rb , sb − sa )

=

sa

exp [iE (tb − ta )] ∫ dsb exp [ie (sb − sa )] rb Φω (ra , rb , sb − sa ) ,
sa

(454)
÷òî, êàê ëåãêî âèäåòü, ñîâïàäàåò ñ ïðàâîé ÷àñòüþ ðàâåíñòâà (453).
Áîëåå ñëîæíûé ïðèìåð äàåò ÊÌ Ãàìèëüòîíèàí, ñîäåðæàùèé ïîòåíöèàë Ìîðñà [47]:

V (x) = V1 exp [−2α (r − r0 )] + V2 exp [−α (r − r0 )] ,

(455)
ãäå V1 , V2 - êîíñòàíòû.  îäíîìåðíîì ñëó÷àå çàïèøåì ïðîïàãàòîð (406)
â âèäå

x b , tb

x a , ta

K (xb , t
b |xa , ta ) =
h
i
tb
p2x
i
D [x (t)] D [px (t)] exp h¯ ∫ dt px x˙ − 2m + V (x) .
ta

(456)

Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë (456) ïîñëå ïîäõîäÿùåé çàìåíû ïåðåìåííûõ ñâîäèòñÿ ê èíòåãðàëó ñ ïîëèíîìèàëüíûì ïîòåíöèàëîì, ïðè
ýòîì ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèé ãàìèëüòîíèàí H (p, q) òàêæå èìååò ïîëèíîìèàëüíóþ ôîðìó. Ñëåäóÿ [47], âûïîëíèì â ôîðìàëüíîì âûðàæåíèè (456)
ôóíêöèîíàëüíóþ çàìåíó ïåðåìåííûõ

exp (−αx (t)) = u2 (t) , px (t) = − αu(t)
2 pu (t) .

(457)

146

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Òîãäà âûðàæåíèå (456) ïðåîáðàçóåòñÿ ê ñëåäóþùåìó âèäó [47]:
K (xb , tb |xa , ta ) =

αub
2 

xb , tb

tb

h

∫ dt pu u˙ −α2

i
h
¯

D [x (t)] D [px (t)] exp

xa , t a

2
p2
uu
8m

− V1 u4 + V2 u2

i

.

ta

(458)

Ââîäÿ çàìåíó âðåìåíè dt/ds = u , ëåãêî ïðåîáðàçîâàòü èíòåãðàë
(458) ê âèäó
2

α
2

K (xb , T |xa , 0) = 

exp

i
h
¯

+∞


−∞

dE

exp (iET ) ∫ ds exp (iV2 S)
0

1
ub

∫ DuDpu ×   

2 2
2
2
∫ pu u˙ − pu /2M − M ω u /2 − E/u
,
s

0

T = tb − ta , M =

4m
α2 ,

ω=

q

V1
M.

(459)
Âûïîëíèâ èíòåãðèðîâàíèå ïî Dpu , ìû ïîëó÷èì

K (xb , T |xa , 0) =

K (ub , S|ua , 0) =

α
2

+∞


−∞

1
ub

dE

exp (iET ) ∫ dS exp (iV2 S) K (ub , S|ua , 0) ,
0 

∫ Du exp

i
h
¯

S

∫ ds
0

h

M u˙ 2 (s)
2

M ω 2 u2 (s)
2

E
u2 (s)

i

.

(460)

Èñïîëüçóÿ òåïåðü ýëåìåíòàðíûå òîæäåñòâà

1
ub

1
ua

=

=

√ 1
ub ua

√ 1
ub ua 

S
exp i ∫
0 

u(s)
˙
2u(s) ds 

S
exp −i ∫
0

, 

u(s)
˙
2u(s) ds

,

ìû èìååì

(461)

K (ub , S|ua , 0) = K1 (ub , S|ua , 0) = √u1b ua ∫ DuDpu × 

i
sh
p2u
E−1/4
ipu
exp h¯i ∫ pu u˙ − 2M
− 21 M ω 2 u2 − 2M2M
+
u2
2M u
0

(462)

147

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå ...

è

K (ub , S|ua , 0) = K2 (ub , S|ua , 0) = 

exp

i
h
¯

s

h
∫ pu u˙ −
0

p2u
2M

1
2 2
2Mω u

√ 1
ub ua

2M E−1/4
2M u2

∫ DuDpu ×

ipu
2M u

i

.
(463)

 ñèëó ðàâåíñòâ (462)-(463), äëÿ ãåîìåòðè÷åñêîãî ñðåäíåãî

K (ub , S|ua , 0) =

p
K1 (ub , S|ua , 0) K2 (ub , S|ua , 0)

ìû èìååì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå

K (ub , S|ua , 0) = 

exp

i
h
¯

Sh

∫ pu u˙ (s) −
0

p2u (s)
2M

√ 1
ub ua

∫ DuDpu ×

1
2 2
2Mω u

(s) −

2M E−1/4
2M u2 (s)

i

.
(464)

Âûïîëíèâ èíòåãðèðîâàíèå ïî Dpu , ìû ïîëó÷èì

K (ub , S|ua , 0) =
√ 1
ub ua 

∫ D [u (s)] exp

i
h
¯

Sh

∫ u˙ 2 (s) − 12 M ω 2 u2 (s) −
0

2M E−1/4
2M u2 (s)

i

.

(465)

Äëÿ âû÷èñëåíèÿ ôóíêöèîíàëüíîãî èíòåãðàëà â (464) â ðàáîòå [47]
ïðèìåíÿëàñü ñëåäóþùàÿ ôîðìóëà ( ¯
h=1)

u(sb )=ub


u(sa )=ua 

sb

Du (s) exp i ∫ ds
sa

h

1
˙2
2 mu

(s) −

ν 2 −1/4
u2 (s)

1
2 2
2 mω u

(s)

i

=   


−i ub ua mω csc (ω (sb − sa )) exp 12 mω u2b + u2a cot (ω (sb − sa )) ,
Reν > −1,
ïîëó÷åííàÿ â ðàáîòå [53] (ñì. [53] ôîðìóëà (56)).

(466)

Ïðè âûâîäå ôîðìóëû (466) â ðàáîòå [53] èñïîëüçîâàíà ñëåäóþùàÿ

148

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ôîðìóëà äëÿ ðàäèàëüíîãî ïðîïàãàòîðà ãàðìîíè÷åñêîãî îñöèëëÿòîðà

Kl (r2 , r1 |S) =
−i (r1 r2 )−1/2 mω csc (ωS) exp 

i

2 Mω

r12 + r22  

cot (ωS) Il+1/2 [imωr1 r2 csc (ωS)] ,
(467)

ñì. [53].

Çàìå÷àíèå 15.7.5. Íåîáõîäèìî îòìåòèòü, ÷òî ôîðìóëà (467), êàê
õîðîøî èçâåñòíî, ñïðàâåäëèâà òîëüêî äëÿ 0 < S < π/ω [4]. Äëÿ ïðîèçâîëíûõ îòðåçêîâ âðåìåíè S âûðàæåíèå äëÿ ïðîïàãàòîðà ñòðîèòñÿ â
ôîðìå êàíîíè÷åñêîãî îïåðàòîðà Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà [4]. Âíå îêðåñòíîñòåé
ôîêàëüíûõ òî÷åê ïðîïàãàòîð Kl (r2 , r1 |S) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä [4]

−1/2

Kl (r2 , r1 |S) = −i (r1 r2 ) i mω csc (ωS) × 

i
Il+1/2 [imωr1 r2 csc (ωS)] ,
exp 2 M ω r12 + r22 cot (ωS) − iπ(k+1)
2
(468)
ãäå π/2 + kπ < S < π/2 + (k + 1) π. Â ñèëó ôîðìóëû (467), ìû èìååì
ñëåäóþùåå ÿâíîå âûðàæåíèå äëÿ ïðîïàãàòîðà K (ub , S|ua , 0), ñïðàâåäëèâîå òîëüêî ïðè 0 < S < π/ω :
h

K (ub , S|ua , 0) =   


ua ub M ω csc (ωS) exp 2i M ω u2a + u2b cot (ωS)

(469)

I√2M E [M ωua ub csc (ωS)] .

Äàëåå, ïðèíèìàÿ âî âíèìàíèå èçâåñòíîå òîæäåñòâî Õèëëå-Õàðäè

t exp(−α/2)
1−t


P
n=0

h
exp − 12 (x + y)
h

1
tn n! exp − 2 (x+y)
Γ(n+α+1)

1+t
1−t

i

Iα  


2 xyt
1−t

=

i
(xy)

α/2

(α)

(α)

Ln (x) Ln (y) ,
(470)

ãäå t = exp (−2iωS) , x = M ωua , y = M ωub , ìû çàïèøåì (469) â

15.7. Ôóíêöèîíàëüíûé èíòåãðàë â ôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå ...

149

ñëåäóþùåé ýêâèâàëåíòíîé ôîðìå

K (ub , S|ua , 0) =


P
n=0

exp (iεn S) ψn (ub ) ψn∗ (ua ) ,  


εn = ω 2n + 1 + 2M E ,
S < π/ω,
(471)

ãäå

ψn (u) =
q

2M ωn!Γ(n+2s+1/2)
un!

s=

1
4

M ωu2
+

1
2

√ 

s+ 1
2  

2s+ 1
exp −M ωu2 Ln 2 M ωu2 ,

2M E > 0, n = 0, 1, 2, ...

(472) 

è ãäå
M ωu2 - ïîëèíîìû Ëàãåððà. Â ñèëó òîæäåñòâà (471) ìû
ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå ïðèáëèæåííîå âûðàæåíèå äëÿ ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà
G (ub , ua ; T ) :
1
2s+
Ln 2

G (ub , ua ; T ) ≈

− √uαa ub ∫

−∞

dE

exp (iET )


P

π/ω

∫ dS exp [S (iV2 − εn )] ψn (ub ) ψn∗ (ua ) .

n=0 0

(473)

Äëÿ ω → 0 â ñèëó (473) ìû èìååì ñëåäóþùåå àñèìïòîòè÷åñêè òî÷íîå âûðàæåíèå äëÿ ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà G (ub , ua ; T ) :

G (ub , ua ; T ) '

− √uαa ub ∫

−∞


P
n=0

dE

exp (iET )


P

∫ dS exp [S (iV2 − εn )] ψn (ub ) ψn∗ (ua ) =

n=0 0   

exp −iT −V2 1 −


V2

n+

1
2 

2 

φn (ub ) φ∗n (ua ) ,
(474)

150

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

ãäå

φn (u) =

q

2α(s−1/4) M ωn!
Γ(n+2s+1/2)

M ωu2 

s+ 1

2  

2s+ 1
exp −M ωu2 Ln 2 M ωu2 ,

n = 0, 1, 2, ... .
(475)

15.8. ×èñëåííîå ñðàâíåíèå íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé àñèìïòîòèêè ñ
ðåçóëüòàòàìè, ïîëó÷åííûìè â ðàìêàõ êàíîíè÷åñêîé òåîðèè
âîçìóùåíèé.
Ðàññìîòðèì óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

−iε


∂t

  



−Fε (x, t) + ε ∂x
(Kε (x, t))ε ,
Kε (x, t) ε = ε ∂x
(Kε (x, x0 , 0))ε = δ (x − x0 ) .

(476)

Ðàññìîòðèì ÊÌ ñðåäíåå

2 
∆ 

2
xε (tf ) ε = ∫ ∞
−∞ xf (Kε (x0 , t0 |xf , tf ))ε dxf . 

Äëÿ ÊÌ ñðåäíåãî x2ε (tf ) ε ìû èìååì ñëåäóþùåå ïðåäñòàâëåíèå â
ôîðìå ôóíêöèîíàëüíîãî èíòåãðàëà Êîëîìáåàó ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà   

2
x2ε (tf ) ε = ∫ ∞
=
−∞ xf Kε (x0 , t0 |xf , tf )dxf
ε   

i
x(tf )=xf 2
∫∞
˙ (t) , x (t)] D [x (t) , ε] ,
−∞ dxf ∫ x(t0 )=x0 xf exp − ε Sε [x 

ε

Sε [x˙ (t) , x (t)] =

1
4

tf

2

∫ [x˙ (t) − Fε (x (t) , t)] dt.
0

(477)

Ðàññìîòðèì êîíå÷íîìåðíóþ àïïðîêñèìàöèþ (Kε, N (x0 , t0 |xf , tf ))ε

(Kε, N (xf , tf | x0 , t0 ))ε =


n
o

iS
(x ,..., xN )
∫ ... ∫ exp − ε, N ε0
| {z }
N −1

dx1 ···dxN −1 
(4 π ε ∆t)N/2 

ε

(478)

,

151

15.8. ×èñëåííîå ñðàâíåíèå íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé àñèìïòîòèêè ...

ãäå

Sε, N (x0 , ..., xN ) =

PN −1
n=0

∆t
4

h

xn+1 −xn
∆t

i2
− Fε (xn , tn ) ,

xN = xf .

(479)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìû èìååì 

2

2  

=
x
xε (tN ) =
(t)
lim
ε, N
ε
∆t→0 

ε 

2
=
lim ∫ ∞
−∞ xε, N Kε, N (x0 , t0 |xN , t)dxN

∆t→0

ε


n
o


iS
(x ,..., xN )
 lim ∫ ... ∫ x2N exp − ε, N ε0
∆t→0 | {z }

N
 


dx1 ···dxN −1 dxN 
 .
N/2
(4 π ε ∆t)

#
#
#
Îáîçíà÷èì ñèìâîëîì x#
ε = xε, 0 , xε, 1 , ..., xε, n , ..., xε, N

ε 

(480)

êðèòè÷å-

ñêóþ òî÷êó äèñêðåòíîãî äåéñòâèÿ Sε, N (x0 , ..., xN ). Òàêèì îáðàçîì,
x#
ε, N óäîâëåòâîðÿåò ñèñòåìå óðàâíåíèé

∂Sε, N (x#
ε )
∂x#
ε, n

= 0,

(481)

n = 1, ..., N, ãäå ñ ó÷åòîì ãðàíè÷íûõ óñëîâèé äëÿ n = 0, n = N ìû
èìååì

x#
ε, 0 = x0 .

(482)

152

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

 ñèëó óðàâíåíèé (408)-(409) äëÿ ε → 0 ìû èìååì

x2ε, N (t) 

ε

=

2
∫∞
−∞ x N Kε, N (x0 , t0 |xN , t)dxN 

ε

=


n
o

iS
(x ,..., xN )
∫ ... ∫ x2N exp − ε, N ε0
| {z }

dx1 ···dxN −1 dxN
(4 π ε ∆t)N/2

N

ε

x#2
ε, N Zε, N xε  

exp − εi Sε x#
+ (oε (ε))ε =
ε
ε 

#

x#2
ε, N



 =

Zε, N x# 



ãäå ïðåôàêòîð Zε, N x#
ε

ε 

ε  

exp − εi Sε x# ε + (oε (ε))ε ,

(483)

èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä 

Zε, N (x#
ε ) ε =


n
PN

1
∫ ... ∫ exp − 2ε
n, m=1 yn
|
{z
}

∂ 2 Sε, N (x#
ε )
#
∂x#
ε, n ∂xε, m

ym

o

dy1 ···dyN −1 dyN
(4 π ε∆t)N/2

N



 .

ε

(484)

Âû÷èñëÿÿ Ãàóññîâñêèé èíòåãðàë, â ïðàâîé ÷àñòè (484) ìû èìååì   

− 12 

∂ 2 Sε, N (x#
ε )
,
Zε, N (x ) ε = 2 ∆t det 2 ∆t ∂x# ∂x#
#

ε, n

ε, m

ε

n = 1, ..., N, m = 1, ..., N.
(485)
Óðàâíåíèå (485) ïåðåïèøåì â ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìå   

−1/2 

#
Zε, N (x#
)
=

ε
Q
.
ε
ε, N
ε
ε

(486)

Òîãäà âåëè÷èíó Q#
ε, N ìîæíî âû÷èñëèòü ñ ïîìîùüþ ñëåäóþùåé ðå-

15.8. ×èñëåííîå ñðàâíåíèå íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé àñèìïòîòèêè ...

153

êóðñèâíîé ïðîöåäóðû [48]
#
Q#
−2 Q#
ε, n −Qε, n−1
ε, n+1
∆t2

Q#
ε, n 

=2

x#
−x#
ε, n
ε, n+1
∆t

#
#
0
#
0
Q#
n F (xε, n , tn )−Qε, n−1 F (xε, n−1 , tn−1 )

∆t

Fε (x#
ε, n , tn ) 

00

Fε (x#
ε, n , tn )+

0

0

#
#
2
2
#
Q#
ε, n Fε (xε, n , tn ) − Qε, n−1 Fε (xε, n−1 , tn−1 ) ,

Q#
ε, 1 = ∆t,

Q∗
ε, 2 −Qε, 1
∆t

F 0 (x, t) =

= 1 + oε (∆t)) ,

∂F (x, t)
,
∂x

F 00 (x, t) =

∂ 2 F (x, t)
.
∂x2

(487)
×èñëî ðåøåíèé ñèñòåìû (481)-(482) ìû îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç M = M (N, ε) .
Òîãäà â ñèëó óðàâíåíèé (486) ìû èìååì ïðè ôèêñèðîâàííîì N è
ε→0 :

2
x

ε, N  

2

(tN ) ε = ∫ ∞
−∞ xε, N Kε, N (x0 , t0 |xN , t)dxN ε =  



#

)
iSε, N (x
2
#
ε, k

ε
 PM (xε, N, k ) exp


p
[1 + oε (ε))] 
#
 k=1
 .
4πεQε, N, k

ε

(488)

x#
ε, N, k

Åñëè ëîìàíàÿ
ïðè N → ∞ ðàâíîìåðíî ñõîäèòñÿ ê ãëàäêîé
ôóíêöèè xε (t), ε ∈ (0, 1], òî ìû òàêæå èìååì î÷åâèäíûì îáðàçîì

lim Sε, N = Sε [x˙ ε (t), xε (t), t0 , tf ] =

N →∞

1
4

t

∫ tf0 [x˙ 2ε (t) − Fε (xε (t), t)]2 dt.
(489)

Ïðè ýòîì óðàâíåíèÿ (481)-(482) ïðèìóò ñëåäóþùèé âèä:
(i) k = 1    

 

#
#
x˙ #
(t,
x
)
=
F
(x
(t,
x
)
,
t)
,
x
(0)
= x0 .
0
ε
0
1, ε
1, ε
1, ε
ε

ε

ε

(490)

154

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

(ii) 1 < k ≤ M  

x
¨#
(t,
x
;
t
,
x
)
= F˙ (x#
0
f
k,
f
k, ε
k, ε (t, x0 ; tf , xk, f ), t)+
ε

F (x#
k, ε (t,

x0 ; tf , xk, f ), t) F 0 (x#
k, ε (t, x0 ; tf , xk, f ), t),

#
x#
k, ε (0, x0 ; tf , xk, f ) = x0 , xk, ε (tf , x0 ; tf , xk, f ) = xk, f ,

dS[x˙ #
(t, x0 ; tf , xk, f ), x#
(t, x0 ; tf , xk, f )]
k, ε
k, ε

dxk, f

= 0.
t=tf

(491)

À óðàâíåíèÿ (487) ïðèìóò ñëåäóþùèé âèä:
(i) k = 1
1
2  

¨ # (t, x0 ) −
Q
1, ε
ε 

d
dt  

0
#
[Q#
,
1, ε (t) Fε (x1, ε (t, x0 ), t)]
ε   

Q˙ #
= 1, Q#
= 0.
1, ε (t0 , x0 )
1, ε (t0 , x0 )
ε

ε

(492)

(ii) 1 < k ≤ M
1
2 

¨ # (t)
Q
k, ε  


ε

d
dt  

0
#
[Q#
(t)
F
(x
(t,
x
;
t
,
x
),
t)]
+
0
f
k,
f
ε k, ε
k, ε
ε 


00
#
[Q#
×
k, ε (t) Fε (xk, ε (t, x0 ; tf , xk, f ), t)]
ε

h   

i
#
x˙ #
(t,
x
;
t
,
x
)
(t,
x
;
t
,
x
)
,
t)
,

F
(x
0
f
k,
f
ε
0
f
k,
f
1,
ε
k, ε
ε 

ε   

#
Q˙ #
(t
)
=
1,
Q
(t
)
= 0.
k, ε 0
k, ε 0
ε

ε

(493)

Èíòåãðèðóÿ óðàâíåíèå (492), ìû ïîëó÷èì ñëåäóþùåå ðàâåíñòâî
1
2

h
i
˙#
Q˙ #
1, ε (t) − Q1, ε (t0 ) =

(494)

#
0 #
0 #
Q#
1, ε (t) F (x1, ε (t, x0 ), t) − Q0 (t0 ) F (x1, ε (t, x0 ), t).

Îòêóäà, ó÷èòûâàÿ íà÷àëüíûå óñëîâèÿ, îêîí÷àòåëüíî ïîëó÷àåì äèô-

155

15.8. ×èñëåííîå ñðàâíåíèå íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé àñèìïòîòèêè ...

ôåðåíöèàëüíîå óðàâíåíèå ïåðâîãî ïîðÿäêà
#
0 #
Q˙ #
1, ε (t) = 2Q1, ε (t) F (x1, ε (t, x0 ), t) + 1.

Ïîäñòàâèâ â âûðàæåíèå (489) ôóíêöèþ
ùóþ óñëîâèþ (490), ìû ïîëó÷èì 

x#
1, ε (t,

(495)

x0 ), óäîâëåòâîðÿþ- 

#
Sε [x˙ #
(t,
x
),
x
(t,
x
),
t]
= 0.
0
0
1, ε
1, ε
ε

(496)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âûðàæåíèå (488) äëÿ äîñòàòî÷íî áîëüøîãî N îêîí÷àòåëüíî ìîæíî ïåðåïèñàòü â ñëåäóþùåì âèäå 

2 
2

xε (t) = ∫ ∞
−∞ xε Kε (x0 , t0 |x, t)dx ε =
ε
(x#
1, ε (t, x0 ))
p
Q#
1, ε

2

+ 

 


#

iSk, ε (x
t, x0 ; t, xk, f ))
2
#
k, ε (

ε
 PM (xk, ε (t, x0 ; t, xk, f )) exp

 +
p #
=  k=2

Qk, ε

ε

+ (Oε (ε))ε .

(497)

 óðàâíåíèè (477) ôóíêöèþ Fε (x, t) ìû âûáåðåì òàêèì îáðàçîì,
÷òîáû âûïîëíÿëîñü ñëåäóþùåå ðàâåíñòâî

Fε (x, t) |ε=0 =

dxV (x)
+ A sin(Ωt) = −ax3 + bx + A sin(Ωt).
dx

(497a)

Òîãäà ñèñòåìà óðàâíåíèé (490) â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå ñâîäèòñÿ ê
îäíîìó óðàâíåíèþ ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

x(t)
˙
= −ax3 (t) + bx(t) + A sin(Ωt), x(0) = x0 .

(497b)

Ñèñòåìà òðàíñöåíäåíòíûõ óðàâíåíèé (140) â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå
ñâîäèòñÿ ê îäíîìó óðàâíåíèþ ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

(x0 − λ(t)) exp[−(3aλ2 (t) − b)t]−
Z t
3
(aλ (t) − bλ(t))
exp[−(3aλ2 (t) − b)(t − τ )]dτ +
0

156

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

t

Z

sin(Ωτ ) exp[−(3aλ2 (t) − b)(t − τ )]dτ = 0.

A

(497c)

0

Çàïèøåì óðàâíåíèå (497c) â ñëåäóþùåì âèäå
Z t
(x0 − λ(t)) exp[−Θ(λ)t] − ∆(λ)
exp[−Θ(λ)(t − τ )]dτ +
0

Z

t

sin(Ωτ ) exp[−Θ(λ)(t − τ )]dτ = 0.

A
0

Θ(λ) = (3aλ2 (τ ) − b), ∆(λ) = aλ3 (t) − bλ(t).

(497d)

 ñèëó óðàâíåíèÿ (497d) ìû èìååì î÷åâèäíûì îáðàçîì ñëåäóþùåå
óðàâíåíèå

Z
(x0 − λ(t)) exp[−Θ(λ)t] − ∆(λ)

t

exp[−Θ(λ)(t − τ )]dτ +
0

Z

t

sin(Ωτ ) exp[−Θ(λ)(t − τ )]dτ = 0.

