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An historical, musicological and artistic analysis of the development and use of the sustaining, sostenuto and una corda pedals of the piano with particular reference to the music of Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Schumann and Brahms.
BEc LL B (Sydney) A Mus A (Piano Performing)
complete or up to date. they do not take responsibility for any loss or damage that happens as a result of using or relying on the contents of this publication and they are not giving advice in this publication.carter@bigpond. criticism or review) no part of this book may be reproduced. research. a fair dealing for the purposes of study.Published in 2009 by Wensleydale Press ABN 30 628 090 446 165/137 Victoria Street. Ashfield Copyright © Gerard Carter 2009 All rights reserved. or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior permission. This book is copyright.com Designed and printed in Australia by Wensleydale Press. Enquiries should be made to the publisher. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968 (for example. 2 . reliable. stored in a retrieval system. ISBN 978-0-9807452-0-7 This publication is sold and distributed on the understanding that the publisher and the author cannot guarantee that the contents of this publication are accurate. Ashfield NSW 2131 Tel +61 2 9799 4226 Email gerard.
1: Introduction 2: The fortepiano 3: The modern pianoforte 4: Bach 5: Haydn 6: Clementi 7: Mozart 8: Steibelt 9: Beethoven 10: Hummel 11: Schubert 12: Mendelssohn 13: Schumann 14: Chopin 15: Liszt 16: Brahms Bibliography About the author Publications by Wensleydale Press List of illustrations Illustrations
if any. as distinct from syncopated. musicological and artistic analysis of the development and use of the sustaining. refer to the sustaining pedal or to pedals in general or to their predecessors. sostenuto and una corda pedals of the piano. depending on the context. Schubert. Urtext editions may be supplemented by facsimile. „Pedalling‟ is the English/Australian spelling and „pedaling‟ is the North American spelling. the characteristics of the piano being used and the acoustic of the room or hall may also be taken into account. inserted by the composer. Haydn. „Bar‟ and „classical‟ represent the English/Australian usage and „measure‟ and „classic‟ represent the North American usage. 4 . The colour image on the front cover is of Beethoven‟s Broadwood piano. Mendelssohn. and by listening to historic disc and piano roll recordings made by pianists with a connection to the composer or to the composer‟s musical tradition. „Pedal‟ and „pedalling‟. original and interpretative editions. Liszt. half pedalling and vibrato pedalling. It also includes a detailed discussion of Beethoven‟s controversial marking in the first movement of the Moonlight Sonata. The pianist‟s knowledge. When considering what pedalling a pianist proposes to use in relation to a particular piano piece. Chopin. the pianist may consider the use of refinements such as partial pedalling. personal taste. Schumann and Brahms.1: INTRODUCTION „Pedalling the Piano‟ provides an historical. Apart from the use of rhythmic. with particular reference to the music of Bach. Mozart. he or she may consult an ürtext edition to ascertain the pedal markings. pedalling. experience. Beethoven.
Other innovations. Cristofori‟s instruments instead used thicker. Fortepianos usually had hand stops or knee levers to achieve the result of the later pedals. In comparison. The fortepiano had leather-covered hammers and thin harpsichord-like strings. tinkling in the high treble. in Cristofori‟s instruments the hammers struck more than one string at a time and Cristofori used pairs of strings throughout the range. They were noble and slightly buzzing in the bass. As with all later pianos. up to the early nineteenth century. Fortepianos also had quite different tone quality in their different registers. 5 . Cristofori is most admired today for his ingenious fortepiano action which was more subtle and effective than that of many later instruments. It had a much lighter case construction than the modern piano and had no metal frame or bracing. tenser strings. The fortepiano was invented by the harpsichord maker Bartolomeo Cristofori around 1700. were also needed to make the fortepiano possible. depending on the player‟s touch. mounted on a frame considerably more robust than that of contemporary harpsichords. and more rounded and closest to the modern piano in the middle range. The range of the fortepiano at the time of its invention was about four octaves and this was gradually increased. from its invention by the Italian instrument maker Bartolomeo Cristofori around 1700. however. Merely attaching the Cristofori action to a harpsichord would have produced a very weak tone.2: THE FORTEPIANO The term „fortepiano‟ refers to the early version of the piano. modern pianos are more uniform in sound through their range. Mozart wrote his piano music for instruments of about five octaves. which gave rise to a lighter and more responsive touch. The action and hammers were lighter. As in the modern piano. The tone of the fortepiano was softer and less sustained than the tone of the modern piano. The piano works of Beethoven reflect a gradually expanding range and his last works are for an instrument of about six octaves. Accents stood out more than on the modern piano as they differed from softer notes in timbre as well as volume and decayed rapidly. the fortepiano could vary the sound volume of each note. Pianos eventually attained a range of 7 1/3 octaves.
Silbermann had royal support. The improvement in Silbermann‟s instruments may have resulted from having seen an actual Cristofori piano rather than merely reading Maffei‟s article. but later instruments encountered by Bach in his Berlin visit apparently met with the composer‟s approval. The piano action Maffei described does not match that found on surviving Cristofori instruments. Germany. the damper pedal became the foundation of piano sound. Germany. The Viennese action was simpler than the Cristofori action and was very sensitive to the player‟s touch. in his case from Frederick the Great who bought many of his instruments. Silbermann is credited with the invention of the forerunner of the damper pedal which removes the dampers from all the strings at once. The force needed to depress a key on a Viennese fortepiano was only about one quarter of what it is on a modern piano and the descent of the key was only about one half as much. It is not known for sure whether the modern soft pedal descended directly from Cristofori‟s work or arose independently. who worked in Augsburg. His previous experience had been in building organs. It was Gottfried Silbermann who brought the construction of fortepianos to the Germanspeaking countries. Stein‟s fortepianos had „backwards‟ hammers. the lifting of all the dampers was used primarily as a colouristic device. 6 . but they were simple to make and were widely incorporated into square pianos. Instruments without an escapement were were the subject of criticism. permitting them to vibrate freely. which he made from memory. or Cristofori may have improved his action during the period following Maffei‟s article. Silbermann. In the post-fortepiano era of the nineteenth century. One of the most distinguished fortepiano builders in the era following Silbermann was one of his pupils. harpsichords and clavichords. began to make pianos based on Cristofori‟s design around 1730. Silbermann‟s instruments were famously criticised by Johann Sebastian Bach around 1736. An escapement is the device that permits the hammer to fall to rest position even when the key has been depressed. with the striking end closer to the player than the hinged end. The fortepiano builders who followed Silbermann introduced actions that were simpler than the Cristofori action. Maffei either erred in his diagram. Throughout the classical period.Cristofori was the first to use a form of soft pedal in a piano by means of a hand stop which caused the hammers to strike fewer than the maximum number of strings. who worked in Freiburg. even to the point of lacking an escapement. even when the more flexible knee levers or the pedals had been installed. Johann Andreas Stein. Thus playing the Viennese fortepiano involved nothing like the athleticism exercised by modern piano virtuosos but did require exquisite sensitivity of touch. which came to rely on the sympathetic vibrations of the undamped but unstruck strings. Like Cristofori. This action came to be called the „Viennese‟ action and was widely used in Vienna even on pianos up to the mid nineteenth century. particularly in a widely quoted letter from Mozart to his father. Silbermann‟s device was in fact only a hand stop and thus could be changed only at a pause in the music.
Later on in the early nineteenth century more robust instruments with greater range were built in Vienna. a maker who had emigrated from Germany and worked for a while in the workshop of the great harpsichord maker Burkat Shudi. as his 1777 letter makes clear. was an important innovator in the evolution of the fortepiano into the piano. The older type of instrument ceased to be made. a friend of Mozart. The two were friends of Beethoven and one of Beethoven‟s pianos was a Streicher. sometimes known as the „old man‟s head‟. two of Shudi‟s workmen. but his own piano was by Walter. The Broadwood company. This included making cracks in the wood into which he would then insert wedges. Unlike contemporary Viennese instruments. English grand fortepianos had three strings per note rather then two. which survives to this day. with John Broadwood and Robert Stodart. on which Mozart commented. restrained veneer work on the exterior. Another important builder in this period was Conrad Graf who made Beethoven‟s last piano. Graf was one of the first Viennese makers to build pianos in quantity as a large business enterprise. produced a more advanced action than Zumpe‟s. more robust sound than the Viennese one. Zumpe‟s instruments proved very popular (they were imitated outside of England) and played a major role in the displacement of the harpsichord by the piano. Stein‟s fortepiano business was carried on in Vienna by his daughter Nannette Streicher. John Broadwood married the master‟s daughter. with elegant. though it required a deeper touch and was less sensitive. The early English grand pianos by these builders physically resembled Shudi harpsichords which were very imposing. in 1769 and ultimately took over and renamed the Shudi firm. Another important Viennese builder was Anton Walter. continued through two more generations of Streichers. who built instruments with a more powerful sound than Stein‟s. along with her husband Johann Andreas Streicher. This „English Grand action‟ with an escapement and check enabled a louder. Barbara Shudi. Zumpe made inexpensive square pianos that had a very simple action. These square pianos were also the medium of the first public performances on the instrument. Americus Backers. The fortepianos of Stein and Walter are widely used today as models for the construction of new fortepianos. Although hardly a technological advancement in the fortepiano. notably by Johann Christian Bach. lacking an escapement. The Streicher firm.Stein put the wood used in his instruments through a very severe weathering process. 7 . The English fortepiano had a humble origin in the work of Johann Cristoph Zumpe. Mozart admired the Stein fortepianos. It shipped a piano to Beethoven in Vienna which he evidently treasured. This gave his instruments a long life. and there are several instruments still surviving today. Starting in the middle to late 1760s. From the late eighteenth century the fortepiano underwent extensive technological development and evolved into the modern piano. for example.
8 . fortepianos are sometimes built from kits purchased from expert makers. Among the more prominent modern builders have been Philip Belt. The reintroduction of the fortepiano has permitted performances of the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century music on the instruments for which it was written. This attempted revival of the fortepiano was. Paul McNulty and Roger Regier. yielding insights into this music. In was only in the latter half of the twentieth century that the fortepiano was effectively revived as part of the authentic performance movement that began at that time and has continued to this day. As with harpsichords. This revival closely resembled the twentieth century revival of the harpsichord though occurring somewhat later in time. however.In the late nineteenth century the early music pioneer Arnold Dolmetsch built three fortepianos. several decades ahead of its time and did not lead to widespread adoption of the instrument. Old fortepianos were restored and new ones were built along the lines of the old.
In modern pianos there are three strings per note. This softens the note and modifies its tone quality but does not change the touch or feel of the action. extensive use of the pedal. The soft pedal was invented by Cristofori and thus it appeared on the very earliest pianos. Use of the pedal assists the pianist to play legato. is usually simply called the pedal since it is the one most frequently used. because pianos were made with only two strings per note and therefore just one string would be struck. however. The result of this is that hammers that normally strike all three of the strings for a note strike only two of them. such as Haydn and Mozart. or una corda pedal. is always placed at the left hand of the other pedal(s). all the strings are left free to vibrate sympathetically with whatever notes are being played. except in the top two octaves. includes a damper. the loud pedal. The equivalent to the present-day sustaining pedal in eighteenth century pianos consisted of levers which were pressed upwards by the player‟s knees. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the soft pedal was more effective than it is today. including the keyboard. which is a pad that prevents the note‟s strings from vibrating. by raising the dampers.3: THE MODERN PIANOFORTE Every modern piano has at least two pedals. and enables the pianist to sustain notes that he or she cannot hold with the fingers. to play notes in a smooth. Pedalling is one of the techniques a pianist must master since piano music from Chopin on benefits from. connected manner. It is always at the right hand of the other pedal(s). that is. The strings are spaced 9 . The soft pedal. The sustaining pedal. also called the damper pedal or. incorrectly. a sustaining pedal and a soft pedal. On a grand piano the soft pedal shifts the whole action. slightly to the right. The mechanism for each note. This is the origin of the name „una corda‟ which is Italian for „one string‟. and Beethoven in his early works. except for lower notes which have two and the very lowest which have only one. In contrast. all the dampers on the piano are lifted at once so that all the piano strings are free from contact with the dampers. the pedal was used more sparingly by the composers of the classical period. When the pedal is pressed. Use of the pedal also enriches the piano‟s tone because. Normally the damper is raised off the strings whenever the key for that note is pressed. and indeed requires.
It operates a mechanism that moves the resting position of the hammers closer to the strings. This makes it possible to sustain individual note(s) while the player‟s hands are free to play other notes. 10 . This drops a strip of felt between the hammers and the strings so that the notes are greatly muted. Some upright pianos have a celeste pedal which can be locked into place by pressing it and pushing it to one side. On an upright piano the soft pedal works entirely differently. Since the hammers have less distance to travel this reduces the speed at which they hit the strings and hence the tone volume is somewhat reduced. It keeps raised any damper that was already raised at the moment the pedal was pressed. This is useful for pedal points in organ transcriptions. however. does not change the tone quality in the way that the una corda pedal does on a grand piano. is found on grand pianos.too closely to permit a true „una corda‟ effect because if shifted far enough to strike just one string on a note at a time the hammers would hit the string of the next note. The sostenuto pedal. This. or middle pedal.
but the best examples had a splendid sound. so a performance of a Bach keyboard work on the modern piano is. It may also be futile as the division between the two instruments did not on the whole work that way. gentle tone and was not suitable for public music making. at least to some extent. The clavichord had a very soft. Bach otherwise wrote for the harpsichord and clavichord. 11 . Bach‟s keyboard works were written for the pipe organ. The harpsichord was the instrument of public music making. a transcription. to go through Bach‟s keyboard works trying to decide which were written for harpsichord and which were written for clavichord will tend to be inconclusive. Some of Bach‟s compositions such as his Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue and his Italian Concerto were obviously written for a two manual harpsichord. He did not write specifically for the piano. Bach wrote many of his keyboard compositions for the pipe organ or the pedal harpsichord and he wrote his Italian Concerto specifically for a two manual harpsichord. usually accompanying string instruments. Bach was not very impressed with the early pianos produced by Gottfried Silbermann as he considered that the treble sound was too weak. He did approve of later models but it seems that he never wrote for the piano. Harpsichord tone lacked dynamic nuance because the string was plucked mechanically. was portable and was the ordinary instrument of domestic music making. It did have the advantage that it could produce dynamic nuances within a small scale. pedal harpsichord and clavichord.4: BACH (1685-1750) Johann Sebastian Bach was the master of the high baroque period. which is a much older and simpler instrument. The harpsichord was a much more complex and expensive instrument than the clavichord. harpsichord. The clavichord. Harpsichords would have been owned mainly by the wealthy classes and comfortably off musicians. Apart from compositions such as these. so far as we know.
had a device that lifted all the dampers. Some said that Bach should not be played on the piano at all. As it was a hand drawknob there was limited scope for its use unless one drew it for the duration of a whole piece or the whole section of a piece. The organist and composer Charles-Marie Widor (1844-1937) said that this was the correct style for the playing of Bach‟s works on the organ. Some played without dynamic nuance and imitated the terraced dynamics of the harpsichord. Some pianists conceded that the legato rule was modified on the piano when an upper part of the contrapuntal texture was in semiquavers and a lower part was in quavers. The solution to the above issues must ultimately be found in the choice of the individual pianist. only on the harpsichord or clavichord. Of those who allowed Bach to be played on the piano. The question of pedalling in Bach arises because neither the harpsichord nor the clavichord had a device that lifted all the dampers. In recent times things seem to have stabilised somewhat and there seems to be a trend to play Bach musically with plenty of dynamic nuances and some rhythmic freedom. Others brought in a very free way of playing. some use it sparingly and some use it less sparingly. The Silbermann piano. phrases should be rather short. and the final note should be detached.There was a time when it was said that legato was the proper touch for Bach‟s keyboard works. Some said that one should not use the soft pedal when playing Bach on the piano. some used the metronomic approach and some played every note staccato. Owing to the evanescent tone of those instruments such a device would not have been much use. When playing Bach on the modern piano some pianists avoid the sustaining pedal. 12 . which Bach knew. As more research was done on historical performance style some said that a non legato touch should be the usual touch. In that case it was said that the quavers should be played staccato. some used the typewriter approach.
5: HAYDN (1732-1809)
Joseph Haydn was born over twenty years before Mozart and outlived him by ten years. In their joint lifetime they had a close musical and personal friendship. Haydn‟s early keyboard sonatas seem to have been composed with the harpsichord in mind. As the sound of a harpsichord is quite evanescent, a device for raising the dampers generally was apparently never fitted to harpsichords. When Haydn started providing crescendo and diminuendo markings in his keyboard sonatas they were presumably composed with the piano in mind. Haydn generally did not indicate the use of the pedal in his piano sonatas but there is an exception. In his last sonata, H. XVI/50 from 1794-1795, a long pedal effect is indicated by the marking „open pedal - - - ‟. This effect involves the blurring of tonic and dominant harmonies. Apart from this it is possible to use carefully changed pedal in numerous places in the Haydn sonatas but it would seem that overall he tends to write without a pedalled sonority in mind.
Carl Czerny (1791-1857). said that Clementi was not known for an extreme use of the pedal during his performing career. 1 a single pedal marking stretches across 16 bars of music. rewrite many of his earlier piano works. This was especially so in Clementi‟s later works. Lengthy pedallings sometimes involved the blurring of two harmonies. inserting pedal markings as well as extending compasses. however. such as in the slow movement of his Sonata „Diudone Abbandonata‟. In his Sonata opus 40 no.6: CLEMENTI (1752-1832) Muzio Clementi‟s treatise „Introduction to the Art of Playing on the Pianoforte‟ was published in London in 1810 but there is no mention of pedalling in the first edition of that treatise. who was a pupil of Beethoven from 1801 to 1803. 14 . Clementi did.
