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Metamorphic and Rock Fall Lecture

Metamorphic and Rock Fall Lecture

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Published by: kali_abel on Nov 30, 2009
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Metamorphic Rocks

• Isochemical!

- Minerals are transformed – Texturally or mineralogically distinct – – –

Contact and Regional Metamorphism
1. regional: burial, transformation, and exhumation of entire regions 2. contact: transformed by contact with an igneous intrusion.

N o te : T h e ro cks exp o se d i B o u l e r C a n yo n w e st o f n d to w n a re a l g i n a l y lre o l m e ta m o rp h o se d Pre C a m b ri n ro cks. T h e a a g e o f m e ta m o rp h i sm d e te rm i e d fro m n ra d i m e tri d a ti g i o c n s a b o u t 1 . 8 b i l o n ye a rs li

• Contact metamorphism
– Locally and adjacent to igneous intrusions – Along fractures in contact with hot fluids (hydrothermal)
• Mineral crystals precipitate along fractures

– Caused by low P, high T (from magma or fluids) – Time scale: days  kyr – Intensity greatest at contact between parent and intrusive magma or fluids
• Decreases rapidly over short distances

Check out fig. 7.1 in LM!

Lava flow bakes mud beneath it!  Shale!

• Regional Metamorphism
– Large intrusions, tectonism, widespread hydrothermal fluids – High P, Lower T – Usually results in rocks that are strongly foliated – Widespread hydrothermal migration

The Cascade Range Ocean Ridges

Mineralogical Composition
-Kinds and abundances within the rock -Composition can change OR stay the same (texture changes) Recrystallization = crystals of one mineral  fewer, larger crystals of same mineral! Neomorphism = changes mineral composition! Recrystallizes minerals and form different minerals from same elements! Metasomatism = Chemicals are added or lost, can gain new elements! (Minerals of a totally different composition)

• Foliated – layering, parallel alignment of platy mineral crystals (i.e. micas)
– From pressure and shearing of crystals 1. Slaty (low grade) – closely spaced shear planes, flat foliated 2. Pyllite texture (intermediate) – wavy foliation, metallic luster 3. Schistosity (intermediate-high) glittery layering or linear alignment of crystals, breaks on wavy foliations 4. Gneissic Banding – layers of light and dark, medium-coarse grained



Phyllite Texture

Gneissic Banding

• Nonfoliated – no obvious layering 1.Crystalline texture (nonfoliated) – intergrown, usually equal size visible crystals 2.Microcrystalline texture – finegrained, intergrown microscopic minerals (i.e. sugar cube) 3.Sandy texture – medium-coarse grained, resemble sandstone, fused sand 4.Glassy texture – no visible grains or structures, breaks along glossy surfaces

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