A

(497e)

0

 ðåçóëüòàòå ýëåìåíòàðíûõ ïðåîáðàçîâàíèé óðàâíåíèÿ ìû èìååì
îêîí÷àòåëüíî

(x0 − λ(t)) −
A

∆(λ)
{exp[Θ(λ)t] − 1}+
Θ(λ)

exp[Θ(λ)t]

[Θ(λ) sin(Ωt) − Ω cos(Ωt)] + A 2
= 0.
Ω2 + Θ2 (λ)
Ω + Θ2 (λ)

(497f )

Ââåäåì îáîçíà÷åíèå

Ep (t) =

p
| < x2 (t) > |,

(497g)

ãäå ôóíêöèÿ | < x (t) > | çàäàíà âûðàæåíèåì (497). Ðåøåíèå óðàâíåíèÿ (497b), çàäàþùåãî ñîîòâåòñòâóþùóþ êëàññè÷åñêóþ äèíàìèêó, ìû
îáîçíà÷àåì x (t).
2

Ïðèìåð 15.8.1. Ïàðàìåòðû: a = 0.5, b = 1.
Ïðèìåð 15.8.2. Ïàðàìåòðû: a = 0.3, b = 1.
Ïðèìåð 15.8.3. Ïàðàìåòðû: a = 1, b = 1.
Ïðèâåäåííûå âûøå ïðèìåðû ïîêàçûâàþò, ÷òî óæå ñ ñëó÷àå äîñòàòî÷íî ïðîñòûõ îäíîìåðíûõ êâàíòîâûõ ñèñòåì íåïåðòóðáàòèâíàÿ
êâàçìêëàññè÷åñêàÿ àñèìïòîòèêà êâàíòîâîìåõàíè÷åñêèõ ñðåäíèõ çíà÷åíèé ìîæåò ñóùåñòâåííî îòëè÷àòüñÿ îò ïåðòóðáàòèâíîé êâàçèêëàññè÷åñêîé àñèìïòîòèêè, ïîëó÷åííîé â ðàìêàõ ÂÊÁ ïðèáëèæåíèÿ èëè
ìåòîäà êàíîíè÷åñêîãî îïåðàòîðà Â. Ï. Ìàñëîâà.

15.8. ×èñëåííîå ñðàâíåíèå íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé àñèìïòîòèêè ...

157

Ðèñ. 19: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè V (x). Ïàðàìåòðû: a = 0.5, b = 1. Ïðèìåð
15.8.1

Ðèñ. 20: Ñðàâíåíèå êëàññè÷åñêîé äèíàìèêè (êðàñíàÿ êðèâàÿ x (t)),
íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé êâàíòîâîé äèíàìèêè (ñèíÿÿ êðèâàÿ λ (t)) è ïåðòóðáàòèâíîé êâàíòîâîé äèíàìèêè (çåëåíàÿ êðèâàÿ Ep (t)), ïîëó÷åííîé ìåòîäîì ñòàöèîíàðíîé ôàçû. Ïàðàìåòðû: a = 0.5, b = 1, A = 1. Ïðèìåð
15.8.1

158

Ãëàâà 15. Àñèìïòîòè÷åñêèå ìåòîäû â çàäà÷àõ êëàññè÷åñêîé...

Ðèñ. 21: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè V (x). Ïàðàìåòðû: a = 0.3, b = 1. Ïðèìåð
15.8.2

Ðèñ. 22: Ñðàâíåíèå êëàññè÷åñêîé äèíàìèêè (êðàñíàÿ êðèâàÿ x (t)),
íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé êâàíòîâîé äèíàìèêè (ñèíÿÿ êðèâàÿ λ (t)) è ïåðòóðáàòèâíîé êâàíòîâîé äèíàìèêè (çåëåíàÿ êðèâàÿ Ep (t)), ïîëó÷åííîé ìåòîäîì ñòàöèîíàðíîé ôàçû. Ïàðàìåòðû: a = 0.3, b = 1, A = 1. Ïðèìåð
15.8.2

15.8. ×èñëåííîå ñðàâíåíèå íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé àñèìïòîòèêè ...

159

Ðèñ. 23: Ãðàôèê ôóíêöèè V (x). Ïàðàìåòðû: a = 1, b = 1. Ïðèìåð
15.8.3

Ðèñ. 24: Ñðàâíåíèå êëàññè÷åñêîé äèíàìèêè (êðàñíàÿ êðèâàÿ x (t)),
íåïåðòóðáàòèâíîé êâàíòîâîé äèíàìèêè (ñèíÿÿ êðèâàÿ λ (t)) è ïåðòóðáàòèâíîé êâàíòîâîé äèíàìèêè (çåëåíàÿ êðèâàÿ Ep (t)), ïîëó÷åííîé ìåòîäîì ñòàöèîíàðíîé ôàçû. Ïàðàìåòðû: a = 1, b = 1, A = 0.3. Ïðèìåð
15.8.3

160

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

Ãëàâà 16

ÊÂÀÍÒÎÂÀß ÊÎÑÌÎËÎÃÈß Â
ÏÐÎÑÒÐÀÍÑÒÂÅ-ÂÐÅÌÅÍÈ ÎÒÐÈÖÀÒÅËÜÍÎÉ
ÔÐÀÊÒÀËÜÍÎÉ ÐÀÇÌÅÐÍÎÑÒÈ È
ÊÂÀÍÒÎÂÎÏÎËÅÂÀß ÏÅÐÒÓÐÁÀÒÈÂÍÀß ÌÎÄÅËÜ
ÂÀÊÓÓÌÀ ÝÉÍØÒÅÉÍÀ-ÃËÈÍÅÐÀ-ÇÅËÜÄÎÂÈ×À
 íàñòîÿùåé ãëàâå ïîêàçàíî, ÷òî âàêóóì Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà èìååò íå ìàêðîñêîïè÷åñêóþ, à ÷èñòî êâàíòîâîïîëåâóþ ïðèðîäó, ÷òî áûëî
ïðåäñêàçàíî áîëåå 40 ëåò òîìó íàçàä â ðàáîòàõ ß. Á. Çåëüäîâè÷à [8790], èñõîäÿ èç î÷åíü îáùèõ ñîîáðàæåíèé. Ïîñòðîåíà ñàìîñîãëàññîâàííàÿ ïåðòóðáàòèâíàÿ ìîäåëü âàêóóìà Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à,
áàçèðóþùàÿñÿ íà êâàíòîâîé òåîðèè ïîëÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè.
 ýòîé ãëàâå ïðåäñòàâëåíû:
1. Ââåäåíèå.
2. Ïðîáëåìà êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ïîñòîÿííîé.
3. Âàêóóì Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à.
4. Êâàíòîâàÿ ìåõàíèêà è êâàíòîâàÿ òåîðèÿ ïîëÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâàõ
îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè.
5. Èíäóöèðîâàííàÿ ãðàâèòàöèÿ Ñàõàðîâà â ðèìàíîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè.

16.1. Ââåäåíèå
Ìåòîäû êëàññè÷åñêîé ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíîé ãåîìåòðèè çà ïîñëåäíèå
10 ëåò ïðî÷íî âîøëè â ñîâðåìåííóþ òåîðåòè÷åñêóþ ôèçèêó [150] è
êâàíòîâóþ òåîðèþ ãðàâèòàöèè [137], à ÷èñëî ïóáëèêàöèé, ïîñâÿùåííûõ ôðàêòàëüíîé êîñìîëîãèè è ôðàêòàëüíîé êâàíòîâîé òåîðèè ïîëÿ,
íåóêëîííî âîçðàñòàåò [115-120], [133-134]. Îòìåòèì, ÷òî â îñíîâîïîëàãàþùåé ðàáîòå Ê.Ñâîçèëà [104], ïîñâÿùåííîé êâàíòîâîé òåîðèè ïîëÿ
(ÊÒÏ) íà ôðàêòàëüíîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè, ôðàêòàëüíàÿ ãåîìåòðèÿ â ìåòðè÷åñêèõ ïðîñòðàíñòâàõ ïîëîæèòåëüíîé õàóñäîðôîâîé ðàçìåðíîñòè D = dH , ïðèìåíÿëàñü â îñíîâíîì êàê íîâûé ìåòîä ðåãóëÿðèçàöèè, àíàëîãè÷íûé èçâåñòíîìó â ÊÒÏ êëàññè÷åñêîìó ìåòîäó ðàçìåðíîé ðåãóëÿðèçàöèè. Îäíàêî óæå â ðàáîòàõ Êîëêàãíè [117-119] è äðóãèõ

161

16.1. Ââåäåíèå

àâòîðîâ [120] ïîëîæèòåëüíûå Õàóñäîðôîâû ðàçìåðíîñòè dH ðàññìàòðèâàþòñÿ êàê ôèçè÷åñêèå.  ðàáîòàõ [134-136] ôðàêòàëüíàÿ ðàçìåðíîñòü ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè âïåðâûå ðàññìàòðèâàëàñü êàê äèíàìè÷åñêèé ïàðàìåòð, êîòîðûé ìîæåò ìåíÿòüñÿ â ïðîöåññå ýâîëþöèè íàøåé
Âñåëåííîé. Îòðèöàòåëüíûå ðàçìåðíîñòè ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ ðàññìàòðèâàëèñü â ôèçè÷åñêîé ëèòåðàòóðå êàê íåôèçè÷åñêèå è èãðàëè ÷èñòî âñïîìîãàòåëüíóþ ðîëü. Êâàíòîâàÿ ìåõàíèêà
â ïðîñòðàíñòâå öåëîé îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè èçó÷àëàñü â ðàáîòàõ
Äóííà è Õîëëèäýÿ, à òàêæå Ðàáåëëî [99-102].  ýòèõ ðàáîòàõ ïîêàçàíî, ÷òî äëÿ êâàíòîâûõ ñèñòåì ñ êîíå÷íûì ÷èñëîì ñòåïåíåé ñâîáîäû
ïðîñòðàíñòâî öåëîé îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôèçè÷åñêîé ðàçìåðíîñòè ìîæíî
èíòåðïðåòèðîâàòü êàê íåêîòîðîå âïîëíå ðåàëüíîå ñóïåðïðîñòðàíñòâî.
Áûëî îòìå÷åíî, ÷òî â ïðîñòðàíñòâå öåëîé îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè êâàíòîâûå ñòàòèñòèêè áîçîíîâ è ôåðìèîíîâ ïîìåíÿþòñÿ ìåñòàìè.
Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé èíòåãðàë ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì äëÿ öåëûõ îòðèöàòåëüíûõ
ðàçìåðíîñòåé èçó÷åí â ðàáîòàõ Õîëëèäýÿ, Äóííà è Ðèêîòòû [106-107].
 ÊÒÏ îòðèöàòåëüíûå ðàçìåðíîñòè óæå ñðàâíèòåëüíî äàâíî èñïîëüçóþòñÿ êàê ýôôåêòèâíûé ìåòîä èññëåäîâàíèÿ îáû÷íûõ Ôåéíìàíîâñêèõ
äèàãðàìì [108-114]. Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé èíòåãðàë ïî òðàåêòîðèÿì â îòðèöàòåëüíûõ ðàçìåðíîñòÿõ äëÿ ñèñòåì ñ êîíòèíóàëüíûì ÷èñëîì ñòåïåíåé ñâîáîäû ïîñòðîåí Ñóçóêè è Øìèäòîì [112]. Ïðîñòðàíñòâî-âðåìÿ
êàê ìóëüòèôðàêòàë îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè áûëî âïåðâûå ââåäåíî
â íàøåé ðàáîòå [133], â êîòîðîé ðåçóëüòàòû Êîëêàãíè [117] ðàñøèðåíû 

íà ñëó÷àé îáîáùåííîé ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó - Ñòèëüòüåñà ρF
ε (x) ε [133] c
íîñèëåì íà ôðàêòàëå F ⊂ Rd è òàêîé, ÷òî

dρF
ε (x)  

d−1
r
dr
,
∼ rd(1−δ)
+ε ε
ε ∈ (0, 1] , 

ε

(498) 

Supp ρF
ε (x) ε ⊂ F, ãäå d - òîïîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ðàçìåðíîñòü, δ ∈ (−∞, 1] .
Êîëêàãíè èçó÷àë òîëüêî ñëó÷àé, êîãäà δ ∈ (0, 1] [117-119].
 òîì ñëó
÷àå, êîãäà δ ∈ (0, 1] èíòåãðèðîâàíèå ïî ìåðå dρF
ε (x) ε î÷åâèäíî ýêâèâàëåíòíî èíòåãðèðîâàíèþ ïî îáû÷íîé ìåðå Õàóñäîðôà dµH c íîñèëåì íà ôðàêòàëå F Õàóñäîðôîâîé ðàçìåðíîñòè dH (F ) = d · δ. Ïóñòü
òåïåðü δ ∈ (−∞,
0] . Òîãäà î÷åâèäíî Ãåëüäåðîâñêàÿ ýêñïîíåíòà α (0) 

ìåðû ρF
ε (x) ε â òî÷êå x = 0 îòðèöàòåëüíà è ðàâíà −d · |δ| :
log ρF
ε (B(x, r))
log r
ε→0 

α (0) = lim lim
r→0 

= −d · |δ| .
(499)

Çàìå÷àíèå 16.1.1. Ïóñòü
= F ∩B (0, r) - ôðàêòàëüíûé "øàð"ðàr
r
äèóñà r. Îáúåì ρF
ε (BF ) ôðàêòàëüíîãî øàðà BF â ñèëó (498) ðàâåí
F
r
D−
ρε (BF ) ∼ r , ãäå D− = −d · |δ| .
BFr

162

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

Îïðåäåëåíèå 16.1.1. Äëÿ ïðîèçâîëüíîé îáîáùåííîé ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó-Ñòèëüòüåñà (µε (x))ε ìû îïðåäåëèì âåðõíþþ Ãåëüäåðîâñêóþ ýêñïîíåíòó α (x) â òî÷êå x êàê  

(B(x, r))
α (x) = lim sup lim sup log µεlog
r
r→0

ε→0

(500)

è íèæíþþ Ãåëüäåðîâñêóþ ýêñïîíåíòó α (x) â òî÷êå x êàê 

α (x) = lim inf lim inf
r→0

ε→0

log µε (B(x, r))
log r

∆(µε )ε (α) =

.
(501)

Îïðåäåëèì òàêæå ìíîæåñòâà ∆(µε )ε (α) è ∆  

(µε )ε

(α) êàê   

log µε (B(x,r))

x ∈ Supp ((µε )ε ) lim sup lim sup
= α ,
log r
r→0
ε→0 

n

∆(µε )ε (α) = x ∈ Supp ((µε )ε ) lim inf lim inf
r→0

ε→0

log µε (B(x, r))
log r 

o

= α .

(502)

Çàìå÷àíèå 16.1.2.  äàëüíåéøåì ìû ðàññìàòðèâàåì òîëüêî ñëó÷àé, êîãäà âûïîëíåíî ðàâåíñòâî ∆(µε )ε (α) = ∆(µε )ε (α) = ∆(µε )ε (α) .
Îïðåäåëåíèå 16.1.2. Åñëè ìíîæåñòâà ∆(µε )ε (α) äëÿ ðàçëè÷íûõ
çíà÷åíèé α èìåþò ôðàêòàëüíûé õàðàêòåð, òî ìåðà (µε )ε íàçûâàåòñÿ
îáîáùåííîé ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíîé
ìåðîé èëè îáîáùåííûì ìóëüòèôðàê
òàëîì. Ñåìåéñòâî ìíîæåñòâ ∆(µε )ε (α) äëÿ êðàòêîñòè ìû òàêæå áóäåì íàçûâàåòü îáîáùåííûì ìóëüòèôðàêòàëîì.
Çàìå÷àíèå 16.1.3. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî ïðèíöèïèàëüíûì îòëè÷èåì
îáîáùåííîãî ìóëüòèôðàêòàëà (µε )ε îò êëàññè÷åñêîãî ìóëüòèôðàêòàëà ÿâëÿåòñÿ íàëè÷èå ó íåãî, ïî êðàéíåé ìåðå, îäíîé îòðèöàòåëüíîé
Ãåëüäåðîâñêîé ýêñïîíåíòû α (x) < 0.
Îïðåäåëåíèå 16.1.3. Îáîáùåííàÿ ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíàÿ ìåðà (µε )ε
íàçûâàåòñÿ ìóëüòèôðàêòàëîì îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè, åñëè íàéäåòñÿ, ïî êðàéíåé ìåðå, îäíî çíà÷åíèå α = α− < 0 òàêîå, ÷òî
∆(µε )ε (α− ) 6= ∅.
Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ñïðàâåäëèâî ðàçëîæåíèå 



∆(µε )ε (α) = ∆(µε )ε (α+ ) , ∆(µε )ε (α− ) ,
ãäå α− < 0 è α+ > 0.

163

16.2. Ïðîáëåìà êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ïîñòîÿííîé

Õàðàêòåðèñòèêè êëàññè÷åñêèõ ìóëüòèôðàêòàëîâ òèïà îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè âïåðâûå èçó÷àë Á. Á. Ìàíäåëüáðîò [121-123]. Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ðàçìåðíîñòü äëÿ ñëó÷àéíûõ ôðàêòàëüíûõ ìíîæåñòâ áûëà
ââåäåíà â ðàáîòå [149].

Îïðåäåëåíèå 16.1.4. Â íàñòîÿùåé ðàáîòå ïîä ïðîñòðàíñòâîì îòðèöàòåëüíîé
ìû
ìóëüòè

áóäåì ïîíèìàòü îáîáùåííûé 
ðàçìåðíîñòè
ôðàêòàë ∆(µε )ε (α) = = ∆(µε )ε (α+ ) , ∆(µε )ε (α− ) , ó êîòîðîãî âñå


Ãåëüäåðîâñêèå ýêñïîíåíòû α îòðèöàòåëüíû, ò. å. ∆(µε )ε (α+ ) = ∅.
Çàìå÷àíèå
16.1.4.
Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî ëþáàÿ ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíàÿ 

ñòðóêòóðà ∆(µε )ε (α) , çàäàííàÿ íà êîîðäèíàòíîì x - ïðîñòðàíñòâå
Ìèíêîâñêîãî M4 , êàíîíè÷åñêèìnîáðàçîì èíäóöèðóåò
åäèíñòâåííóþ
o
b
ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíóþ ñòðóêòóðó ∆(µε )ε (α) íà èìïóëüñíîì p - ïðî-

ñòðàíñòâå M4∗ [104].

Îïðåäåëåíèå 16.1.5. Êâàíòîâîå ïîëå (ϕε (t, x))ε , çàäàííîå íà êîîðäèíàòíîì x - ïðîñòðàíñòâå Ìèíêîâñêîãî M4 , íàçûâàåòñÿ ôðàêòàëüíûì, åñëè åãî ìîæíî ïðåäñòàâèòü êàê ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ôóðüå îïåðàòîðíîçíà÷íîé
îáîáùåííîé
ôóíêöèè (ϕε (p))ε òàêîé, ÷òî supp ((ϕ
n
o
n ε (p))ε ) ⊆o
b
b (µ ) (α)
∆(µ ) (α) äëÿ íåêîòîðîãî îáîáùåííîãî ìóëüòèôðàêòàëà ∆
ε ε

ε ε

[133].

16.2. Ïðîáëåìà êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ïîñòîÿííîé
Îáùåèçâåñòíàÿ ñòàðàÿ ïðîáëåìà êëàññè÷åñêîé êâàíòîâîé êîñìîëîãèè, êàê èçâåñòíî, ñîñòîÿëà â òîì, ÷òî ïëîòíîñòü ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà,
âû÷èñëåííàÿ â ðàìêàõ êàíîíè÷åñêîé êâàíòîâîé òåîðèè ïîëÿ, ïîëîæèòåëüíà è íåäîïóñòèìî âåëèêà [85]. Òàê, íàïðèìåð, ðàçóìíàÿ îöåíêà
ïîëíîé ýíåðãèè âàêóóìíûõ íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé ïîëÿ ìàññû m, ïîëó÷åííàÿ îáðåçàíèåì ïî âîëíîâîìó ÷èñëó êîëåáàòåëüíûõ ìîä κ  m,
äàåò äëÿ ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà hρV i ( ¯
h == 1 ) ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå

hρV i =

1
2(2π)3

κ

∫ 4πk 2 k 2 + m2
0 

1/2

dk '

κ4
16π 2 .

(503)

Ñîãëàñíî îáùåïðèíÿòûì â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿì, îáùàÿ òåîðèÿ îòíîñèòåëüíîñòè, à çíà÷èò è êàíîíè÷åñêèå ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ
î ñâîéñòâàõ ïðîñòðàíñòâà - âðåìåíè ñïðàâåäëèâû ïðè ýíåðãèÿõ âïëîòü
äî ïëàíêîâñêîãî ìàñøòàáà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìû äîëæíû ïîëîæèòü â
1/2
ðàçóìíîì ôèçè÷åñêîì ïðèáëèæåíèè κ ' (8πG) , ÷òî äàåò âåëè÷èíó

164

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

[86]

hρV i = 2−10 π −4 G−2 = 2 · 1071 M4 .

(504)

Òàêîå çíà÷åíèå hρV i ïðîòèâîðå÷èò äàííûì íàáëþäàòåëüíîé àñòðîíîìèè, ñì. äåòàëüíîå îáñóæäåíèå â ñòàòüå Âàéíáåðãà [85], êîòîðàÿ íàïèñàíà åùå äî îòêðûòèÿ óñêîðåííîãî ðàñøèðåíèÿ âñåëåííîé. Êàê îòìå÷åíî Âàéíáåðãîì [85], âåëè÷èíà |hρV i + (Λ/8πG)| (Λ -Ýéíøòåéíîâñêàÿ
êîñìîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ïîñòîÿííàÿ) ñ íåîáõîäèìîñòüþ äîëæíà áûòü ìåíüøå,
÷åì 10−47 Ãý 4 , è ïîýòîìó äâà ñëàãàåìûõ hρV i è Λ/8πG, îïðåäåëÿþùèõ åå çíà÷åíèå, äîëæíû ñîêðàùàòüñÿ ñ òî÷íîñòüþ, ëó÷øåé, ÷åì 118
äåñÿòè÷íûõ çíàêîâ. Äàæå åñëè ó÷åñòü òîëüêî ýíåðãèþ âàêóóìà â ÊÕÄ,
òî ñîîòâåòñòâóþùàÿ âåëè÷èíà hρV i èìååò ïîðÿäîê 10−6 ÃýÂ4 , ÷òî òðåáóåò òî÷íîñòè ñîêðàùåíèÿ ñ Λ/8πG ïîðÿäêà íå ìåíåå 41 äåñÿòè÷íîãî
çíàêà. Ñîîòâåòñòâóþùàÿ ïðîáëåìà íàçûâàåòñÿ ïðîáëåìîé êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ïîñòîÿííîé.
Ïî-âèäèìîìó, ß. Á. Çåëüäîâè÷ áûë ïåðâûì, êòî ïîïûòàëñÿ îáúÿñíèòü íåíóëåâóþ ýíåðãèþ âàêóóìà Âñåëåííîé çà ñ÷åò êâàíòîâûõ ôëóêòóàöèé ôèçè÷åñêèõ ïîëåé [87]. Ïîñêîëüêó êàíîíè÷åñêàÿ ÊÒÏ óæå íà
óðîâíå íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé äàåò äëÿ hρV i ñëèøêîì áîëüøîå ÷èñëåííîå
çíà÷åíèå, Çåëüäîâè÷ ïîñòóëèðîâàë, ÷òî ýíåðãèÿ íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé
äîëæíà â òî÷íîñòè ñîêðàùàòüñÿ ñ ÷ëåíîì Λ/8πG, à íåíóëåâîé âêëàä
â hρV i äàþò ïåðòóðáàòèâíûå ýôôåêòû òîëüêî âûñøèõ ïîðÿäêîâ è, â
÷àñòíîñòè, ýôôåêò ãðàâèòàöèîííîãî âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ ìåæäó âèðòóàëüíûìè ÷àñòèöàìè â âàêóóìíûõ ôëóêòóàöèÿõ. Ôîðìàëüíî ýòî ñîîòâåòñòâóåò îòáðàñûâàíèþ îäíîïåòëåâûõ âàêóóìíûõ äèàãðàìì Ôåéíìàíà
è ó÷åòó âêëàäà äâóõïåòëåâûõ äèàãðàìì. Ïðè ýòîì ïëîòíîñòü ýíåðãèè
ñîñòàâëÿåò hρV i ' Gκ6 [87]. Çåëüäîâè÷ ïðèíÿë áåç êàêîãî ëèáî ñåðüåçíîãî ôèçè÷åñêîãî îñíîâàíèÿ κ = 1 ÃýÂ, ÷òî äàåò hρV i ' 10−38 Ãý 4 ,
÷òî íà ìíîãî ïîðÿäêîâ ìåíüøå ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé,
íî ïðèìåðíî íà 9 ïîðÿäêîâ áîëüøå, ÷åì òðåáîâàëîñü èç íàáëþäàòåëüíûõ îãðàíè÷åíèé íà âåëè÷èíó |hρV i + (Λ/8πG)| .