Mozart had other pianos at his disposal. although it is in many ways altered from the instrument Mozart originally owned. such as the Stein. It became his main concert instrument in Vienna. The present writer has played on a modern copy of that piano and found that operating the knee levers for any length of time is quite tiring for the upper leg muscles.‟ It seems that in Mozart‟s time not all pianos had knee levers and that a pianist could never be sure that he or she would be playing on a piano fitted with that device. You only need to touch it and it works. In 1782 Mozart acquired a Walter piano for which he „had a special preference‟ according to his son Carl. although it lacked knee levers for pedalling. 15 . The left lever removed all the dampers from the lower half of the piano and the right lever removed all the dampers from the upper half of the piano. you do not hear the slightest remainder of sound. This Walter piano is preserved in Mozart‟s Gebertshaus in Salzburg.7: MOZART (1756-1791) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart‟s earliest keyboard works were not composed for the piano but for the clavichord or harpsichord. It seems that by the 1780s many pianos were fitted with „genouillères‟ or knee levers. These were levers attached below the keyboard and were operated by an upward movement of the pianist‟s knees. We know this from Mozart‟s Stein piano which has down to us and dates from the 1780s. Mozart wrote to his father by letter dated 17 October 1777 about the pedalling mechanism of the Stein piano: „The device which you work with your knee is better than what is found on other instruments. did have knee levers. Later on. some of which. they were composed with the piano in mind. and as soon as you move your knee the least bit. although the changeover in performing practice was not precise as the older instruments coexisted with the newer instruments.
beautifies the sound and assists the legato in cantabile passages. This may.‟ Mozart never indicated.‟ It is said that Hummel advised the use of the pedal only in the slow movements of Mozart‟s piano works. It has been said. be too isolated a case to enable one to draw any general conclusion as to Mozart‟s use. in his opinion. It has also been said. wrote: „Neither Mozart. arpeggios and even through melodies containing rests. on the one hand. in any of his works for or with piano. Czerny wrote that. The use of the pedal. of course. that in Mozart one can use pedal harmonically through chordal passages. and never obligato [required]. in which case he seems to be implying the use of a device to raise all the dampers at once. of such a device. 16 . that one should not use the pedal in the performance of Mozart‟s works on the modern piano. required these helps to obtain the highly deserved reputation of the greatest.It is apparent from Mozart‟s style of writing for the piano that it is possible to make sense of his piano works without a device to raise all the dampers at once. It has been pointed out in recent times that Mozart did write two bars in which it is not possible to hold the notes with the fingers. the use of a device to raise the dampers. in Mozart‟s music: „The Pedal [is] seldom used. No authoritative answer may ever be found. but it would seem on stylistic grounds that the use of pedal in Mozart on the modern piano should be somewhat sparing and that it should not perhaps be used to create „effects‟. on the other hand. performers of their day. nor Clementi. if any. Hummel. who studied with Mozart. There are as many intermediate views as there are pianists. and most expressive. of course.
8: STEIBELT (1765-1823) Daniel Steibelt was a German pianist and composer. These were apparently the first pedal markings ever to be contained in published piano music. He inserted pedal marks in two of his piano works published in Paris in 1793. He lived in Paris in 1790-1796 and thereafter in London. 17 .
9: BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)
Pedal markings generally Beethoven‟s first markings in his piano sonatas for the raising of all the dampers together appear in each of the three movements of his Sonata in A flat opus 26 of 1801, although a „mit dem Knie‟ marking had appeared in an unpublished piano sketch fragment in 1792. The markings in the sonata indicated short washes of tonic harmony, mainly at the end of each movement. Markings were „senza sordino‟ („without dampers‟) and „con sordino‟ („with dampers‟). At this time the dampers were still raised by levers which were operated by an upwards movement of the pianist‟s knees. Pedals were invented and in use in England in the 1790s but only made their way across to Europe after 1800. Beethoven‟s „senza sordino‟ and „con sordino‟ markings in his piano concertos occurred in his concertos no. 1 in C major in 1795, no. 2 in B flat major in 1793 and no. 3 in C minor in 1803. (Concerto no. 2 was written first.) In his later piano works Beethoven marked the use of the pedal by the modern method „ped‟ followed by an asterisk, indicating that by that time he was composing for a piano with a pedal as distinct from knee levers. This change first occurred in 1803 in the final movement of his Sonata in C major opus 53 „Waldstein‟ although in that particular case Beethoven‟s mark for depressing the pedal in his autograph manuscript was a circle. In subsequent piano works he used the now normal „ped‟ markings. Beethoven marked the use of pedal liberally in that movement. These markings called for the sustaining of a bass note through tonic-dominant effects in the upper register, pedalling of scale runs and many instances of pedalling through rests. This is a significant early example of a physiological approach to piano notation combined with a modern pedalled sonority for the piano. Beethoven usually marked the pedal to indicate special effects, such as broad washes of one harmony and sometimes two (and, more rarely, three) harmonies. He was not usually concerned to prescribe pedalling for ordinary melodic phrases but, as he marked the use of the pedal, or its predecessor, about 800 times throughout his works for or with piano, it is clear that he took a close interest in pedal sonority. 18
Piano Sonata in F minor op. Piano Concerto no. 59: Beethoven marks the use of the pedal to create tonic/dominant effects in the outer movements.In every slow movement of Beethoven‟s sonatas. harpsichord and the early fortepianos) had a continuing influence on his style of writing for the piano. Pedal is marked through cadential tonic chords and rests. 57 („Appassionata‟) contains a number of long pedal markings to create washes of harmonic colour sometimes with blurred effects. third movement: Pedal is marked through staccato chordal notes separated by rests. final movement: The „con sordino‟ for the upwards arpeggios is ended by the „senza sordino‟ for the two staccato chords. except the Sonata in B flat major opus 106 „Hammerklavier‟. A few further examples Piano Sonata in C sharp minor op. This suggests that. Piano Trio no. 7 in B flat major op. This is very effective and is specifically so marked by the composer because it might be contrary to how a pianist might intuitively play it. Una corda pedal In Beethoven‟s time the „una corda‟ pedal could move the hammers sideways in stages so that they could strike three strings (tre corde). 19 . which marking was absent previously thus presumably indicating a special effect the second time. Piano Concerto no 5 in E flat major op. the earlier unpedalled piano style (influenced by the clavichord. Piano Sonata in E flat major op. despite Beethoven‟s innovations. 27 no. In the middle movement he specifically marks the pedalling to go through a number of quaver rests following arpeggiated chords with the pedal lifted so as to produce an air pause apparently for the last semiquaver. Beethoven‟s intended effect is not fully possible with the modern „una corda‟ pedal which shifts the hammers from three strings to two strings only. This produced a grading in tone of which Beethoven took advantage in a number of places marked by him in his later sonatas. 97 („Archduke‟): Beethoven marks pedalling to create washes of pedal through rests and staccatos. 4 in G major op. Some pedalling through tonic/dominant harmonies and staccatos is also marked. it is possible to sustain the notes for their full notated lengths without resort to the pedal. 73 („Emperor‟): Beethoven marks pedalling to create washes of pedal through broken chords and chords separated by rests. 2 („Moonlight‟). 81A („Les Adieux‟). two strings (due corde) or one string (una corda).
‟ Beethoven completed the „Moonlight‟ Sonata in 1801 and dedicated it to his pupil.Did Beethoven really want the dampers raised unchanged throughout the whole of the first movement of the ‘Moonlight’ Sonata? The ‘Moonlight’ Sonata Piano Sonata in C sharp minor „Quasi una fantasia‟ opus 27 no. to the point of irritating the composer. 2 by Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) is known as the „Moonlight‟ Sonata. and the „Moonlight‟ Sonata came in at number one. It was also very popular in Beethoven‟s day. It is the most popular of Beethoven‟s piano sonatas and is the most popular piano piece ever written. In 2004 ABC Classic FM and Limelight Magazine asked Australia‟s music lovers „What‟s the one piece of piano music you can‟t live without?‟ Almost ten thousand people voted. resulting in the definitive guide to Australia‟s favourite 100 piano masterpieces. although a slow movement. The first movement. It was published in 1802. „Surely I‟ve written better things. It has been reproduced in full in facsimile edition. who once remarked to his distinguished pupil Carl Czerny. Its nickname derives not from Beethoven but from an 1832 description of the first movement by the poet Ludwig Rellstab who said that it reminded him of the moonlight shining upon Lake Lucerne. the seventeen year old Countess Giulietta Guicciardi. is actually in first movement sonata form. First edition The first edition of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata was first published in Vienna by Cappi and advertised in the Wiener Zeitung on 3 March 1802. It shows Beethoven‟s two opening directions in the first movement as: „Si deve suonare tutto questo pezzo delicatissimamente e Senza Sordino/ 20 . Beethoven‟s subtitle „Quasi una fantasia‟ means „almost a fantasy‟ and refers to the fact that the sequence of the movements departs from the traditional fast-slow-fast sequence of a classical sonata. the middle movement is a conventional minuet and trio and the final movement is in sonata rondo form.
Czerny commented in 1846: 21 . These markings were presumably inserted by Beethoven after the rest of the manuscript was penned. The remaining leaves of the autograph are in the Beethoven-Archiv in Bonn and have been reproduced in facsimile edition. or folio. Beethoven used the word „pezzo‟ („piece‟) in the first of his two directions in the first movement. In the absence of the missing leaves. of course. He may have originally intended the first movement to be a stand-alone piece. Czerny commented in 1830: „The pedal indicated is to be used again with each new bass note‟. Czerny was the piano teacher of Franz Liszt and a close friend of Frédéric Chopin. we have no way of checking to see if Beethoven‟s handwritten opening directions throw any light on the subject. but the „senza sordino‟ and „con sordino‟ markings in the final movement are a light brown colour. and wrote „Fine‟ at the end of the first movement but later crossed it out. The autograph that has come down to us is black in colour. and the final three bars of the last movement) have been missing from the autograph of the „Moonlight Sonata since 1830. Beethoven’s autograph The first and final leaves (consisting of the title page. Czerny’s view 1830. The unchanged pedal requires the pianist to use the sustaining pedal throughout the whole of the first movement and to keep it unchanged throughout. 1846 Carl Czerny (1791-1857) was a pupil of Beethoven from 1801 to 1803 and studied with him all his piano sonatas including. Presumably Beethoven himself played parts of his own sonatas at the lessons.Sempre pp e Senza Sordino‟ These directions may be translated as: „The entire piece [that is. the whole of the first movement] must be played as delicately as possible and without dampers/ Throughout very softly and without dampers‟ In the first edition there is an extra space before the commencement of the words „e Senza Sordino‟ where first appearing. Traditional pedalling and unchanged pedal The traditional pedalling requires the pianist to use the sustaining pedal throughout the whole of the first movement but to change it constantly in accordance with the changing bass octaves and harmonies. the first thirteen bars of the first movement. the „Moonlight‟ Sonata.
was not solved on the short-toned piano. secretary and amanuensis. a crescendo and accelerando may. “the pedal indicated is to be used again with each new bass note”. the whole movement should be played with raised dampers. Moreover. the pedal was not then in existence. precisely and dogmatically what „is to be‟ or what „must be‟ be observed. the pedalling is marked by Beethoven to be regularly changed. In addition. sempre senza sordini. although there are several changes of harmony under each unchanged pedal. was stating crisply. He wrote a book called „Beethoven as I Knew Him‟ which he issued in 1840 and re-issued in 1860 in greatly expanded form. Czerny corrects the composer and writes: “Since the measure is alla breve. Critique of Czerny’s view It may be argued that Czerny. the whole piece must be played in a moderate andante tempo. Czerny. that in the first movement of this sonata. In the slow movement of that concerto. Beethoven marked this movement simply as adagio. Accomplished pianists in the second decade were disturbed by the senza sordini instruction because by that time the pianos could already produce a fuller tone. The first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata lasts for six minutes. that is. opus 27. however. however. The desired sustaining of the notes in this simple melody. as transmitter of the authentic Beethoven tradition. No. There is a crescendo in bars 26-28 and a crescendo in bar 58 followed by a piano [subito] in bar 59. There are many more changes of harmony in the „Moonlight‟ Sonata first movement and there are constant octaves in the bass and continuous moving triplet quavers in the right hand. just as Chopin did later in his mazurkas. in any event. who immediately began to exploit this improvement of the instrument.” What a distance there is between adagio and andante!‟ Critique of Schindler’s view 22 . Beethoven‟s own markings move from „senza sordino‟ to „con sordino‟ four times in the pianissimo opening theme. Beethoven noted at the beginning of the first movement of his sonata in C sharp minor. 2. Schindler’s view 1840. according to Czerny. be inserted in bars 32-35. It may be argued that the situations are quite different. and the performers had at their disposal the pedal which they could use effectively.„The prescribed pedal must be re-employed at each note in the bass‟. Proponents of the unchanged pedal theory use Beethoven‟s markings in the slow movement of his Piano Concerto in C minor to support their argument. He did not enter into any discussion on the matter as he did in relation to the slow movement of the C minor piano concerto where. Schindler stated. which was supposed to sound like a horn. 1860 Anton Schindler (1795-1864) was Beethoven‟s friend. said in the 1830‟s when the piano tone had been considerably increased. at page 422: „As we know. This was done with the knee. because all the notes sounded together. McArdle it was reprinted by Dover Press in 1996. As annotated by Donald W.
Apart from this he did not survive into the recording age. Weimar in 1885 was even more wonderful than the performance by Anton Rubinstein (1829-1894). If he did. The first movement was a favourite of Liszt‟s and. 23 . Chopin’s view 1840s Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849) never met Beethoven. It may be argued that if Rubinstein had used such an unusual pedalling as the unchanged pedalling. at least in his later years. Chopin admired and often played the „Moonlight‟ Sonata. or anything like it. who died three years before Chopin arrived in Vienna for a short stay in 1830. Weimar and left a glowing account in his memoirs. If he did. Critique of Liszt’s view It may be argued that Liszt supported the traditional pedalling. we do not know on what basis. however. we do not know on what basis. surely Siloti would have also included a comment about that. however. write his comments nearly sixty years after Beethoven published his „Moonlight‟ Sonata and his book has been shown to be unreliable in a number of details. Critique of Chopin’s view It may be argued that Chopin supported the traditional pedalling. was a friend of Carl Czerny (1791-1857) and was also a friend of Franz Liszt (1811-1886) at least during the 1830s. he did not allow anyone to play it in his presence. The Edison wax cylinder recording process was in existence in the 1880s but it seems that Liszt was never asked to record his piano playing. yet nothing has come down to us from Siloti as to this. it may be argued that surely Siloti would have made some comment as to this. Chopin. If he had used unchanged pedal in the first movement it may be argued that surely some reference to it would have come down to us in the various memoirs of Chopin‟s playing and teaching. Anton Rubinstein’s view 1880s Liszt‟s pupil Alexander Siloti also commented in his memoir that Liszt‟s private performance of the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata at the Hofgärtnerei. There are no harmonic blurring effects in Chopin‟s own piano music and it seems that he was not particularly attracted to these kinds of effects. If Liszt had used the unchanged pedalling. Liszt’s view 1880s Franz Liszt (1811-1886) studied with Carl Czerny and would have studied the „Moonlight‟ Sonata with Czerny as it was always Beethoven‟s most popular sonata.Schindler‟s view is strong evidence for the unchanged pedal. Liszt pupil Alexander Siloti heard Liszt perform it privately in 1885 at the Hofgärtnerei. He did. or anything like it.
If this was so.e. we do not know on what basis.‟ If it is argued that Bülow and Lebert were of the view that Beethoven‟s original intention was to mandate the traditional pedalling. it may be argued that they would have written something more assertive than „not . On this view. The playing of the whole movement with unchanged pedal on that piano would have been such a striking and unusual thing to do that. without dampers) too literally. of course. and limited here to the most essential passages. The third tier was the traditional pedalling which they did not recommend presumably because it did not give the listener‟s ear any relief from pedalled sonority. page 254: „A more frequent use of the pedal than is marked by the editors. Hans von Bülow (1830-1894) was an early pupil and lifelong friend and musical colleague of Franz Liszt. The second tier was a somewhat more generous pedalling at the discretion of the pianist.. then there would have been three tiers to which they were referring. Critique of Anton Rubinstein view It may be argued that Anton Rubinstein supported the traditional pedalling. however. The editors stated at volume 1. The first tier was the pedalling they indicated specifically in the text as the minimum they believed was required. too literally‟ and would have added something like the following: „as keeping the pedal unchanged throughout the entire first movement. it may be argued. is allowable. to employ unchanged pedalling throughout the entire 24 . on the other hand. it is not advisable. Bülow & Lebert’s view 1894 The Bülow-Lebert edition of Beethoven‟s Piano Sonatas was published (reprinted) by Schirmer in 1894. be argued that Bülow and Lebert were of the view that Beethoven‟s original intention was to mandate the unchanged pedal. creates too much of a blur on the modern piano. Rubinstein refused to record for the Edison wax cylinder and otherwise did not survive into the recording age.‟ Critique of Bülow & Lebert’s view The injunction by Bülow & Lebert is not to take the original directions „too literally‟. It may. they would have specifically referred to the unchanged pedal if they believed this was the intention of Beethoven‟s directions. On this view the first and second tiers remained and the third tier was. but with some gaps in pedal sonority presumably to rest the listener‟s ear.Yet nothing has come down to us from Siloti as to this. to take the original directions sempre senza sordini (i. The piano of the second half of the nineteenth century with which Bülow and Lebert were familiar was more similar in sonority to the modern piano than to the Beethoven piano.. If he did. the unchanged pedalling of the entire movement. while it may have been possible on the Beethoven piano.
