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• Loose grains and chemical residues of rocks, minerals, plants or animals and aqueous solutions.
– Water/other chemicals from dissolution/chemical decay
• Decomposition or dissolution of materials
– feldspar/mica mineral grains clay minerals – calcite calcium and bicarbonate ions (in H20) – Olivine iron oxide residues – Halite dissolves to form ______?
• Cracking, crushing, abrasion, scratching, etc.
-Rain -Wind -Ice wedging -Glaciers -Temperature
Describing Sedimentary Rocks: Texture
• Transportation: wind, water or ice
– Scratched, broken, abraded grain shape – How far was a grain carried? Angular Rounded Well-rounded – Poorly sorted Well-sorted
• Energy (i.e. wind, water)
Crystals precipitate from aqueous solutions to form…….
• Crystalline texture – clearly visible crystals
Describing Sedimentary Rocks: Composition
• Describe the abundance and kinds of grains that comprise the rock….
-Paleoenvironment -Preserved organism or traces of organism within the rock
• Forms when iron and oxygen combine in solution and deposit sediment (Hematite)!
• Mostly clasts of silicate minerals (i.e. quartz, feldspars, micas, clay minerals….) • Shale – composed of clay minerals
• Can form a mass from intergrown crystals directly as they precipitate from aqueous solutions. – Rock salt, rock gypsum -Ocean water sequence evaporation -Aragonite – -Gypsum 50-75%
Part II: Sedimentary Structures!
• <1cm – Laminations • >1cm – Beds
• Bedding Planes – surface of exposure between
– Hints at paleo-environment! *Current ripple marks – wind or water in one direction *Oscillatory ripple marks – waves barely touch bottom, tidal
• Graded beds
– Coarse at the bottom to fine on top
• Slowing current!
R a i I p re ssi n s n m o
M u d cra cks
Tra ce Fo ssi s l