16.3. Âàêóóì Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à
Íàïîìíèì, ÷òî óðàâíåíèÿ Ýéíøòåéíà ñ êîñìîëîãè÷åñêèì ÷ëåíîì
èìåþò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

Rµν − 21 gµν R − Λgµν = −8πGTµν

(505)
è ïðè ëþáûõ Λ > 0 ñóùåñòâóåò ñòàòè÷åñêîå ðåøåíèå äëÿ Âñåëåííîé,
çàïîëíåííîé ïûëåâèäíîé ìàòåðèåé, îáëàäàþùåé íóëåâûì äàâëåíèåì
è ïëîòíîñòüþ Λ/8πG.

16.3. Âàêóóì Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à

165

 ñåðåäèíå 1960 ãîäîâ Ý. Á. Ãëèíåð [92-96] âûäâèíóë ãèïîòåçó î
ñóùåñòâîâàíèè âî Âñåëåííîé èäåàëüíî îäíîðîäíîé ìàêðîñêîïè÷åñêîé
ñðåäû ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ

ρV =

Λ
8πG .

(506)

Ïðè ýòîì: (i) ïëîòíîñòü (506) íå èçìåíÿåòñÿ âî âðåìåíè è ïðîñòðàíñòâå è îñòàåòñÿ îäíîé è òîé æå âî âñåõ ñèñòåìàõ îòñ÷åòà,
V

(ii) Ñðåäà ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ (506) îáëàäàåò îòðèöàòåëüíûì äàâëåíèåì
, è åå óðàâíåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä:

pV = −ρV .

(507)

Ý. Á. Ãëèíåð ïîêàçàë, ÷òî åãî ïîñòóëàòû (i)-(ii) ôàêòè÷åñêè ýêâèâàëåíòíû ïåðâîíà÷àëüíîìó ïðåäïîëîæåíèþ Ýéíøòåéíà î íàëè÷èè íåíóëåâîé êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ïîñòîÿííîé Λ > 0. Ý.Á.Ãëèíåð òàêæå ïîêàçàë,
÷òî

1. Ýòà ñðåäà íå ìîæåò ñëóæèòü ñèñòåìîé îòñ÷åòà, ò. å. åñëè èìåþòñÿ
äâå ñèñòåìû îòñ÷åòà, äâèæóùèåñÿ îòíîñèòåëüíî äðóã äðóãà ñ íåêîòîðîé íåíóëåâîé ñêîðîñòüþ, òî ñðåäà ñ óðàâíåíèåì ñîñòîÿíèÿ áóäåò ñîïóòñòâîâàòü è òîé è äðóãîé. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ñðåäà, îïèñûâàåìàÿ óðàâíåíèÿìè (506)-(507), ÿâëÿåòñÿ âàêóóìîì.
2. Ñðåäà ñ óðàâíåíèåì ñîñòîÿíèÿ (507) ÿâëÿåòñÿ íåèçìåííîé è "âå÷íîé". Åå ýíåðãèÿ ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé àáñîëþòíûé è ïîñòîÿííûé âî âðåìåíè ìèíèìóì ýíåðãèè, ñîäåðæàùåéñÿ â ìèðîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå. À ýòî
òàêæå îáÿçàòåëüíîå ñâîéñòâî âàêóóìà.
3. Ñðåäà ñ äàâëåíèåì, îïðåäåëÿåìûì óðàâíåíèåì (507), ñîçäàåò íå
òÿãîòåíèå, à àíòèòÿãîòåíèå. Â ñàìîì äåëå, ñîãëàñíî îáùåé òåîðèè îòíîñèòåëüíîñòè òÿãîòåíèå îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ íå òîëüêî ïëîòíîñòüþ ñðåäû, íî
è åå äàâëåíèåì. Ïðè ýòîì "ýôôåêòèâíàÿ ãðàâèòèðóþùàÿ ïëîòíîñòü"â
îáùåì ñëó÷àå âûðàæàåòñÿ â âèäå ñóììû äâóõ ñëàãàåìûõ:
ρeff = ρV + 3pV

(508)

Îòìåòèì, ÷òî â ñèëó óðàâíåíèÿ ñîñòîÿíèÿ (507) ñóììà â ïðàâîé
÷àñòè (508) îêàçûâàåòñÿ ñòðîãî îòðèöàòåëüíîé:

ρeff = ρV + 3pV = −2ρV < 0.

(509)

166

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

Òàêîå èñòîëêîâàíèå Ý. Á. Ãëèíåðîì Ýéíøòåéíîâñêîé êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ïîñòîÿííîé, ïî ïîíÿòíûì ïðè÷èíàì âñòðå÷åííîå â øòûêè 40 ëåò
íàçàä, òåïåðü ñòàëî îáùåïðèíÿòûì.  îòå÷åñòâåííîé ëèòåðàòóðå ïðèíÿòî ãîâîðèòü î êîñìè÷åñêîé ñðåäå ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ (506) è óðàâíåíèåì
ñîñòîÿíèÿ (507) êàê î âàêóóìå Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà (ÝÃ-âàêóóì) [91].
ß.Á. Çåëüäîâè÷ â ðàáîòå "Êîñìîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ïîñòîÿííàÿ è òåîðèÿ
ýëåìåíòàðíûõ ÷àñòèö"[88] ñäåëàë ïåðâóþ ïîïûòêó ïîëó÷èòü óðàâíåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ âàêóóìà (507), èñõîäÿ èç ïåðâûõ ïðèíöèïîâ. Ïëîòíîñòü
ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà ß. Á. Çåëüäîâè÷ âû÷èñëÿåò â îäíîïåòëåâîì ïðèáëèæåíèè, ò. å. ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé. Ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå
ôîðìàëüíûå âûðàæåíèÿ äëÿ ρV è V â ñëó÷àå ñêàëÿðíûõ ÷àñòèö èìåþò âèä

ρV =

1 4π
2 (2π¯
h)3

∫ p2

p

p2 + µ2 dp = K ∫ p2

p

p2 + µ2 dp = KI (µ) ,

0

0

µ = m0 c

(510)

è ñîîòâåòñòâåííî

V

=

K
3

4

∫ √p 2dp
0

p +µ2

= KF (µ) .
(511)

Äëÿ ôåðìèîíîâ ìû èìååì [88]

ρV = −4KI (µ) ,

V

= −4KF (µ) .
(512)

Ñ ó÷åòîì âêëàäîâ âñåõ áîçîíîâ è âñåõ ôåðìèîíîâ ìû èìååì

ρV =

P

ci I (µi ) ,

V

=

i

P

ci F (µi ) ,

i

(513)
ãäå êîýôôèöèåíòû ci ìîãóò èìåòü ðàçíûå çíàêè. Ðåãóëÿðèçîâàííûå
ìåòîäîì Ïàóëè-Âèëëàðñà [158] âûðàæåíèÿ (513) èìåþò âèä [88]:

ρreg
V = ∫ f (µ) I (µ) dµ,

reg
V

= ∫ f (µ) F (µ) dµ,

(514)
ãäå ôóíêöèÿ f (µ) âûáèðàåòñÿ òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷òîáû âûïîëíÿëèñü óñëîâèÿ êîíå÷íîñòè äëÿ ïëîòíîñòè è äàâëåíèÿ

ρren
< ∞,
V

ren
V

< ∞.
(515)

167

16.3. Âàêóóì Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à

Ñëåäóÿ ðàáîòå [88], ðàññìîòðèì êîíå÷íûå âåëè÷èíû

p0

I (µ, p0 ) = ∫ p2

p

p2 + µ2 dp = ∫ p2

p

p0

p2 + µ2 dp + ∫ p2

∫ p2

p2 + µ2 dp =

0

0

p

q
p0
p
p2 + µ2 dp + ∫ p3 1 +

0

µ2
p2 dp

(516)

è

1
3

F (µ, p0 ) =

p0

4

∫ √p 2dp

p +µ2

0

1
3

=

4

∫ √p 2dp

p +µ2

0

4

∫ √p 2dp

1
3

0

+

1
3

p0

3

1+ µ2

∫ qp

1
3

+

p +µ2

dp
2

p0

4

∫ √p 2dp

p +µ2

=

,

p

ãäå µ2 /p2µ ≤ m2eff /p2µ  1. Ïîäñòàâèâ Òåéëîðîâñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå

q

1+

µ2
p2

=1+

2

2 p2

4

8 p4

6
1 µ
16 p6

+

+ ...,
(518)

ãäå µ2 /p2 ≤ m2eff /p2  1, â ôîðìóëó (516), ìû ïîëó÷èì

I (µ, p0 ) = C1 µ4 + 14 p40 + 14 µ2 p20 − 18 µ4 ln 

p0
µ 

(517)

6
1 µ
32 p20 

+ O p−3
.
0
(519)

Ïîäñòàâèâ Òåéëîðîâñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå

1

q

2

=1−

1+ µ2

2

2 p2

+

4

8 p4

6
5 µ
16 p6

+ ...,

p

ãäå µ2 /p ≤ m2eff /p2  1, â ôîðìóëó (517), ìû ïîëó÷èì

F (µ, p0 ) = C2 µ4 +

1 4
12 p0

1 2 2
12 µ p0

+ 18 µ4 ln 

p0
µ 

+

6
5 µ
32 p20

(520) 

+ O p−3
.
0
(521)

168

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

Ïîäñòàâèâ âûðàæåíèÿ (519) è (521) â óðàâíåíèÿ (514), ìû ïîëó÷èì
meff

meff

0

0

= 14 p40 ∫ f (µ) dµ + 14 p20 ∫ f (µ) µ2 dµ+
ρren
V
1
8

C1 −

ln p0

meff 

∫ f (µ) µ4 dµ+
0

meff 

+ 18 ∫ f (µ) µ4 ( ln µ) dµ −
0

1
p20 

1
32

meff 

∫ f (µ) µ6 dµ + O p−3
,
0
0

(522)

è
ren
V

=

1 4
12 p0

meff

∫ f (µ) dµ −
0

C2 +

1
8

ln p0 

1 2
12 p0

meff

∫ f (µ) µ2 dµ+
0

meff

∫ f (µ) µ4 dµ−
0

meff

− 18 ∫ f (µ) µ4 ( ln µ) dµ + 

0

5
p20 

1
32

meff 

∫ f (µ) µ6 dµ + O p−3
.
0
0

(523)

 ñèëó (522)-(523) î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî äëÿ ñïðàâåäëèâîñòè íåðàâåíñòâ
(515) íåîáõîäèìî, ÷òîáû èìåëè ìåñòî òîæäåñòâà
meff

meff

meff

0

0

0

∫ f (µ) dµ = ∫ f (µ) µ2 dµ = ∫ f (µ) µ4 dµ ≡ 0.
(524)

 ýòîì ñëó÷àå ìû èìååì

ρren
=
V
ren
V

1
8

meff

∫ f (µ) µ4 ( ln µ) dµ,
0

meff

= − 18 ∫ f (µ) µ4 ( ln µ) dµ,
0

÷òî è äàåò òðåáóåìîå ñîîòíîøåíèå [88]

pren
= −ρren
V
V .

(525)

(526)

Çàìå÷àíèå 16.3.1. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ÊÒÏ ïðèìåíåíèå ìåòîäà Ïàóëè-Âèëëàðñà ñîâìåñòíî ñ òîæäåñòâàìè (524) àâòîìà-

16.3. Âàêóóì Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à

169

òè÷åñêè âåäåò ê òåîðèè ïîëÿ ñ èíäåôåíèòíîé ìåòðèêîé, ñì. ïî ýòîìó
ïîâîäó äåòàëüíîå ïîÿñíåíèå â [158]. Ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû, íå ñóùåñòâóåò
òàêæå êàêèõ ëèáî ïðèíöèïèàëüíûõ ñîîáðàæåíèé, çàïðåùàþùèõ íàì
âûáðàòü
meff

meff

meff

0

0

0

∫ f (µ) dµ = ∫ f (µ) µ2 dµ = ∫ f (µ) µ4 dµ =
meff

∫ f (µ) µ4 ( ln µ) dµ ≡ 0
0

(527)
âìåñòî (524), ò. å. ðàññìàòðèâàòü ÊÒÏ ñ íóëåâîé ïëîòíîñòüþ ýíåðãèè
âàêóóìà. Îäíàêî
ñîñòîèò â òîì, ÷òî ÷èñëåííàÿ
îöåíêà ïîðÿäêà âåëè÷èíû ïëîòíîñòè ρV , ïîëó÷åííàÿ åùå ñàìèì ß. Á.
Çåëüäîâè÷åì íà îñíîâå âûðàæåíèÿ (525), íàõîäèòñÿ â ãðóáîì ïðîòèâîðå÷èè ñ àñòðîíîìè÷åñêèìè äàííûìè.  [88] ß. Á. Çåëüäîâè÷ íà îñíîâå
óðàâíåíèÿ (525) ïîëó÷èë cëåäóþùóþ îöåíêó

íàñòîÿùàÿ òðóäíîñòü

ρΛ = mp

mp c 3
h
¯

∼ 10−17 /3 ,

Λ = 10−10

−2

,

(528)
ãäå mp -ìàññà ïðîòîíà. Îöåíêà (528) ïîñòîÿííîé ïðîòèâîðå÷èò êàê ñòàðûì, òàê è ñîâðåìåííûì àñòðîíîìè÷åñêèìè äàííûì: Λ ∼ 10−57 A <−2 .

Çàìå÷àíèå 16.3.2. Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî äëÿ óñòðàíåíèÿ âûøåóêàçàííîãî ïðîòèâîðå÷èÿ, äîñòàòî÷íî ïðèíÿòü óñëîâèÿ (527) âìåñòî óñëîâèé
(524), ëèáî óñëîâèÿ (535), ðàññìîòðåííûå íèæå.
Çàìå÷àíèå 16.3.3. Ïîä÷åðêíåì òàêæå, ÷òî îáùèé ïîäõîä ê ðåøåíèþ ïðîáëåìû êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ïîñòîÿííîé, óêàçàë åùå ñàì ß. Á.
Çåëüäîâè÷ [88] "... Íåäàâíî À. Ä. Ñàõàðîâ ïðåäëîæèë òåîðèþ òÿãîòåíèÿ, èëè, òî÷íåå, îáîñíîâàíèå óðàâíåíèé ÎÒÎ, îñíîâàííîå íà ðàññìîòðåíèè âàêóóìíûõ ôëóêòóàöèé [125].  ýòîé òåîðèè ñóùåñòâåííî
ïðåäïîëîæåíèå, ÷òî ñóùåñòâóåò íåêàÿ ýëåìåíòàðíàÿ äëèíà L èëè ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèé ïðåäåëüíûé èìïóëüñ p0 = h
¯ /L. Íà ìåíüøèõ äëèíàõ
èëè ïðè áîëüøèõ èìïóëüñàõ òåîðèÿ íåïðèìåíèìà. Ñàõàðîâ ïîëó÷àåò
âûðàæåíèå ãðàâèòàöèîííîé ïîñòîÿííîé G ÷åðåç L èëè 0 :
G=

c 3 L2
h
¯

=

h
¯ c3
.
p20

(IX)
Ýòî âûðàæåíèå èçâåñòíî ñî âðåìåí Ïëàíêà, íî åãî ÷èòàëè ¾ñïðàâà
íàëåâî¿: ãðàâèòàöèÿ îïðåäåëÿåò äëèíó L è èìïóëüñ ρ0 . Ïî Ñàõàðîâó,

170

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

ïåðâè÷íû L è 0 . Ïîäñòàâèì (IX.6) â âûðàæåíèå (IX.4), ïîëó÷èì

ρΛ =

m6 c 5
,
p20 h
¯3

ε=

m6 c 7
.
p20 h
¯3

(IX.7)
Èìåííî òàêîå âûðàæåíèå èìåëè ïåðâûå îòáðîøåííûå (ïðè 0 → ∞)
÷ëåíû â ôîðìóëàõ (VIII.10), (VIII.11). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìîæíî ïðåäëîæèòü ñëåäóþùóþ èíòåðïðåòàöèþ êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ïîñòîÿííîé: ñóùåñòâóåò òåîðèÿ ýëåìåíòàðíûõ ÷àñòèö, êîòîðàÿ äàâàëà áû (ïî íå âñêðûòîìó â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ìåõàíèçìó) òîæäåñòâåííî íóëåâóþ ýíåðãèþ
âàêóóìà, åñëè áû ýòà òåîðèÿ áûëà ïðèìåíèìà íåîãðàíè÷åííî, äî ñêîëü
óãîäíî áîëüøèõ èìïóëüñîâ; ñóùåñòâóåò èìïóëüñ p0 , çà ïðåäåëàìè êîòîðîãî òåîðèÿ íåïðèìåíèìà *); íàðÿäó ñ äðóãèìè ñëåäñòâèÿìè âèäîèçìåíåíèå òåîðèè äàåò îòëè÷íóþ îò íóëÿ ýíåðãèþ âàêóóìà; îáùèå ñîîáðàæåíèÿ äåëàþò âåðîÿòíûì, ÷òî ýôôåêò ïðîïîðöèîíàëåí p−2
0 . (Ïîíÿòíî,
÷òî 0 âõîäèò òàê, ÷òîáû íå íàðóøàòü ðåëÿòèâèñòñêîé èíâàðèàíòíîñòè
òåîðèè, â îòëè÷èå îò 0 â ôîðìóëàõ ïðèëîæåíèÿ VIII *).
Âûÿñíåíèå âîïðîñà î ñóùåñòâîâàíèè è âåëè÷èíå êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé
ïîñòîÿííîé áóäåò èìåòü îãðîìíîå ïðèíöèïèàëüíîå çíà÷åíèå òàêæå è
äëÿ òåîðèè ýëåìåíòàðíûõ ÷àñòèö".

Çàìå÷àíèå 16.3.4. Òðåáîâàíèå ß. Á. Çåëüäîâè÷à, êàñàþùååñÿ âûïîëíåíèÿ ïîñòóëàòà Ëîðåíö-èíâàðèàíòíîñòè òåîðèè, â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ íå ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ òàêèì æå ôóíäàìåíòàëüíûì, êàê è 45 ëåò òîìó
íàçàä, êîãäà áûëà íàïèñàíà ðàáîòà [88]. Ïî ñîâðåìåííûì ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿì íà äîñòàòî÷íî ìàëûõ ïðîñòðàíñòâåííî-âðåìåííûõ ìàñøòàáàõ
àëãåáðà Ïóàíêàðå íà ìàëûõ ìàñøòàáàõ ìîæåò áûòü ñèëüíî äåôîðìèðîâàíà, à ïàðàìåòðîì äåôîðìàöèè ÿâëÿåòñÿ íåêîòîðàÿ ôóíäàìåíòàëüíàÿ äëèíà, êîòîðàÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ èíâàðèàíòîì ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåé äåôîðìèðîâàííîé ãðóïïû Ëîðåíöà, ñì. íàïðèìåð [159-165] è [166-167].
Çàìå÷àíèå 16.3.5. Âìåñòî ïîñòóëàòà Ëîðåíö-èíâàðèàíòíîñòè, çàÿâëåííîãî ß.Á. Çåëüäîâè÷åì â [88], ìû ïîñòóëèðóåì:
(1) ïðèáëèæåííóþ Ëîðåíö-èíâàðèàíòíîñòü è
(2) èíâàðèàíòíîñòü ìîäóëÿ ôóíäàìåíòàëüíîãî èìïóëüñà

p0 =

q

p20, 1 + p20, 2 + p20, 3

è ôóíäàìåíòàëüíîé äëèíû L îòíîñèòåëüíî ïîäõîäÿùèì îáðàçîì äåôîðìèðîâàííîé ãðóïïû Ëîðåíöà DL↑+ [166-167].

èíâàðèàíòíûé

 äàëüíåéøåì ìû îáîçíà÷àåì
ôóíäàìåíòàëüíûé
èìïóëüñ
è
ôóíäàìåíòàëüíóþ
äëèíó
ñèìâîëàìè p∗ =
p
p2∗1 + p2∗2 + p2∗3 è l∗ ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Ñîîòâåòñòâóþùàÿ èíâàðèàíòíàÿ

èíâàðèàíòíóþ

171

16.3. Âàêóóì Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à

ìåòðèêà â èìïóëüñíîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå èìååò âèä [167]
2

kpk =

p20 −p21 −p22 −p23
.
(1+l∗ p0 )2

(529)

Çàìå÷àíèå 16.3.6. DL↑+ - èíâàðèàíòíîå äåéñòâèå äëÿ ñâîáîäíûõ

êâàíòîâàííûõ ïîëåé èìååò âèä [167]

S (ϕ) = ∫ d4 x

h

η αβ (∂α ϕ) (∂β ϕ)
2 ∂ ϕ)2
(1+l∗
0

+

m2 2
2 ϕ

i

.
(529a)

 ñèëó (529a) óðàâíåíèÿ äâèæåíèÿ áóäóò ñóùåñòâåííî íåëèíåéíû.
 äàííîé ðàáîòå ìû èñïîëüçóåì êàíîíè÷åñêîå êâàäðàòè÷íîå âûðàæåíèå äëÿ
S (ϕ) .  îáùåì ñëó÷àå ðåøåíèå ñòðîèòñÿ â âèäå ôîðìàëüíîãî
P∞
2
2i
ðÿäà
i=0 l∗ ϕi (x) ïî ñòåïåíÿì ìàëîãî ïàðàìåòðà l∗ , ãäå ϕ0 (x, ∗ ) êàíîíè÷åñêîå ñâîáîäíîå ïîëå ñ èìïóëüñíûì îáðåçàíèåì.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 16.3.1. Ïóñòü çàäàíû ìíîæåñòâî E6=⊂ R4 è ôèêñè-

ðîâàííîå ÷èñëî δ ∈ R, 0 < δ  1. Ïóñòü òàêæå çàäàíî øàðîâîå ïîêðûòèå Θ = {ωi }i∈N ìíîæåñòâà E ⊂ ∪i∈N ωi øàðàìè äèàìåòðà |ωi | .
Åñëè inf ii∈N |ωi | ≥ δ , òî ïîêðûòèå Θδ íàçûâàåòñÿ ãðóáûì çåðíèñòûì δ
- ïîêðûòèåì ìíîæåñòâà E.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 16.3.2. Îïðåäåëèì ôóíêöèþ Fd (Θδ ) ïðîèçâîëüíîãî
P
d
áîëüøîãî δ - ïîêðûòèÿ êàê Fd (Θδ ) = i∈N |ωi | . Ãðóáîé çåðíèñòîé d
GH
- ìåðîé Õàóñäîðôà Md (E, δ) ìíîæåñòâà E íàçûâàåòñÿ âåëè÷èíà
MdGH (E, δ) = inf Fd (Θδ ) ,
{Θδ }

(530)
ãäå èíôèìóì áåð¼òñÿ ïî âñåì ãðóáûì δ - ïîêðûòèÿì ìíîæåñòâà E.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 16.3.3. Ïóñòü íàéäåòñÿ ÷èñëî dGδ = dG (E, δ) òàêîå,

÷òî

(i) ∀d d > dGδ  

MdGH (E, δ) = O (δ) ,  

(ii) ∀d d < dGδ MdGH (E, δ) = o δ −1 .
Òîãäà dG (E, δ) íàçûâàåòñÿ ãðóáîé çåðíèñòîé δ - ðàçìåðíîñòüþ ìíîæåñòâà E.