Critique of Schnabel’s view Schnabel would have been familiar with Bülow & Lebert‟s edition. as reported by Czerny. In relation to the first movement. Schnabel did not refer to the unchanged pedal at all. He did not otherwise survive into the recording age.‟ „As for senza sordini. to the 25 . or fairly close. this simply means “with raised dampers”. because Bülow & Lebert proposed something close. In the first movement of the C sharp minor Sonata he probably never changed the pedal at all. which was published (reprinted) by Schirmer in 1894. and on the feeble instruments of 1802 there was no reason for changing the pedal at all in this movement. as is argued above. take the whole first eight bars of the slow movement of the C minor Concerto with the pedal unchanged through all the modulations. Tovey’s view 1931 In about 1931 the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music published its edition of the Beethoven Sonatas which was edited by Harold Craxton and contained commentaries and notes by Donald Francis Tovey. In specific footnotes in that edition Schnabel never advocated anything other than literal adherence to Beethoven‟s pedal markings. and possibly other pieces. yet made no reference to it. Schnabel marked in each bar the traditional pedalling and did not indicate by footnote or otherwise that this in any way diverged from Beethoven‟s intention as embodied in Beethoven‟s two directions. Tovey stated: „On the early pianofortes many things could be allowed which would sound very messy on our present instruments. Bülow recorded a Chopin nocturne. Tovey also based his argument on the weak sound of the Beethoven piano in 1802 when the „Moonlight‟ Sonata was published. on the wax cylinder but nothing has come down to us. He did not give us the benefit of his assessment of other views such as those of Schindler and Bülow and Lebert. Schnabel’s view 1935 The edition by Artur Schnabel (1882-1951) of the Beethoven Sonatas was published by Simon & Schuster in 1935 and the fifth reprinting was in 1953.‟ Critique of Tovey’s view Tovey based his argument on the argued analogy with Beethoven‟s pedalling in the slow movement of his C minor concerto which he performed publicly in 1803. for the sound of the undamped strings did not outlast the slow changes of harmony. in a pianissimo. This may have been.movement would constitute taking the „original directions too literally‟ because this would have created too much of a blur on the modern piano. Thus Beethoven could.
an effect that Berlioz endorsed when Liszt exploited it in this movement. ethereal and wonderful as its effect may have been originally. Newman in „Performance practice in Beethoven‟s Piano Sonatas: An Introduction‟ (J. only an idolater like Schnabel would continue to apply Beethoven‟s instruction literally.M. “This whole piece must be played with the maximum delicacy and without mutes [that is.traditional pedalling.‟ Critique of Newman’s view Newman offers no justification for his view that it „seems unlikely‟ that „Beethoven was calling simply for constant pedalling as needed‟. 2. If he did see it.” Unless Beethoven was calling simply for constant pedalling as needed. 27. Constant pedal sonority. “constantly pianissimo and without mutes. Newman’s view 1972 William S. No. Schnabel used the traditional pedalling in his recording. Alternatively. 1972) stated at page 63: „Mention of Op. If he did not see it. brings up the influence of pedalling on tone. then this bases an argument that he did not think much it. dampers were raised on European pianos by the cumbersome method of raising the knee levers with an upward movement of the knees. on the modern piano. It may be argued that for Beethoven even to call for constant changed pedalling. Dent & Sons Ltd. But by 1846 Czerny recommended a change of pedal with each change of bass. especially as its first movement has the most debatable of several controversial instructions for pedalling that Beethoven left. he was asking to let the vibrations accumulate as long as the tones lasted.” and again. London. At the start he wrote. Newman also says: 26 . noting elsewhere that such blurring was intolerable on the newer. Schnabel would probably have seen Tovey‟s 1931 edition before he finalised the proofs for his own 1935 edition.‟ Up to and including the time the „Moonlight‟ Sonata was completed in 1801. more resonant pianos. then this bases an argument that the idea of the unchanged pedal was unknown to him at that time. has to a greater or lesser extent become the norm in piano playing since Beethoven‟s day but it was not so then. with raised dampers]. constantly changed. if this was because Bülow & Lebert postulated the unchanged pedal theory then this bases an argument that Schnabel did not think much of it. was to call for a very unusual way of playing the piano for those times. Artur Schnabel wrote in his Editor‟s Preface to his edition of the Beethoven Sonatas: „Quite often the Editor was guided by the pedagogic conception of a piano of which the tone colouring is unaided by the pedal – the fact being that the pedal is very seldom used in classical piano literature as a means of colouring. leaving aside the question of unchanged pedalling. Today. which seems unlikely.
as the instruments have acquired a much greater body of tone. Did Beethoven really intend these effects? Czerny is ambiguous on the subject. respectively. coinciding with the abandonment of knee levers in favour of foot pedals by piano manufacturers. which on the weak-sounding pianofortes of that day. 2. In his comments on Op. at each important change of harmony.” with an appropriate release sign (which originated in England) occurred within a few years. blur “the sound through harmonic clashes”.” 27 . I will comment in detail later on the third passage which is from pages 63-69. 27 No. we should advise the damper pedal to be employed anew. Almost all German and Austrian pianos of whatever design. especially when the shifting pedal [una corda] was also employed. The change from this terminology to the more commonly-used “ped. however. ethereal and wonderful as its effect may have been originally. only an idolater like Schnabel would continue to apply Beethoven‟s instruction literally. 2 he says that “the prescribed pedal must be re-employed at each note in the bass”. as Newman observes. the directions “Si deve suonare tutto questo pezzo delicatissimamente e senza sordino/ sempre pp e senza sordino” seem to suggest that the damper-raising pedal should be depressed throughout changes in harmony and melody. 58 and 63-69 of the article by David Rowland entitled „Beethoven‟s Pianoforte Pedalling‟ which is chapter 3 (pages 49-69) of „Performing Beethoven‟ edited by Robin Stowell and published as Cambridge Studies in Performance Practice (No. did very well.‟ (page 58) „The most controversial of all Beethoven‟s pedal markings are those which. „Pedals were virtually unknown on any pianos in Europe before the nineteenth century. with the notable exception of English instruments. In a similar instance from the beginning of the slow movement of the Third Piano Concerto. from pages 50. or simply suggesting a way of coming to terms with the pedal marking on a more modern piano.‟ Schnabel marked in each bar the traditional pedalling. The most notable is the first movement of the Sonata Op.„Today. But now. had a knee-lever or handstop for raising the dampers.‟ (page 50) „ “Senza sordini” and “con sordini” (meaning “without dampers” and “with dampers”) were the terms customarily used in Vienna for the damper-raising levers in the early years of the nineteenth century and occur in works by several other composers. He did not suggest that this in any way diverged from Beethoven‟s intention as embodied in Beethoven‟s indications. It is not clear from these remarks whether Czerny is relating Beethoven‟s own practice. thereby producing a confused sound on the modern piano and some blurring on an early instrument. Rowland’s view 1994 The following three passages are taken. In this case. 27 No. 4) in 1994. on the modern piano. Czerny explicitly states that Beethoven held down the damper-raising pedal throughout a lengthy passage with several changes of harmony: „ “Beethoven (who publicly played this Concerto in 1803) continued the pedal during the entire theme.
the shifting pedal is also relinquished. 2. 14]. apart from the question of the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata. „Beethoven seems to have been following a common trend in his use of the damper-raising pedal for lengthy passages including changes of harmony. 3.„This account is also interesting in that it shows how Beethoven used the una corda pedal alongside the damper-raising pedal to minimise the resonance of the instrument.)” „The evidence of Beethoven‟s markings and Czerny‟s remarks suggests that Beethoven probably did hold down the damper-raising pedal for lengthy passages. 1. 27 No. where the effects of harmonic blurring are reduced by the direction piano in bar 2. and even whole movements in the case of Op. is even more cautious with its use of a drone base throughout (Ex. In this forte. Similar passages can be found in the music of many composers around the turn of the century. then Beethoven was simply following established practice. and even whole movements in the case of Op. It was a relatively short-lived fashion. [Muzio Clementi (1752-1832) was the first composer to write for the piano. so as to reduce the resultant harmonic blurring. (Beethoven was not in the habit of marking the una corda at this date. which in bars 36 to 39 again decreases. 3.7 by Gelinek is a late instance. If this was indeed the case. because of the increasing resonance of pianos in the early years of the nineteenth century. published over a decade earlier.] „Even in these examples it would be just conceivable to argue that the composer might have intended the pedal to be released in the middle of the passage. in Vienna. which otherwise Beethoven was accustomed to employ throughout the whole piece. 2. it was only in music for the „Viennese‟ instrument that similar indications persisted for the first few years of the new century. however. however. Markings such as those described above had virtually disappeared in music intended for the heavier. his assertion in relation to „even whole movements‟ may be argued to involve a quantum leap in reasoning because. who observed: “The bars 32 to 35 remarkably crescendo and also accelerando up to forte. 27 No. 3. according to Czerny. The una corda pedal was also used in Op. 2. In addition. Ex. or could be.8). English-style piano by the year 1800. where the direction for the damper-raising pedal (the Grande pedalle) is for the whole variation. suggested that Beethoven required the pedal to be held unchanged through a complete movement. there is nowhere among the thousand or so pedal markings in Beethoven‟s entire corpus of works for or with piano where it has been.‟ (pages 63-69) Critique of Rowland’s view Rowland‟s view is: „The evidence of Beethoven‟s markings and Czerny‟s remarks suggests that Beethoven probably did hold down the damper-raising pedal for lengthy passages. 28 . 27 No. „A similar passage by Clementi.9 [François-Adrien Boïeldieu (1775-1834): Piano Concerto No. p. This can hardly have been the case in Ex.‟ [Italics supplied] Rowland qualifies his view with the words „suggests‟ and „probably‟. but that for the lute (the Sourdine) only for the quaver chords.
pianos with pedals were becoming available in Vienna to Beethoven by 1803. 2 he says that “the prescribed pedal must be re-employed at each note in the bass”. Rowland quotes Czerny‟s comment. 3 in C minor opus 37: „ “Beethoven (who publicly played this Concerto in 1803) continued the pedal during the entire theme. no problem would arise. as distinct from knee levers. in particular depending on what piano he had available. It may be. the shifting pedal is also relinquished. Rowland states: The una corda pedal was also used in Op. of course. It may be. and if he is also suggesting that Beethoven himself was accustomed to play it this way. It is not clear from these remarks whether Czerny is relating Beethoven‟s own practice. in which case. coupled with Czerny‟s direction that the sustaining pedal be changed with each change of harmony and bass note. of course. Czerny says „[I]n this forte. did very well. 2. as the instruments have acquired a much greater body of tone.‟ [Italics supplied] If changed pedalling was Beethoven‟s own practice then that is presumably the meaning of his markings. which on the weak-sounding pianofortes of that day. as distinct from knee levers. which otherwise Beethoven was accustomed to employ throughout the whole piece. in which case it may be argued that he never intended unchanged pedal. especially when the shifting pedal [una corda] was also employed. in relation to the slow movement of Beethoven Piano Concerto no. which otherwise Beethoven was accustomed to employ throughout the whole piece.)” If Czerny is here suggesting that Beethoven himself inserted the crescendo in bars 32 to 35. In his comments on Op. In this forte. we should advise the damper pedal to be employed anew. But now. that Beethoven played the first movement in different ways at different times. or simply suggesting a way of coming to terms with the pedal marking on a more modern piano. according to Czerny.Rowland goes on to ask: „Did Beethoven really intend these effects? Czerny is ambiguous on the subject. 27 No. (Beethoven was not in the habit of marking the una corda at this date. the shifting pedal is also relinquished. who observed: “The bars 32 to 35 remarkably crescendo and also accelerando up to forte. 27 No. then it must have sounded cacophonous in this part of the movement if the sustaining pedal was unchanged during the entire first movement.” ‟ Czerny seems to be describing Beethoven‟s performance of the concerto on a piano with pedals. 29 . which in bars 36 to 39 again decreases. at each important change of harmony. In this case. that the crescendo was purely Czerny‟s idea. Czerny seems also to be describing times when Beethoven played the first movement of his „Moonlight‟ Sonata on a piano with pedals.‟ The „shifting pedal‟ is the „una corda‟ pedal as is implicit in the matter which Czerny appends in round brackets.
he can also require the pedal as a form of orchestration. at page 108. the character of this movement requires the pedal to be changed discretely [sic] to avoid creating harmonic sludge. just enough to raise the dampers off the strings to allow them to vibrate freely. a unique essay in tone colour: here he wanted the entire piece to be played with pedal.. similar to the initial sempre pianissimo indication.. but sound bathed in its own warmth with hints of the surrounding harmonies. in fact. that is. 2001 Charles Rosen in „The Romantic Generation‟ (Harvard University Press. to be played. 2001). in his „Beethoven‟s Piano Sonatas: A Short Companion (Yale University Press. repeats his view and adds some advice on modification of the unchanged pedal on the modern piano: „The first movement of the “Moonlight Sonata” is . While I depress the pedal only slightly. . 27 no. 1995) stated at page 20: „In an early work like the Moonlight Sonata. 2002) stated at pages 124 and 125: „I think the senza sordini indication is intended to create a special kind of sound – nothing dry. a wonderful atmospheric sonority which can. in effect. in fact. very delicately (delicatissimamente) with full pedal throughout (senza sordini) (“without dampers”) on an early nineteenth-century instrument with little sustaining power. My comments on Newman‟s views. supports Newman‟s view and would presumably rely on the same kinds of arguments. with half changes and delayed changes of pedal.. Even on his piano this made for a slight blurring. apply to Rosen‟s views. therefore. Playing the first movement of the Moonlight as Beethoven directed. delicately and pianissimo without ever changing the pedal.‟ Critique of Taub’s view My comments applying to Rosen‟s view apply similarly to Taub‟s view. New Haven. In Sonata Op. but only by exercising great care. Schiff’s view 2006 30 . produces a lovely sonority difficult to reproduce on a modern keyboard.‟ Critique of Rosen’s view Rosen does not advance any arguments but. Taub’s view 2002 Robert Taub.Rosen’s view 1995. without lowering the dampers onto the strings. in „Playing the Beethoven Piano Sonatas‟ (Amadeus Press. His only real discussion is of the modifications he believes to be appropriate to implement the unchanged pedal on the modern piano.. Portland Oregon. be reproduced on the modern piano.‟ Rosen. 2 (“Moonlight”) senza sordini pertains to the entire first movement as a general approach to the quality of sound.
there is a crescendo marked by Beethoven in bar 58 and a piano [subito] in bar 59. Beethoven‟s piano style in the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata is quite different from his style in the particular parts of his other compositions where he marks the use of the pedal. It may be argued that there is no analogy between the sound of the unchanged pedal in the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata and the pedalled sound in compliance with Beethoven‟s markings in his other compositions or indeed Beethoven‟s markings in the final movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata. Proponents of the unchanged pedal theory rely on Beethoven‟s markings in the slow movement of that concerto to support their argument. or the knee levers. in 2006. gave a series of Beethoven Sonata lecture/demonstrations at Wigmore Hall which were recorded online. one or two further harmonies are included. In Schiff‟s comments on Beethoven‟s Sonata in F sharp major opus 78 „A Therèse‟. In addition to the dynamics being extremely soft (and we know from Czerny that Beethoven used the una corda pedal here) the chordal harmonic progression is also very slow. in his demonstration of the unchanged pedal in the first movement. virtually suggesting that if Schnabel did this it may be accepted without question. 31 . in any event. Very occasionally. Beethoven’s other pedal markings There are many changes of harmony in the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata. as in the slow movement of his Piano Concerto in C minor opus 37. however. This is often in a very soft dynamic and usually involves the sustaining by the pedal of a bass note. presumably relying on Czerny‟s comment. He made this in laudatory terms. tonic and dominant. according to Czerny. they move from „senza sordino‟ to „con sordino‟ four times in the pianissimo opening theme.András Schiff. Critique of Schiff’s view Schiff. A number of Beethoven‟s markings in his other compositions involve an intentional blurring of two harmonies. In my view his demonstration actually threw some doubt on the use of the unchanged pedal because it did not produce a particularly beautiful sound especially having regard to the brisk tempo at which he took the movement. In the course of that series he supported and demonstrated the unchanged pedal theory in the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata. and. The final movement of his Sonata in C major opus 53 „Waldstein‟ includes some well known examples but there are a number of others. or Schindler‟s quotation of Schindler‟s comment. A crescendo and accelerando may. be inserted in bars 32-35. There are constant octaves in the bass and continuous moving triplet quavers in the right hand. although admittedly there are several changes of harmony under each unchanged pedal. There. Yet Schiff implicity rejected Schnabel‟s acceptance in his edition of the traditional pedalling. used a brisk tempo which he based on the „alla breve‟ time signature. he made a comment about Schnabel‟s performance of slurred couplets in the final movement.
which is quite a different direction from playing without dampers. Recordings with unchanged pedal Roger Woodward and Tessa Birnie in the 1970s each independently recorded the „Moonlight‟ Sonata. To have pressed them up unchanged for the six minutes duration of the first movement would have been rather uncomfortable for the pianist. It may also be argued that „sempre‟ clearly applies to both phrases as Schindler implied and Bulow & Lebert also implied. It may also be argued that is purely a printer‟s quirk which has nothing to do with Beethoven‟s intention.Beethoven’s phrase ‘e senza sordino’ The phrase „e senza sordino‟ appears at the end of each of Beethoven‟s two directions in the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata. In each case they performed the first movement with unchanged pedal throughout and Miss Birnie transposed her performance down a semitone to be nearer the actual pitch of Beethoven‟s day. Knee levers on the Beethoven piano Beethoven completed the „Moonlight‟ Sonata in 1801 and it was published in 1802. Beethoven would have composed the „Moonlight‟ Sonata on a piano with knee-levers. effect of playing a whole movement with unchanged dampers. using the three words together in the phrase „sempre senza sordino‟. Modification of unchanged pedal on modern piano 32 . and indeed hitherto unheard of. One can play loudly without the dampers and one can play softly without the dampers. To indicate the very unusual. In the first edition there is an extra space before the commencement of the words „e senza sordino‟ where first appearing. He composed it. The thrust of the first part of each direction is to play the movement extremely quietly. I am not aware of any recordings prior to the 1970s in which the first movement was performed with unchanged pedalling. on the German and Austrian pianos with which he was familiar. I have played a reproduction Mozart piano with knee levers and while they are not heavy to press up with the knees they are not very ergonomic and very quickly cause strain to the upper part of one‟s legs. and expected it to be played at that time. This may support an argument that Beethoven did not intend this. It may be argued that the phrase „e senza sordino‟ in each case is not grammatically attached to „tutto questo pezzo‟ or „sempre‟ but is an addition not linked with the concept of „throughout‟. It is perhaps arguable that this gives support to the proposition that those words are not attached grammatically to the words „tutto questo pezzo‟ and thus are not linked with the concept of „throughout‟. it may be argued that Beethoven would surely at the very least have repeated the word „sempre‟.
was indicated by the Italian word sordino and he gave an example from Thalberg‟s opus 41. patented by John Broadwood in 1783. that Beethoven used „senza sordino‟ and „con sordino‟ (the singular form of „senza sordini‟ and „con sordini‟) to mean „without dampers‟ and „with dampers‟.Grove‟s Dictionary of Music and Musicians (referred to in an article in the Musical Times of 1 August 1895) stated that the pianissimo pedal. which by the times he was writing. still produces some slight degree of blurring on a modern piano. It is clear. Hipkins in his article „Sordini‟ in Sir G. London on 15 November 1892 said this about Pachmann‟s performance of the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata: „Beethoven‟s express directions that the first movement should be played “Senza Sordini” (without using the soft pedal) [italics supplied] was coolly disregarded and the soft pedal was freely used . There was a possible argument that „senza sordino‟ in the first movement meant „without the mute stop‟ but if it were to mean this Beethoven surely would have written „ma‟ (but) not „e‟ (and). Czerny was. It is also clear from Czerny‟s remark that „the prescribed pedal [my italics] must be reemployed at each note in the bass‟ that he was not referring to the mute stop as it would be completely pointless to re-employ the mute stop in that way. however. Rowland states: “ „Senza sordini‟ and „con sordini‟ (meaning „without dampers‟ and „with dampers‟) were the terms customarily used in Vienna for the damper-raising levers in the early years of the nineteenth century and occur in works by several other composers. The reviewer of a piano recital by Vladimir de Pachmann at St James‟s Hall. muffled sound. involved the interposition of a strip of felt between the hammers and the strings which produced a soft. and in other sonatas of about this time. of course. Mute stop theory The mute stop. from his usage in the final movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata.‟ A.Of those who support the unchanged pedal nearly all support some modification to the unchanged pedalling when playing the first movement on the modern piano. referring to the pedal operated by the pianist‟s right foot. when used with respect to the piano.J. means „without dampers‟ thus with the damper (right or “loud” pedal depressed. Such modification includes partially raising the dampers or delayed pedal changing or both. in his directions.‟ Dr Nettheim‟s note to this on his internet site stated: „The reviewer was unaware that the term „Senza Sordini‟.or abused. was not referring to a mute stop. 33 .” It is clear from the above and from Schindler‟s comments that Beethoven. to be found on some pianos of Beethoven‟s day. The modified unchanged pedalling.
I implemented this view when studying the Beethoven piano sonatas. Tovey and Schnabel sonata editions (and the Schirmer concerto edition) were the totality of the materials I had to work with at that time and for some years afterwards. I played the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata with unchanged pedal on a Bechstein upright piano. however. Paradoxically. Having been discredited. Some months later I saw for the first time Schnabel‟s edition of the Beethoven Sonatas. extending it to the use of the unchanged pedal on the modern piano. 34 . Later that year I saw for the first time Tovey‟s edition of the Beethoven piano sonatas and continued my study of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata using that edition.in 1830 and 1846. the mute stop theory must be consigned to the dustbin of history and has no relevance to the present discussion. The Schirmer edition includes. even on the modern piano. as indicated by the editor. Subsequently. Schnabel marked in each bar the traditional pedalling and did not indicate by footnote or otherwise that this in any way diverged from Beethoven‟s intention as embodied in Beethoven‟s directions for the use of the pedal. violin sonatas and trios. and later the sustaining pedal. had long since replaced the knee levers as the usual device for raising the dampers. would have become a matter of discretion for the pianist. In among Tovey‟s annotations I read his view to the effect that the raising of the dampers throughout the first movement was probably correct for the Beethoven piano and I embraced the theory intellectually. At about this time. H. Czerny‟s comments as to the pedalling of the slow movement and this where I first saw them. I also obtained and studied the Beethoven piano concertos in the Schirmer edition which was a reprint of the Bärenreiter edition. as a footnote to the slow movement of the C minor piano concerto. on a number of occasions. Author’s personal odyssey In 1960 I studied the „Moonlight‟ Sonata from the W. the Willis. This was based on the view that this truly represented Beethoven‟s intention. In the first movement of the Moonlight Sonata. On studying Schnabel‟s edition of the Beethoven Sonatas. even though it conflicted with Schnabel‟s apparent interpretation of Beethoven‟s intention. In relation to the unchanged pedalling question. Paling edition edited by May Willis and used the traditional pedalling in the first movement. the mute stop theory would have assisted the argument for the traditional pedalling as it would have meant that Beethoven gave no directions concerning the raising of the dampers and the correct method of using the knee levers. I came to the view that all Beethoven‟s pedal markings should be taken literally and not modified. and the piano parts of his concertos. In individual footnotes Schnabel advocated literal adherence to Beethoven‟s pedal markings. and trying out Beethoven‟s pedal markings literally. variations and bagatelles.
Czerny commented in 1830: „The pedal indicated is to be used again with each new bass note‟. did very well. I had changed my view because in December of that year I recorded a performance on a Steinway grand piano of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata in the first movement of which I followed the traditional pedalling. so far as I am aware. however. “the pedal indicated is to be used again with each new bass note”. and the performers had at their disposal the pedal which they could use effectively. as the instruments have acquired a much greater body of tone. It is possible that he had similar views in relation to the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata.” Czerny made this last comment in relation to the opening theme stated by the piano in the slow movement of Beethoven‟s C minor piano concerto. we should advise the damper pedal to be employed anew. Czerny commented in 1846: „The prescribed pedal must be re-employed at each note in the bass‟. Schindler commented in 1860: 1860 „Accomplished pianists in the second decade were disturbed by the senza sordini instruction because by that time the pianos could already produce a fuller tone. that in the first movement of this sonata. I have raised. But now. which on the weak-sounding pianofortes of that day. said in the 1830‟s when the piano tone had been considerably increased. considered and discussed. These were the written nineteenth century sources that have come down to us and were closest to the Beethoven tradition. all the possible arguments for and against and have given weight to Schindler‟s view and to an interpretation of the views expressed by Czerny and by Bülow & Lebert. however. especially when the shifting pedal [una corda] was also employed. who immediately began to exploit this improvement of the instrument. ‟ Bülow & Lebert commented in 1894 35 . Summary of nineteenth century documentary sources I have considered Beethoven‟s original intention in the context of the pianos with which he was familiar in 1801 when he completed the „Moonlight‟ Sonata.By 1991. at each important change of harmony. Czerny commented in 1846: „ “Beethoven (who publicly played this Concerto in 1803) continued the pedal during the entire theme. Whether Beethoven‟s original intention may have changed over the years as piano tone became stronger can only be a matter of speculation as nothing has come down to us as to this. bearing in mind their weak tone and method of raising the dampers. Czerny. just as Chopin did later in his mazurkas.
or in which any combination of these circumstances exists. Rosenblum. the una corda pedal did not alleviate the problem.‟ All the above sources were against the use of the unchanged pedal on later pianos with greater tonal resources. which is the procedure on a modern piano equivalent to raising the dampers with the knee levers and keeping them raised? Does the pianist use some modification such as partially raising the pedal or delaying the pedal changes or both? Does the pianist use the traditional pedalling in which the pedal is changed with the changing harmonies and bass notes.. Does the pianist keep the pedal down unchanged throughout. use of the split damper pedal would have virtually precluded the una corda which Beethoven “was accustomed to employ throughout the whole piece” except for a forte around mm. in which there are nonharmnic and/or chromatic tones.. without dampers) too literally.. Using the moderator or. This created problems with the sound of the texture because the triplets extend over both ranges. that they all agreed that Beethoven‟s original intention. Similarly. 36 .. on later instruments. was that he did want the dampers raised and kept raised unchanged throughout the whole of the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata. 1795 and on some small square pianos certain measures seemed to me unacceptably dissonant or muddy. one is left with its application to a performance on a modern piano. Rosenblum states at page 137: „ . as indicated by his directions. With divided knee levers I still had to lower and raise the bass and treble dampers separately. Primarily there are places in which chords (sometimes without common tones) change on successive quarter notes. it was impossible to use the moderator where necessary. 35 and 36. was that he did want the dampers raised and kept raised unchanged throughout the whole of the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata. Even on the Walter of ca. to take the original directions sempre senza sordini (i. It is reasonably clear. Indiana University Press.„[It is] not advisable . moreover. Postscript (1) I wrote the above in 2008 originally and since then have referred to „Performance practices in classic piano music: their principles and application‟ by Sandra P. 1989‟. I have not yet been convinced by any performance of this movement (including my own attempts) on contemporaneous fortepianos or replicas with the dampers continuously raised. as Czerny directed and as Schindler appeared to accept? Does the pianist use an even more sparing treatment of the pedal as Bülow & Lebert recommended? These ultimately raise matters of musical discretion which will be decided by each individual performer.e. Conclusion as to Beethoven’s original intention I conclude that Beethoven‟s original intention. as indicated by his directions. Application to modern piano Assuming that one accepts this conclusion. however. nor did a split damper mechanism that I tried. in which the bass octaves move in part by step. on Beethoven‟s Broadwood.
I. slow tempos and generally quiet dynamic levels were considered the most advantageous for displaying undamped sound. and must be played legatissimo. he wanted the sound damped according to the performer‟s judgment . He merely stated in what may be an oversimplification. in October 2009. if piano subitos were intended by Beethoven.‟ Rosenblum continues by referring to the difficulty of effectively carrying out the two piano subitos. 37 . [It] is not at all unusual in nineteenth. Malcolm Binns‟s attempt to play this Adagio sostenuto on a fortepiano with the dampers raised throughout resulted in a tempo of crotchet equals ca. far slower than any of the suggestions of Czerny or Moscheles.” Reluctance to supply complete pedal indications no doubt stems in part from the realization that pedaling may change to some extent any time a piece is played. checked against my metronome the tempo for the first movement of my own recorded performance of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata.31/2/i. It is noted here that I recorded that Sonata (and two other Beethoven Sonatas) in 1991. and that my performance of the movement took 6:21. without any “unpedaled” notes. pedaling is inextricably bound to the acoustics of the room. This performance is the slowest I have heard. beyond the perception of the pianist. and for the recitative in [the D minor Piano Sonata] Op. in fact.. It maintains the same texture and character from beginning to end.century music to find Ped.„. „We cannot know whether the sounds that we find objectionable would have been more tolerable to Beethoven or whether.....” Might Beethoven have intuitively fallen into a syncopated use of the damping mechanism in this movement. which range from crotchet equals 54 to crotchet equals 63 .. for. the instrument available.. that I changed the sustaining pedal at the beginning of each bar of the first movement (and on a number of occasions more often. and the dynamics and tempo of each performance. when playing with the dampers raised unchanged throughout. “The prescribed pedal must be re-employed at each note in the bass. 37 . in Schumann‟s works the practice is common.. whose interpretative problem is unique in his oeuvre?‟ Postscript (2) Just after writing Postscript (1). Indeed. Bearing all this in mind.. The appropriate interpretation is to “pedal throughout at your own discretion. for the first time. 44 for an alla breve. this movement may be the first of Beethoven‟s works that would have allowed active use of the damper mechanism throughout. at the beginning of a piece with no further related instructions. we should not be surprised that Czerny reported no unusual pedaling by Beethoven for the “Moonlight” sonata as he did for the Largo of the [C minor Piano] Concerto Op. Nevertheless.and twentieth.. I ascertained that my tempo was crotchet equals 40. Because of his cumbersome terminology at the time is it not plausible that Beethoven decided simply to give a general direction at the beginning of the movement rather than trying to indicate each movement of the dampers throughout? .
10: HUMMEL (1778-1837) Johann Nepomuk Hummel was a Viennese pianist and composer. He considered Beethoven‟s pedalling to be too profuse and abundantly used. Hummel‟s own pedalling was reportedly restrained and placed emphasis on clarity. He was a pupil of Mozart and was known for the elegance of his playing. 38 . He recommended using the pedal in Mozart‟s piano works only in slow movements.
both for piano solo and for piano and orchestra. In particular it seems that the pedal should usually sustain single bass notes marked staccato as it seems these markings are physiological. Schubert inserted no pedal markings in his „Wanderer‟ Fantasy but most would agree that broadly harmonic pedal effects are called for in that work. In one case his pedal markings provided the continuation of sound through chords in the same tonic harmony separated by rests. Liszt certainly thought so in his arrangements of the Fantasy. In the slow movement of his Sonata in B flat major he marked „col ped‟ to make it clear that that there is to be a pedal sonority through each bar and that the various notes in the bass are marked staccato in a physiological sense only. Schubert. then this would be in line with Chopin‟s practice but Chopin almost invariably put the matter beyond doubt by indicating the use of the pedal. inserted pedal markings extremely rarely. 39 .11: SCHUBERT (1797-1827) Franz Schubert‟s piano music seems often to call for carefully changed pedalling in keeping with the melodic nature of much of his piano writing. in fact. If this is so.
despite his more conservative piano style than Chopin. as in his Venetian Boat Song in G minor from his „Songs without Words‟.12: MENDELSSOHN (1809-1847) Felix Mendelssohn. however. It would seem. He reinforced this direction with the subsequent direction „sempre con ped. especially in the passage work. then in Chopin‟s piano music. 40 .‟ Mendelssohn‟s other pedal markings included the sustaining of chords of the same harmony through rests. that overall there would be less use of the pedal. Mendelssohn‟s piano music seems often to call for fairly continual. carefully changed. pedalling in keeping with the melodic nature of much of his piano writing. marked pedalling through conflicting harmonies occasionally.
41 . Schumann‟s piano music seems overall to call for for a substantial use of the pedal. often at the beginning of a composition or section.13: SCHUMANN (1810-1856) Robert Schumann marked the use of the sustaining pedal in his piano compositions but it was usually a general marking such as „pedale‟.
14: CHOPIN (1810-1849)
Frédéric Chopin was the first composer to mark the use of the sustaining pedal in detail throughout his piano compositions. Liszt remarked on this at a masterclass without making any further comment on Chopin‟s markings, although he did say on another occasion that Chopin‟s pedal markings in his Berceuse did seem very detailed. Anton Rubinstein, however, once expressed the view that the pedal markings in the editions of Chopin‟s compositions were often wrong. Whether this is a comment on Chopin or on his editors, or on Anton Rubinstein himself, is left open. Although Chopin marked detailed indications throughout his manuscripts for the use of the sustaining pedal, most publishers and editors were not scrupulous in reproducing these accurately and they removed, added and modified some of them. Part of the reason for modifying some of them might have been that, as the pianos of Chopin‟s day had a thinner sound and less sustaining power than more modern instruments, literal adherence to the markings might in some cases have caused an inappropriate blurring on some modern instruments or in modern concert halls. In the present writer‟s opinion, however, Chopin‟s pedal markings should always be carefully reproduced, considered and respected. When Chopin was playing, his foot sometimes seemed to vibrate rapidly in certain passages. Jan Kleczynski said that Chopin often passed unnoticed from the forte [sustaining] pedal to the left [soft] pedal especially in enharmonic passages. Chopin used the pedals with marvellous discretion. He often coupled them to obtain a soft and veiled sonority. Even more frequently he would use them separately for brilliant passages, for sustained harmonies, for deep bass notes and for loud ringing chords, or the soft pedal for light murmurings. Chopin himself said of the sustaining pedal: „The correct employment of it remains a study for life.‟
A close examination of the placement of asterisks in the facsimile edition of the autograph manuscript leads one to believe that these rests are physiological only and that the sound of each chord is sustained in a legato fashion through each bar into the next chord. Whether this means that the pedal is not to be used at all. Chopin never used sequences of „ped‟ on their own without asterisks and thus regrettably he did not avail himself of a means of clearly indicating syncopated pedalling. Plain scale runs are uncommon in Chopin‟s piano compositions. In other words. Chopin‟s pedal markings are very often harmonically based. Chopin‟s pedal markings typically sustain a bass note marked with a physiologically based staccato dot (or separated by a physiologically based rest). The bass note then sustains through and combines with the chords and melodic line higher up on the keyboard. On occasion. Chopin modifies this harmonic basis as in the second subject of the first movement of his Sonata in B minor opus 58 so that the individual tonic. dominant bass notes in the same harmony come out clearly. Immediately preceding the final chords in D flat major at the end of Chopin‟s Scherzo in B flat minor opus 32 are four crotchet chords followed by two crotchet rests. or changed vibrato style. Chopin‟s pedal markings appear in the printed editions as „ped. In neither of these cases is there any marking for the use of pedal. On some occasions. that is. On the other hand. Chopin is meticulous in providing these markings in virtually every case where there is such a bass note. Even where the printed edition closely follows the original placement of the asterisk this often leaves open the question in any individual case as to whether the pedalling is syncopated. as at the end of several of his Preludes opus 28. There are vast numbers of cases where Chopin clearly marks and intends the pedal to go through staccatos and rests. There are examples in his Prelude in D flat major „Raindrop‟ from his opus 28 and in innumerable other pieces. The matter is not beyond doubt and it is also possible that Chopin intended a very small air pause between each chord. legato. or whether there is a gap in the pedalled sound. for example. while the harmony is unchanged the pedal also remains unchanged even though there are different passing notes in the melody. In these cases the staccatos and rests are physiological not acoustic.‟(or „p‟ in the Henle edition) followed by an asterisk. This harmonic basis of pedalling occurs in the opening phrase of the slow movement of Chopin‟s Fantasy in F minor opus 49. in the case of the Fantasy in F minor opus 49. Chopin marks the pedal to go through the entire downwards right-hand scale covering the whole of Chopin‟s then keyboard. They do appear.In Chopin‟s autograph manuscripts and copies the marking „ped‟ was followed by an asterisk which he represented by means of a circle with a diagonal cross superimposed. The opening crotchet chords of B major are clearly marked by Chopin as being sustained by the pedal through the following quaver rest and the 43 . as a double-handed run at the end of his Etude opus 25 no. is an open question. 11 in A minor „Winter Wind‟ and in his Polonaise in A flat major opus 53. Chopin omits the final asterisk which may leave open the details of the pedalling at that point. or whether this means that pedal can be used by being held down unchanged. held down but changed from time to time.
on occasion. his pedal marking goes through a bass note (in the left hand) combined with a note of half value plus a rest (in the right hand) on the first beat. The pianist may interpret this as a very slight pause on the rest accompanied by the physiological lifting of the hand. as in the first page of his Ballade no. however. In these cases there is a physiological lifting of the hand and Chopin‟s pedal markings „contradict‟ the phrasing. 1 in G minor opus 23. often ends on the first beat of a bar. Chopin usually inserted his markings for the use of the pedal last. An examination of a facsimile edition of Chopin‟s autograph manuscript of his Preludes opus 28 shows that Chopin considered the questions of pedalling closely and even. Some pianists ignore this marking and make a distinct break in the sound. Chopin sometimes completes the beat with a rest or. Whether or not we agree with Chopin‟s marking it is better to try to understand his thinking rather than ignore it. especially in his mazurkas and waltzes. especially in his mazurkas and waltzes. as marked by a slur. physiological rests in many of the melodies of his mazurkas. puts a staccato dot on the note constituting the first beat of the bar. delicately manicured. Even so.following quaver chord also of B major. do not follow Chopin‟s clear scheme. Pianists interpret this as a very slight pause on the rest accompanied by a slight physiological lifting of the hand. A similar comment goes for the opening chord and rest in Chopin‟s Polonaise in A flat major opus 53. Some pianists. The pianist may interpret this as a somewhat longer pause on the rest accompanied by a more vigorous physiological lifting of the hand. especially the mazurkas. There are many examples of this in the Chopin nocturnes. thus sustaining the note through the second rest and making it clear that the pedal also sustains the note through the first rest. Again. In bar 30 there is a similar but sequential melodic fragment but this time Chopin notates it with a note of full value without a rest. In bar 28 of the Nocturne in B major opus 32 no. Some editions even change the marking. the rest may be thought of as analogous to the breath of a singer. or have dealt with them carelessly. In each of the above contexts Chopin‟s pedal marking sometimes goes through two similar bars of the same harmony. In each case there is the same marked pedal. 44 . In many places in Chopin‟s piano works. 1 Chopin notates a melodic fragment with a shortened note value and a rest. the sound actually continues as it is sustained by the marked pedal. In many other places in Chopin‟s piano works. nocturnes and waltzes and in some of the melodies of his Polonaise-Fantaisie opus 61. Some pianists ignore Chopin‟s clear pedal markings in this regard and indeed editors in the past have changed them in their editions of Chopin‟s works. In Chopin‟s piano compositions the final note of a long phrase. Chopin writes particularly elaborate. The sound actually continues as it is sustained by the marked pedal. he also adds a staccato dot to the note before the rest. A question arises in innumerable places throughout Chopin‟s piano music where a bass note is sustained by means of Chopin‟s marked pedal and above it there is melody with rests within it. changed his mind at a late stage of composition.
leaving open the question whether it may. leaving open the question whether it may be used and. 2 in A minor. Many pianists interpret this as not only permitting pedal to assist the legato parts of the melody but also to sustain the sound through the rests. as in his Venetian Boat Song in G minor from his „Songs without Words‟. thus leaving open the question whether it may be used those passages. where the piano writing changes from requiring a bass note to be sustained by the pedal to requiring legato in piano writing where all the notes can be sustained with the fingers. as well as in isolated bars. Chopin‟s leaves the question open by not indicating pedal. Mendelssohn. This contrasts with Beethoven‟s tonic-dominant pedallings. This often occurs in passages. at the start of the middle section of the Polonaise in A flat major opus 53. and indeed no pedal marking. was attracted to pedalling through conflicting harmonies and used it occasionally. Chopin never marked its use. Chopin left the 45 . on occasion one hears the chord immediately prior to the final statement of the theme. to what extent. be used in these cases. Examples are contained in the development section of the first movement of his Sonata in B minor opus 58 and in his étude opus 10 no. Chopin sometimes omits pedal markings completely as in his étude opus 10 no. as in the final movement of the Waldstein Sonata and in other places. Similarly. although we know from contemporary accounts that he used it frequently. if so. The conception behind them is ignored and it is not a case of modifying the marking to accommodate to modern sonorities. where there is no bass note sustained by a pedal marking. Chopin sometimes omits pedal markings in returning passages. at the end of the Ballade in F major opus 38. or must. So far as the use of the „una corda‟ (soft) pedal is concerned.The above cases occur where a bass note is sustained through rests and staccatos in a melody. Chopin presumably requires the pianist to make the effort to produce a true legato with the fingers but after that is achieved whether Chopin really wants an absence of pedal sonority is an open question. Chopin seems not to have been attracted to this use of the pedal. such. not sustained. It sounds well either way in the case of that particular étude. In the case of the octaves in the middle section of the Polonaise in A flat major op. as in his étude opus 10 no. 1 in C major. who was more conservative in his piano style than Chopin. There are many cases. 53 Chopin has omitted pedal markings but most pianists use the pedal at least towards the end of the passage to create a fuller. and his pedalling through three or four harmonic changes as in the slow movement of his C minor piano concerto. On occasion one hears the bass octave quaver (E). sound. in A minor. This leaves open the question whether it may be used in these cases. especially in the mazurkas. not sustained with the pedal as marked by Chopin. 6 in E flat minor. Chopin‟s pedal markings are quite often ignored by pianists. however. Chopin does not mark pedal in contrapuntal passages where the notes can be sustained with the pianist‟s fingers. Chopin hardly ever marks pedal through conflicting harmonies and if he does it is apparently not to create a harmonic blur but to ensure that the bass note sustains through without any substantial harmonic blur being created. more exciting. Chopin omits pedal markings in many passages where he marks legato slurs and where legato can be achieved by the fingers.
and partly owing to the fact that a less indented part of the hammers comes in contact with the string.decision as to the use of the soft pedal to the good taste of the performer. So far as the use of the sostenuto pedal is concerned. There may be a few places in his piano compositions. such as in his Scherzo no. no doubt. where it could be used to good effect. in countless other pianissimo passages and shorter phrases. partly owing to the sympathetic resonance of the undamped strings. Chopin never marked its use as it was not invented in his lifetime. This not only reduces the volume of the piano tone but imparts a different quality. It could be used in places such as the slow movement of Chopin‟s Fantasy in F minor opus 49. or the final movement of his Sonata in B flat minor opus 35 and. The soft pedal on a grand piano shifts the entire set of hammers sideways a very small distance.3 in C sharp minor opus 39. On a piano where the soft pedal has a very ethereal tone it would seem best to reserve its use for the somewhat rarer cases where such a tone seems especially called for. 46 .