Îïðåäåëåíèå 16.3.4. Ïðîñòðàíñòâîì-âðåìåíåì (îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè) ñçåðíèñòîé
ìèêðîñòðóêòóðîé
íàçûâàåòñÿ îáîáùåííûé ìóëü
òèôðàêòàë ∆(µε )ε (α) = ∆(µε )ε (α+ ) , ∆(µε )ε (α− ) òàêîé, ÷òî (i) âñå 

Ãåëüäåðîâñêèå ýêñïîíåíòû α îòðèöàòåëüíû, ò. å. ∆(µε )ε (α+ ) = ∅ è

172

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

(ii) ñóùåñòâóåò δ > 0 òàêîå, ÷òî äëÿ âñåõ ∆(µε )ε (α− ) âûïîëíåíî ñîîò
íîøåíèå dG ∆(µε )ε (α− ) , δ ≈ 4.
Ìû áóäåì èñõîäèòü èç ñëåäóþùèõ ïîñòóëàòîâ:
(i) òåìíàÿ ìàòåðèÿ, êðîìå êàíîíè÷åñêîãî òåìíîãî ñåêòîðà, ñîäåðæèò òàêæå îñîáûé ñåêòîð, êîòîðûé îïèñûâàåòñÿ "äóõàìè"Ïàóëè-Âèëëàðñà, ò. å. ïîëíîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî ñîñòîÿíèé H îáëàäàåò èíäåôèíèòíîé
ìåòðèêîé. Îáû÷íûå, ò. å. íå äóõîâûå (íå ôðàêòàëüíûå) êâàíòîâûå ïîëÿ, çàäàííûå íà ïðîñòðàíñòâå Ìèíêîâñêîãî M4 , ìû âñåãäà îáîçíà÷àåì
ñèìâîëàìè ϕ (x, p∗ ) (áîçîíû) è ψ (x, p∗ ) (ôåðìèîíû), à äóõîâûå (íå
ôðàêòàëüíûå) ïîëÿ ìû â äàëüíåéøåì âñåãäà îáîçíà÷àåì ñèìâîëàìè
ϕ˘ (x, p∗ ) (áîçîíû) è ψ˘ (x, p∗ ) (ôåðìèîíû), ãäå x ∈ M4 . Ôðàêòàëüíûå
ïîëÿ ëþáûõ òèïîâ ìû îáîçíà÷àåì ñèìâîëàìè

ϕ (x, p∗ ; D− ) , ϕ˘ (x, p∗ ; D− ) , ψ (x, p∗ ; D− ) , ψ˘ (x, p∗ ; D− )
è ò. ä.
(ii)  êëàññè÷åñêîì ïðåäåëå p∗ → ∞ âñå íåôðàêòàëüíûå êâàíòîâûå ïîëÿ ñõîäÿòñÿ (â ñìûñëå îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé) ê êàíîíè÷åñêèì
êâàíòîâûì ïîëÿì Âàéòìàíà.
(iii) Âñå êîíñòàíòû ñâÿçè äóõîâûõ ïîëåé ñ êâàíòîâûìè ïîëÿìè
îáû÷íîé ìàòåðèè òîæäåñòâåííî ðàâíû íóëþ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ïîëíîå
ïðîñòðàíñòâî ñîñòîÿíèé H ðàçëàãàåòñÿ â ïðÿìóþ ñóììó H= H+ ⊕ H− ,
ãäå H+ - îáû÷íîå Ãèëüáåðòîâî ïðîñòðàíñòâî, à H− -ëèíåéíîå ïîäïðîñòðàíñòâî ñ ñåìèäåôèíèòíîé ìåòðèêîé [158]. Ïóñòü Ω+ - âàêóóìíûé
âåêòîð äëÿ îáû÷íîé ìàòåðèè, Ω+ ∈ H+ è Ω− - âàêóóìíûé âåêòîð äëÿ
òåìíîé ìàòåðèè Ω− ∈ H− . Òîãäà âåêòîðû Ω+ è Ω− óäîâëåòâîðÿþò êàíîíè÷åñêèì óñëîâèÿì [158] è, â ÷àñòíîñòè: hΩ+ , Ω+ i = 1, hΩ− , Ω− i =
−1.
(iv) Êàê îáû÷íûå, òàê è äóõîâûå êâàíòîâûå ïîëÿ âçàèìîäåéñòâóþò
ñ Ðèìàíîâîé êðèâèçíîé R ìèíèìàëüíûì îáðàçîì [131].
(v) Âêëàä âñåõ íåôðàêòàëüíûõ ïîëåé â ïëîòíîñòü ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà
ρV îïèñûâàåòñÿ ïåðòóðáàòèâíî èëè òîëüêî â ïðèáëèæåíèè
ñâîáîäíûõ 

ïîëåé è èìååò ïîðÿäîê âåëè÷èíû ρ∗V = O p−2
.
Òàêèì
îáðàçîì,
â

êëàññè÷åñêîì ïðåäåëå p∗ → ∞.
Ýòî ñîîòâåòñòâóåò òîìó, ÷òî ïðè âû÷èñëåíèè âàêóóìíûõ äèàãðàìì
â íåôðàêòàëüíîé ÷àñòè ãàìèëüòîíèàíà âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ íåîáõîäèìî ñäåëàòü ïîäñòàíîâêó

ϕ (x, p∗ ) = ϕ (x, p∗ ) +

P

ψ (x, p∗ ) = ψ (x, p∗ ) +

P

˘n
n bn ϕ
˘

n cn ψn 

x, p∗ , µ2n , 

x, p∗ , χ2n ,

(531)

16.3. Âàêóóì Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à

173

ãäå äóõîâûå ïîëÿ óäîâëåòâîðÿþò ñëåäóþùèì ïåðåñòàíîâî÷íûì ñîîòíîøåíèÿì    

ϕ˘m x, p∗ , µ2m , ϕ˘n x0 , p∗ , µ2n = −iρn ∆ x − x0 , p∗ , µ2n δmn ,
h  

i 

ψ˘m x, p∗ , χ2m , ψ˘n x0 , p∗ , χ2n = −iεn S x − x0 , p∗ , χ2n δmn .
(532)
Ïðè ýòîì ïîëíûå ïîëÿ ϕ (x, p∗ ) è ψ (x, p∗ ) óäîâëåòâîðÿþò ñëåäóþùèì ïåðåñòàíîâî÷íûì ñîîòíîøåíèÿì   

P
ϕ (x, p∗ ) , ϕ (x0 , p∗ ) = i n ρn b2n ∆ x − x0 , p∗ , µ2n ,   

P
ψ (x, p∗ ) , ψ (x0 , p∗ ) = −i n εnn cn S x − x0 , p∗ , χ2n .

(533)
Äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû òåîðèÿ ïîëÿ áûëà êîíå÷íîé, íà âåëè÷èíû bn , ρn , cn , εn
íåîáõîäèìî íàëîæèòü õîðîøî èçâåñòíûå óñëîâèÿ Ïàóëè-Âèëëàðñà [158]

P
ρn b2n = 0, n ρn b2n µ2n = 0,
P
P
2
n εnn cn = 0,
n εnn cn χn = 0, ...
P

n 

(534)
Äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû âûïîëíÿëîñü óñëîâèå Çåëüäîâè÷à ρ∗V = O p−2
, íåîá∗
õîäèìî òàêæå íàëîæèòü äîïîëíèòåëüíûå óñëîâèÿ òèïà (527).
(vi) Ôèçè÷åñêîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî-âðåìÿ ýòî ïðîñòðàíñòâî-âðåìÿ (îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè)
ñ çåðíèñòîé ìèêðîñòðóêòóðîé è òàêîå, ÷òî: 

dG ∆(µε )ε (α− ) , l∗ ≈ 4.
(vii) ñåêòîð ñòàíäàðòíîé ìàòåðèè è ñåêòîð òåìíîé ìàòåðèè çåðêàëüíî ñèììåòðè÷íû äðóã äðóãó, ò. å.

f (µ) = fs.m (µ) + fd.m (µ) ,
ãäå fs.m (µ) = −fd.m (µ) .

(535)

(vii ∗ ) ñåêòîð ñòàíäàðòíîé ìàòåðèè (s.m) è ñåêòîð òåìíîé ìàòåðèè
(d.m) çåðêàëüíî ïî÷òè ñèììåòðè÷íû äðóã äðóãó, ò. å.

f (µ) = fs.m (µ) + fd.m (µ) ' 0.

(536)

Îïðåäåëåíèå 16.3.5. Âàêóóìíàÿ ñðåäà íàçûâàåòñÿ êëàññè÷åñêèì
âàêóóìîì Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à, åñëè óðàâíåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ

174

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

ýòîé ñðåäû èìååò âèä

ρV = −pV = Λ/8πG.

(537)

Çàìå÷àíèå 16.3.7. Èçîòðîïíàÿ êîñìîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ìîäåëü, ïî îïðåäåëåíèþ çàäàåòñÿ ìåòðèêîé [96]

ds2 = dt2 − a (t)

h

dr 2
1−κr 2

+ r2 sin2 ϑdϕ2 + dϑ2 

i

,

(538)
ãäå κ - êðèâèçíà ïðîñòðàíñòâà. Ôóíêöèÿ a (t) óäîâëåòâîðÿåò óðàâíåíèÿì Ôðèäìàíà

d2 a
dt2

4πGb
ρeff
= − 4πG
a,
3 (ρm + 3pm + ρV + 3pV ) a = −
3

ρbeff = ρm + 3pm + ρV + 3pV , 

1 da 2
a dt

=

8πG
3

(ρm + ρV ) −

κ
a2 ,

(539)
ãäå ρm - ïëîòíîñòü ìàòåðèè, pm - äàâëåíèå ìàòåðèè, ρbeff - ïîëíàÿ
ýôôåêòèâíàÿ ãðàâèòèðóþùàÿ ïëîòíîñòü ìàòåðèè è âàêóóìíîé ñðåäû.
Íïîìíèì, ÷òî â ñèëó óðàâíåíèé Ôðèäìàíà (539) óñëîâèÿ ýêñïîíåíöèàëüíîãî ðîñòà ìàñøòàáíîãî ôàêòîðà ñëåäóþùèå [96]: (i) ρbeff < 0, (ii)
ρV > 0.  ñëó÷àå ρV < 0 ðàñøèðåíèå âñåãäà ñìåíèòñÿ ñæàòèåì êàê â
ñëó÷àå çàìêíóòîãî, òàê è â ñëó÷àå îòêðûòîãî ìèðà [88].

Îïðåäåëåíèå 16.3.6. Âàêóóìíàÿ ñðåäà íàçûâàåòñÿ íåêëàññè÷åñêèì èëè îáîáùåííûì âàêóóìîì Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãëèíåðà-Çåëüäîâè÷à, åñëè ýôôåêòèâíàÿ ãðàâèòèðóþùàÿ ïëîòíîñòü ýòîé ñðåäû ρeff = ρV +3pV
ñòðîãî îòðèöàòåëüíà, ò. å.

ρeff = ρV + 3pV < 0.

(540)

Âûðàæåíèå äëÿ ýôôåêòèâíîé ãðàâèòèðóþùåé ïëîòíîñòè âàêóóìà
ρeff ïðè ñîáëþäåíèè òîëüêî óñëîâèé (524) â ñèëó ðàâåíñòâ (V.15) è

175

16.4. Êâàíòîâàÿ ìåõàíèêà è êâàíòîâàÿ òåîðèÿ ïîëÿ...

(V.27) (ñì. ïðèëîæåíèå V) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

ρeff = ρV + 3pV =
6K
8

meff

∫ f (m) m4 ( ln m) dm −
0

6K 5
32 p2∗

meff

∫ f (m) m6 dm−
0

−6K

π3

N
P
r=1

(r)

| 9−2|D− |
(r) meff
D− −4 (2|D− |−9)
|

4− D

p∗

Γ

Γ

(r)

2− D−

!

2

(r) ! .
3− D−
2

(541)
Ïðè äîñòàòî÷íî áîëüøèõ çíà÷åíèÿõ p∗ â ñèëó (541) ìû èìååì

ρeff '

6K
8

meff

∫ f (m) m4 ( ln m) dm.
0

(542)

Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî â ýòîì ñëó÷àå ñ áîëüøîé ñòåïåíüþ òî÷íîñòè òàêæå
ñïðàâåäëèâî ðàâåíñòâî (537).
Ïîä÷åðêíåì, ÷òî îöåíêà (528) áûëà ïîëó÷åíà ñ ó÷åòîì âêëàäà òîëüêî ñòàíäàðòíîé ìàòåðèè.

16.4. Êâàíòîâàÿ ìåõàíèêà è êâàíòîâàÿ òåîðèÿ ïîëÿ â
ïðîñòðàíñòâàõ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè
Ïóñòü çàäàíà ïàðà {X, µH } , ãäå X ⊂ Rn è µH ýòî D - ìåðíàÿ
ìåðà Õàóñäîðôà íà X. Ïóñòü f (x) ýòî µH - èçìåðèìàÿ ôóíêöèÿ íà X
òàêàÿ, ÷òî f (x) = f (|x|) = f (r). Òîãäà ïðè èçâåñòíûõ ïðåäïîëîæåíèÿõ
î ìíîæåñòâå X ñïðàâåäëèâî ñëåäóþùåå ðàâåíñòâî [104]

JD (f ) = ∫ f (x) dµH (x) =
X

D ∞
Dπ 2
∫ f
Γ(1+ D
2 ) 0

(r) rD−1 dr
(543)

Ïóñòü èíòåãðàë â ïðàâîé ÷àñòè ðàâåíñòâà (543) ñõîäèòñÿ àáñîëþòíî ïðè D ≥ 0. Òîãäà èíòåãðàë JD (f ), êàê ôóíêöèÿ ïàðàìåòðà D, î÷åâèäíûì îáðàçîì îïðåäåëåí òàêæå ïðè âñåõ êîìïëåêñíûõ çíà÷åíèÿõ
D = DC+ , ëåæàùèõ â ïðàâîé êîìïëåêñíîé ïîëóïëîñêîñòè C+ . Ïðè èçâåñòíûõ ïðåäïîëîæåíèÿõ î ñâîéñòâàõ ôóíêöèè f (r) èíòåãðàë JD (f ),

176

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

êàê ìåðîìîðôíóþ ôóíêöèþ êîìïëåêñíîãî ïàðàìåòðà D = DC− , ìîæíî çàäàòü è â íåêîòîðîé ïîëîñå ëåâîé êîìïëåêñíîé ïîëóïëîñêîñòè C−
ïîñðåäñòâîì êàíîíè÷åñêîé ïðîöåäóðû àíàëèòè÷åñêîãî ïðîäîëæåíèÿ.
 ýòîì ñëó÷àå ìû ïèøåì

JDC (f ) =

DC

Dπ 2 
∫ f
DC
Γ 1+ 2
0

(r) rDC −1 dr,

(16.4.2.a)
ïðåäïîëàãàÿ, ÷òî ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåå àíàëèòè÷åñêîå ïðîäîëæåíèå ñóùåñòâóåò.

(JDC , ε (f ))ε =

DC
Dπ 2 
D
Γ 1+ 2C 


0

f (r) r iImDC
dr
r −ReDC +1 +ε 

.
ε

(16.4.2.b)
Ïóñòü òåïåðü f (0) < ∞ è f (r) → 0 ïðè r → ∞. Òîãäà ïðè |DC | →
0 ñïðàâåäëèâî ñëåäóþùåå ôîðìàëüíîå àñèìïòîòè÷åñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå
[103]

DC

2  P
bn
DC
n=0
Γ 1+ 2

JDC (f ) = π

0

(f )

n
DC
n! ,

0

n

b0 (f ) = − ∫ f (r) dr, bn (f ) = − ∫ f (r) ( ln r) dr.
0

0

(544)

Ðàçëîæåíèå (544) íàçûâàåòñÿ ðàçìåðíûì ðàçëîæåíèåì [103]. Ñâîéñòâà ðàçìåðíûõ ðàçëîæåíèé äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ ïîëîæèòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè
D ∈ R+ èçó÷àëèñü â ðàáîòå [103]. Îáúåì è ïëîùàäü ïîâåðõíîñòè ñôåðû
åäèíè÷íîãî ðàäèóñà â ìåòðè÷åñêîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå X ⊂ Rn Õàóñäîðôîâîé ðàçìåðíîñòè D+ = dH ∈ R+ çàäàþòñÿ ñëåäóþùèìè ñòàíäàðòíûìè
ôîðìóëàìè [103-104]:

VD+ =

D+
π 2 
,
D
Γ 1+ 2+

SD =

D+
Dπ 2 
.
D
Γ 1+ 2+

(545)

Íà ïðîèçâîëüíûå êîìïëåêñíûå ðàçìåðíîñòè DC ∈ C ôîðìóëû (544)
ìîæíî ðàñïðîñòðàíèòü ñ ïîìîùüþ àíàëèòè÷åñêîãî ïðîäîëæåíèÿ ïðàâûõ ÷àñòåé óðàâíåíèé (545) â êîìïëåêñíóþ ïëîñêîñòü C. Òàêèì îáðà-

177

16.4. Êâàíòîâàÿ ìåõàíèêà è êâàíòîâàÿ òåîðèÿ ïîëÿ...

çîì, äëÿ DC ∈ C ìû èìååì

VDC =

DC
π 2 
,
D
Γ 1+ 2C

SDC =

DC
DC π 2 
DC .
Γ 1+ 2

(546)

Äëÿ ôóíêöèé (546) ðàçìåðíîå ðàçëîæåíèå (544) èìååò âèä

VDC = 1 +

1
2

(γ + ln π) DC +
SDC = DC +

1
2

1
48

h

i
2
2
6 (γ + ln π) − π 2 DC
+ ...

2
+ ... .
(γ + ln π) DC

(547)

Îñíîâíàÿ èäåÿ êâàíòîâîé ìåõàíèêè â îòðèöàòåëüíûõ ðàçìåðíîñòÿõ, êàê èçâåñòíî, ñîñòîÿëà â òîì, ÷òîáû ïðèäàòü ñòðîãèé ìàòåìàòè÷åñêèé ñìûñë ðåøåíèþ èñõîäíîé ÊÌ çàäà÷è, ïåðâîíà÷àëüíî çàäàííîé
â öåëûõ ïîëîæèòåëüíûõ ðàçìåðíîñòÿõ, òàêæå è äëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíûõ
èëè äàæå êîìïëåêñíûõ çíà÷åíèé ïàðàìåòðà D = DC , à çàòåì èñïîëüçîâàòü ñâÿçü ìåæäó ñâîéñòâàìè ðåøåíèé â ôèçè÷åñêèõ è öåëûõ îòðèöàòåëüíûõ èëè êîìïëåêñíûõ ðàçìåðíîñòÿõ [100-101], [103]. Ðàññìîòðèì
â êà÷åñòâå ïðèìåðà ïðîñòåéøåå ñòàöèîíàðíîå óðàâíåíèå Øðåäèíãåðà
âèäà [103]

ψ 00 (r) −

D+ −1 0
ψ (r)
r
D + ∈ R+

= Eψ (r) ,

ψ (0) < ∞, ψ (1) = 0.
(548)
Îáùåå ðåøåíèå êðàåâîé çàäà÷è (548) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

h 
√  
√ i
ψ (r) = r1−D+ /2 AJ1−D+ /2 r E + BJ−1+D+ /2 r E ,
(549)
ãäå Jν (x) - Áåññåëåâà ôóíêöèÿ. Ñ ó÷åòîì ãðàíè÷íûõ óñëîâèé óðàâíåíèå äëÿ ñîáñòâåííûõ çíà÷åíèé â ïîëîæèòåëüíûõ ðàçìåðíîñòÿõ èìååò
ñëåäóþùèé âèä 

√ 
J−1+D+ /2 r E = 0.
(550)
Ïîâåäåíèå ôóíêöèé En (D) â ïëîñêîñòè êîìïëåêíîãî ïåðåìåííîãî
D = DC äåòàëüíî èçó÷åíî â [98].  ÷àñòíîñòè óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî äëÿ D ∈

178

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

(−∞, +∞) âñå ôóíêöèè En (D) - ýòî âåòâè îäíîé è òîé æå êîìïëåêñíîé
ôóíêöèè En (D) .
Ðàññìîòðèì òåïåðü ìîäåëü åâêëèäîâîé êâàíòîâîé òåîðèè ïîëÿ ñ
ëàãðàíæèàíîì âèäà

L=

1
2

2

(∂ϕ) + gϕ2K .
(551)

Íàñ áóäåò èíòåðåñîâàòü ïëîòíîñòü ñâîáîäíîé ýíåðãèè êàê ôóíêöèÿ
êîìïëåêñíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè DC , êîòîðóþ ìû îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç FK (DC ).
Äëÿ K = 1 è 0 < D+ < 2 ïëîòíîñòü ñâîáîäíîé ýíåðãèè èìååò âèä [103]:

F1 (D) =

1
D 

g
2π 

D

Γ 1−

2

D
2 

.
(552)

Ïîñêîëüêó ôóíêöèÿ â ïðàâîé ÷àñòè (552) äîïóñêàåò àíàëèòè÷åñêîå
ïðîäîëæåíèå íà âñþ êîìïëåêñíóþ ïëîñêîñòü, ìû èìååì

F1 (DC ) =

1
DC 

g
2π 

DC
2

Γ 1−

DC
2 

è, â ÷àñòíîñòè, äëÿ DC = D− , ãäå −∞ < D− < 0 ìû èìååì

F1 (D− ) = − |D1− |

h


g

i |D− |
2 

Γ 1+

|D− |
2 

(553)

.
(554)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, â ñëó÷àå K = 1, −∞ < D− < 0 ïëîòíîñòü ñâîáîäíîé
ýíåðãèè êîíå÷íà è ñòðîãî îòðèöàòåëüíà.
Ââåäåì â ðàññìîòðåíèå òàêæå ñëåäóþùóþ ôóíêöèþ
K
AK (DC ) = 2Kg ν(K, DC ) ∂F
∂g ,

ν (K, DC ) = 1 −

DC
2K−DC (K−1) .

(555)

 ñèëó (555) ìû èìååì

1
g ∂F
∂g =

1
2 

g
2π 

DC
2

Γ 1−

DC
2 

.
(556)

16.4. Êâàíòîâàÿ ìåõàíèêà è êâàíòîâàÿ òåîðèÿ ïîëÿ...

179

Òàêèì îáðàçîì,

A1 (DC ) = 

1
2π 

DC
2

DC
2

Γ 1− 

.
(557)

Ðàçìåðíîå ðàçëîæåíèå äëÿ A1 (DC ) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

A1 (DC ) = 1 −
2
DC
48

DC
2

[ ln (2π) − γ] +

(558)  

6 ln 2 (2π) − 12γ ln (2π) + π 2 + γ 2 .

Îòìåòèì, ÷òî ðàäèóñ ñõîäèìîñòè ðàçëîæåíèÿ (558) ðàâåí 2 [103].
Ðàññìîòðèì òåïåðü ìîäåëü åâêëèäîâîé êâàíòîâîé òåîðèè ïîëÿ ñ ëàãðàíæèàíîì âèäà

L=

1
2

2

(∂ϕ) + gϕ2K + mϕ2 .
(559)

Ïëîòíîñòü ñâîáîäíîé ýíåðãèè äëÿ (559) F
ëÿåòñÿ èç ñîîòíîøåíèÿ

K

= FK (DC , m) îïðåäå-   

exp −F K VDC = ∫ [Dϕ] exp − ∫ dDC xL .

(560)

Çàïèøåì ïðàâóþ ÷àñòü (560) â âèäå   

exp −F K (DC ) VDC = ∫ [Dϕ] exp − ∫ V dDC xL0 ×
∫ [Dϕ] exp[− ∫ V dDC xL]
∫ [Dϕ] exp[− ∫ V dDC xL0 ]

,

ãäå

L0 =

ãäå

1
2

2

(∂ϕ) + mϕ2 .

(561)
(562)

 ñèëó (561) ìû èìååì ðàçëîæåíèå F K (DC ) = F1K (DC )+F2K (DC ) ,  

F1K (DC ) = − VD1 ln ∫ [Dϕ] exp − ∫ V dDC xL0
C

(563)

180

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

è

F2K 

1

(DC ) = − VD ln

∫ [Dϕ] exp[− ∫ V dDC xL] 

.