15: LISZT (1811-1886)
Pedal markings generally Franz Liszt‟s autographs dating before the Weimar years normally carry complete instructions for employing the damper pedal. This is true from about 1836 until 1846-47. Like the autograph manuscript of the Liszt Sonata, however, the autographs of the „Glanes de Woronince (1847) and the Hungarian Rhapsody no. 4 (1847) have no pedal markings. After about 1860 Liszt returned to his earlier practice of including pedal markings. „A possible explanation for his abandoning the notation of pedal markings in the late forties, only to resume the practice later, may be found in his activity as a teacher. Perhaps his Weimar students encouraged his belief that precise indications were unnecessary, that the pedal would be employed and its effects adjusted according to the characteristics of individual instruments, concert-hall acoustics, and depending on the rate of harmonic change in the score. Inferior performances later may have caused him to lose faith in the discretion of pianists. The composer himself leaves us with a mere suggestion that this was the case, judging by his remark in a letter dated 27 August 1861: “Even though one might presume that pianists would employ the pedal correctly, nevertheless, because of so many aurally offensive experiences, I have returned to the practice of indicating pedal markings with utmost care.” ‟ (Winklhofer, pagers 74, 75) Sonata in B minor The autograph manuscript of the Liszt Sonata contains no indications for the use of the sustaining pedal. The original edition contains pedal indications for the Grandioso theme (bars 105-110) which state the obvious. It also contains pedal indications for bars 555-568 of the Più mosso designed presumably for the descending motif and its accompanying chords to have a full pedal sonority. One assumes these were approved by Liszt. Otherwise, there is no guidance as to when rests and staccatos are physiological or acoustic.
but we do know from his roll that he did not sustain the dominant seventh harmony. 3. That book deals with the Liszt tradition. from the end. Many pianists take the first approach which suggests a single drumbeat and hence a cynical. the continuity is towards finality and nothingness. 3 There is a reference to prolonging a chord through the rests by means of the pedal in a soft.‟ The Pädagogium says this about the Lento assai (bar 754): „The C in the bass should be held on with the pedal until the entry of the B major chord in the treble. through the treble chords of A minor and F major. slow passage. In time. 7. their meetings became rare. through his pupils Bernhard Stavenhagen and Berthold Kellermann. Tradition through Teresa Carreño Teresa Carreño (1853-1917) performed in London in the Summer of 1866 where she met Anton Rubinstein.‟ Liebestraum no. The piano roll performance by Ernest Schelling does the latter. the quaver „B‟ in bar 760. Sauer‟s Peters edition inserted editorially „Col Ped‟. It concerns Liebestraum no. apparently for the last time. As the last note is not recorded on d‟Albert‟s roll we have no way of knowing what d‟Albert‟s practice was. He was convinced that it ould only be played with a fairly long pedal. Magazine Road. 6. that is. they met once again. give a masterclass in which he berated an unfortunate victim for clipping the last note too sharply. Hamilton reports (page 63) that as a student he „once heard Jorge Bolet [1914-1990].‟ Source: Page xiii of the introduction by Brian Mann „The Walkure of the piano‟ to „Possibilities of Tone Color by Artistic Use of Pedals‟ 48 . should be cut off as a quaver literally or sustained by the pedal for some period of time is controversial. „His sincere admiration for her playing initiated a warm and enduring friendship between the two artists. an eminent interpreter of the Sonata.As an example. „In bars 8. The whole effect is enhanced in a live performance if the pianist remains motionless and does not breathe for several seconds after the pedals have been lifted. 1986). 5. as expounded by their pupil Tilly Fleischmann. The question of whether the final note of the Sonata. although on his disc Brendel pedalled through the staccatos as did Eugen d‟Albert (on piano roll). however. although she had occasional lessons from him. edited by Michael O‟Neill (Adare Press. The second complements a more fulfilled ecstatic conclusion. Cork.‟ In the final bar of the Sonata. as well as similarly sustaining the dominant seventh harmony just before the final Andante sostenuto. as did Alfred Brendel when he performed the Sonata in the Sydney Town Hall. bars 297-300 and 302-305 have staccato marks on the chords. Ernest Schelling (on piano roll) and Claudio Arrau (on disc) treated these literally. When she gave concerts in Russia in 1891. the continuity is more successfully maintained. of course. whereas with a slight curtailment. mocking conclusion to the Sonata. in Chapter 2 of „Aspects of the Liszt Tradition‟ by Tilly Fleischmann. This treatment is indicated by Joseffy in the Schirmer edition but is contra-indicated by Sauer in the Peters edition. a strict observance of the rests would cause undue suspense.
2003. 2003. as the given examples show. [Actually the last four bars are quoted. 55. Pedalless playing in Liszt is very rare. Two Classic Guides: Anton Carreðo‟s contact with the Anton Rubinstein school of playing. Dover. were he to interpret the sound by lifting the pedal as well as the hands (as the written rests would indicate) the climax of tone effect would be lost entirely. adding color and beauty to the very fabric of the music. and is reserved for special effects. 61. the above comments by Teresa Carreño regarding pedalling might apply to bars 8. In all phrases of the same character. and through that indirectly with the Liszt school.‟ (Walker in „Reflections on Liszt‟. the treatment of the pedal is invariably the same as heretofore explained. Unless instructed otherwise. the interruption of the sound would miscarry the intentions that one feels that Beethoven must have had. Teresa Carreño wrote: „From the above example [the repetition of the opening cadenza in the first movement of Beethoven‟s Piano Concerto in E flat major opus 73 (“Emperor”)] it is clearly shown that in passages of such character during which the greatest amount of sonority is the chief requirement toward the accomplishment of the tonal effect. Liszt greatly admired Anton Rubinstein‟s performances of Liszt‟s piano works. General comments So far as the Liszt Sonata is concerned.‟ Source: Page 64 of „Possibilities of Tone Color by Artistic Use of Pedals‟ by Teresa Carreðo contained in „The Art of Pedaling: Two Classic Guides: Anton Rubinstein and Teresa Carreðo‟. Another example in which rests should be treated as the above imply is to be found in the three last measures of Liszt‟s “Don Juan” Reminiscences (generally called the “Don Juan” Fantasie).by Teresa Carreðo contained in „The Art of Pedaling: Rubinstein and Teresa Carreðo‟. 297-300. „The rule in Liszt is quite simple: pedal or the heart of the music will cease to beat. page 136) 49 . 270-277. the pianist should allow the sustaining pedal to cast its radiating glow over the entire texture. The third and fourth last bars contain quaver chords separated by quaver rests and the second last bar contains crotchet chords separated by crotchet rests. 301-305 and 665-672. Dover. The rests therefore must not be considered or treated in their true significance in a passage of this nature and the pedal must continue through them and in spite of them. and the closing of his performance would be meaningless and the effect of it completely marred. may render the following comments relevant to the performance of Liszt‟s piano works in general and his Sonata in particular.] Similar musical phrases to the above example present themselves continually in our piano literature and it is absolutely clear to the pianist that.
has. or make any comment on them. This seems indirectly corroborated by the pedal indications in or through almost every bar of the original edition of Liszt‟s Mephisto Waltz. such as Sauer‟s Peters edition and Joseffy‟s Schirmer edition. did mark its use on a number of occasions in his published piano compositions. however. modified without comment in his Augener edition many of Liszt‟s pedal markings as contained in the original original edition. modifies Liszt‟s indications for bars 555-567. Liszt followed his usual practice of not marking the necessary cancellation „tre corde‟ (release the soft pedal) but this would presumably occur at or about bar 360. Liszt. The „New Liszt edition‟ marks „tre 50 . Liszt. Bartók and Prokofiev approach to pedalling favoured by some pianists in their playing of the Liszt Sonata seems historically and musically untenable. of course. reproduced all the pedal markings from the original edition. did not alter Liszt‟s pedal markings. for the most part. Editions by Liszt‟s pupils and disciples are also useful as they may reflect authentic traditions from the composer or authentic performing practice from the composer‟s time. Una corda pedal So far as the „una corda‟ (soft) pedal is concerned. For example. by suggesting that the pedal be lifted during the two-handed upwards chromatic scale at the end of the first movement. a pianist who has specialised in the performance of Liszt compositions.Liberal use of the pedal throughout the Sonata seems vital to the overall effect and it is hard to imagine a performance without some use in almost every bar. to produce an unclear effect on the modern piano and many pianists do in fact modify them. indicated „una corda‟ (soft pedal) at bar 329 two bars before the Andante sostenuto. It is. Sauer modified Liszt‟s markings in the concerto in only one place. Even so. and „sempre una corda‟. at times. Sauer took a similar course in relation to Liszt‟s Piano Concerto no. provide editorial pedal indications liberally. in both his autograph manuscript and in the original edition of the Sonata in B minor. or other edition which is as close as possible to the composer‟s intentions so that one can be sure that the markings are from the composer. As Klindworth is likely to have heard Liszt perform the concerto and to have studied it with him. (soft pedal throughout) at the commencement of the Quasi adagio at bar 347. It may be that Liszt‟s markings were at times intended to be a guide rather than to be literally followed in every case. in his own edition. The Liszt Sonata editions issued by Liszt‟s pupils. Liszt pupil Emil von Sauer. Karl Klindworth. Alfred Brendel. dry. in his Peters Edition of Lisz‟s „Mephisto‟ Waltz. who studied the concerto with Liszt at Weimar and performed it with orchestra in Liszt‟s presence. unlike Chopin. as well as those of the classical masters. and only modified them in the sections depicting Mephistopheles‟ „chuckling‟ and in one or two other places. Liszt‟s pedal markings do seem. original. important when studying Liszt‟s piano compositions (as it is in any other composer‟s compositions) to use an ürtext. his views must carry weight. although Sauer in his Peter‟s edition. which presumably are from the composer himself. followed Liszt‟s pedal markings literally and has certainly followed them much more closely than the majority of concert pianists. who was Liszt‟s pupil from his first period at Weimar. The crisp. On the other hand. 1. Liszt pupil Eugen d‟Albert.
to operate the sostenuto pedal as well. through his pupils Bernhard Stavenhagen and Berthold Kellermann. Munich. The Liszt Pädagogium advises the pianist to „use una corda (soft pedal) and play ppp‟ in bars 162 and 164 which are marked „cantando espressivo‟ and this advice presumably follows from a comment by Liszt at a masterclass.. however. Extract from the back cover of ‘Aspects of the Liszt Tradition’ [Michael O‟Neill writes:] „Aspects of the Liszt Tradition‟ captures for us the essence of the theory and practice of piano playing which were current among the students and disciples of Franz Liszt. based mainly on her studies with Stavenhagen and Kellermann at the Royal Academy of Music. D‟Albert used it often in his 1913 piano roll recording of the Sonata but this. a daughter of the organist of St Mary‟s Cathedral. the left foot is presumably occupied with the soft pedal and it would be very difficult. in the early years of this [twentieth] century.‟ Extract from the Editor’s Preface: „Born in Cook in 1879. The sostenuto pedal was invented by Boisselot in 1853 but was not developed until some years later by Steinway. 153-188 and 398-459 of the Sonata. of course. through his pupils Bernhard Stavenhagen and Berthold Kellermann The Liszt tradition. in a letter to the Steinway company. but there is nothing documented as to Liszt‟s use. Liszt never indicated its use in his published piano compositions. apparent from observing the piano‟s hammers during the playing back of the roll. rubato – matters of interest to amateur and professional pianists alike . in his Sonata or elsewhere in his piano compositions. It could be used effectively in bars 309-310 and 312-313 of his Sonata. then an 51 . was expounded by their pupil Tilly Fleischmann in „Aspects of the Liszt Tradition‟ by Tilly Fleischmann edited by Michael O‟Neill (Adare Press.corde‟ at bar 363 but this is an editorial addition. Tilly Swerz was sent to Munich by her father in 1899 to study with Bernhard Stavenhagen. Soft pedal would also sound well at bars 124-140. Liszt. phrasing. Liszt tradition. did approve of the use of the sostenuto pedal in his third Consolation and in a Berlioz arrangement. 1986. has no effect on the quality when the roll is reproduced on an upright piano. and are now in danger of becoming lost. if not impossible. In bar 754 it would be useful but the pianist‟s right foot is occupied with the sustaining pedal.. although the surge of sound obviously intended by Liszt to be achieved by the sustaining pedal is also exciting. „In this book Tilly Fleischmann presents us with ideas relating to interpretation and technique. Sostenuto pedal So far as the sostenuto pedal is concerned. pedalling. Many famous pieces by Chopin and Liszt are examined in detail with reference to fingering. dynamics. Cork. Magazine Road. D‟Albert‟s soft pedal usage is. It could also be used in bars 315-318 of his Sonata. if any.
containing her life‟s teaching experience. Berhnard Stavenhaghen. Munich. after the last of them she was invited to play for Prince and Princess Ludwig of Bavaria at their Castle at Nymphenburg.] „As a one-time student of Mrs Fleischmann it occurred to me that an abridged version might be put into circulation by means of private subscription.2) „In producing this book I have attempted to record what I learned in Munich at the start of this century from my teachers Bernhard Stavenhagen and Berthold Kellermann as regards piano playing in general. They married in 1906. and kept the tradition alive by continuing to teach at Weimar during the summer months of each year. Konrad Ansorge. In 1890 he became Court pianist at Weimar and in 1895 Court conductor. Stavenhagen succeeded Liszt at Weimar. and so the present edition has come into being. with whom I studied at the Royal Academy of Munich from 1901 to 1904. Moritz Rosenthal. who was studying composition with Josef Rheinberger. „While still a student at the Academy she met another student... Alexander Siloti. and the fiftieth anniversary of his death in 1936.. from 1898. Having given a number of successful recitals in Munich. Extract from the Introduction (pages 1.‟ [Tilly Fleischmann‟s book.. consisted of 340 pages and several hundred illustrations. and went to live in Cork. As a pianist Stavenhagen was one of those rare phenomena who combine the highest poetic and imaginative qualities with incomparable technique. in as much as he took over Liszt‟s Meisterklasse on the death of his master. Most of the famous pianists then active had been students or associates of Liszt in his later years – Stavenhagen and Kellermann themselves. and the interpretation of Chopin and Liszt in particular. and the Schumann Piano Concerto under Felix Mottl. Sophie Menter. and could not be published in unabridged form owing to the cost. which came at the close of one of the greatest epochs of artistic and creative activity in Germany. As a 52 . In 1898 he was appointed Court conductor at Munich. and in 1901 Director of the Royal Academy of Music. Frederick Lamond. was as a young man the last pianist to work consistently under Liszt‟s guidance. Aloys Fleischmann. Arthur Friedheim. Giovanni Sgambatti. and in 1901 was appointed Director. Budapest and Rome. At orchestral concerts there she performed the Weber Konzertstück under Stavenhagen. She was the first Irish pianist to give a BBC broadcast . . his performances were for me the most memorable of all those which I heard abroad. Alfred Reisenauer. who taught at the Royal Academy of Music.internationally celebrated pianist. the influence of Liszt was still paramount. Generalmusikdirector in Munich and for many years conductor of the Wagner Festspiele in Bayreuth. The affirmative replies to a circular of enquiry were so numerous as to justify the project. [Tilly Fleischmann continues:] „During my student days. Emil Sauer [and] Eugen d‟Albert. [and] presented all-Liszt programmes to mark the centenary of the composer‟s birth in 1911. in Weimar.