∫ [Dϕ] exp[− ∫ V dDC xL0 ]

C

(564)
Ïîäñòàâèâ â (554) g = m2 /2, ìû èìååì äëÿ F1K (DC ) ÿâíîå âûðàæåíèå

F1K

(DC ) =

1
DC

h

m2

i DC
2

Γ 1−

DC
2 

.
(565)

Îòìåòèì, ÷òî äëÿ F1K (DC ) ñïðàâåäëèâî ñëåäóþùåå ðàçìåðíîå ðàçëîæåíèå

F1K (DC ) = mDC

n

1
DC

+

1
2

o
[γ − ln (4π)] + O (|DC |) .
(566)

Èñïîëüçóÿ òåïåðü òàêîé æå ìåòîä, êàê è â [103], ìû ïîëó÷èì äëÿ
F2K (DC ) ÿâíîå âûðàæåíèå

∫ dx exp(−x2K )

F2K

DC

(DC ) = −m

ln

−∞

= −mDC ln

hq

∫ dx exp(−x2 /2)

2
πΓ

1+

1
K

−∞ 

i

,

(567)

ãäå |DC | → 0. Â ñèëó (566)-(567) ìû èìååì

F K (DC ) =
mDC

n

1
DC

+

1
2

[γ − ln (4π)] − ln

hq

2
πΓ

1+

1
K 

io  

2
+ O |DC | .
(568)

 ÷àñòíîñòè, äëÿ DC = D− , ãäå −δ < D− < 0, ìû èìååì

F K (D− ) =
1
m|D− |

n
− |D1− | +

1
2

[γ − ln (4π)] − ln  

2
O |D− | ' −

hq

2
πΓ

1
,
|D− | m|D− |

1+

1
K 

io

+

(569)

16.5. Èíäóöèðîâàííàÿ ãðàâèòàöèÿ Ñàõàðîâà...

181

ãäå |D− | → 0.

Çàìå÷àíèå 16.4.1.  ñèëó (569) ïëîòíîñòü ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà äëÿ
êâàíòîâîãî ìàññèâíîãî ñàìîäåéñòâóþùåãî åâêëèäîâà ôðàêòàëüíîãî ïîëÿ ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ Ëàãðàíæèàíà (559) èìååò âèä
F K (D− ) ' −

1
|D− | m|D− |  

2
+ O |D− | ,

ãäå |D− | → 0.

(570)

16.5. Èíäóöèðîâàííàÿ ãðàâèòàöèÿ Ñàõàðîâà â ðèìàíîâîì
ïðîñòðàíñòâå îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôðàêòàëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè.
Êîíöåïöèÿ èíäóöèðîâàííîé ãðàâèòàöèè áûëà ïðåäëîæåíà À. Ä.
Ñàõàðîâûì â ðàáîòå [125]. Îñíîâíàÿ èäåÿ À. Ä. Ñàõàðîâà, ïåðâîíà÷àëüíî ïðåäñòàâëåííàÿ â î÷åíü êîðîòêîé ñòàòüå, ñîäåðæàùåé â îáùåé
ñëîæíîñòè 4 ôîðìóëû, ñîñòîèò â òîì, ÷òî ãðàâèòàöèÿ íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ôóíäàìåíòàëüíûì âçàèìîäåéñòâèåì. Âìåñòî ýòîãî îí óòâåðæäàë, ÷òî îáùàÿ òåîðèÿ îòíîñèòåëüíîñòè âûòåêàåò èç êâàíòîâîé òåîðèè ïîëÿ ïðèìåðíî â òîì æå ñìûñëå, êàê ãèäðîäèíàìèêà âûòåêàåò èç ìîëåêóëÿðíîé
ôèçèêè.
Èñõîäíûå ïîñòóëàòû Ñàõàðîâà áûëè ñôîðìóëèðîâàíû èì òîëüêî
äëÿ ïðîñòðàíñòâà öåëîé ïîëîæèòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè è ñîñòîÿëè â ñëåäóþùåì [124-125]:
1. Ïóñòü çàäàíî íåêîòîðîå Ëîðåíöåâî ìíîãîîáðàçèå (M, g) .
2. Íèêàêèå àïðèîðíûå ïðåäïîëîæåíèÿ î äèíàìèêå ìíîãîîáðàçèÿ
(M, g) íå äåëàþòñÿ, ìåòðèêà g îïèñûâàåò ÷èñòî êëàññè÷åñêèé ôîí
è âñå ôèçè÷åñêèå ïîëÿ, êðîìå ãðàâèòàöèîííîãî, êâàíòóþòñÿ íà ýòîì
ôîíå.
3. Ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ êâàíòîâàÿ òåîðèÿ ñêàëÿðíîãî ïîëÿ

ϕm = ϕ (t, x; m)
ìàññû m íà (M, g) â îäíîïåòëåâîì ïðèáëèæåíèè.
4. Òîãäà îäíîïåòëåâîå ýôôåêòèâíîå äåéñòâèå ïðèìåò ñëåäóþùèé
âèä

√ 
∫ d4 x −g c0 + c1 R(g) + c2 (R2 (g)) .

(571)

182

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

Ñðàâíèì (571) ñ êàíîíè÷åñêèì ëàãðàíæèàíîì Ýéíøòåéíîâñêîé ãðàâèòàöèè

√ n
∫ d4 x −g −Λ −

R(g)
16π G

o
+ K (R2 ) + Lmatter .
(572)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, îäíîïåòëåâîå ýôôåêòèâíîå äåéñòâèå àâòîìàòè÷åñêè ñîäåðæèò ÷ëåí, ïðîïîðöèîíàëüíûé êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé êîíñòàíòå,
÷ëåí, ïðîïîðöèîíàëüíûé êëàññè÷åñêîìó äåéñòâèþ Ýéíøòåéíà-Ãèëüáåðòà, ïëþñ êâàäðàòè÷íûå ïî êðèâèçíå ÷ëåíû. Îäíîïåòëåâîé âêëàä â
ýôôåêòèâíîå äåéñòâèå äëÿ ñêàëÿðíîãî ïîëÿ çàäàåòñÿ âûðàæåíèåì

Sg = − 12 ln det(∆g + m2 + ξR) = − 12 Tr ln (∆g + m2 + ξR).

(573)

Ñòàíäàðòíûé ðåçóëüòàò êâàíòîâîé òåîðèè ïîëÿ íà ðèìàíîâîì ìíîãîîáðàçèè, êàê õîðîøî èçâåñòíî, ñîñòîèò â ñëåäóþùåì [124-128]:

Sg = Sg0 +
1
2 Tr


0

ds
s  

exp(−s[∆g + m2 + ξR]) − exp(−s[∆g0 + m2 + ξR0 ]) .
(574)

Ðåãóëÿðèçîâàííîå ýôôåêòèâíîå äåéñòâèå èìååò âèä

Sg = Sg0 +
1
2 Tr


κ−2

ds
s  

exp(−s[∆g + m2 + ξR]) − exp(−s[∆g0 + m2 + ξR0 ]) ,

(575)  

ãäå [s] = κ−2 . Äëÿ s → 0 ìû èìååì àñèìïòîòè÷åñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå

exp(−s[∆g + m2 + ξR]) =

−g
(4π s)2  

a0 (g) + a1 (g)s + a2 (g)s2 + · · · .
(576)

Ïîäñòàâèâ (576) â âûðàæåíèå (575), ìû îêîí÷àòåëüíî ïîëó÷àåì

Sg = Sg0 +

1
32π 2 Tr

n
[a0 (g) − a0 (g0 )]

+[a2 (g) − a2 (g0 )] ln 

κ2
m2 

o

κ4
2

+ [a1 (g) − a1 (g0 )] κ2

+ #$ :>= 5G = K5 G; 5 = K,
(577)

183

16.5. Èíäóöèðîâàííàÿ ãðàâèòàöèÿ Ñàõàðîâà...

ãäå [131]

a0 (g) = 1,

(578)

a1 (g) = k1 R(g) − m2 ,

(579)

a2 (g) =
k2 Cabcd C abcd + k3 Rab Rab + k4 R2 + k5 ∇2 R − m2 k1 R(g) + 12 m4 .
(580)
Ïîñëå î÷åâèäíûõ ïðåîáðàçîâàíèé ìû ïîëó÷àåì

Sg = Sg0 +

1
32π 2 str

h

κ4
2

− m2 κ2 +

m4
2

ln 

κ2
m2 

i



∫ d4 x [ −g − −g0 ]

h 
2 i


κ
+str k1 κ2 − k1 m2 ln m
∫ d4 x [ −g R(g) − −g0 R(g0 )]
2
h 0 
2 i 
√ 


κ
∫ d4 x −g C 2 (g) − −g0 C 2 (g0 )
+str k2 ln m
2
h 0 
2 i 
√ 


κ
∫ d4 x −g R2 (g) − −g0 R2 (g0 )
+str k4 ln m
2
(581)
+ ÓÔ êîíå÷íûå ÷ëåíû.
Ñëåäóÿ [124], âîçüìåì Ëàãðàíæèàí ãðàâèòàöèîííîãî âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ
â âèäå

√ n
∫ d4 x −g −Λ −

R(g)
16π G

o
+ K2 Cabcd C abcd + K4 R2 + Lmatter .
(582)

Òîãäà êâàíòîâûå îäíîïåòëåâûå ïîïðàâêè ê çàòðàâî÷íûì êîíñòàíòàì Λ0 , G−1 , K20 ïðèìóò ñëåäóþùèé ÿâíûé âèä:

Λ = Λ0 −

1
32π 2

str

h

κ4
2

− m2 κ2 +

m4
2

ln 

+ ÓÔ êîíå÷íûå ÷ëåíû.

κ2
m2 

i

(583)

184

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

1
G

=

1
G0

1

h 
2 i
κ
str k1 κ2 − k1 m2 ln m
2

(584)

+ ÓÔ êîíå÷íûå ÷ëåíû.

K2 = K20 +

1
32π 2

(585)

h 0 
2 i
κ
str k2 ln m
2

+ ÓÔ êîíå÷íûå ÷ëåíû.

K4 = K40 +

(586)

h 0 
2 i
κ
str k4 ln m
2

1
32π 2

+ ÓÔ êîíå÷íûå ÷ëåíû.
Îòìåòèì, ÷òî ñïðàâåäëèâî ñëåäóþùåå ñîîòíîøåíèå [124], [132]:
κ

∫ κ2 κ2 + m2 dk =
0

κ4
4

+

m2 κ2
4

m4
8

ln 

κ2
m2 

(587)

+ ÓÔ êîíå÷íûå ÷ëåíû.

κ4
m4
− m2 κ2 +
ln
2
2 

κ2
m2 

Ïðàâàÿ ÷àñòü ðàâåíñòâà (587) ïî ïîðÿäêó âåëè÷èíû ñîâïàäàåò ñ îäíîïåòëåâîé êâàíòîâîé ïîïðàâêîé ê êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé êîíñòàíòå Λ â (583),
à ëåâàÿ ÷àñòü ðàâåíñòâà (587) ïðîïîðöèîíàëüíà ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà |0 |i ñâîáîäíîãî êâàíòîâîãî ïîëÿ ìàññû m [131]:

hρvac i =

1
1
2 (2π)D−1

∞√
1
1
κ2
D−1 Γ( D−1 ) ∫
2
0
(4π) 2

=

κ2 + m2 d D−1 κ =

Rω−1

+ m2 κD−2 d κ =

mD Γ(− D
2 )
D ,
D+1
2
π 2

ãäå â ðàññìîòåííîì âûøå ñëó÷àå D = 4 è ρvac = ∞.

(588)

185

16.5. Èíäóöèðîâàííàÿ ãðàâèòàöèÿ Ñàõàðîâà...

Ââåäåì ñëåäóþùåå îáîáùåíèå èñõîäíûõ ïîñòóëàòîâ À. Ä. Ñàõàðîâà:

1. Ïóñòü çàäàíî íåêîòîðîå ÷åòûðåõìåðíîå Ëîðåíöåâî ìíîãîîáðàçèå
(M, g) .
2. Íèêàêèå àïðèîðíûå ïðåäïîëîæåíèÿ î äèíàìèêå ìíîãîîáðàçèÿ
(M, g) íå äåëàþòñÿ, ìåòðèêà g îïèñûâàåò ÷èñòî êëàññè÷åñêèé ôîí
è âñå ôèçè÷åñêèå ïîëÿ, êðîìå ãðàâèòàöèîííîãî, êâàíòóþòñÿ íà ýòîì
ôîíå.
3. Ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ ïåðòóðáàòèâíàÿ êâàíòîâàÿ òåîðèÿ ñêàëÿðíîãî
ïîëÿ Φ (t, x; m, D) , D ∈ (−∞, 4] òàêàÿ, ÷òî:
(i) êâàíòîâàííîå ïîëå Φ (t, x; m, D) âçàèìîäåéñòâóåò ñ êëàññè÷åñêèì òåíçîðíûì ïîëåì g ìèíèìàëüíûì îáðàçîì;
(ii) ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåå "çàòðàâî÷íîå"ñâîáîäíîå ïîëå

ϕm = ϕ (t, x; m, D)
ìàññû m íà (M, g) óäîâëåòâîðÿò ñëåäóþùèì óñëîâèÿì:
(a) ïóñòü D = D+ ≥ 0, òîãäà íîñèòåëü Supp (ϕ
bm ) ïðåîáðàçîâàíèÿ
Ôóðüå ϕ
bm îïåðàòîðíîçíà÷íîé îáîáùåííîé ôóíêöèè ϕm ëåæèò íà ìàñ(4)
ñîâîì ãèïåðáîëîèäå Hm è èìååò ðàçìåðíîñòü Õàóñäîðôà dH = D+ ,
(b) ïóñòü D = D− < 0, òîãäà íîñèòåëü Supp (ϕ
bm ) ïðåîáðàçîâàíèÿ
Ôóðüå ϕ
bm îïåðàòîðíîçíà÷íîé îáîáùåííîé ôóíêöèè ϕm ëåæèò íà ìàñ(4)
ñîâîì ãèïåðáîëîèäå Hm è èìååò ðàçìåðíîñòü Êîëîìáåàó-Õàóñäîðôà
dCH = D− ;
(iii) âçàèìîäåéñòâèå êâàíòîâûõ ïîëåé Φ (t, x; m, D) è êëàññè÷åñêîãî òåíçîðíîãî ïîëÿ
gik ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ òîëüêî â îäíîïåòëåâîì
ïðèáëèæåíèè.
 ñèëó (588) ìû èìååì äëÿ ïîëîæèòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè D+ ∈ (0, 4]
∞√

0  

 

κ2 + m2 κD+ −2 d κ = −c1 (D− ) mD+ Γ − D2+ Γ D+2−1 ,

(589)
ãäå c1 (D− ) > 0. Ëåãêî âèäåòü, ÷òî (583) â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå
ïðèìåò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

Λ = Λ0 +

1
32π 2 c1  

 

(D− ) mD+ Γ − D2+ Γ D+2−1 .
(590)

Ïðàâàÿ ÷àñòü (590) êîíå÷íà ïðè D+ 6= 0, 2, 4.  ñèëó (588) ìû

186

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

èìååì äëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè D− :
∞√

κ2 + m2 κ−|D− |−2 d κ = −c2 (D− ) m−|D− | Γ 

0

|D− |
2   

Γ − |D−2|+1 ,

(591)
ãäå c2 (D− ) > 0. Ëåãêî âèäåòü, ÷òî (583) â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ñëó÷àå
ïðèìåò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

Λ ' Λ0 +

1
32π 2 c (D− )

m−|D− | Γ 

|D− |
2   

Γ − |D−2|+1 .
(592)

Ïðàâàÿ ÷àñòü (592) êîíå÷íà ïðè |D− | =
6 2n+1. Äëÿ ïîëó÷åíèÿ áîëåå
òî÷íîé îöåíêè íåîáõîäèìî ïîñòðîèòü àäèàáàòè÷åñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå äëÿ
ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåé äâóõòî÷å÷íîé ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà. Ïóñòü D = D− < 0.
Èññëåäóåì ïîâåäåíèå äâóõòî÷å÷íîé ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà G (x, x0 ; D− ) ïðè
x → x0 . Ââåäåì äëÿ ýòîãî íîðìàëüíûå ðèìàíîâû êîîðäèíàòû y µ òî÷êè
x ñ íà÷àëîì â òî÷êå x0 . Òîãäà â îêðåñòíîñòè òî÷êè y = 0 äëÿ ìåòðè÷åñêîãî òåíçîðà gµν ñïðàâåäëèâî ðàçëîæåíèå [131]

gµν = ηµν + 13 Rµανβ y α y β − 16 Rµανβ; γ y α y β y γ + ...

(593)

Ââåäåì â ðàññìîòðåíèå ôóíêöèþ < (x, x ; D− )
0

1

< (x, x0 ; D− ) = [−g (x)] 2 G (x, x0 ; D− )

(594)

b (k; D− )
è åå ôóðüå-îáðàç <
−4

< (x, x0 ; D− ) = (2π)

b (k; D− ) ,
∫ d4 k exp (−iky) <

(595)
ãäå ky = η αβ kα yβ . Äâóõòî÷å÷íàÿ ôóíêöèÿ Ãðèíà G (x, x0 ; D− ) óäîâëåòâîðÿåò ñëåäóþùåìó äèôôåðåíöèàëüíîìó óðàâíåíèþ
1  

[t
u x + m2 + ξR (x) G (x, x0 ; D− ) = − [−g (x)] 2 δ 4, D− (x − x0 ; D− ) ,
(596)  

ãäå δ 4, D− (x − x0 ; D− ) = δ (t − t0 ) δ 3, D− x, x

0

- îáîáùåííàÿ äåëüòà-

ôóíêöèÿ (ñì. Ïð. II). Óðàâíåíèå (596) ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ïðÿìîå
îáîáùåíèå óðàâíåíèÿ (III.17) ñì. Ïð. III. Ðàçëàãàÿ âñå ãåîìåòðè÷åñêèå âåëè÷èíû, âõîäÿùèå â óðàâíåíèå (596), â íîðìàëüíûõ êîîðäèíàòàõ è ïåðåõîäÿ ê k ïðîñòðàíñòâó, ìû ïîëó÷èì ñ ó÷åòîì ÷åòûðåõ ÷ëåíîâ

187

16.5. Èíäóöèðîâàííàÿ ãðàâèòàöèÿ Ñàõàðîâà...

ðàçëîæåíèÿ (593)

b (k; D− ) ≈ |k|−|D− | k 2 − m2 + iε
<
1
6
i
2

1
6

1
6

−  

−2
−|D− |
− ξ R |k|
k 2 − m2 + iε
+  

−2
−|D− | α
− ξ R; α |k|
∂ k 2 − m2 + iε
− 

−2
∂ α ∂ β k 2 − m2 + iε
+
i 
2 
−3
−|D− |
− ξ R2 + 23 aλλ |k|
k 2 − m2 + iε
,
1
3 aαβ

h 

−1

|k|

−|D− |

(597)

ãäå ∂ α = ∂/∂k α . Ïîäñòàíîâêà ðàçëîæåíèÿ (597) â (595) äàåò

< (x, x0 ; D− ) ≈ ∫
h

d4 k
eiky ×
(2π)4 |k|−|D− | 


1 + a1 (x, x0 ) − ∂m
+ a2 (x, x0 )
2 

2

∂m2

i

k 2 − m2 + iε 

−1

.
(598)

Ó÷èòûâàÿ òåïåðü òîæäåñòâî

k 2 − m2 + iε 

−1

∞  

= −i ∫ ds exp is k 2 − m2 + iε
0

è âûïîëíèâ â (598) èíòåãðèðîâàíèå ïî d4 k , ìû ïîëó÷èì

(599)

< (x, x0 ; D− ) =  


σ (x, x0 )
−2
−2+|D− |
−i (4π) ∫ ids (is)
F (x, x0 ; s) ,
exp −im2 s + 2is
0

(600)
ãäå σ (x, x0 ) = 21 yα y α , à ôóíêöèÿ F (x, x0 ; is) äîïóñêàåò êàíîíè÷åñêîå
àäèàáàòè÷åñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå [131]
2

F (x, x0 ; is) ≈ 1 + a1 (x, x0 ) (is) + a2 (x, x0 ) (is) + ... =

P

j

aj (x, x0 ) (is) .

j=0

(601)

188

Ãëàâà 16. Êâàíòîâàÿ êîñìîëîãèÿ â ïðîñòðàíñòâå-âðåìåíè...

Äëÿ ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà G (x, x0 ; D− ) â ñèëó (600) îêîí÷àòåëüíî ïîëó÷àåì âûðàæåíèå

G (x, x0 ; D− ) =  


1
σ (x,x0 )
−2+|D− |
−2
exp −im2 s + 2is
F (x, x0 ; s) ,
−i (4π) ∆ 2 (x, x0 ) ∫ ids (is)
0

(602)
ãäå ∆ (x, x0 ) - äåòåðìèíàíò âàí-Ôëåêà. Ïîäñòàâèâ ðàçëîæåíèå (601) â
âûðàæåíèå (602), ïîëó÷èì àäèàáàòè÷åñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà â êîîðäèíàòíîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå

−2+|D− |

G (x, x0 ; D− ) ≈ −i (4πi)

1

∆ 2 (x, x0 )


P
j=0

 

2

2m
−σ(x, x0 )+iε 

|D− |
4


aj (x, x0 ) − ∂m
2 

j

×

 

2m2 (σ (x, x0 ) + iε)  .

(2)
H |D− |
2

(603)
Ïóñòü D = D− < 0, òîãäà ìîæíî ïîêàçàòü, ÷òî äëÿ îäíîïåòëåâîãî
ýôôåêòèâíîãî äåéñòâèÿ W (D− ) ñïðàâåäëèâî ñëåäóþùåå ôîðìàëüíîå
ïðåäñòàâëåíèå

W (D− ) =

i
2

4

∫d

1
x [−g (x)] 2 

0

2 

lim ∫ dm G (x, x ; D− ) .

x→x0 m2

(604)

Ôîðìàëüíî, èçìåíÿÿ ïîðÿäîê èíòåãðèðîâàíèÿ è ïåðåõîäÿ ê ïðåäåëó
x → x0 , ìû ïîëó÷èì

W (D− ) =

åì

i
2

1

∫ dm2 ∫ d4 x [−g (x)] 2 G (x, x; D− ) .

m2

(605)

Ïëîòíîñòü ýôôåêòèâíîãî ëàãðàíæèàíà

W (D− ) =

i
2

D
Leff−

(x) çàäàåòñÿ óðàâíåíè-

1

D

∫ dm2 ∫ d4 x [−g (x)] 2 Leff− (x) .

m2

(606)

189

16.5. Èíäóöèðîâàííàÿ ãðàâèòàöèÿ Ñàõàðîâà...

 ñèëó (604) è (606) ìû èìååì
D

Leff− (x) =


i
lim
2 x→x0 ∫2
m

dm2 G (x, x0 ; D− ) .
(607)
D

Àäèàáàòè÷åñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå äëÿ ýôôåêòèâíîãî ëàãðàíæèàíà Leff− (x)
èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä
D

Leff− ≈
1

∆ 2 (x, x0 ) P
lim0
aj
D
x→x
2(4π) 2 j=0

0

(x, x ) ∫ ids (is)

j−3+|D− |

0 

 

σ (x, x0 )
2
exp − m s − 2s
,

(608)
ãäå σ (x, x0 ) - ïîëîâèíà êâàäðàòà ðàññòîÿíèÿ ìåæäó òî÷êàìè x è x0 .
Âûïîëíèâ òåïåðü â (608) ôîðìàëüíîå àíàëèòè÷åñêîå ïðîäîëæåíèå ïî
ïåðåìåííîé D = |D− | è ïåðåõîäÿ ê ïðåäåëó x → x0 , ìû ïîëó÷èì

D

Leff− ≈

(4π)

(4π)

|D− |
2
2

|D− |
2
2


P
j=0

P
j=0

aj (x) ∫ ids (is)

j−3+|D− |  

exp − m2 s =

0

aj (x) m2 

− |D− | −j
2

Γ 

|D− |
2 

+j ,

(609)
ãäå aj (x) = aj (x, x) . Ôóíêöèè aj (x, x) èìåþò òîò æå ñàìûé âèä, ÷òî
è â êëàññè÷åñêîì ñëó÷àå, ñì., íàïðèìåð [128-131].

190

Ïðèëîæåíèå I

Ïðèëîæåíèå I
Îáîáùåííûå ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíûå ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó Õàóñäîðôà. Èíòåãðèðîâàíèå ôóíêöèé çàäàííûõ íà
ìíîæåñòâàõ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè Êîëîìáåàó Õàóñäîðôà.
Ïóñòü ôóíêöèÿ s (x) çàäàíà íà RN è s (x) = s (r) , ãäå r =

qP
N

j=1

x2j .

Ïóñòü 0 < D ≤ N, òîãäà äðîáíûé èíòåãðàë Âåéëÿ W −D s (x) îò ôóíêöèè s (x) çàäàþò ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëîé [104]:

W −D s (x) = ∫ s (r) rD−1 dr.
0

(I.1)

Îïåðàòîð äðîáíîãî èíòåãðèðîâàíèÿ (I.1) è åãî ðàçëè÷íûå îáîáùåíèÿ èìåþò âàæíûå ïðèëîæåíèÿ â ñîâðåìåííîé êâàíòîâîé òåîðèè ïîëÿ,
ñì., íàïðèìåð [104], [116-119], [133].  òîì ñëó÷àå, êîãäà −∞ < D ≤ 0,
èíòåãðàë Âåéëÿ W −D s (x) êîððåêòíî îïðåäåëåí òîëüêî â ñìûñëå òåîðèè îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé Êîëîìáåàó [140] è çàäàåòñÿ ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìóëîé [133]:

Wε−D s (x) ε  

=


0

s(r)
dr
r D+1 +ε 

.
ε

(I.2)

Îïðåäåëåíèå I.1. Ïóñòü X - ïðîèçâîëüíîå ìåòðè÷åñêîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî, à ΣX - ïðîèçâîëüíàÿ σ -àëãåáðà ïîäìíîæåñòâ Ei ïðîñòðàíñòâà X.
Îáîçíà÷èì ÷åðåç MΣX ìíîæåñòâî âñåõ ñ÷åòíî-àääèòèâíûõ ìåð íà ΣX .
I

Ïóñòü E (MΣX ) = (MΣX ) , I = (0, 1] ,

EM (MΣX ) = {(µε )ε ∈ E (MΣX ) | ∀Ei (Ei ∈ ΣX ) ∃p (p ∈ N)  

sup µε (Ei ) = O(ε−p ) 5A; 8 ε → 0 ,
Ei ∈ΣX

N (MΣX ) = {(µε )ε ∈ E (MΣX ) | ∀Ei (Ei ∈ ΣX ) ∀q (q ∈ N )  

q
sup µε (Ei ) = O(ε ) 5A; 8 ε → 0 .
Ei ∈ΣX

G (MΣX ) = EM (MΣX ) /N (MΣX ).

(I.3)

Îáîáùåííûå ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíûå ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó-Õàóñäîðôà...

191

EM (MΣX ) ýòî àëãåáðà ñ êàíîíè÷åñêîé îïåðàöèåé ñëîæåíèÿ ìåð.
Àëãåáðà G (MΣX ) êîììóòàòèâíà è àññîöèàòèâíà. Ýëåìåíòû àëãåáðû
G (MΣX ) ìû îáîçíà÷àåì [(µε )ε ] , ãäå (µε (·))ε - ïðåäñòàâèòåëü ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî êëàññà ýêâèâàëåíòíîñòè.

Îïðåäåëåíèå I.2. Êëàññ [(µε )ε ] ∈ G (MΣX ) íàçûâàåòñÿ îáîáùåí-

íîé ìåðîé Êîëîìáåàó.

 ýòîì ïðèëîæåíèè
ìû ïîêàæåì, ÷òî èíòåãðàë Êîëîìáåàó - Âåéëÿ 

Wε−D s (x) ε , îïðåäåëåííûé ïåðâîíà÷àëüíî âûðàæåíèåì (I.2), ìîæåò áûòü çàäàí êàê èíòåãðàë ïî íåêîòîðîé îáîáùåííîé ìåðå Êîëîìáåàó, êîòîðàÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðÿìûì îáîáùåíèåì êëàññè÷åñêîé ìåðû Õàóñäîðôà ðàçìåðíîñòè dH äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ èíòåãðèðîâàíèÿ ïî îáîáùåííûì
ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíûì ìíîæåñòâàì îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè d− . 

Ïóñòü X - ïðîèçâîëüíîå ìåòðè÷åñêîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî, à ΣX - ïðîèçâîëüíàÿ σ - àëãåáðà ïîäìíîæåñòâ Ei ïðîñòðàíñòâà X. Îáîçíà÷èì
÷åðåç FΣX ìíîæåñòâî âñåõ íåîòðèöàòåëüíûõ ôóíêöèé ς : FΣ × X →
R+ ∪ {+∞} , ò. å.

∀Ei (Ei ∈ Σ) ∀ri (ri ∈ Ei ) [0 ≤ ς (Ei , ri ) ≤ ∞] .

(I.4)

Îïðåäåëåíèå I.3. Ïóñòü E (ΣX ) = (FΣX )I , I = (0, 1] ,

EM (ΣX ) = {(ςε )ε ∈ E (ΣX ) | ∀Ei (Ei ∈ Σ) ∀ri (ri ∈ Ei ) ∃p (p ∈ N)  

sup
ςε (Ei , ri ) = O(ε−p ) 5A; 8 ε → 0 ,
Ei ∈Σ, ri ∈Ei

N (ΣX ) = {(ςε )ε | ∀Ei (Ei ∈ Σ) ∀ri (ri ∈ Ei ) ∀q (q ∈ N )  

q
|
sup
ςε (Ei , ri ) = O(ε ) 5A; 8 ε → 0 .
Ei ∈Σ, ri ∈Ei

G (ΣX ) = EM (ΣX ) /N (ΣX ).

(I.5) 

Îïðåäåëåíèå I.4. Ïðåäìåðîé Êîëîìáåàó-Êàðàòåîäîðè φ(δ)
ε (Ei )
ε
íà ΣX , ãäå 0 < δ ≤ ∞, íàçûâàåòñÿ îáîáùåííàÿ ìåðà Êîëîìáåàó, êîòî

192

Ïðèëîæåíèå I

ðàÿ îïðåäåëåíà êàê  

(δ)
φε (E) =
ε   

P

inf

Ei ∈Σ, ri ∈Ei

ςε (Ei , ri ) : E ⊂ ∪Ei , diam (Ei ) ≤ δ

i

.
ε

(I.6)

Çàìå÷àíèå I.1. ßñíî, ÷òî äëÿ ëþáîãî ôèêñèðîâàííîãî ε ∈ (0, 1]
ñïðàâåäëèâî ñëåäóþùåå íåðàâåíñòâî
(δ )

(δ )

φε 1 (E) ≥ φε 2 (E) ,

(I.7)

ãäå 0 < δ1 < δ2 ≤ ∞.

Îïðåäåëåíèå I.5. Îáîáùåííàÿ ìåðà Êîëîìáåàó-Êàðàòåîäîðè íà

ΣX çàäàåòñÿ êàê 

(µε (E))ε =

lim

δ→0+

(δ)
φε 

(E)
ε  

(δ)
= sup φε (E) .
δ>0

ε

(I.8)

 ñèëó ïðåäûäóùåãî çàìå÷àíèÿ ýòî îïðåäåëåíèå êîððåêòíî.
Ïóñòü òîïîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ðàçìåðíîñòü ìåòðè÷åñêîãî ïðîñòðàíñòâà X

ðàâíà dim X = D è Y6=⊂ ∪∞
i=1 Ei , Y6= X. Âîçüìåì, íàïðèìåð,

(ςε (Ei , ri ; D0 , dY ))ε =

ω (D 0 ) [diam(Ei )]D
d
ri Y

+ε 

0

,

ε

(I.9)
ãäå ri ∈ Ei . Çäåñü 0 < D0 ≤ D, a ω (D0 ) - ãåîìåòðè÷åñêèé ôàêòîð, êî∞
òîðûé îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ ãåîìåòðè÷åñêèìè ñâîéñòâàìè ïîêðûòèÿ {Ei }i=1 ,
à dY - ãåîìåòðè÷åñêèé ôàêòîð, êîòîðûé îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ òîëüêî ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíûìè ñâîéñòâàìè ìíîæåñòâà Y6=⊂ X.  ÷àñòíîñòè, åñëè ïîêðû∞
òèå {Ei }i=1 ñîñòîèò èç çàìêíóòûõ øàðîâ, òî

0

ω (D ) =
Ïóñòü òåïåðü Y
óñëîâèÿì:


6= X

D0
π 2
0 .
2D0 Γ(1+ D2 )

(I.10)

= R è ìíîæåñòâî Y óäîâëåòâîðÿåò ñëåäóþùèì
4

193

Îáîáùåííûå ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíûå ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó-Õàóñäîðôà...



(i) Y -îáîáùåííûé ìóëüòèôðàêòàë, ò. å. Y = Yα− = ∆(µε )ε (α− )
(ii) êàæäîå Yα− åñòü çàìêíóòîå íåîãðàíè÷åííîå ìíîæåñòâî. Äëÿ
ëþáûõ x, y ∈ Y îïðåäåëèì ðàññòîÿíèå êàê

d (x, y) =

qP
4

i=1

2

(xi − yi ) .

(I.11)

Äëÿ ëþáîãî ìíîæåñòâà E6=
Y îïðåäåëèì åãî äèàìåòð d (E) = diam (E) ,
ò. å.
d (E) = sup {d (x, y) |x, y ∈ E} .

(I.12)

Îïðåäåëåíèå I.6. Ìåðà Êîëîìáåàó-Õàóñäîðôà
(µCH (E; D0 , dY , ε))ε

(àññîöèèðîâàííîé ðàçìåðíîñòè (D0 , dY )) ìíîæåñòâà E6=
Yα− îïðåäåëåíà êàê

(µCH (E; D0 , dY , ε))ε =  

S
P
0

lim inf
ςε (Ei , ri ; D , dY ) Yα− ⊂ Ei ,

ε→0 {Ei }

i

i

(I.13)

ãäå ôóíêöèÿ ςε (Ei , ri ; D0 , dY ) îïðåäåëåíà..

Îïðåäåëåíèå I.7. Èíòåãðàë Êîëîìáåàó-Ñòèëòüåñà îò íåïðåðûâíîé ôóíêöèè ïî îáîáùåííîé ìåðå (µCH (E; D0 , dY , ε))ε îïðåäåëåí êàê
∫ Yα f (x) (dµCH (x; D0 , dY , ε))ε =

!
lim

P

d(Ei )→0 ∪i Ei =X

f (xi )

P

inf

{Eij } ,∪j Eij ⊃Ei ?rij j

0

ςε (Eij , rij ; D , dY )

,
ε

(I.14)
ãäå {Ei } - äèçúþíêòíîå ïîêðûòèå ìíîæåñòâà Yα− . Åñëè d (Ei ) → 0, òî
î÷åâèäíî ∪j Eij → Ei 3 xi è (I.14) ïðèìåò âèä   

∫ Yα f (x) dµCH x; D0 , dYα− , ε
=

lim

ε

P

d(Ei )→0 Ei ?ri 

f (xi ) ςε Ei , ri ; D0 , dYα

− 

,
(I.15)

194

Ïðèëîæåíèå I

ãäå ri = d (0, xi ) . Ìíîæåñòâî Yα− óäîáíî çàäàâàòü â ïîëÿðíûõ êîîðäèíàòàõ (r, Ω) ,
Ω = (ϕ, ϑ1 , ϑ2 , ..., ϑD−1 , ϑD−2 )
òàê, ÷òî r = d (0, x) . Ïóñòü {Eri , Ωi } - ñôåðè÷åñêè ñèììåòðè÷íîå ïîêðûòèå ñ öåíòðîì â íà÷àëå êîîðäèíàò (ñì. Ðèñ. 25), à ôóíêöèÿ  

ςε Ei , ri , Ωi ; D0 , dYα−
çàäàíà ôîðìóëîé (I.9), òîãäà â ïðåäåëå d (Eri , Ωi ) → 0 ìû ïîëó÷èì   

dµCH r; Ω; D0 , dYα− , ε
=
ε  

lim
d(Er, Ω )→0 

ςε Er, Ω , r; Ω; D , dYα−

d(Er, Ω )→0 

=
ε

∆ΩD

lim

0

r

0 −1 D 0 −1

r

dY
α− 

∆r

D 0 −1 D 0 −1 

= dΩ
ε

r

r

dY
α−

+ε 

dr ,
ε

(I.16)

ãäå 1 < D0 ≤ D, dYα− ∈ [1, ∞) .

Äëÿ öåëûõ D0 = D ≥ 2 ìû èìååì (Ω = (ϕ, ϑ1 , ϑ2 , ..., ϑD0 −1 , ϑD0 −2 ))
SD0 =

R R

R

dϕ (sin ϑ1 ) dϑ1 (sin ϑ2 )2 dϑ2 ...

R

R

dΩD

(sin ϑD−1 )D
D0
2π 2
D0
Γ
2

0 −1

0 −1

=

dϑD0 −1

R

sin ϑD0 −2 

D0 −2

dϑD0 −2 = 

.
(I.17)

Äëÿ 1 < D0 ≤ D, dYα− ∈ [1, ∞) è ëþáîãî îãðàíè÷åííîãî µCH - èçìåðèìîãî ìíîæåñòâà E ñïðàâåäëèâî ðàâåíñòâî   

D 0 −1 D 0 −1 
d r dr =
= ∫ dΩ
∫ dµCH r; Ω; D0 , dYα− , ε
Y
ε

E

E

r

α−

ε


E

[J(Ω, D)]

D 0 −1 D 0 −1

r 

r

drdϕdϑ1
dϑ2 ...dϑD−1 dϑD−2

dY
α−

,

ε

(I.18)

ãäå D - òîïîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ðàçìåðíîñòü è
2

J (Ω, D) = (sin ϑ1 ) (sin ϑ1 ) ... (sin ϑD0 −1 )

D−1

(sin ϑD0 −2 )

D−2

.
(I.19)

Îáîáùåííûå ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíûå ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó-Õàóñäîðôà...

Ðèñ. 25: Ýëåìåíò ñôåðè÷åñêîãî ïîêðûòèÿ äëÿ

195

D =2

Îïðåäåëåíèå I.8.   

D 0 −1 D 0 −1 
d r dr ,
dµCH r; Ω; D0 , dYα− , ε
= dΩ
Y
ε

r

α−

ε

ãäå D0 > 1, dYα− ∈ [1, ∞)

(I.20)

Çàìå÷àíèå I.2. Îáû÷íî ìû áóäåì çàïèñûâàòü ôîðìóëó (I.19) â
ñèìâîëè÷åñêîé ôîðìå   

0
D 0 −dYα −1

dµCH r; Ω; D0 , dYα− , ε
= dΩD −1 r
dr.
ε

(I.21)

Ïóñòü ôóíêöèÿ s (x) ñèììåòðè÷íà ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê íåêîòîðîìó öåíòðó x0 ∈ Yα− , ò. å. s (x) = const äëÿ ëþáûõ x òàêèõ, ÷òî d (x0 , x) = r.
:
z = x − x0 , ìû
Òîãäà, âûïîëíèâ ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Yα− → Zα−

196

Ïðèëîæåíèå I

ïîëó÷èì  

0

∫ Yα s (x) dµCH x; D , dYα− , ε 

D0 ∞
2π 2
∫ s (r)
0
Γ( D2 ) 0

=
ε

r

D 0 −dYα −1

dr,

(I.22)
ãäå â ñèëó ïðåäûäóùåãî çàìå÷àíèÿ èíòåãðàë â ïðàâîé ÷àñòè ðàâåíñòâà (I.22) ñëåäóåò ïîíèìàòü â ñìûñëå òåîðèè îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé
Êîëîìáåàó [133], ò. å.  

0

∫ Yα s (x) dµCH x; D , dYα− , ε 

=
ε

D0 ∞
0
r D −1 dr
2π 2 

∫ s(r)
0
dY
Γ( D2 ) 0
α−
r

.

ε

(I.23)

Ïóñòü {Eri , Ωi } - ñôåðè÷åñêè ñèììåòðè÷íîå ïîêðûòèå ñ öåíòðîì â
íà÷àëå êîîðäèíàò. Ïîëîæèì 

0 

ςε Ei , ri ; D0 , dYα−
=
ε

ω (D 0 ) [diam(Ei )]D
[J(Ω, D)]

dY
α−

r

dY
α−

0

+ε 

,
ε

2

J (Ω, D) = (sin ϑ1 ) (sin ϑ1 ) ... (sin ϑD−1 )

D−1

(sin ϑD−2 )

D−2

òîãäà â ïðåäåëå d (Eri , Ωi ) → 0 ìû ïîëó÷èì 

,
(I.24)  

0
dµCH r; Ω; D0 , dYα− , ε
=
ε  

0

lim
d(Er, Ω )→0 

lim
d(Er, Ω )→0

∆ΩD

ςε Er, Ω , r; Ω; D0 , dYα− 

=

ε

0 −1 D 0 −1

r

dY
[J(Ω, D)] α− 

∆r

dY
r α−

=
ε

dΩD

0 −1 D 0 −1

[J(Ω, D)]

r

dY
α−

r

dr

dY
α−

+ε 

,
ε

(I.25)
0
ãäå D0 > 1, dYα− ∈ [1, ∞) , à ôóíêöèÿ ςε (Ei , ri ; D0 , dY ) çàäàíà ôîðìóëîé (I.24). Äëÿ 1 < D0 ≤ D, dYα− ∈ [1, ∞) è ëþáîãî îãðàíè÷åííîãî

197

Îáîáùåííûå ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíûå ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó-Õàóñäîðôà...
0

µCH - èçìåðèìîãî ìíîæåñòâà E ñïðàâåäëèâî ðàâåíñòâî   

D 0 −1 D 0 −1 
d r dr =
= ∫ dΩ
∫ dµCH r; Ω; D0 , dYα− , ε
Y
ε

E

E

r

α−

ε

[J(Ω, D)]

D 0 −1 D 0 −1

r 

E

drdϕdϑ1 dϑ2 ...dϑ 
D−1 dϑD−2
dY
α−

[J(Ω, D)]

r

dY
α−

,

ε

(I.26)
ãäå D - òîïîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ðàçìåðíîñòü ìåòðè÷åñêîãî ïðîñòðàíñòâà X .

Îïðåäåëåíèå I.9.   

0
dµCH r; Ω; D0 , dYα− , ε
=
ε

dΩD

0 −1 D 0 −1

r

dY
α−

[J(Ω, D)]

r

dr

dY
α−

+ε 

.
ε

(I.27)

Çàìå÷àíèå I.3. Îáû÷íî ìû áóäåì çàïèñûâàòü ôîðìóëó (I.27) â
êðàòêîé ñèìâîëè÷åñêîé ôîðìå   

0
D 0 −dYα −1 D 0 −dYα −1


dµCH r; Ω; D0 , dYα− , ε
r
dr.
= dΩ
ε

(I.28)

Ïóñòü ôóíêöèÿ s (x) ñèììåòðè÷íà ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê íåêîòîðîìó öåíòðó x0 ∈ Yα− , ò. å. s (x) = const äëÿ ëþáûõ x òàêèõ, ÷òî d (x0 , x) = r.
Òîãäà, âûïîëíèâ ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Yα− → Zα−
:
z = x − x0 , ìû
ôîðìàëüíî ïîëó÷èì 

0  

∫ Yα s (x) dµCH x; D0 , dYα− , ε
=

ε

D 0 −dYα

2
2π 

D 0 −dYα

Γ
2

(I.29)

∞ 

∫ s (r) r

D 0 −dYα −1

dr,

0

ãäå èíòåãðàë â ïðàâîé ÷àñòè ðàâåíñòâà (I.26) ñëåäóåò ïîíèìàòü â ñìûñëå òåîðèè îáîáùåííûõ ôóíêöèé Êîëîìáåàó [140], ò. å. 

0  


∫ Yα s (x) dµCH x; D0 , dYα− , ε
= ∫ 

ε

0

s(r) r D

0 −1

drdΩD

dY
α−

[J(Ω, D)]

r

0 −1

dY
α−

+ε 

.
ε

(I.30)

198

Ïðèëîæåíèå I

Ïóñòü çàäàí ôðàêòàë X ⊂ Rn . Òîãäà, êàê èçâåñòíî, ñóùåñòâóåò
ðàçáèåíèå {Ei1 ,..., in } ìíîæåñòâà Rn íà ïàðàëëåëåïèïåäû Ei1 ,..., in ñëåäóþùåãî âèäà

Ei1 ,..., in =
{(x1 , ..., xn ) ∈ X |xj = (ij − 1) ∆xj + αj , 0 ≤ αj ≤ ∆xj , j = 1, ..., n} .
(I.31)
Ïóñòü {Ei1 ,..., in } - ïðîèçâîëüíîå ðàçáèåíèå âûøåóêàçàííîãî âèäà è
xi1 ,..., in ∈ Ei1 ,..., in . Çàäàäèì îáîáùåííóþ ôóíêöèþ ìíîæåñòâà 

 

ξ Ei1 ,..., in , xi1 ,..., in ; D0 , dYα− , ε

ε

êàê 

 

D0
[diam(Ei1 ,..., in )]
dYα
.
ξ Ei1 ,..., in , xi1 ,..., in ; D0 , dYα− , ε
= ω (D0 )
xi ,..., i − +ε
ε
n
1
(I.32)
Îïðåäåëèì òåïåðü n
ìåðó Êîëîìáåàó-Õàóñäîðôà
ìíîæåñòâà E ⊂ X
o⊂
0
ñ ïîìîùüþ ïîêðûòèé Ei1 ,..., in {Ei1 ,..., in } êàê
=   

0
µCH E; D0 , dYα− , ε
=
ε


 lim

ε→0

(
inf 0
{Ei1 ,..., in }

E=

S
i1 ,..., in 

ξ Ei1 ,..., in , xi1 ,..., in ; D0 , dYα− , ε

i1 ,..., in
P

0 

0 

0 

)!

Ei1 ,..., in ; diam Ei1 ,..., in ≤ ε

.
ε

(I.33)

Îáîáùåííûå ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíûå ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó-Õàóñäîðôà...

199

 ñèëó (I.32) ìû èìååì   

0
dµCH x; D0 , dYα− , ε
=
ε 

lim
diam(Ei1 ,..., in )→0

0

ξ Ei1 ,..., in , xi1 ,..., in ; D , dYα− , ε

diam(Ei1 ,..., in )→0 j=1


j=1

1 ,..., in

n

ε


 .

xi

n

D0
[dxj ] n
dYα

n
Q


 =

xi

1 ,..., in

Ïóñòü òåïåðü Y =

=

D0
[∆xj ] n
dYα

n
Q

lim

n
Q

!
ε



 

ε

(I.34)

Yi è dim Y = n. Òîãäà â ñèëó òåîðåìû Ôóáèíè

i=1

ìû èìååì 

0  

0
∫ f (x) dµCH x; d , dYα− , ε
=
ε

n 
Q

∫ ... ∫ f (x1 , ..., xn )

i=1
0

ãäå d =

0

Pn

i=1 di , dYα− =  

0
0
dµi, CH xi ; di , dYi, α− , ε
,
ε

(I.35)

Pn

i=1 dYi, α− è

0

di −dYi, α 

ãäå r = 

0

0

dµi, CH xi ; di , dYi, α− , ε

qP
D

2
i=1 xi . 