who had been Professor of Piano-playing at the Academy since 1881. on which subject he wrote a comprehensive treatise. He studied with Liszt at Weimar from 1873 to 1878. 53 . but he frequently gave technical hints to his pupils. but as a teacher he had more humanity and deeper psychological insight than Stavenhagen.. One must be swift to seize on the Master‟s technical secrets. it is my purpose to preserve through these pages at least some of the chief points which were impressed on me by one or other of them in the course of studying Chopin‟s and Liszt‟s compositions. for instance. His Meisterklasse at the Academy consisted of sixteen students of many nationalities. was largely derived from the practice of the master.. the question arises as to what the Liszt tradition has to do with piano-playing today. even after the lapse of so many years. „Kellermann‟s mastery of pedalling. with the difference that Liszt. Liszt thought highly of Kellermann‟s playing. „On Stavenhagen‟s retirement from the directorship of the Academy in 1904 I studied for a year with his colleague. Berthold Kellermann. In 1910 he told me that he intended re-editing Liszt‟s piano works. used technical virtuosity as a means to an end. together with a far greater capacity for imparting detailed instruction. namely. unfortunately. Both Kellermann and Stavenhagen were in an altogether different category from the „one-day‟ pupils who cashed in so lamentably in later years on Liszt‟s name. Kellermann was active up to his death in 1926. but never seems to have done so. Because. This may be partly true. and was frequently acclaimed as the living embodiment of the Liszt tradition.teacher he possessed the ability to impart a sense of style and an understanding of what interpretation really means. Liszt concentrated indeed on the intellectual and spiritual content of the music. The methods of a pianist who was probably the greatest virtuoso of all time could not be without significance. in matters of technique Liszt did for piano-playing what Paganini had done for violin-playing. including Grace O‟Brien and myself from Ireland. the enrichment of the means of expression. Extract from the Introduction (page 7): „. As a conductor and as a propagandist for Liszt‟s works. but as Stavenhagen noted: „If one is attentive one can learn enormously from him in technical matters. and knew Liszt intimately as master and friend for sixteen years. „In stressing the extent of Liszt‟s influence and the indebtedness to Liszt of the pianists and teachers of a generation ago. to a far greater extent than Paganini. First of all. and from his playing from them they were able to deduce much valuable information. and often said: „If you want to know how to play my works go to Kellermann – he understands me. and had been a member of the Parsifalkanzlei. It is often said that there could be no Liszt method of piano playing since he actually never taught technique. however.‟ By 1904 Kellermann had ceased to be a concert virtuoso. neither Stavenhagen nor Kellermann seem to have left any detailed written records of Liszt‟s teaching. for both lived for years on intimate terms with him and had detailed information as to how he practised and worked. In his youth Kellermann had acted as secretary to Wagner and music master to his children.
loses its poetic quality.The following reproduces some extracts from Chapter 2 ‘Liszt’ (without the musical examples): „Liszt may be regarded as the founder of modern piano playing. The work in question happened to be the Paganini Study in E minor. There are relatively few works of Liszt (the Consolations and some of the Harmonies Poétiques et Réligieuses are among the exceptions) which do not involve difficult passage work of one kind or another. the display is never cheap or tawdry. less intensely personal than Schumann or Chopin. making the most out of the technical display which those afford. Again. for when Liszt played his own compositions to his pupils he frequently improved on the published versions. Less original. thereby giving it an orchestral sonority – in fact his inventiveness has since hardly been excelled. Liszt looked at the passage closely. so that only pianists of professional standard are really competent to attempt his music. who often turned over for Liszt on such occasions. there are traditional emendations and alterations. 54 . „More important still. octave passages and trills. an indefinable poetic essence underlies the passage work. Stavenhagen. scales and cadenzas‟ (as a Dublin critic once wrote in connection with a Liszt recital I gave at the Abbey Theatre) may sometimes apply to the transcriptions and pot-pourris. since the style is often impressionistic and the structure sketchy. told us that he once plucked up courage to point out to Liszt that he was not playing a passage as he himself had written it. for almost always an imaginative quality. arpeggios. As a result not only is the structure of the whole work impaired. But in his original music. moulding their outlines so as to give an impression of unity and cohesion. The once fashionable criticism that Liszt‟s music is a thing of „trills. He extended the range of the instrument‟s possibilities by inventing new methods of laying out scale passages. This is probably what Liszt means when he remarked once to Kellermann that few people could either play or understand his music. „As a great part of Liszt‟s output is programme music. and is turned into a jungle of meaningless sound or an empty display of jugglery. by extending the range of colour procurable by the sustaining pedal. broken chords. though even here Liszt served a useful purpose in imparting to the piano such powers of delivery as commanded attention even with the largest and most heterogeneous audience. however externalized the idiom may often be. however calculated to achieve a maximum effect in terms of colour and pattern sequence. pianists usually tend to dwell on the asides and interpolations. then turning to Stavenhagen with a mischievous smile he asked him whether he liked the improved version better. it is not easily playable by amateurs. since. so that the player must be able to piece the various sections together. Instead of striving to make a continuous line of thought emerge from amidst the oratorical style of argument. yet it has never attained the popularity which might have been expected. among other reasons. which is meant to serve as an impressionistic commentary on the main trend of the music. but the coloratura. the lore which has become associated with some of the works is essential for their interpretation. his music is more brilliantly effective than theirs. while a fair proportion of the music of the other romantic composers makes comparatively small demands on the pianist‟s technique. raising it to a level consistent with the rest of the context. re-creative ability is needed for its interpretation. and by using to the full both the extreme depths as well as the extreme heights of the instrument.
he played the first phrase piano and the second phrase pianissimo as an echo of the first.. „According to Stavenhagen. not over. this should be taken broadly and in free tempo. the semiquavers should be played portamento (i. in playing this study Liszt used to make the following deviations from the published version. where the fingering 4-2 is preferable. 55 . the right hand. Throughout the opening section. Of the first two four-bar phrases. known as „La Chasse‟. where a new theme appears in octaves in both hands. All semiquaver chords up to bar 16 should be taken by the right hand. At bar 42 he used to get an amusing result by playing the octaves in the left hand subito forte and marcato. without the una corda pedal... with una corda pedal and without sustaining pedal. but the third and fourth p. 5 in E major „Of the various violin studies by Paganini which Liszt arranged with such masterly ingenuity for the piano. for no apparent reason.. all quaver chords by the left hand. For the demisemiquaver groups in the right hand it is simpler to use fingers 5-1 as against the fingering 4-2 usually prescribed. and added that when Liszt played them they sounded „perlenartig‟ like pearly scale-passages. (release una corda pedal before up-beat to bar 99) and for the section commencing at bar 99:. „The following is the traditional pedalling for the section commencing at bar 93:. which imitate the strains of two flutes. In present-day editions the two directions „imitando il flauto‟ for the beginning and „imitando il corno‟ for bars 9-16 are often omitted. „From bars 37-40 and again from bars 45-48 Liszt arpeggioed the chords in the right hand and played them staccato and pp. Stavenhagen used to insist that the glissandos should not be played too quickly. The first sixth of this and of the subsequent glissandos should always be accented.Stavenhagen confessed that he did... and a big crescendo made to bar 52. and bars 11-12 piano. and the first glissando played pp. is one of the most attractive. Grosse Paganini . he played bars 9-10 forte. with the sustaining pedal held for the duration of the glissando up to the last three hemidemisemiquavers. Book II Etude no. the fifth in E major. except where the diminished fifth occurs in bars 81 and 83. and again on its recurrence in bars 53-68. thereby obtaining a soft pizzicato-like effect.e half staccato) with sustaining pedal on the quavers only. „At bar 68. which suggests two answering horns. In the third phrase. and Liszt suggested to him that he should make a note of the alteration and hand it down. „From bars 77-78 and again from bars 93-106 the left hand should lie under. yet such a method of playing the passage belongs to a tradition which is now apparently lost. The accentuation and retention of the first quaver of each bar with ever-increasing tone enriches this section of the study appreciably. The second glissando should be played pp. and treating the corresponding notes in bar 44 in like manner. From bars 49-52 the pedal should be sustained for each crotchet beat. for they indicate graphically the effect intended by the composer.Etuden.
.„From bar 99 on. Where the theme commences at bar 14 (sempre scherzando) Liszt used to make a little break before the second beat and accent the latter. so as to suggest the first faint awakening of a memory. Feeling weary and depressed he slipped away from the ball-room. „The cynic may think such a story serves no purpose. but not at any further point until the recapitulation in bar 140. „After the final diminuendo to ppp on the first chord of the last bar. wandering down a corridor into a conservatory. The whole section should be played as lightly and daintily as possible.. „Again. In bars 75-76 56 . to a certain night when he had danced with a golden-haired girl and told her of his love. went back to his rooms. a familiar theme which took him back to his boyhood days. however. i. Here the speed is so much faster that the portamento previously adopted in the right hand is unobtainable. only una corda pedal should be used for these two bars. as it sometimes is. Suddenly a strain of music reached his ears. and wrote the Valse-Impromptu. and hidden away by ferns and shrubs sat alone. should be pedalled. The echo of her laughter came back clearly after all those years. no pedal should be used from bars 112-119 (un poco animato). Liszt left unobserved. but a knowledge of it would at least serve as a preventative to pianists who have no particular insight into the composer‟s intentions from playing the introduction con bravura – and with how many pianists is this the case! The impromptu should be begun pp and with una corda pedal. where una corda pedal should be used again. Bars 35 and 36 should taper off very slightly both in tone and pace. but staccato should be secured in the left hand. reaching to forte at bar 106. but the arpeggio passage in bar 110. Instead of the crescendo as printed from bars 106-108. proceeding similarly at bars 18. rising crescendo to the start of bar 111. The next three bars (30-32) should be given rich mf tone. Bars 114-115 were amended by Stavenhagen in accordance with Liszt‟s own practice (the emendation was corroborated by Kellermann):. like the girl of the anecdote. Valse-Impromptu „Kellermann used to tell the following story of the origin of the Valse-Impromptu..e. No sustaining pedal. which should be played mf. from bars 49 to 64. This break should not be exaggerated.. and then – how she had laughed and mocked at him. an appreciably quicker tempo should be taken. after which a crescendo should be made to bar 39. a pause is essential before the two forte chords are played – to rouse the hearer from his dreams.. should descend from above like a delicate ripple of laughter. the tone should gradually increaae. 22and 26. The Waltz itself. it is customary to make a diminuendo to pp at bars 108-109. while the coloratura passage of bar . with una corda pedal for the first eight bars. listening to the distant voices and the hum from the merry throng. is gay and coquettish. with a reduction to pp from bars 33-37. On one occasion Liszt attended a festive ball in Berlin. „Where the rhythm in the right hand changes to a 2/4 pattern against normal rhythm in the left hand. after which the theme should be played p up to bar 26.
and should be played with great passion. .the quavers should not only be played rinforzando but largamente. 57 .. namely a singing melpody. Only in this way can the high-minded concept which lies behind the Nocturne be properly realised. Liebesträume Notturno. The three middle C‟s in the first two bars are usually played with the same amount of tone. „Three essentials should be aimed at. commencing after the two pause bars. In bars 69-72 the first quaver of each bar in the right hand should be accented and retained with the pedal. the full tempo should be resumed. and a ripple of laughter again to bar 129. The last three pp chords should be separated by quite appreciable pauses. 3 „The Nocturne should be played with sincerity and depth of feeling. insistent outline of bars 130-136 is answered by a gay cascade of notes. the Trio which commences at bar 86 (espressivo) is earnest. The opening theme should be begun pp (with una corda pedal as far as the recurrence of the theme in bar bar 7) and each successive C should gain slightly in intensity. but after the poco ritardando and the fermata of bar 124 the answer seems to be a merry quip. Yet pianists who have no feeling for gradations of tone on the piano usually thump out these three C‟s. A brief Coda. The pensive. . the notes should be distributed between the two hands so as to secure maximum smoothness and ease of movement. a singing bass and a consistently softer accompaniment. thus securing an inner melodic line. No artistic singer would sing three notes is such a context at the same level. but also with the utmost restraint. At the same time a virile climax must be achieved in the middle section. a procedure which is even still more desirable for the recurrence later on at Tempo Primo. and this procedure should be observed on the repetition of the same passage later. pleading. The section beginning at bar 117 should be played more slowly and with great feeling. brings the Waltz to an end. and without the insipid exaggerated rubato which has come to be associated with its performances. The chords in the left hand on the third beats of bars 86-90 should be played as a joint arpeggiata with the right hand. with a slight rubato in the latter part of the of the previous bar. „If the first section of the Valse-Impromptu is uniformly light-hearted. Once again there occurs the pleading of the trio. and at bars 67 and 77. played arpeggata. „For the wide-spaced final chord.. the climax of tone being reached on the first C of bar 4. passionate – as if in the midst of their dance her young admirer were expressing his devotion. respectively. All this occurs above a prolonged tonic pedal. Again. and the Waltz begins anew „The B major section after the second appearance of the Trio is the climax ofthe Waltz. the tenor line in bars 96-101 should be brought out softly but clearly against the melody in the right hand. e. This quickening of the tempo applies to the corresponding section later on. no.g. like the coquette of the anecdote. which persists this time when the Waltz theme reappears (ninth bar of Tempo Primo) so that its insistent note becomes fused into the elusive magic of the Waltz.
at bar 46 there should be a slight ritardando leading into bar bar 47. with use of una corda pedal. In the preceding bar there should be a slight rubato. preceded by a slight rubato and followed by a gradual increase in tone. rubato within each half bar. slightly prolonging their tone. Again. and which merely sounds cheap when curtailed. It may help towards 58 . it is most effective to play the note F of bar 10 subito pp and as tenderly as possible. The second half of bar 20 should again be begun pp. After a crescendo and diminuendo in bar 9. otherwise it is not possible to secure a sufficient rinforzando in the following bars. its thread should be taken up again in a tender. which is used so extensively through the Nocturne..e. This cadenza. not a quaver. This note shouldbe held appreciably. this time at a higher tone level. in approaching the C major section. without any accents. and with the following subtle use of dynamic and rhythmic nuance:. and rattled off so that it loses all its connection with its context. but in performance they should cascade down smoothly. is usually seized upon as an opportunity for showing technical dexterity. before the reappearance of the theme in B major.. dreamy vein. after which there should be a mounting urgency and intensity up to the beginning of bar 23. Stavenhagen and other pianists in the Liszt tradition used to play the B major section in this way.„A marked rise and fall of tone occurs in bar 5. and each successive descending note played with a lesser degree of tone and with a ritardando intil the G flat of bar 24 is reached in pp. bar 33). Bars 34-37 should be played broadly. The observance of this marking results in an entirely false and unconvincing representation of the theme at this particular juncture. with a gradual acceleration into the cadenza. can the playing become più animato and con passione. which increase in tone until the climax is reached at bar 58. like a quiet and unobtrusive improvisation interpolated into the main argument. however. and with a slight accelerando and crescendo to its apex. which should begin at a somewhat reduced tone level. and only from the seventh bar (i. It should pass virtually unnoticed. The arpeggio lead-in to the cadenza should be begun p and taken broadly with a crescendo to the F flat of bar 25. The E major chord of bar 18 might again be played subito pp. and the quavers of bar 58 should be begun somewhat more slowly. „The cadenza should be played pp. There could be no justification for curtailing the rhythmic value of this significant progression involving the interval of the sixth. After the delicate cadenza it is inconceivable that the theme would start con passione. „In all editions the B major section commencing at bar 26 is marked Più animato con passione.. The E flat in this bar should be played with a full f. a dreamy delicate maze of sound introducing the middle section. „The upbeat at the end of bar 31 in the right hand should be a crotchet. with rubato in the second half of the bar. with allargando towards the end of bar 3. and released onto a soft E flat. „It has always been a tradition to begin mf at bar 41 and to hold the minims. with una corda pedal. „The notes of the cadenza (bars 59 and 60) should be practised in groups of twelve. and then to play the quavers of the accompaniment softer and more quickly – in short. From bars 7-12 the same procedure should be adopted.
„The last section. the una corda pedal should be released (though the tone should still be kept very soft) and depressed again at bar 8. then grow stronger and louder until the wind shakes the branches of the mightiest trees and spreads havoc all around.achieving a greater smoothness of the note-groups if the arpeggios are divided between the two hands. F flat – D – D flat) should be brought out softly but distinctly as a descending line. Liszt himself was very particular that the stress should be laid on the the first note of each group of six. For bar 7.. Structurally the study is interesting in that the texture is almost entirely spun from the opening melodic phrase. though soft. flat. „The last fifteen bars are marked „poco a poco ritenuto‟. with una corda pedal. „One frequently hears the basic figure of accompaniment in this study stressed as follows:.. and with the same dynamic scheme as suggested at the outset.. a strict observance of the rests would cause undue suspense. with the assistance of the una corda pedal from the latter part of bar 24. 7. not a mechanical jingling – while later the beating of the storm-wind should be portrayed with the utmost power and passion. 59 . counting from Tempo Primo. Low A flat is traditionally added to the final chord. From here a diminuendo and ritardando should be made to the final chord.justifying the use of rubato and a reduction of tone to pp.. whistling through the leaves. with the tenor line prominent and more accent on the G natural than on the the Eflat in bar 24. [5 1 2 5 lh].. only to die away again at the end to the merest whisper. whereas with a slight curtailment. .. the continuity is more successfully sustained. The murmuring sounds swell.. Every nuance of colour at the pianist‟s desposal should be utilised to make this opening figure truly dolcissimo – the softest zephyr‟s breath. Tempo Primo. We hear the wind rising softly. In bars 8. „In bar 15 the pedal should be held for the entire bar so that the low E flat may be retained in the bass. should be played as softly and tenderly as possible. and their top notes (A natural – G flat – F . where the harmonic change calls for added intensity. The latter should be released at bar 21. with the pedal sustained for each pair of notes in the last two groups. where the A major chord should sound rich.. 5. Two Concert Studies No.. with una corda pedal. and the whole progression enriched. die away again. from the end. This in brief is the plan of Waldesrauschen. This results in the shifting of the metrical accent by half a beat and damages the rhythmic structure. and bar 19 ppp. From bar 9 on the melody should sing out again. The tenths which occur in the left hand from bars 9-14 should all be arpeggioed.. . In the second half of bar 23 a crescendo should be made. caressing the leaves as it moves through the forest. 1 Waldesrauschen (Forest Murmurings) „In this study Liszt shows his ability to capture nature‟s moods in terms of sensitive tonepainting. Towards the end of the passage there should be a diminuendo to ppp and an appreciable ritardando. Next it takes to careering wildly. Bar 17 should be played pp. with fingering as follows:.. 6.