ε 

0 2
= 2π
d −d
Γ

i

Yi, α

2

0
d −1
i
dxi
dY
i, α−

|xi | 

|xi |

,

(I.36)
Äëÿ ñôåðè÷åñêè ñèììåòðè÷íîé ôóíêöèè, ò. å. òà-

200

Ïðèëîæåíèå I

êîé, ÷òî f (r) = f (r) , ìû èìååì î÷åâèäíûì îáðàçîì
n 
Q

∫ ... ∫ f (r)

i=1 

0  

0
0
dµCH xi ; Di , dYi, α− , ε
=
ε

0

c d1 , ..., d1 ; dY1, α− , ..., dYn, α− , 

0

0

ãäå c d1 , ..., d1 ; dY1, α− , ..., dYn, α− ,  

∫ f (r)

|r|d

0

−1

dY
α−

|r|

dr 

,

ε

(I.37)

- íåêîòîðàÿ êîíñòàíòà. Ëåãêî âè-

äåòü, ÷òî ïðàâàÿ ÷àñòü (I.37) ñîâïàäàåò ñ ïðàâîé ÷àñòüþ ôîðìóëû
3
Q
(I.29). Ïóñòü, íàïðèìåð, n = 3 è Y =
Yi 6=⊂ R3 , òîãäà ìû èìååì
i=1 

R 

0  

0  

0

f (r) dµ1,CH x1 ; d1 , dY1,α , ε dµ2,CH x2 ; d2 , dY2,α , ε dµ3,CH x3 ; d3 , dY3,α , ε =

d
2π 

d

Γ

0

0

0

0

0

−dY
α−
2

−dY
α−
2 

R 

f (r)

0
|r|d −1 dr
dY
α−
|r|
+ε 

,
ε

(I.38)

0

ãäå d = d1 + d2 + d3 è dYα− = dY1, α− + dY2, α− + dY3, α− .

Çàìå÷àíèå I.4. Ïðè âûâîäå ðàâåíñòâà (I.38) èñïîëüçóåòñÿ òîæäå-

ñòâî

π/2

∫ sinµ−1 (z) cosν−1 (z) =
0

ãäå µ, ν ∈ C, µ, ν ∈
/ Z− .

Γ(µ) Γ(ν)
Γ(µ+ν) ,

(I.39)

201

Ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ëåæàíäðà îáîáùåííîé ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó...

Ïðèëîæåíèå II

Ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ëåæàíäðà îáîáùåííîé ìåðû Êîëîìáåàó è
åãî îñíîâíûå ñâîéñòâà.
Îïðåäåëåíèå II.1. Ïóñòü (µε )ε - ìåðà Êîëîìáåàó íà ïðîèçâîëüíîì
ìåòðè÷åñêîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå X, à Fε - ñåìåéñòâî âñåõ ñ÷åòíûõ ðàçáèåíèé
(Ui,ε ) íîñèòåëÿ ìåðû µε , ò. å. Supp (µε ) = ∪i Ui , ãäå Ui,ε ∩ Uj,ε = ∅,
ε ∈ (0, 1]. Äëÿ ε ∈ (0, 1] è ëþáûõ q, τ ∈ R îïðåäåëèì îáîáùåííóþ
ôóíêöèþ (Γε (q, τ ))ε
!
(Γε (q, τ ))ε =

lim sup

P

r→0 (U )∈? i
i
ε

q

[µε (Ui , rUi )] (diamUi )

τ

,
ε

ãäå supi∈N (diamUi ) ≤ r, rUi = d (0, xi ) , xi ∈ Ui .

(II.1)

Òåîðåìà II.1. Ïóñòü îáîáùåííàÿ ôóíêöèÿ (Γε (q, τ ))ε çàäàíà ôîðìóëîé (II.1). Òîãäà
(i) äëÿ ëþáîãî ε ∈ (0, 1] è q ∈ R ñóùåñòâóåò åäèíñòâåííîå ÷èëî
τ (ε, q) òàêîå, ÷òî 

∞ 5A; 8 τ < (τ (ε, q))ε
(Γε (q, τ ))ε =
0 5A; 8 (τ (ε, q))ε < τ ;
(II.2)
(ii) äëÿ ëþáîãî q ∈ R ñïðàâåäëèâî ðàâåíñòâî 


log


(τ (ε, q))ε = 
lim
r→0

sup
(Ui )∈?ε 


P
q
µ
U
,
r
[ ε ( i Ui )] 
i
 ,
− log r

ε

ãäå supi∈N (diamUi ) ≤ r, rUi = d (0, xi ) , xi ∈ Ui .

(II.3)

(iii) (a) îïðåäåëèì ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíûé ñïåêòð îáîáùåííîé ìåðû
b - çíà÷íóþ ôóíêöèþ (fµ (α)) , çàäàííóþ ðàâåíñòâîì
(µε )ε êàê R
ε
ε

(fµε (α))ε = (dH (∆µε (α)))ε .

(II.4)

202

Ïðèëîæåíèå II

(b) îïðåäåëèì ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ëåæàíäðà (τ ∗ (ε, q))ε îáîáùåííîé
ôóíêöèè (τ (ε, q))ε êàê

(τ (ε, q))ε =  

inf [αq + τ (ε, q)] .
q

ε

(II.5)

Ìóëüòèôðàêòàëüíûé ñïåêòð (fµε (α))ε îáîáùåííîé ìåðû (µε )ε ñîâïàäàåò ñ ïðåîáðàçîâàíèåì Ëåæàíäðà (τ ∗ (ε, q))ε : 

(τ (ε, q))ε 5A; 8 0 ≤ (τ ∗ (ε, q))ε
(fµε (α))ε =
0 5A; 8 (τ ∗ (ε, q))ε < 0.
(II.6)

Çàìå÷àíèå II.2. Îòìåòèì, ÷òî Òåîðåìà II.1 ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðÿìûì îáîáùåíèåì õîðîøî èçâåñòíîãî êëàññè÷åñêîãî ðåçóëüòàòà [152].

203

Ôðàêòàëüíûå êâàíòîâûå ïîëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè...

Ïðèëîæåíèå III

Ôðàêòàëüíûå êâàíòîâûå ïîëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè.
Ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå ôðàêòàëüíûì êâàíòîâûì
ïîëÿì.

Ñâîáîäíûå ñêàëÿðíûå êâàíòîâûå ôðàêòàëüíûå ïîëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè Φm (t, x; D− ) è èõ êàíîíè÷åñêè ñîïðÿæåííûå

Πm (t, x; D− ) ,
êàê îáîáùåííûå îïåðàòîðíûå ôóíêöèè Êîëîìáåàó, ôîðìàëüíî îïðåäåëåíû ðàâåíñòâîì [133]

Φm (t, x; D− ) = 

1
(2π)3/2


R3, D−

3, D−

d

p
×
2µ(p)

a† (p) exp [i (µ (p) t − p · x)] + a (p) exp [−i (µ (p) t − p·x)] ,
Πm (t, x; D− ) =

1
(2π)3/2


R3, D−

q
d3, D− p µ(p)
2 ×

a† (p) exp [i (µ (p) t − p · x)] − a (p) exp [−i (µ (p) t − p · x)] ,
(III.1)
p
ãäå µ (p) = p+m2 , à îïåðàòîðû a (p) è a† (p) óäîâëåòâîðÿþò îáû÷íûì ÊÊÑ 

h 

0 i h 
0 i
a (p) , a p
= a† (p) , a† p
= 0,
h 
0 i  

0
a (p) , a† p
= δ p−p .
(III.2)

Ñêàëÿðíûå êâàíòîâûå ôðàêòàëüíûå ïîëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè â íóëåâîé ìîìåíò âðåìåíè ϕm (x; D− ) è èõ êàíîíè÷åñêè ñîïðÿ-

204

Ïðèëîæåíèå III

æåííûå πm (x; D− ) îïðåäåëåíû ðàâåíñòâîì

ϕm (x; D− ) =
1
(2π)3/2

3, D−

d


R3, D−

p
2µ(p) 

a† (p) exp [−i (p · x)] + a (p) exp [i (p·x)] ,
πm (x; D− ) =

1
(2π)3/2


R3,D−

q 


a (p) exp [−i (p · x)] − a (p) exp [i (p · x)] .
d3, D− p µ(p)
2
(III.3)

 ñèëó (III.1) - (III.2) ìû èìååì

h  

i  

0
0
Φm (t, x; D− ) , Φm t0 , x ; D− = iD0 t − t0 , r − r ; D− ,
(III.4)

ãäå  

0
D0 t − t0 , r − r ; D− =
h  
i
0
1
3, D−
p exp ip r − r
− (2π)
3 ∫ d

sin[µ(p) (t−t0 )]
.
µ(p)

(III.5)

 ñèëó (III.4) - (III.5) äëÿ t = t ìû èìååì
0

h  

i  

0
0
Φm (t, x; D− ) , Φm t, x ; D− = iD0 0, r − r ; D− = 0,
h  

i
0
Πm (t, x; D− ) , Πm t, x ; D− =
∂2
∂t∂t0 D0

i

h

i


∂t D0   

0

t − t0 , r − r ; D−

t=t0

= 0,  

i
0
Πm (t, x; D− ) , Φm t, x ; D− = 

0

t − t0 , r − r ; D−

t=t0  

0
= −iδ 3, D− r − r ,

ãäå

δ 3, D− (r) =

1
(2π)3

∫ d3, D− p exp (ipr) .

(III.6)
(III.7)

Ôðàêòàëüíûå êâàíòîâûå ïîëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè...

205

b m (p0 , p; D− ) êâàíòîâîãî ïîëÿ
Ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå Ôóðüå-Êîëîìáåàó Φ
Φm (t, x; D− ) îïðåäåëåíî ñ ïîìîùüþ èíòåãðàëüíîãî óðàâíåíèÿ

1
(2π)3/2

Φm (t, x; D− ) =
b m (p0 , p; D− ) exp [i (p, x)] ,
dp0 d3, D− pΦ

(III.8)

R×R3, D−

b m (p0 , p; D− ) óäîâëåãäå (p, x) = p0 x0 − p · x. Îáîáùåííàÿ ôóíêöèÿ Φ
òâîðÿåò êàíîíè÷åñêîìó óðàâíåíèþ Êëåéíà-Ãîðäîíà 

b m (p0 , p; D− ) = 0.
p20 − p2 − m2 Φ

(III.9)

b m (p0 , p; D− ) ëåæèò
 ñèëó (III.9) íîñèòåëü îáîáùåííîé ôóíêöè
Φ  

b m (p0 , p; D− ) ⊂ Hm .
íà ìàññîâîì ãèïåðáîëîèäå Hm , ò. å. Supp Φ
6=
Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìû èìååì ïðåäñòàâëåíèå
Φm (t, x; D− ) =
dp0 d3, D− p

∫ 

1
(2π)3/2 

2

a† (p) θ (p0 ) δ p20 − p2 − m

×

exp [−i (p, x)] + a (p) exp [i (p, x)]

.

3,D−
R×R

(III.10)

 ýêâèâàëåíòíîñòè (III.1) è (III.10) ëåãêî óáåäèòüñÿ ïðÿìûì âû÷èñëåíèåì. Äðîáíûå ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå ôðàêòàëüíûì êâàíòîâûì ïîëÿì, îïðåäåëåíû êàê

iG (x, x0 ; D_) = h0 |[Φm (x; D_) , Φm (x0 ; D_)]| 0i ,
G(1) (x, x0 ; D_) = h0 |{Φm (x; D_) , Φm (x0 ; D_)}| 0i ,

(III.11)

ãäå x = (t, x). Ðàçîáüåì ýòè ôóíêöèè íà ïîëîæèòåëüíî- è îòðèöàòåëüíî - ÷àñòîòíûå ÷àñòè

iG (x, x0 ; D− ) = G+ (x, x0 ; D− ) − G− (x, x0 ; D− ) ,
(1)

G

0

+

0

(III.12)

0

(x, x ; D− ) = G (x, x ; D− ) + G (x, x ; D− ) ,

ãäå

G+ (x, x0 ; D_) = h0 |Φm (x; D_) Φm (x0 ; D_)| 0i ,
G− (x, x0 ; D_) = h0 |Φm (x0 ; D_) Φm (x; D_)| 0i .

(III.13)

Äðîáíûé Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé ïðîïàãàòîð GF (x, x0 ; D− ) çàäàäèì êàíîíè÷åñêèì îáðàçîì êàê

GF (x, x0 ; D_) = h0 |T (Φm (x; D_) Φm (x0 ; D_))| 0i =
θ (t − t0 ) G+ (x, x0 ; D_) + θ (t0 − t) G− (x, x0 ; D_) .

(III.14)

206

Ïðèëîæåíèå III

Äðîáíóþ çàïàçäûâàþùóþ GR (x, x0 ; D− ) è îïåðåæàþùóþ

GA (x, x0 ; D− )
ôóíêöèè Ãðèíà çàäàäèì êàíîíè÷åñêèì îáðàçîì êàê

GR (x, x0 ; D− ) = −θ (t − t0 ) G (x, x0 ; D− ) ,
0

0

(III.15)

0

GA (x, x ; D− ) = θ (t − t) G (x, x ; D− ) .
Òîãäà ñïðàâåäëèâî ðàâåíñòâî

GF (x, x0 ; D− ) = −G (x, x0 ; D− ) − 12 G(1) (x, x0 ; D− ) ,
G (x, x0 ; D− ) =

1
2

(III.16)

[GR (x, x0 ; D− ) + GA (x, x0 ; D− )] .

Ôóíêöèè G, G(1) , G± óäîâëåòâîðÿþò óðàâíåíèþ Êëåéíà-Ãîðäîíà 

u
tx + m2 G(1),± (x, x0 ; D− ) = 0.

(III.17)

 ñèëó îïðåäåëåíèé è êîììóòàöèîííûõ ñîîòíîøåíèé (III.6) ìû
èìååì   

0
u
tx + m2 GF (x, x0 ; D− ) = −δ (t − t0 ) δ 3, D− x, x ,

(III.18)   

0
u
tx + m2 GR, A (x, x0 ; D− ) = δ (t − t0 ) δ 3, D− x, x .
Äëÿ ôðàêòàëüíûõ ñïèíîðíûõ ïîëåé ñïèíà 1/2 ìû ââåäåì ôóíêöèè



¯ (x0 ; D_) 0 ,
SF (x, x0 ; D_) =
0 T  Ψ (x; D_) Ψ 

(III.19)
¯ (x0 ; D_) 0 ,
S (1) (x, x0 ; D_) = 0 Ψ (x; D_) , Ψ
êîòîðûå, êàê ëåãêî âèäåòü, óäîâëåòâîðÿþò ñëåäóþùèì óðàâíåíèÿì  

0
(iγ a ∂a − m) SF (x, x0 ; D− ) = δ (t − t0 ) δ 3, D− x, x ,
(iγ a ∂a − m) S (1) (x, x0 ; D− ) = 0,
SF (x, x0 ; D− ) = (iγ a ∂a − m) GF (x, x0 ; D− ) ,
S (1) (x, x0 ; D− ) = − (iγ a ∂a − m) G(1) (x, x0 ; D− ) .

(III.20)

Ôðàêòàëüíûå êâàíòîâûå ïîëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè...

207

Ôåéíìàíîâñêèé ïðîïàãàòîð äëÿ ôðàêòàëüíîãî ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî
êâàíòîâîãî ïîëÿ çàäàäèì âûðàæåíèåì

iDF αβ (x, x0 ; D_) = h0 |[Aα (x; D_) , Aβ (x0 ; D_)]| 0i .

(III.21)

Ó÷èòûâàÿ óðàâíåíèÿ ïîëÿ, ìû ïîëó÷èì óðàâíåíèå äëÿ äðîáíîãî
Ôåéíìàíîâñêîãî ïðîïàãàòîðà   

0
ηαλ u
tx − 1 − ξ −1 ∂αx ∂λx DF αβ (x, 
x ; D− ) =
0
δαβ δ (t − t0 ) δ 3, D− x, x .

(III.22)

208

Ïðèëîæåíèå IV

Ïðèëîæåíèå IV
Âûðàæåíèÿ äëÿ äàâëåíèÿ è ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà â
äîïëàíêîâñêóþ è ïëàíêîâñêóþ êîñìîëîãè÷åñêèå ýïîõè
Îïðåäåëåíèå IV.1. (i) Ïîä ïëàíêîâñêîé êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ýïîõîé ìû áóäåì ïîäðàçóìåâàòü ïðîìåæóòîê âðåìåíè, â òå÷åíèå êîòîðîãî Âñåëåííàÿ
èìååò ðàçìåð L ïîëÿäêà ïëàíêîâñêîé äëèíû, ò. å.
p
hG/c3 . Ïëàíêîâñêàÿ ýïîõà çàêàí÷èâàåòñÿ â ìîìåíò âðåL ' lP = ¯
ìåíè t ' tP = 10−40 ñåê ïîñëå Áîëüøîãî Âçðûâà.
(ii) Ïîä äîïëàíêîâñêîé êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ýïîõîé ìû áóäåì ïîäðàçóìåâàòü ïðîìåæóòîê âðåìåíè, â òå÷åíèå êîòîðîãî Âñåëåííàÿ èìååò
ðàçìåð L  lP . Íà÷àëó äîïëàíêîâñêîé êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ýïîõè ñîîòâåòñòâóåò ìîìåíò âðåìåíè t∗P  tP .
 äàëüíåéøåì, ìû áóäåì ïðåäïîëàãàòü âûïîëíåííûìè ñëåäóþùèå
óñëîâèÿ:
(i) â äîïëàíêîâñêóþ è ïëàíêîâñêóþ êîñìîëîãè÷åñêèå ýïîõè ïðîñòn
oN
ðàíñòâî-âðåìÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ îáîáùåííûì ìóëüòèôðàêòàëîì ∆αr−
îòr=1  

ðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè (ò.å. dCH ∆αr− < 0, r = 1, ..., N ) â ïñåâäîðèìàíîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå (M, g) .
(ii) íà ïðîòÿæåíèè âñåé äîïëàíêîâñêîé êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ýïîõè ñïåêòð
ðàçìåðíîñòåé  

dCH ∆αr− , r = 1, ..., N
îñòàåòñÿ ïîñòîÿííûì.
Êàê è â ðàáîòå ß. Á. Çåëüäîâè÷à [88], çäåñü ìû ðàññìàòðèâàåì
ïðèáëèæåíèå, â êîòîðîì ãðàâèòàöèîííîå ïîëå gik (x) îïèñûâàåòñÿ ÷èñòî êëàññè÷åñêè. Íàïîìíèì, ÷òî â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ îáùèå ìåòîäîëîãèåé,
ïðèíÿòîé â äàííîé ðàáîòå, ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ, ÷òî íîñèòåëè âñåõ ïîëåé
êàê êâàíòîâûõ, òàê è êëàññè÷åñêèõ íå ÿâëÿþòñÿ ôðàêòàëüíûìè ìíî4
æåñòâàìè è, â ÷àñòíîñòè, Supp (gik (x)) = Ω⊂
= R , ãäå Ω - ïðîèçâîëüíàÿ
îáëàñòü â R4 . Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ýâîëþöèÿ ìàñøòàáíîãî ôàêòîðà a (t)
îïèñûâàåòñÿ â ðàìêàõ ñòàíäàðòíûõ Λ - ìîäåëåé [88]. Îáîáùåííûå Λ ìîäåëè äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè
D− < 0 áûëè ðàññìîòðåíû íàìè â ðàáîòå [133]. Ìû áóäåì èñïîëüçîâàòü
ñëåäóþùåå èíòåãðàëüíîå ïðåäñòàâëåíèå äëÿ Áåòà - ôóíêöèè Ýéëåðà

B (α, β) =

Γ(α) Γ(β)
Γ(α+β)

−α−β

= ∫ dzz α−1 (1 + z)
0

.

(IV.1)

209

Âûðàæåíèÿ äëÿ äàâëåíèÿ è ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà...

 äàëüíåéøåì, íàì ïîòðåáóþòñÿ èíòåãðàëû 

± 1

J± (α) = ∫ dzz α−1 1 + z 2

2

(IV.2)

.

0

Ïðåîáðàçóåì èíòåãðàëû (IV.2) ê âèäó (IV.1). Çàìåíà ïåðåìåííîé
â èíòåãðàëàõ (IV.2) z 2 = y, 2dz = dy äàåò

J± (α) =

1
2

1
±2

α−1
dyy 2

(1 + y)

1
2

=

0

α−1
dyy 2

∫ 

(1 + y)

0

α−1
− 2 +

α−1 1
2 ±2 

(IV.3)

 ñèëó (IV.1) è (IV.3) ìû èìååì

J+ (α) =

1
2

α−1
dyy 2

∫ dyy 
0 
α−1
2

Γ
1
2 

Γ

(1 + y)

α−1 1
2 +2 

0

1
2 

α−1
− 2 +

α−1
α
− 2 −(− 2 )

α−1
2

(1 + y)

α
Γ(− 2 ) 

α−1 α
2 −2 

Γ

− 41 

Γ

=

1
2

α−1
2  

=

α
Γ(− 2 )

1
Γ −2 

(IV.4)
= 

α−1
α
Γ(− 2 )
2

.
π

Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì ìû ïîëó÷àåì

J− (α) =

1
2 

Γ
1
2

α−1
dyy 2 

α−1
− 2 +

(1 + y)

α−1 1
2 −2 

α−1
dyy 2

α−1
2 

0

(1 + y)

α−1
− 2 −

−α+2
2 

=

0 

Γ

1
2

(IV.5) 


2−α
2

Γ

α−1
2 +  

Γ 

=
−α+2

1
2 

1
2

α−1
2 


Γ

π

Γ 


1
2

Γ

2

Γ 



α−1
2

2−α
2 

.

2−α
2 

=

210

Ïðèëîæåíèå IV

Ïëîòíîñòü ýíåðãèè áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà ρB
V (D− , m) äëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè dCH = 3 − |D− | < 0 (ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé) â ñèëó (511) è (IV.3) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

ρB
V (D− , m) = K ∫

k2 + m2 d3, D− k.

(IV.7)

R3

 ïîëÿðíûõ êîîðäèíàòàõ (k, ϕ, θ) , ãäå k =

ρB
V (D− , m) = K ∫

k2 ìû ïîëó÷èì

k2 + m2 d3, D− k=

R3

π

K ∫ dϕ ∫ (sin θ)
0

1−|D− |

(IV.7)
∞√

dθ ∫

0

k 2 + m2 k 2−|D− | dk.

0

Ó÷èòûâàÿ ðàâåíñòâî

∆ (D− ) = ∫ (sin θ)

1−|D− |

dθ =

√ 

Γ

2−|D− |
2 

π  3−|D− |  ,
Γ

(IV.8)

2

ìû ïîëó÷èì

ρB
V (D− , m) = K ∫

k2 + m2 d3, D− k=

R3

√ 

Γ

2−|D− |
2 

(IV.9)
∞√

2K π 3  3−|D− |  ∫
Γ

2

k 2 + m2 k 2−|D− | dk

0

Çàìåíà ïåðåìåííîé k = my â èíòåãðàëå, âõîäÿùåì â ïðàâóþ ÷àñòü
óðàâíåíèÿ (IV.9), äàåò

∞√

0

∞ 

k 2 + m2 k 2−|D− | dk = m4−|D− | ∫ 1 + y 2 y 2−|D− | dy.
0

(IV.10)

211

Âûðàæåíèÿ äëÿ äàâëåíèÿ è ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà...

C ó÷åòîì (IV.10), (IV.3) è (IV.4) ìû îêîí÷àòåëüíî ïîëó÷èì


K

ρB
V (D− , m) = − 2 

Γ

2−|D− |
2

Γ

π 3 m4−|D− |  3−|D− | 
Γ

 



Γ2 

− Kπ
2

2−|D− |
2 

Γ

2−|D− |
2 



Γ −

π

3−|D− |
2 

=

2 



Γ −

3−|D− |
2

3−|D− |
2 


 m4−|D− | . 

(IV.11)
Ïëîòíîñòü ýíåðãèè áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà ρV (D− ) äëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé
ðàçìåðíîñòè dCH = 3−|D− | < 0 (ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé)
â ñèëó (514) è (IV.11) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

Γ2 

 Kπ
ρB
V (D− ) = − 2

2−|D− |
2 

Γ 



Γ −

3−|D− |
2

3−|D− |
2 

 ∫ f (m) m4−|D− | dm. 

0

(IV.12)
Çäåñü ìû ïðåäïîëàãàåì, ÷òî 4 − |D− | ≤ −2, à ôóíêöèÿ f (m) óäîâëåòâîðÿåò ñëåäóþùèì óñëîâèÿì: (i)

(IV.13)

meff

∫ f (m) m4−|D− | dm = 0
0

è (ii) f (m) = 1 ïðè m ≥ meff . Â ñèëó âûøåóêàçàííûõ óñëîâèé (i)-(ii)
ìû ïîëó÷àåì


ρB
V (D− ) = − 2

5−|D− |

meff
|D− |−5

Γ2 

2−|D− |
2 

Γ 



Γ −

3−|D− |
2

3−|D− |
2  

(IV.14)

.