„At bar 81 a subito piano is necessary in order to secure an adequate crescendo to bar 83. and to rely on the pedal to sustain them. In the second half of bar 60 it is wiser to take the top notes of the octaves with the right hand to secure more tone. since it is devised for six-octave pianos on which the top notes of the original version would have been unavailable. a nuance should be effected consisting partly of rubato – but not actually a ritardando – partly of diminuendo. The alternative right-hand version printed for this section (bars 71-78) in older editions should. but it is simpler to use 3-1 throughout. No. so as to sing out as a legato counter-melody against the melody proper in the right hand. 2 Gnömenreigen (Dance of the Gnomes) „Out of the novel pointillism of this study there emerges that impish. of course. which should begin f and gradually diminish to p at bar 86. using the una corda pedal for the first two bars. however. A ritardando should be be made on the last two beats of bar 28 (più rinforzando) before the delicate leggierissimo. Towards the end of bars 3 and 7. frisking and capering gaily. and bar 12 then started with rich mf tone and more emphasis. exceeds goblin strength. In bar 70 there should be a slight allargando to prepare for the entry of the stringendo molto section. with the lightest of steps. fantasic streak so characteristic of Liszt. The fingering 4-2 is usually prescribed for the left hand in bars 83-85. be disregarded. in the left hand must be slightly prolonged so that the first half of the bar is somewhat broader. as they should be. In bars 55-58 the chords marked ten. 60 . The nuance already referred to arises again in the second half of bars 89 and 91. It is both careless and ineffective to release the quavers as if they were semiquavers. and for the cadence of bar 5. to secure an adequate foundation for the octave-melody and syncopated chords. In bar 33 the nuance again arises already referred to in connection with bars 3-7. „In order to secure clear phrasing in the left-hand part of bars 34 and 35 (delicatamente). To secure the maximum delicacy and lightness it is safer to divide each of the two last chords between both hands. Liszt always commenced the theme at bar 15 pp and started the corresponding phrase at bar 19 p. From bar 8 on there is a continuous though gradual crescendo. in contrast to bar 36 where the quaver G is accented and all the notes [are] played legato. the second last quaver of each bar should be played staccato.„There is a tradition with regard to the playing of the opening theme in the left hand. and an accelerando from bars 9-11. The fun reaches its climax with a whirl of speed and excitement which never. and which may be seen on a grander scale in the „Mephisto‟ section of his Faust Symphony. the lower line of quavers in the left hand should be brought out forcibly. „According to Kellermann. and then work up gradually to the climax of bars 55 (fff). while the second half is played in strict time. Bars 22-24 are difficult to play if the quavers in the left hand are held. so as to make the contour of the melody more flexible. even madly. At the section marked tre corde poco a poco più agitato (bar 45) one should begin pp. At the end of the latter bar a slight rallentando and diminuendo should be made. Here we have gnomes at play. Throughout this section.
only the una corda pedal. hush . For the first four bars of this section una corda pedal should be used. puckish grace. thus adding to the humour of the piece.. of imps scattering away in all directions. The whole Ballade may then be conceived as a romantic tale. beginning at bar 121. No sustaining pedal should be taken from the fifth to the twelfth bar as marked in all editions. but that Liszt had a definite programme of his own in mind is proved by a remark which he once made to Kellermann. this time after the last quaver. gone. The delicate Allegretto commencing bar 24 61 . and before the up-beat) as if to suggest that the gnomes were taking a look-round before beginning the dance. Liszt observed „here the knight and his lady cross the river hand in hand‟. At the beginning of the section marked dolce placido (bar 234). so that chords are formed instead of the light staccato effect of the quavers preceded by acciaccaturas. Kellermann told us that Liszt used to take this section slightly slower at first to make it sound more droll and puckish. so that the principal theme starts minus the up-beat. „Although the section marked vivacissimo. which was so light as to be almost inaudible – a tip . The sustaining pedal should be held from bars 137-141 (cf. and a gradual crescendo then made for eight bars to the rinforzando velocissimo of bar 33. at which point all thegnomes seem to scatter. The programme of the Ballades is left to the hearer‟s imagination. He paused again at the the end of the eighth bar. Here one pedal should be taken for all three bars (bars 33-35). „At bar 143 Liszt used to take a quicker tempo... Second Ballade in B minor „The second Ballade is one of Liszt‟s major works for the piano.„Kellermann told us some details in which Liszt‟s playing differed from the published edition.. He used to pause slightly before playing the last chord. For the legato quavers commencing in the latter half of bar 162 he reduced the tempo somewhat and then accelerated again to the end. Liszt used to get a magical effect in the section marked il più presto possibile e ff by playing the start of bars 134 and 136 suddenly pp. with a crescendo into the following bar in each case. thus robbing the dance of its nimble. is the climax of the dance and marked sempre ff. This should be used only from bar 13 onwards. and a still quicker tempo from bar 157 to bar 162. Bars 125. with a ritardando lead-in to the Ringelreihe or Round-dance section (un poco più animato) as Liszt used to call it. and some of the details readily suggest themselves. and a still quicker tempo. At the end of the four-bar introduction Liszt used to make a pause on the fourth beat (after the last quaver in the left hand. Most pianists use the sustaining pedal here. The demisemiquavers of bar 20 (after the rinforzando) should suddenly be taken pp and a shade slower. it would be inartistic to keep this tone-level throughout. bars 33-35) to add to the sense of general confusion. „From bars 77-96 (solo dance of a single gnome!) no sustaining pedal and only the una corda pedal should be used. No player conversant with the Liszt tradition would use the sustaining pedal here. and make a slight ritardando in bar 102 before the recurrence of the main theme (here all the gnomes seem to join in the dance again). From bars 97103 one should pedal twice in the bar. accelerating from bar 85 on. 127 and 131 should be begun at a lower level with no immediate crescendo to ff.
. but with the proviso that each hand may pass under 62 . In bar 230 Liszt used to play the octave instead of the single F sharp in the left hand as printed. „In bar 234 (dolce placido) the left hand interchanges with the right hand. meanwhile changing the pedal for every group in bars 231-232. so that tonic and dominant will sound out clearly. as in the preceding and following bars. and after the third beat depress it silently again and sustain it with the left hand until the second group of bar 232... where minims are sustained at the beginning of six successive bars.. and retain the interlocked octaves in the left hand a beat after their discontinuance as printed:. though Liszt only indicates the pedalling himself at a few points. accentuating the first note of each group [and also. „At bar 226 (appassionato section) the first chord in the right hand should be arpeggioed. triumphant at last (grandioso – bar 284) seems to symbolise the whole love story itself and its development through difficulties and dangers until the knight and his lady have crossed the river of tribulation already referred to. thereby greastly intensifying the tone:.might represent the lady. By half-pedalling at the beginning of bar 218 the maze of sound is sufficiently thinned down to allow the melody to sing out clearly. and have set out together into a visionary land to fulfil their destiny. the boldly rhythmical Allegro deciso (commencing bar 70) the call to arms as the knight goes forth to battle on her behalf. up to the fourth beat of bar 220. after which the pedal is again depressed to hold the octave beneath the first three beats of bar 220:. „At bar 215 he would play the final octave in the left hand with great force and then retain it with the pedal for six bars. the cantando theme (bar 135) his pleading with her. After bar 219 the octave is silently depressed again by the left hand and the pedal released. sinister and gloomy on its first appearance. For instance Kellermann used to say that for the fff section commencing at bar 207.. This gives a rich substratum of colour to the cascade of notes in the right hand as they ripple down from above:. of course. This retention of the low octave into the sixth bar acts as a deep and effective sound-bridge between the two phrases. and creates a tense atmosphere... „In this Ballade there are opportunities for some striking pedal effects.. increasingly dramatic on its various recurrences. and this interchange should continue in bar 235. playing the last note of each group staccato]. or mechanically. for the low G which is unavailable). . according to the musical example. conveying an impression of water. while the opening theme of the Ballade.. „With accurate pedalling each accented note can be caught and retained. with the method given above the effect is far more suggestive and colourful. as a five finger exercise.. instead of a single note in the left hand he would play octaves in both hands (except.. According to Kellermann he used to pedal twice in the bar in the opening section.... „In several details Liszt‟s playing of the Ballade used to differ from the printed edition. „In bars 213 and 214 he would accentuate as follows. night and gloom. Usually this left hand accompaniment is played as an unrelieved rumble. while the low octave is still audible.
For this great point of climax the theme should be played fff while the scale passages are played lightly. a collection of twenty-eight piano pieces which form a musical diary of the outstanding impressions made on Liszt during his wanderings over a long period in Switzerland and Italy. and should actually be played as groups of three semiquavers (as in bar 225) against two in the left hand. thus securing maximum tone while releasing the right hand for the coming chords. all disturbing and unnecessary movement is avoided. the left hand should still interchange with the right as follows:.. On playing the Ballade for Kellermann on one occasion. being far more effective than the conventional chord repetitions of the lower version. „The upper alternative version given from bars 292-297 is invariably played. in alternating with the left. In 1869 Cardinal Hohenloe 63 . 274. The first chord in the right hand of bars 273 and 274 should be arpeggioed. although not indicated in any edition. rich colour:. The following illustration will make this clear. „The grace-notes in bars 270. where for the sake of rhythmic balance it is necessary to play the quaver figure in the left hand. Annees de Pèlerinage. should be kept under the left hand throughout. 271. at the end of the bars in which it occurs. An interesting instance of rubato occurs in the section covering bars 234-253. 275 are but conventionally written as such. A cheap effect is produced by crowding these notes as a group-acciaccatura above the top-most note of the accompanying pattern in the left hand. so that the pedal is lifted precisely at the point at which the final F sharp begins to sound. .. as far as possible. 4: Les Jeux d’Eaux de la Villa d’Este (The Fountains of the Villa d’Este) „This works belongs to the third set of Annees de Pèlerinage. so that the persistent figure in the bass offsets the lighter movement of the floating chords above. From bar 262-265 the melody should be played mf with the accompaniment pp. In bars 238-240. At the end of the Ballade an over-long pause needs to be curtailed. Kellermann called out „Is this the knight and his lady crossing the river? It is more like a poodle paddling across!‟ And it is true that by keeping the relative position of the hands unchanged.. „In bar 254 (Allegro moderato) Liszt used to begin pp. where this is more advantageous. Again bars 269 to 274 (un poco più mosso should be played pp with a gradual crescendo from this point onwards. No. when I came to this passage and kept passing my right hand above the left with the pawing movement which this entails. In bars 242-3 the right hand.. „Legato pedalling should be employed for the transition from one melody note to the other in the last two bars... together with the pedalling necessary to ensure both legato playing and soft. with una corda pedal to the end of bar 257. at a somewhat slower speed. „A ritardando is essential towards the end of bar 241.as well as over the other hand. and is then depressed again.. From bars 284-289 (grandioso) the last octave after the semiquaver groups in each bar should be taken over by the left hand and forcibly accented.
„The introductory section of the latter work consists of sheer colour-weaving in the upper register of the piano. „Liszt liked to think of himself as the modern Palestrina. alleluia‟ – it seems unlikely that the resemblance could be a mere coincidence. Liszt used the pedal for the 64 . now usually omitted. This conception of the fountain as a symbol of life.. at Liszt‟s disposal. John: „Sed aqua quam ego dabo ei. and of life-giving faith. reputed to be amongst the most beautiful in Europe. and Les Jeux d‟Eaux de la Villa d‟Este. Later. followed by a limpid melody in the left hand which is then repeated and developed at some length. however inapplicable the epithet may seem. it is true that in his last period he devoted himself chiefly to religious music with the ambition of revitalising such music with his own peculiar style. an epithet bestowed on him on one occasion by Pope Pius IX.‟ (But the water that I will give him shall become in him a fountain of water springing up into life everlasting). Some three centuries before.placed the Villa d‟Este with its gardens. alleluia‟ and „Loquebantur variis linguis Apostoli magnolia Dei. but fervour is also needed to reveal the spiritual background which underlies the superficial attra Annees de Pèlerinage attractiveness of the music. for not only are delicacy and sensitiveness required to portray the evanescent beauty of the waters. and probably wrote there some of his last madrigals. which should be played with una corda pedal to bar 6. the two aux Cyprès de la Villa d‟Este. fiet in eo fons aquae salutis in vitam aeternam. Presently a motif based on the chord of F sharp major (bar 41) appears. hymnum dicite Deo. „The above considerations should be sufficient warning to pianists who make a mere technical exercise out of Les Jeux „d‟Eaux de la Villa d‟Este.. and the work ends with a delicate modulatory passage based on the motif alluded to. which sets out to capture the shimmering rhythmic movement of the gardens‟ innumerable fountains. until the main theme reappears. the play of the waters symbolising the spreading of the light of the Word. In view of the texts of the fourth and fifth antiphons for this feast – „Fontes. Liszt quotes the fourteenth verse of the fourth chapter of the Gospel according to St. the accent should be on the staccato quavers which constitute the melody. is worked out in the emphatically resurgent passages which follow.. motif and melody reappear above an arpeggio accompaniment (D major section) and in a footnote. and Liszt probably borrowed the Gregorian phrases to link the liturgical ideology with that of Pentecost. And in such works as Les Jeux d‟Eaux and the Legends he was the first composer of distinction to interpret religious subjects in terms of major works for the piano. and. as if to suggest light breaking through the scintillating waters. so too Liszt was moved to write three pieces of music descriptive of the gardens. Palestrina had conducted performances in this villa as music master to Cardinal Ippolito d‟Este. Just as Palestrina must have been inspired by the beauties of the place. „In the opening passages. the wealthy prince who had built the villa and maintained there an orchestra and choir. „Both the main theme and the motif seem to have some affinity with phrases from the antiphons for Vespers on the feast of Penetecost. et omnia quae moventur in aquis. as the following comparison will show:.
Francis Preaching to the Birds) „This work is based on the following legend taken from the Fioretti di St. and it does in fact require some effort to make the notes of the motif stand out clearly while continuing the demisemiquaver tremolo. with a crescendo and diminuendo for each four-bar phrase. my little brothers. and the lofty trees whereon to build your nests. There should be an appreciable ritardando towards the end of bars 64. you neither sow nor reap. and each and all remained motionless before him as he spoke thus: „ “You.. where in the one passage (bars 15 to 19) he successively used the pedal for the first half of the bar:. In bars 4648 pianists usually fail to perceive the motif in the tremolo in the right hand.. You should be thankful. Francesco:„When St.. 68. too.. my little brothers. and though you neither spin nor sew. Francis was astonished at this. after which a gradual crescendo should be made to the climax in bar 98 (ff brioso).. then twice in the bar . 1: St François d’Assisi – La Predication aux Oiseaux (St.. and be ever zealous in singing God‟s praises. bar 51 mf. He gives you the mountains and valleys as places of refuge. „There should be a slight ritardando before bar 15 (pp leggierissimo non legato). and spoke to his disciples. „Counting now from the D major section. At bar 131 a decrescendo should begin. so that your race has not become extinct. e.‟ 65 . of the sin of ingratitude. for He has given you the power to fly whithersoever you please. saying: „ “Wait for me here on the highway.. 88 and 108. He clothes you and your children. therefore. Francis came to the counry between Cannaio and Bevagno. but singing out clearly in spite of the softer tone level. which he has assigned to you.” He went into the fields. the birds. St. ought to be deeply grateful to God. from bar 55 (poco a poco accelerando) the una corda pedal should be used for four bars and then released. and take the una corda pedal from bar 109121. preaching as he went. The octave melody in the left hand in bar 39 should be begun pp with una corda pedal. and sson the birds that were perched on the trees came down to him. your creator. Pedal twice in bars 101-104. and praise and magnify His name always and in all places. Again. since He has done so much for you. Your creator loved you dearly. he saw myriads of birds filling the trees by the wayside and the fields beyond. releasing it at the start of the latter bar and making a gradual crescendo to the rinforzando of bar 129. Bar 47 should begin p. He has given you warmth and light and has preserved your seed in Noah‟s ark. and yet your heavenly Father feeds you and gives you the rivers and the springs to quench your thirst. Legend no. and finally sustained it for the space of two bars to give utmost intensity to his picture of seething jets of spray:.building up of a colour climax. the una corda pedal being only released at bar 46. beware. whilst I go to preach to my brothers.g. with rich full tone and intense expression. bars 29 (rinforzando) to 31 should be played slower. for the kingdom of the skies. Again. reaching pianissimo at bar 133.
and sustained it with the pedal so as to get the line B – C sharp – C natural – B – A sharp – A natural. another towards the setting sun. „The sermon commencing at bar 52 should be begun pp with una corda pedal.) takes shape in the form of a narrative which is at first interrupted by the cries of the birds. ..). their earnestness and their confiding air. Then they spread their wings and bent their heads in reverence. In bars 18-30 (dolce graziosamente) the fingering 3 2 1 2 as marked in all editions might well be changed to 2 1 2 1. „Kellermann showed us a special way in which Liszt used to play the passage marked un poco stringendo commencing at the end of bar 45. In bars 3 and 7 the thirds on the first and third beats should also be played by the left hand.. Francis adds a few final words and then blesses the birds making the sign of the Cross towards North. Again. which gives a smoother and surer result. „In bars 119 and 122 a slight ritardando should be made on the last three quavers (descending octaves in the left hand). with the start of each new phrase more tone should be given until a climax is reached at bar 65. „After making the prayer (bars 132-141) St. Again in bars 13-16 all three notes of each staccato chord should be played by the left hand. foreshadowing Debussy. they understand his words and respond even when he speaks with the deepest weight and gravity. St. The interpolated twittering of the birds.) to indicate their assent. The A natural of bar 48 should be sustained by the pedal to the end of bar 50:. He accented the last note of each group of eight demisemiquavers on the first and third beats. and then start to twitter quietly (bar 86. soaring into the sky and giving utterance to the most exquisite song.. After an opening section in which the chirping of the songsters is brilliantly reproduced in the treble of the instrument. winging their flight to a tune of wondrous melody. St. East and West. Then St. This considerably enhances the effect of the passage. instead of a tremolo in each 66 . after which they soar into the sky and the sound of their song grows ever fainter in the distance.‟ ” „Liszt‟s tone poem follows the above narrative closely. one soared towards the rising. When his sermon had come to a close.. in the fourth and third-last bars.) and all are silent (bar 71. Francis‟ sermon (bar 52. South.. and all the birds sprang from the earth. should each time be played pp with una corda pedal. while some glide around the saint (bar 89-). St. and ranging themselves in four flocks. a third towards the south and a fourth towards the north. Their song has now become an integral part of the Saint‟s monologue. however. But gradually the chirping ceases (bars 68. This ensures a lighter touch and a more even trill. their beauty. The birds at first listen in awe. Francis made the sign of the Cross over them. each stage being interrupted by renewed twitterings on the part of the birds. Francis had made.„ “At these words all the birds began to open their beaks and stretch their necks. underneath. Francis was enraptured with them and wondered at their numbers. and so manifested by song and gesture that the holy man had brought them great joy. while the pedalling imparts a rich haze of colour such as Liszt so frequently evokes. They followed the sign which St. Francis solemnly tells them of the glory and greatness of God.
depicting the surging waves. gradually grows louder and more menacing until their fury seems to shatter the very fabric of the music in an orgy of violence. other composers‟ works. the boatman refused to take a person of such mean appearance on board. as if to suggest the quietly undulating movement of 67 . 1911. for instance. and with una corda pedal. 2: St Francois de Paule Marchant sur les Flots (St. Francis de Paul. passing undaunted on its course above the turmoil – the sea has been safely crossed. Unfortunately. Francis. Legend No. and having reached its end with so complete a sense of fulfilment. The latter should only be released at the upbeat to bar 10. and of St. which should be begun p. and depressed again for bars 16-20. In the Rozsavolgyi edition the origin of the work is given in detail. Francis de Paul. but he. rising in the final bars with ever greater majesty to the accompaniment of the surging waters.hand the passage should be executed as a series of alternating chords between both hands which allows for a more even and delicate effect:.] When the saint asked to be ferried across one stormy day. walked with firm step across the sea. „In St. His mantle is spread beneath his feet.. Francis‟ theme resounds triumphantly (Allegro maestoso e animato). depicting a miracle which St. while the non troppo lento should be begun pp. each of the first two phrases should be begun with rich full tone and rounded off with a diminuendo (bars 2 and 5). shines in perpetual splendour. hung in the rooms which Liszt occupied in Pest in 1881 (“Franz Liszt”.. in no vein of exultant joy. For coda the St. by a contemporary painter of religious subjects named Steinle. and now St. but humbly and deeply felt. before which all natural laws give way. Francis stands erect upon the soothing waters which carry him to his goal by the power of faith. Francis wrought in crossing the straits of Messina. It appears that Princess Wittgenstein showed Liszt a picture. however. in the other he holds a burning coal. of course. Francis walking over the waves. the dynamics which he used in performance do not appear with any fidelity in the published edition of his works. the bass. p 272). [The preceding sentence is a footnote in the original.. Few works move so steadily and clearly to a single great climax. he raises one hand as if to command the elements. The pinnacle of the storm is reached. drawings by Dore of St. „Then follows (Lento) a prayer of thanksgiving. undaunted. Underneath this theme as it develops. the divine word “Caritas”. Francis himself. Francis‟ theme now appears softly in the bass. Francis de Paul walking over the waves) „The second legend concerns St. In the picture St. From bar 24 (legato) the tempo should be very slightly slower. Berlin. According to Julius Kapp. and players conversant with tradition make many changes from the printed score. „The Legend opens with a theme which can be associated with St. Francis preaching to the birds. His eyes are tranquilly fixed on the heavens where the motto of St. Liszt‟s patron saint. symbol of that inner flame which kindles the disciples of Christ. „It may be well to note here that dynamics played a vital part in Liszt‟s performance both of his own and.
starting at bar 9. 67 and 71 to give clarity to the peak points. The third phrase. St Francis‟ prayer of thanksgiving. with the pedal depressed and released for each note from bar 14 on. the una corda pedal being released on the third beat of the bar. with una corda pedal for two bars. The crotchets 68 . No pedal should be taken for the second and third chords in the left hand of bars 65. This reaches its peak at the commencement of bar 127. never played. with a gradual working up to ff at bar 36. From bars 79-84 the pedal should be depressed on each of the second. „In the section marked Allegro maestoso e animato. should be begun f. From bar 72 the real fury of the waves begins to mount to a climax – the ineffective alternative version given here in every second bar (bars 72-78) is. should. The dark swirling sounds of bars 39-41 might be dealt with as follows:. Pianists usually take the section too fast. where St. the chord of which should be made with maximum expression. as if a multitude of people on the shore were watching the approach of the saint with growing astonishment and excitement. Francis seems to walk triumphant and majestic above the waves. and breaking again. „The Recitativo (Lento). however.. and a similar procedure should be adopted in bars 53.St. but continued with a molto crescendo. of course. In bar 52 the accented D sharp in the bass (third beat) should be taken by the thumb in the right hand and held for the beat. but legato and broadly. not staccato as marked. without pedal on the arpeggioed chords. The second phrase. and the chord in this and the next bar should be played legato with sustaining pedal. and with a marked crescendo and diminuendo within this bar. Francis‟ mantle on the waters – with una corda pedal from here until the end of bar 27. At bar 32 there should be a subito pp. however.. the theme should not be played staccato. the demisemiquaver passage passage in the left hand should again be begun pp with una corda pedal. but with a diminuendo in bars 3-4.. after which the ascending octaves should be begun pp. so as to secure a mysterious and threatening effect. starting at bar 5. third and fourth beats of the bar. [The musical example shows the una corda pedal to be used in the second half of each bar and a crescendo-diminuendo to be used in the first half of bars 39 and 40 and in the first half and second half of bar 41]. The ensuing quaver passage should be played freely. From bar 113 the tempo and rhythmic intensity should gradually increase. „Una corda pedal should be used from the end of bars 41 to 46 from which bar a gradual increase in tone should be made. From here a considerable crescendo should be made to bar 13. and when played staccato the theme sounds trivial and commonplace. „The pairs of bars commencing with bars 64-65 seem to suggest the rearing of the waves to a peak-point. From here a continuous crescendo should be built up as far as bar 137. and released on the accented chord at the beginning of each ensuing bar.e played as a crotchet instead of a quaver. be begun tenderly. From bar 64 the top note of eacharpeggiatta chord in the left hand should be emphasised and prolonged. i. with una corda pedal. From the second beat of bar 37 to the end of bar 41 the first note of each group of eight demisemiquavers should be accented. but again without sustaining pedal on the arpeggioed chords. 58 and 59. should be given somewhat warmer tone. Having palyed a ff chord at the beginning of bar 36.
For the octaves of bars 27-29 (counting from the Lento) a slight accelerando should lead to an allargando and fullest tone being reserved for bar 29.. but as a tremolo and as near to two groups of twelve demisemiquavers as possible (semiquaver movement at this juncture sounds thin and feeble.. disappearing downwards (crotchet by crotchet in time value and diminuendo down to ppp) until only the low E is sounding and is held for the length of a semibreve. the minim G sharp of bar 16 being given a fermata and the arpeggioed chord played softly and with una corda pedal. In the second half of bars 27-29 the two groups of six semiquavers in the right hand should be played.of bar 15 should be played portamento and crescendo. The coda should be begun quietly. to give a luminous quality to the last vestige of sound):. „The final chord is traditionally played in this manner (the pedal is taken again on the final note.]‟ 69 . [The musical example shows the final chord in both hands. after being held as a semibreve under a pause mark.. not as such. the octaves in the bass gradually gaining in tone until once more a great climax is built up.
with its rich contrapuntal and harmonic style. Brahms‟s piano music. carefully changed.16: BRAHMS (1833-1897) Johannes Brahms did not often mark the use of the sustaining pedal in his piano compositions. would often seem to call for a constant. Emil von Sauer (18621942) in his edition inserted a considerable number of pedal markings which may be in accordance with the Brahms tradition. 70 . sustaining pedal.
] „Playing the Beethoven Piano Sonatas‟ by Robert Taub. Portland Oregon. [This contains the most comprehensive analysis of the notation and use of the pedal in the piano works of the classical composers. an article by A. that the marking „senza sordino‟ in the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata meant „without the pianissimo pedal‟.] „Performance practice in Beethoven‟s Piano Sonatas: An Introduction‟ by William S. Wensleydale Press. 1995. [This is a reprint of the Baerenreiter edition and contains a number of significant annotations.] „Beethoven‟s Pianoforte Pedalling‟ by David Rowland being chapter 3 (pages 49-69) of „Performing Beethoven‟ edited by Robin Stowell. London. Sydney. [This contains a few references to Liszt‟s own use of the pedals. Newman. 1989. [This contains Schindler‟s reference to the use of the sustaining pedal in the first movement of the „Moonlight‟ Sonata.] „The Piano Book‟ by Gerard Carter.] The Schirmer edition of the Beethoven Piano Concertos. Indiana University Press. This is referred to in the present author‟s text as the „mute stop theory‟. as annotated by Donald W. Dent & Sons Ltd. „Beethoven as I Knew Him‟ by Anton Schindler issued in 1840 and re-issued in 1860 in expanded form. 1972.] „Performance practices in classic piano music: their principles and application‟ by Sandra P. [This gives some information on pedalling practice among Liszt‟s contemporaries.M. Indiana University Press. patented by John Broadwood in 1783. Rosenblum (with a foreword by Malcolm Bilson). accordingly.J. 1996. „Possibilities of Tone Color by Artistic Use of Pedals‟ by Teresa Carreño being page 64 & following pages of „The Art of Pedaling: Two Classic Guides: Anton Rubinstein and Teresa Carreðo‟. Cambridge Studies in Performance Practice (No. 1994. Dover. „The Pianist‟s guide to Pedaling‟ by Joseph Banowetz. Grove‟s Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Hipkins in Sir G. Adare Press. referred to in an article in the Musical Times of 1 August 1895. 2003. McArdle. 2002. 2008. „The Romantic Generation‟ by Charles Rosen. Cork. Harvard University Press. „Aspects of the Liszt Tradition‟ by Tilly Fleischmann edited by Michael O‟Neill. 4). regarding Beethoven‟s pedal markings in the piano concertos. Amadeus Press. [It contended that the pianissimo pedal. J. 71 . based on Czerny‟s writings. reprinted by Dover Press.BIBLIOGRAPHY „Sordini‟. Magazine Road. 1986. was indicated by the Italian word sordino and. 1985.
Sydney. Wensleydale Press. Wensleydale Press. 2009.„The Authentic Chopin and Liszt Piano Tradition‟ by Gerard Carter. Sydney. 2009. „Towards an authentic interpretation of the piano works of Frédéric Chopin‟ by Gerard Carter. 72 .
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Gerard Carter holds the degrees of Bachelor of Economics and Bachelor of Laws from the University of Sydney, practised law as a solicitor for over thirty years, lectured in commercial law and is the published author of numerous books on legal and musical subjects. He studied piano with Eunice Gardiner at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music and gained his Associate Diploma in Music (Piano Performing). He studied César Franck‟s organ works with Maître Jean Langlais at the Cavaillé-Coll grand organ in the Basilica of Ste Clotilde in Paris. Jean Langlais was a pupil of Franck‟s last pupil, Charles Tournemire. Tournemire and Langlais presided for many years, in succession to Franck, at the tribune of Ste Clotilde. Gerard Carter has performed and recorded piano works by Bach, Beethoven, Chopin, Liszt, Schumann and Brahms. Together with Anthony Wallington, baritone, he recorded a recital of songs representing a conspectus of the song literature, recorded a number of sacred songs on organ and piano, and performed Schubert‟s Winterreise at Hobart Town Hall. He recorded Franck‟s Chorale in A minor and Cantabile on the historic Puget Père et Fils organ at Kincoppal-Rose Bay School, Vaucluse, and recorded works by Franck, Mendelssohn and Fauré on the historic Hill and Son organ at St Augustines‟ Church, Balmain. He is the author of an article in the Sydney Organ Journal on the authentic performance of Franck‟s organ works. He has recorded his own piano transcriptions of Franck‟s Pièce Héroïque and Chorales in E major and A minor and has published and recorded his own „Fantasy on the Maiden‟s Wish‟ for piano. „Franz Liszt‟s Piano Sonata‟ and „Rediscovering the Liszt Tradition‟ (which enclose CDs of historic reproducing piano recordings of Liszt‟s piano works performed by his celebrated Weimar pupils), „Liszt Sonata Companion‟, „Piano Mannerisms, Tradition and the Golden Ratio in Chopin and Liszt‟, „The Piano Book‟, „Nineteenth Century Piano Interpretative Devices‟, „The Authentic Chopin and Liszt Piano Tradition‟, „Liszt Sonata Compendium‟ (includes CD), „Towards an authentic interpretation of the Liszt Sonata‟, „Interpreting César Franck‟s Organ Works‟, „César Franck‟s Metronome Markings for his Organ Works‟, „The Reproducing Piano: A Forgotten Musical Revolution‟, „Music in My Life‟, „Favourite Piano Pieces and Concertos‟ and „Towards an authentic interpretation of the piano works of 73
Frédéric Chopin‟ are other music titles written by Gerard Carter and published by Wensleydale Press. Gerard Carter has a continuing commitment, which goes back to the early 1960s, to the ürtext, historical performing practice, and reproducing piano revival movements. His performances of the keyboard music of Bach and the piano music of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Schumann and Brahms go back to the 1950s and 1960s.
PUBLICATIONS BY WENSLEYDALE PRESS
Franz Liszt's Piano Sonata: Gerard Carter (includes CD): discussion and analysis of Franz Liszt's Piano Sonata with CD of historic reproducing piano recordings by celebrated Liszt pupil Eugen d'Albert and Paderewski pupil Ernest Schelling; paperback illustrated (seven illustrations are in colour) 159 pages 205 x 145 mm ISBN 0977517349 RRP $115 Australian Law for the 21st Century: Gerard Carter: common law, statute law, legal concepts and institutions in Australia and its states and territories, in plain language, for those interested in learning about the law; paperback 306 pages 190 x 120 mm ISBN 0977517357 RRP $45 Transfer of Legal Rights: Gerard Carter: common law, equitable principles and statutory provisions in every Australian state and territory governing transfers of legal rights, with tables, diagrams, flow charts, forms and precedents, in plain language, for lawyers and law students; paperback 120 pages 190 x 120 mm ISBN 0977517365 RRP $45 Rediscovering the Liszt Tradition: Gerard Carter (includes 3 CDs): Franz Liszt and his pupils, the authentic interpretation of his piano works, and nineteenth century piano performing tradition, with three CDs of historic reproducing piano recordings of Liszt‟s piano works performed by eleven celebrated concert pianists who studied with him at Weimar; conebound illustrated 213 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 0977517306 RRP $85; hardbound illustrated 213 pages 230 x 160 mm ISBN 0977517314 RRP $115 Liszt Sonata Companion: Gerard Carter: advanced discussion and analysis of Franz Liszt's Piano Sonata in 123 fascinating articles; conebound illustrated 310 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 0977517322 RRP $85 The Blue and Gold Forever: Arthur Hahn arranged by Gerard Carter: sheet music; melodious, stirring and inspirational school song of St Aloysius College, Milsons Point, Sydney; words and music by Arthur Hahn SAC 1918 (E flat) arranged for piano by Gerard Carter opus 1 (D flat); conebound sheet music 2 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 0977517373 RRP $25 Fantasy on the Maiden's Wish: Gerard Carter: sheet music; pianistic and effective concert piece, based on famous Polish song for voice and piano by Frédéric Chopin, composed for piano by Gerard Carter opus 2 (A flat); conebound sheet music 12 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 0977517381 RRP $45 Piano Mannerisms, Tradition and the Golden Ratio in Chopin & Liszt: Gerard Carter: nineteenth century piano interpretative devices by ten celebrated pianists born in the nineteenth century taken from reproducing piano roll recordings of the Chopin Nocturne in F sharp major opus 15 no. 2; the mysterious tradition of the Klindworth D natural in the Liszt Sonata; and some astonishing discoveries about the golden ratio in the Chopin Etudes and the Liszt Sonata; booklet illustrated 36 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 9780977517398 RRP $35 75
The Piano Book: Gerard Carter: pianos, composers, pianists, recording artists, repertoire, performing practice, analysis, expression and interpretation in 207 fascinating articles; conebound illustrated 440 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-0-7 RRP $120 Nineteenth Century Piano Interpretative Devices: Gerard Carter: melody-delaying, melody-anticipation, arpeggiata, rubato, air pauses and accelerando; disc and roll recordings showing the use of nineteenth century piano interpretative devices; survey of 100 recorded pianists born before 1900 and their use of melody-delaying and arpeggiata; analysis of the results of the survey; conebound illustrated 86 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-14 RRP $45 The Authentic Chopin and Liszt Piano Tradition: Gerard Carter: Chopin and Liszt as composers, pianists and teachers; Chopin tradition through Mikuli; Liszt tradition through Stavenhagen and Kellermann; nineteenth century piano interpretative devices in Chopin and Liszt; Chopin and Liszt tradition through their pupils and disciples; conebound illustrated 242 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-2-1 RRP $85 Liszt Sonata Compendium: Gerard Carter (includes CD): Franz Liszt‟s Piano Sonata in B minor; its prototypes, composition, editions, analyses, interpretation, performances, reception, evaluation, details of historic reproducing piano roll and disc recordings; includes facsimiles in study format of the autograph manuscript of 1852/53 and the Breitkopf & Härtel first edition of 1854; also includes a CD of the Sonata; conebound illustrated 260 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-3-8 RRP $85 Towards an authentic interpretation of the Liszt Sonata: Gerard Carter: first edition; Liszt pupil Motta‟s edition; interpretative editions by Cortot and by Liszt pupils Joseffy, Sauer, Rosenthal and d‟Albert; Liszt pupils Stavenhagen and Kellermann and their pupil Fleischmann; Liszt Pädagogium; Liszt pupil Bülow; tempi; pedalling; dynamics; melodydelaying, arpeggiata, rubato; Liszt pupil Klindworth; disc and roll recordings; Liszt pupil d‟Albert‟s 1913 Welte roll; Liszt pupil Friedheim‟s performances; Friedheim‟s 1916 Triphonola roll; Schelling‟s 1916 Duo-Art roll; interactions of Liszt pupils; booklet illustrated 45 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-4-5 RRP $40 Interpreting César Franck’s Organ Works: Gerard Carter: Franck‟s organ at Ste Clotilde; the present organ at Ste Clotilde; dynamics and expression; touch and duration; phrasing; tempo; style; editions; lessons with Jean Langlais on Chorales nos. 1 and 3 and Pièce Héroïque; lessons with Alan Moffat; sonority of reeds; eight foot reeds; stylistic freedom; organists and the Franck tradition; French organ music terms; booklet illustrated 37 pages 287 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-5-2 RRP $40 César Franck’s Metronome Markings for his Organ Works: Gerard Carter: discovery of Franck‟s metronome markings; markings seem high; cursor theory; Franck performance theory; double-beat theory; comparisons of markings by Franck, Tournemire and Dupré and recordings by Langlais and Marchal; organists and the Franck tradition; booklet illustrated 32 pages 287 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-6-9 RRP $30
The Reproducing Piano: A Forgotten Musical Revolution: Gerard Carter: reproducing pianos and rolls; top concert pianists recorded from 1905 to 1930; accurately reproduced dynamics and pedalling; more natural sound than early discs; rolls were superseded from 1930s by electric discs; Denis Condon, collector, rebuilder and restorer of reproducing pianos and their rolls; revival increases our knowledge of nineteenth century piano performance practice; booklet illustrated 19 pages 287 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-7-6 RRP $20 Music in My Life: Gerard Carter: piano; reproducing piano; grand organ; accompanying voice; booklet illustrated; includes sheet music for The Blue and Gold Forever arranged for piano by Gerard Carter opus 1 and Fantasy on the Maiden‟s Wish for piano by Gerard Carter opus 2; booklet illustrated 54 pages 287 x 21 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-8-3 RRP $50 Favourite Piano Pieces and Concertos: Gerard Carter: The Australian Broadcasting Corporation established by vote in 2004 a list of the 100 most popular piano pieces, and in 2007 a list of the most popular 37 piano concertos (out of a list of the 100 most popular concertos); analysis and ranking of composers, piano pieces and piano concertos; author‟s own assessments grouped for composers; booklet illustrated 31 pages 287 x 21 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-9-0 RRP $30 Towards an authentic interpretation of the piano works of Frédéric Chopin: Gerard Carter: Chopin as man, composer, pianist and teacher; Chopin‟s piano works; Chopin editions; Chopin tradition through Mikuli; Chopin rubato, pedalling, ornamentation and orthography; Chopin and Pleyel pianos; nineteenth century piano interpretative devices; Chopin nocturne: a case study; Chopin and schools of piano playing; conebound illustrated 86 pages 287 x 21 mm ISBN 978-0-646-52380-4 RRP $50 Pedalling the Piano: Gerard Carter: An historical, musicological and artistic analysis of the development and use of the sustaining, sostenuto and una corda pedals of the piano with particular reference to the music of Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Schumann and Brahms; conebound illustrated cover 77 pages 287 x 21 mm ISBN 978-0-9807452-0-7 RRP $50
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