Oêîí÷àòåëüíî äëÿ ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà ρB
V ìû
ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå

ρB
V

=

N
P
r=1

ρV 

(r)
D− 

=

− Kπ
2

N
P
r=1

(r)
5−|D
− |
(r)
D− −5

2

Γ

(r)

2− D−
2

!

Γ

meff

Γ

(r)

3− D−

(r) !
3− D−

!

2

.

2

(IV.15)

212

Ïðèëîæåíèå IV

Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì, äëÿ ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè ôåðìèîííîãî âàêóóìà ρF
V ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå

ρF
V

=

N
P

ρV 

r=1

(r)
D− 

= 2Kπ

|

5− D

N
P

meff

(r)

|

2

Γ

!

2

(r)
D− −5

r=1

(r)

2− D−

Γ

Γ

(r)

3− D−

!

2

.

(r) !
3− D−
2

(IV.16)
Òàêèì îáðàçîì, îêîí÷àòåëüíî äëÿ ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà ρV
ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå

F
ρV = ρB
V + ρV =

N
P
r=1

3Kπ
2

N
P
r=1

(r)
5− D
meff −
(r)
D− −5

|

|  

(r)
ρV D − =

(r)

2− D−

2

Γ

!

2

Γ

Γ

(r)

3− D−

(IV.17)

(r) !
D− −3
2

!

.

2

Äàâëåíèå áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà ρB
V (D− , m) äëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè dCH = 3 − |D− | < 0 (ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé)
èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä 

3, D

ρB
k, u= √k2k+m2 , ux kx =
V (D− , m) = K ∫ ux kx d
R3

1
3

(uk) .
(IV.18)

 ñèëó (IV.18) ìû èìååì

ρV (D− , m) =

K
3

2 3, D−
k√
d
k
k2 +m2


R3

(IV.19)

= K 0 F (D− , m) ,

ãäå K 0 = K/3. Â ïîëÿðíûõ êîîðäèíàòàõ (k, ϕ, θ) , ãäå k =
ïîëó÷èì

√ 

Γ

2−|D− |
2 

F (D− , m) = 2K 0 π 3  3−|D− |  ∫ k 4−|D− | k 2 + m2
Γ

2 

− 1
2

k2 ìû

dk.

0

(IV.20)

213

Âûðàæåíèÿ äëÿ äàâëåíèÿ è ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà...

Çàìåíà ïåðåìåííîé k = my â èíòåãðàëå, âõîäÿùåì â ïðàâóþ ÷àñòü
óðàâíåíèÿ (IV.20), äàåò

∫ k 4−|D− | k 2 + m2 

− 1
2

dk = m4−|D− | ∫ y 4−|D− | 1 + y 2 

− 1

2

dy.

0

0

(IV.21)

Ó÷èòûâàÿ òåïåðü (IV.5), ìû ïîëó÷àåì

∫ k 4−|D− |
0 

  

−2+|D− |
3−|D− |
Γ
Γ
1 

2
2


k 2 + m2 2 dk = 12 m4−|D− |
.
π
(IV.22)

C ó÷åòîì (IV.20) è (IV.22) ìû ïîëó÷èì 

Γ

2−|D− |
2 


Γ

1 0
ρB
π 3 m4−|D− |  3−|D− | 
V (D− , m) = 2 K
Γ

π
0 4−|D− |
Γ
2K m 

3−|D− |
2 


Γ

π

|D− |−2
2 

=

2

2−|D− |
2 

Γ 

|D− |−2
2 

.
(IV.23)

Äàâëåíèå áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà f (m) äëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè
f (m) = 1 < 0 (ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé) â ñèëó (514) è
(IV.23) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä
B
pB
V (D− ) = pV (D− , m) =

h

π
0
2K Γ 

2−|D− |
2 

Γ 

|D− |−2
2 

i

(IV.24)

4−|D− |

∫ f (m) m

dm.

0

Ïîäñòàâèâ â (IV.24) âûðàæåíèå äëÿ èíòåãðàëà ∫ f (m) m4−|D− | dm,
óêàçàííîå âûøå, ìû ïîëó÷èì

pB
V (D− ) =  

5−|D− |
2−|D− |
π
0 meff
2 K |D− |−5 Γ
2

Γ 

|D− |−2
2 

.

(IV.25)

Ïîëíîå äàâëåíèå áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà pB
V äëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè dCH = 3−|D− | < 0 (ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé) â ñèëó

214

Ïðèëîæåíèå IV

(IV.25) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

pB
V =

(r) 
(r)   (r) 
5−|D
D− −2
− |
2− D−
(r) Γ
Γ
.
2
2
D− −5

N
P

π
0
2K

meff

r=1

(IV.26)

Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì, äëÿ äàâëåíèÿ ôåðìèîííîãî âàêóóìà pF
V ìû
ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå

pF
V

= −2πK

0

N
P
r=1

(r) 
(r)   (r) 
5−|D
D− −2
− |
2− D−
(r) Γ
Γ
.
2
2
D− −5

meff

(IV.27)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, îêîí÷àòåëüíî äëÿ äàâëåíèÿ âàêóóìà pV ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå

pV =

pB
V

+

pF
V

=

− 23 πK 0

N
P
r=1

|

(r)

|  2− D(r)   D(r) −2 


(r) Γ
Γ
.
2
2
D− −5
(IV.28)
5− D

meff

 ñèëó (IV.17) è (IV.28) ñ ó÷åòîì ðàâåíñòâà K 0 = K/3 äëÿ ýôôåêòèâíîé ãðàâèòèðóþùåé ïëîòíîñòè âàêóóìà ρeff ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå

3Kπ
2

ρeff = ρV + 3pV =
(r) !
(r) !
D− −3
2− D−
2
Γ
(r) Γ
2
2
5−|D
|
N
P
meff −
(r)
!


(r)

3− D−
r=1 D− −5
Γ

3Kπ
2

N
P
r=1

(r) 
(r)   (r) 
5−|D
D− −2
− |
2− D−
(r) Γ
Γ
=
2
2
D− −5

meff


3Kπ
2

N
P
r=1

2

2

Γ
|


(r)
D− −5 

|

5− D

meff 

−Γ

(r)

(r)

2− D−
2 

(r)

2− D−

!

2

Γ

Γ

Γ

(r) !
D− −3
2

(r) !
3− D−
2 

(r) 
D− −2
2

.

(IV.29)

Âûðàæåíèÿ äëÿ äàâëåíèÿ è ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà...

215

Ñîãëàñíî óðàâíåíèÿì Ôðèäìàíà óñëîâèåì äëÿ óñêîðåííîãî ðàñøèðåíèÿ êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ñðåäû ÿâëÿåòñÿ óñëîâèå ρeff < 0.

216

Ïðèëîæåíèå V

Ïðèëîæåíèå V

Óðàâíåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ âàêóóìíîé ñðåäû â ñîâðåìåííóþ
êîñìîëîãè÷åñêóþ ýïîõó.
Ïëîòíîñòü ýíåðãèè áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà ρB
V (D− , m) äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ ïðîñòðàíñòâà - âðåìåíè îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè dCH = 3 − |D− | < 0,
îáëàäàþùåãî çåðíèñòîé ìèêðîñòðóêòóðîé (ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî íóëåâûõ
êîëåáàíèé) â ñèëó (IV.3) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä
B
B
ρB
V (D− , m) = ρV (m, p∗ ) + ρV (D− , m, p∗ ) =

K

k2

+

m2 d3 k

+K

k2

+

(V.1)

m2 d3, D− k.

kkk≥p∗

kkk<p∗

Ôóíêöèÿ ρB
V (m, p∗ ) óæå áûëà âû÷èñëåíà íàìè â ïàðàãðàôå 3, ïîýòîìó çäåñü ìû ðàññìîòðèì òîëüêî ôóíêöèþ

ρB
V (D− , m, p∗ ) = K

k2 + m2 d3, D− k.

(V.2)

kkk≥ p∗

 ïîëÿðíûõ êîîðäèíàòàõ (k, ϕ, θ) , ãäå k =

k2 , ìû ïîëó÷èì

ρB
V (D− , m, p∗ ) =

K

k2 + m2 d3, D− k=

kkk≥ p∗

π

K ∫ dϕ ∫ (sin θ)
0

1−|D− |

∞√

dθ ∫

k 2 + m2 k 2−|D− | dk =

p∗

0
∞√

K∆ (|D− |) ∫

k 2 + m2 k 2−|D− | dk,

p∗  

2−|D− |
√ Γ
2
∆ (|D− |) = 2 π 3  3−|D− |  .
Γ

2

(V.3)

217

Óðàâíåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ âàêóóìíîé ñðåäû...

Çàìåíà ïåðåìåííîé k = mp â èíòåãðàëå, âõîäÿùåì â ïðàâóþ ÷àñòü
óðàâíåíèÿ (V.3), äàåò

p

4−|D− |
ρB

V (D− , m, p∗ ) = K∆ (|D− |) m

p2 + 1p2−|D− | dp =

mp∗

K∆ (|D− |) m4−|D− | ∫

p
p2 + 1p2−|D− | dp.

mp∗

(V.4)

Ïîäñòàâèâ â ïðàâóþ ÷àñòü óðàâíåíèÿ (V.4) Òåéëîðîâñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå
q
(V.5)
1 1
1 + p12 = 1 + 12 p12 − 18 p14 + 16
p6 + ...
è âûïîëíèâ ïî÷ëåííîå èíòåãðèðîâàíèå, ìû ïîëó÷èì

4−|D− |

ρB
V (D− , m, p∗ ) = K∆ (|D− |) m

q
1+

mp∗

K∆ (|D− |) m4−|D− | 

∫ p3−|D− | dp +

mp∗
4−|D− |

− |)
8−2|D− |
K ∆(|D
p∗
|D− |−4 m

1
2

1 3−|D− |
dp
p2 p

= 

∫ p1−|D− | dp + ... =

mp∗  

2−|D− |
+ O p∗
.
(V.6)

Ïëîòíîñòü ýíåðãèè áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà ρV (D− , meff , p∗ ) äëÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè dCH = 3 − |D− | < 0 (ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî íóëåâûõ
êîëåáàíèé) â ñèëó (V.6) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

ρB
V (D− , meff , p∗ ) =
− |) 4−|D− |
K ∆(|D
|D− |−4 p∗

8−2|D− |

∫ f (m) m

dm + O

(V.7) 

2−|D− |
p∗ 

.

0

Çäåñü ìû ïðåäïîëàãàåì, ÷òî 4 − |D− | ≤ −2, à ôóíêöèÿ f (m) óäîâëåòâîðÿåò ñëåäóþùèì óñëîâèÿì: (i)
meff

∫ f (m) m8−2|D− | dm = 0

(V.8)

0

è (ii) f (m) = 1 ïðè m ≥ meff . Â ñèëó âûøåóêàçàííûõ óñëîâèé (i)-(ii),

218

Ïðèëîæåíèå V

ìû ïîëó÷àåì

ρB
V (D− , meff , p∗ ) =
4−|D− |

− |)
K ∆(|D
|D− |−4 p∗

(V.9)  

2−|D− |
∫ f (m) m8−2|D− | dm + O p∗
=

meff
4−|D− |

∆(|D− |)
K (|D− |−4)
(2|D− |−9) p∗

9−2|D− |

meff  

2−|D− |
+ O p∗
.

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ïëîòíîñòü ýíåðãèè áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà

ρbB
V (D− , meff , p∗ )
äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè dCH =
3−|D− | < 0, îáëàäàþùåãî çåðíèñòîé ìèêðîñòðóêòóðîé, (ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé) â ñèëó (V.3) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

B
B
ρB
V (D− , meff , p∗ ) = ρV (meff , p∗ ) + ρV (D− , meff , p∗ ) =
meff

B
∫ ρB
V (m, p∗ ) f (m) dm + ρV (D− , meff , p∗ ) =
0

3 

9−2|D− |

Γ

2−|D− |
2

Γ

2

(V.10) 

π meff
−|  

p4−|D
.
ρB

V (meff , p∗ ) + 2K (|D− |−4) (2|D− |−9)
3−|D− |

Ãäå

ρB
V (meff , p∗ ) =
K
8

meff

∫ f (m) m4 ( ln m) dm −
0

K 1
32 p2∗

meff 

∫ f (m) m6 dm + O p−3
.

0

(V.11)

Çàìå÷àíèå V.1. Çäåñü ìû èñïîëüçîâàëè ôîðìóëó (522), â êîòîðîé
ïîëîæèëè p0 = p∗ . Îêîí÷àòåëüíî äëÿ ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè áîçîííîãî

219

Óðàâíåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ âàêóóìíîé ñðåäû...

âàêóóìà ρB
V ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå

ρB
V =

K
8

meff

∫ f (m) m4 ( ln m) dm −
0

K 1
32 p2∗

meff

∫ f (m) m6 dm+
0

+2K

π3

N
P
r=1

(r)
4−|D
9−2|D− |
− |
p∗ (r) meff
D− −4 (2|D− |−9)

Γ

Γ

(r)

2− D−

!

2 

(r) ! + O p−3
.

3− D−
2

(V.12)
Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì, äëÿ ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè ôåðìèîííîãî âàêóóìà ρF
V ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå
meff

4K
ρF
∫ f (m) m4 ( ln m) dm +
V =− 8
0

−8K

π3

|

p∗

r=1

(r)

| 9−2|D− |
(r) meff
D− −4 (2|D− |−9)
4− D

N
P

Γ

Γ

4K 1
32 p2∗

meff

∫ f (m) m6 dm−
0

(r) !
2− D−
2 

(r) ! + O p−3
.

3− D−
2

(V.13)
C ó÷åòîì ðàâåíñòâ (V.12)-(V.13) äëÿ ïëîòíîñòè ýíåðãèè âàêóóìà
ρV ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå
F
ρV = ρB
V + ρV =
meff

− 3K
∫ f (m) m4 ( ln m) dm +
8
0

−6K

π3

N
P
r=1

(r)
4− D

| 9−2|D− |
(r) meff
D− −4 (2|D− |−9)
p∗

|

Γ

Γ

3K 1
32 p2∗

meff

∫ f (m) m6 dm−
0

(r) !
2− D−
2

(r)  

3− D−
(r) ! + O p∗
.
3− D−
2

(V.14)
Äàâëåíèå áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà
(D− , m, p∗ ) äëÿ ñëó÷àÿ ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè dCH = 3 − |D− | < 0, îáëàäàþùåãî çåðíèñòîé ìèêðîñòðóêòóðîé, (ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî íóëåâûõ êîëå-

ρB
V

220

Ïðèëîæåíèå V

áàíèé) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä
B
B
ρB
V (D− , m, p∗ ) = ρV (m, p∗ ) + ρV (D− , m, p∗ ) =

K 

ux kx d3, D− k+K

kkk≤p∗ 

ux kx d3, D− k,


kkk>p∗

(V.15)

u = √k2k+m2 5A; 8 kkk  p∗ , 

k
1+
u =m

m
Ep 

, m = γm0 5A; 8 kkk ≥ p∗ ,

ux kx =

1
3

(uk) .

Çàìå÷àíèå V.2. Äëÿ kkk ≥ p∗ , ñòðîãî ãîâîðÿ, íåîáõîäèìî èñïîëüçîâàòü ñâÿçü ìåæäó ïåðåìåííûìè u è k â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ âûáðàííûì â
ïàðàãðàôå 3 ñïîñîáîì íàðóøåíèÿ Ëîðåíö  èíâàðèàíòíîñòè, ñì. [167].
Òåì íå ìåíåå, íèæå ìû èñïîëüçóåì îáû÷íóþ ñâÿçü ìåæäó ïåðåìåííûìè u è k, ïîñêîëüêó ýòî ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå âëèÿåò íà îêîí÷àòåëüíûé
ðåçóëüòàò.
 ñèëó (V.15) ìû èìååì

pB
V (D− , m, p∗ ) =

K
3


kkk≤p∗

2 3, D−
k√
d
k
k2 +m2

+

K
3

2
√ k
d3, D− k
k2 +m2


kkk>p∗

pB
˜B
V (m, p∗ ) + p
V (D− , m, , p∗ ) .

=

(V.16)

B
Ôóíêöèÿ pB
V (m, p∗ ) = pV (m, meff , p∗ ) óæå áûëà âû÷èñëåíà íàìè â
ïàðàãðàôå 16.3, ïîýòîìó çäåñü ìû ðàññìîòðèì òîëüêî ôóíêöèþ

!
p˜B
V

(D− , m, p∗ ) =

K
3


kkk>p∗

2
√ k
d3, D− k
k2 +m2

 ïîëÿðíûõ êîîðäèíàòàõ (k, ϕ, θ) , ãäå k =

p˜B
V (D− , m, p∗ ) =

K
3

π

∫ dϕ ∫ (sin θ)
0

1−|D− |

k2 ìû ïîëó÷èì

dθ ∫
p∗

0

K
3 ∆ (|D− |)


p∗

(V.17)

.

k4−|D− |

dk
k2 +m2

=

k4−|D− |

dk.
k2 +m2

(V.18)

221

Óðàâíåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ âàêóóìíîé ñðåäû...

Çàìåíà ïåðåìåííîé k = mp â èíòåãðàëå, âõîäÿùåì â ïðàâóþ ÷àñòü
óðàâíåíèÿ (V.18), äàåò

p˜B
V (D− , m, p∗ ) =
Km4−|D− |
∆ (|D− |)
3


mp∗

K
3 ∆ (|D− |)

4−|D |
dpp
√ 2 −
p +1

=

k4−|D− |

dk
k2 +m2


p∗

Km4−|D− |
∆ (|D− |)
3

=


mp∗

3−|D |
dpp
p 1− .
1+ 2
p

(V.19)

Ïîäñòàâèâ Òåéëîðîâñêîå ðàçëîæåíèå

p

1
1+

1
p2

=1−

1 1
2 p2

+

3 1
8 p4

5 1
16 p6

(V.20)

+ ...,

â ïðàâóþ ÷àñòü óðàâíåíèÿ (V.19), ìû ïîëó÷èì

p˜B
V (D− , m, p∗ ) =
Km4−|D− |
∆ (|D− |)
3 

Km4−|D− |
∆ (|D− |)
3

∫ dpp

3−|D− |


mp∗

+ ∫ dpp

mp∗

3−|D |
dpp
p 1−
1+ 2
p

1−|D− | 

+ ... =

mp∗

Km8−2|D− |
3(|D− |−4) ∆ (|D− |)

4−|D− |

p∗  

2−|D− |
+ O p∗
.
(V.21)

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, äàâëåíèå áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà
(D− , meff , p∗ ) äëÿ
ñëó÷àÿ ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè dCH = 3 −
|D− | < 0, îáëàäàþùåãî çåðíèñòîé ìèêðîñòðóêòóðîé, (ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî
íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé) â ñèëó (V.12) èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

pbB
V

B
B
pbB
V (D− , meff , p∗ ) = pV (meff , p∗ ) + pV (D− , meff , p∗ ) =
meff

0

0

B
∫ pB
V (m, p∗ ) f (m) dm + ∫ f (m) pV (D− , m, p∗ ) dm = 

pB
V (meff , p∗ ) + 

2−|D− |
Γ


2
4−|D− |
K 2 π3  

p
∫ f

3 (|D− |−4)
3−|D− |
0
Γ
2 

pB
V (meff , p∗ ) +

(m) m8−2|D− | dm = 

2−|D− |
Γ

2
−|
K
2 π 3 m9−2|D− |  

p4−|D
.

3 (|D− |−4) (2|D− |−9)
3−|D− |
Γ
2

(V.22)

222

Ïðèëîæåíèå V

Ãäå

pB
V (meff , p∗ ) =
meff

4
−K
8 ∫ f (m) m ( ln m) dm +
0

K 5
32 p2∗

meff 

∫ f (m) m6 dm + O p−3
.

0

(V.23)

Çàìå÷àíèå V.3. Çäåñü ìû èñïîëüçîâàëè ôîðìóëó (522), â êîòîðîé
ïîëîæèëè p0 = p∗ . Îêîí÷àòåëüíî, äëÿ äàâëåíèÿ áîçîííîãî âàêóóìà pB
V
ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå
pbB
V (D− , meff , p∗ ) =
meff

4
−K
8 ∫ f (m) m ( ln m) dm +
0

K 5
32 p2∗ 

meff

∫ f (m) m6 dm+
0

(V.24) 

2−|D− |
Γ

2
K
2 π 3 m9−2|D− | 
p∗4−|D− | . 

3 (|D− |−4) (2|D− |−9)
3−|D− |
Γ
2

Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì äëÿ äàâëåíèÿ ôåðìèîííîãî âàêóóìà

pbF
V (D− , meff , p∗ )
â ñëó÷àå ïðîñòðàíñòâà-âðåìåíè îòðèöàòåëüíîé ðàçìåðíîñòè dCH = 3−
|D− | < 0, îáëàäàþùåãî çåðíèñòîé ìèêðîñòðóêòóðîé, (ñ ó÷åòîì òîëüêî
íóëåâûõ êîëåáàíèé) ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå âûðàæåíèå

pbF
V (D− , meff , p∗ ) =
4K
8

meff

∫ f (m) m4 ( ln m) dm −
0

4K 5
32 p2∗ 

meff

∫ f (m) m6 dm−
0

(V.25) 

2−|D− |
Γ

2
4−|D− |
8 π 3 m9−2|D− |
K
− 3 (|D− |−4) (2|D− |−9)  3−|D− |  p∗
.
Γ
2

C ó÷åòîì ðàâåíñòâ (V.24)-(V.25) äëÿ äàâëåíèÿ âàêóóìà pV ìû ïî-

223

Óðàâíåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ âàêóóìíîé ñðåäû...

ëó÷àåì ñëåäóþùåå îêîí÷àòåëüíîå âûðàæåíèå

bF
pV = pbB
V (D− , meff , p∗ ) + p
V (D− , meff , p∗ ) =
3K
8

meff

∫ f (m) m4 ( ln m) dm −
0

3K 5
32 p2∗ 

meff

∫ f (m) m6 dm−
0

(V.26) 

2−|D− |
Γ

2
4−|D− |
6 π 3 m9−2|D− |
K
− 3 (|D− |−4) (2|D− |−9)  3−|D− |  p∗
.
Γ
2

Ñðàâíèâàÿ òåïåðü óðàâíåíèå (V.26) ñ óðàâíåíèåì (V.14) è ó÷èòûâàÿ îãðàíè÷åíèÿ, íàëîæåííûå â ïàðàãðàôå 16.3 íà ôóíêöèþ f (m) , â
ñèëó êîòîðûõ èíòåãðàëüíûå ÷ëåíû â ïðàâûõ ÷àñòÿõ óðàâíåíèé (V.27)
è (V.15) îáðàùàþòñÿ â íîëü òîæäåñòâåííî, ìû ïîëó÷àåì óðàâíåíèå
ñîñòîÿíèÿ âàêóóìíîé ñðåäû â ñîâðåìåííóþ êîñìîëîãè÷åñêóþ ýïîõó â
ñëåäóþùåì êàíîíè÷åñêîì âèäå

(V.27)

pV = 13 ρV .

Âûðàæåíèå äëÿ ýôôåêòèâíîé ãðàâèòèðóþùåé ïëîòíîñòè âàêóóìà
ρeff èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä

ρeff = ρV + 3pV = 2ρV =

(r)
4− D

| 9−2|D− |
(r) meff
D− −4 (2|D− |−9)

N
P

−6K π 3

p∗

r=1

|

Γ

!

(r)

!.

2

Γ

(r)

2− D−

3− D−

(V.28)

2

Ñîãëàñíî óðàâíåíèÿì Ôðèäìàíà íåîáõîäèìûì óñëîâèåì äëÿ íàëè÷èÿ ôàçû óñêîðåííîãî ðàñøèðåíèÿ êîñìîëîãè÷åñêîé ñðåäû ÿâëÿåòñÿ
óñëîâèå ρeff < 0, ò. å.

0<

N
P
r=1

|

(r)

| 9−2|D− |
(r) meff
D− −4 (2|D− |−9)
4− D

p∗

Γ

Γ

(r)

2− D−

!

2

(r) ! .
3− D−
2

(V.29)

224

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