You are on page 1of 90

HARMONIC

ANALYSIS
for Scale Selection
and Chord Substitution
by Curt Sheller
Curt Sheller Publications
2050 Orlando Rd., Suite 101
Pottstown, PA 19464-2348
www.curtsheller.com
w
i
t
h

H
A
R
M
O
N
IZ
E
D

S
C
A
L
E

C
H
A
R
T
S
Harmonic Analysis
for Scale Selection and Chord Substitution
with Harmonized Scale Charts

by Curt Sheller
Copyright 2003 by Curt Sheller
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the
publisher. For information, contact Curt Sheller Publications.
Crut Sheller Publications
2050 Orlando Rd., Suite 101
Pottstown, PA 19464-2348
International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
ISBN-10: 0-9714044-2-9
ISBN-13: 978-0-9714044-2-7
Printed and bound in the United States of America
Harmonic Analysis
Forward
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 3
Foreword
The understanding of a chord's function within a chord progression is the first step
in the process of scale selection for improvisation and creating melodies as well as
applying the principles of chord and scale substitution.
Harmonic Analysis
Forward
4 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Harmonic Analysis
Introduction
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 5
Introduction
This book focuses on the following topics:
analysis of chord function within chord progressions
scale selection based on chord function
chord and scale substitution principles
This book focuses on chord progressions based on Tonic-Dominant harmony found
in the Jazz and Popular songs widely considered to be part of the "standard" jazz
repertoire.
The principles in this book are based on extensive research and application. A
special thanks to Chuck Anderson for many of the concepts put forth in this book.
Additional information and sample worksheets can be found on the web at:

www.curtsheller.com/books/RMA1.html
Harmonic Analysis
Introduction
6 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis
Contents
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 7
Contents
Foreword ........................................................3
Introduction ...................................................5
Basic Concepts ............................................9
Root Movement Analysis ...................... 9
The Harmonized Chord Scale ............ 10
Tonic-Dominant Harmony ................... 11
The Six Harmonic Principles .................... 13
Full Diatonic .................................................15
Determining Tonality ............................ 15
Partial Diatonic ........................................... 21
Secondary Dominants ........................ 24
Chained Secondary
Dominant Cycles ................................. 27
Diminished Chords? ............................. 28
Internal Modulation ................................... 31
Determining a Modulation ................. 31
Pivot or Double Function Chords ....... 31
Common Modulations ........................ 32
Tierce de Picardy ................................. 32
Unresolved...................................................33
Chromatic ...................................................35
Cycle ............................................................39
Common Chord Functions and
Progressions ...............................................41
Common Major Keys ........................... 41
Common Chord Progressions ............ 41
Harmonic Function of Chords ............ 42
Common Harmonic Sequences ........... 45
Im ImL7 Im7 Im6 ................................... 45
Im7 Im7+5 Im6 ...................................... 46
Picardy Third ......................................... 46
Chromatic Sevenths ............................ 46
Confirmation Sequence ..................... 47
Scale Selection ........................................... 49
Vertical Scale Choices ....................... 49
Horizontal Scale Choices ................... 50
Alternate Scale Choices ..................... 51
Chord & Scale
Substitution Principles ................................ 53
Diatonic Chord Substitutions .............. 53
Direct Substitutions ............................... 54
Minor Third Substitution Principle ........ 57
Worksheet Examples ................................ 59
Blank Worksheet ................................... 60
Misty ....................................................... 61
Rhythm Changes ................................. 62
Bluesette ............................................... 63
Harmonized Chord Charts ...................... 65
Major Key ........................................................ 66
Minor Key ......................................................... 67
Harmonic Minor .............................................. 70
Tonic Minor ...................................................... 71
Ionian ............................................................... 75
Dorian .............................................................. 76
Phrygian ........................................................... 77
Lydian............................................................... 78
Mixolydian ....................................................... 79
Aeolian ............................................................ 80
Locrian ............................................................. 81
Blues Major ...................................................... 84
Blues Minor ...................................................... 85
Pentatonic ....................................................... 86
Summary .....................................................87
Harmonic Analysis
Contents
8 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Harmonic Analysis
Basic Concepts
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 9
Basic Concepts
Harmonic Analysis (HA) is the process used to determine the harmonic function
of chords within a chord progression. A chord progression is defined as a sequence
of chords, each chord has a root and is of a particular chord type. The relationship
of a chord's root to a scale determines its function within that scale's tonality.
Once a chord's function is identified scale selections along with chord and scale
substitutions can be made. We call this process Root Movement Analysis (RMA)
Root Movement Analysis
Root Movement Analysis is the process of determining the root movement of chords
within a chord progression, the chord types that are used as well as identifying
tonal centers. This root movement can be determined and categorized using one of
six harmonic principles and the harmonized chord charts contained in this book.
These principles are covered in the next chapters.
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Basic Concepts
10 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
The Harmonized Chord Scale
The most common intervals used for building chords are major and minor thirds.
This can be accomplished by stacking every other note of a scale or mode. This
stacking of notes creates chords using a combination of major and minor thirds.
A minimum of three notes is needed to create a chord. These three note chords are
called triads. Four notes make up 4-part chords, five notes make up a 5-part chord,
all the way up to chords that include all the notes of the scale. These chords create
a Harmonized Chord Scale that is used for a Root Movement Analysis. For the
purposes of harmonic analysis this book uses triads and 4-part chords only. Here
are the triads and 4-part chords that form a harmonized C major scale.
Example: C Major Harmonized Scale
Triads C Dm Em F G Am B
4-Part Chords Cmaj7 Dm7 Em7 Fmaj7 G7 Am7 Bm7b5
By applying roman numerals to the chords of a harmonized scale a comparison of
chord progressions can be made.
Triads C Dm Em F G Am B
4-Part Chords Cmaj7 Dm7 Em7 Fmaj7 G7 Am7 Bm7b5
I II III IV V VI VII
This book uses uppercase roman numerals only to identify a chord's function within
its harmonized chord scale.
These names are commonly used to indicate a chord's position and function
within its corresponding major scale.
I Tonic
II Supertonic
III Mediant
IV Subdominant
V Dominant
VI Submediant
VII Leading Tone
Harmonic Analysis
Basic Concepts
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 11
Tonic-Dominant Harmony
This book focuses on Tonic-Dominant harmony predominant in Western music and
a staple of a jazz musician's repertoire. Tonic-Dominant harmony stresses the use
of key centers which are defined by the use of a tonic (I) chord. These tonic chords
are usually preceded and supported by a dominant (V) chord. A dominant chord
is sometimes preceded by the subdominant (IV) chord which tends to resolve
towards the dominant chord which either resolves to the tonic chord or goes back
to the subdominant delaying final resolution to the tonic chord.
A tonic (I) chord is a passive chord having a feeling of rest. A dominant (V) chord
is an active chord having a feeling of restlessness and tends to be drawn to its tonic
I chord.
An active chord is a triad that contains the fourth of its scale. A passive chord is
any triad that contains the third of the scale.

TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Most progressions are "tonal" with at least one key center being established.
Songs can and do modulate through multiple key centers. Many of the songs that
are considered part of the standard jazz repertoire modulate through several key
centers. Most folk and rock songs establish a main key center and do not modulate
to other key centers.
Harmonic Analysis
Basic Concepts
12 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis
Overview
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 13
The Six Harmonic Principles
Overview
Here is an overview of the six harmonic principles outlined in this book.
Full Diatonic
A Full Diatonic (FD) chord is defined as a chord that has its root and species (chord
type) in its harmonized chord chart. (Harmonized chord charts are located in the
back of this book)
Partial Diatonic
A Partial Diatonic (PD) chord is defined as a chord that has its root in chord chart
but its species is NOT in its harmonized chord chart.
Internal Modulation
An Internal Modulation (IM) is when a change of tonal center has occurred.
Unresolved
Unresolved (UR) is when a chord is in its harmonized chord chart but does not
resolve to the I chord.
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Overview
14 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Chromatic
Chords ascending or descending by Chromatic (CH) half steps between roots. The
root and species are NOT in the harmonized chord chart.
Cycle
A Cycle (Cyl) is when there is an equal distance between chord roots and same
species for each chord, ascending or descending. A minimum of three chords is
required for a Cycle.
Harmonic Analysis
Full Diatonic
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 15
Full Diatonic
A Full Diatonic chord is defined as a chord that has its root and species (chord type)
in its harmonized chord chart. A Full Diatonic progression can be based on a scale
or mode.
WORKSHEET NOTATION: Label these chords with UPPERCASE roman numerals and the
tonality or key center using an uppercase letter. There is no need to indicated the chord
type with its roman numeral. (See examples)
Determining Tonality
The first thing to do for a Root Movement Analysis (RMA) is to determine the
starting tonality or key center. Once the starting tonality has been discovered a
harmonized chord chart can be selected to identify chord functions.
There are several clues that can be used to determine a starting tonality.
Key Signatures
A key signature is a summary of the sharps, flats and natural notes used in a
section of music. Traditional key signatures represent major and their relative
minor keys. A key signature can represent any scale or mode.
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Full Diatonic
16 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Getting Started
The key signature can sometimes be used to determine the starting tonality. More
often the last chord of a progression will most likely be the tonic or I chord and the
main or central tonality. Even if the tonality can not be determined a harmonic
analysis can be started.
Start by determining the first tonal center using the clues (key signature and
or last chord or note). Now find its harmonized chord chart. The most common
tonality is Major comprising of a large majority of contemporary music.
Start assigning roman numerals to the basic chords of the progression. Ignore
single beat chords, the upper partials of chords such as ninths, elevenths and
thirteenths. Ignore alterations such as flat and sharp nines, sharp elevenths.
Familiarize yourself with both the basic triads and 4-part chords types in each of
the harmonized chord charts.
EXAMPLE 1
Starting with this simple, very common chord progression and the Major and
Minor harmonized chord charts we'll take each chord one at time.
The first chord, a Dm7 is in both the major and minor charts. In a major tonality it
functions as a II chord in the key of C, a III chord in the key of Bb and a VI chord
in the key of F. In a minor tonality it functions as a I chord in the key of D minor
and as the IV chord in the key of A minor. (5 choices)
The second chord, G7 is found in both the major and minor charts but only as a
V chord in the key of C major or C minor. Store this information away for future
reference. (2 choices)
The Cmaj7 chord function as a I chord in the key of C major, the IV chord in the
key G major. In a minor tonality it functions as a III chord in key of A minor or VI
chord in the key of E minor. (4 choices)
Harmonic Analysis
Full Diatonic
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 17
Here are the possibilities we now have using the Major and Minor Harmonized
Chord charts:
Key Center: Chord Function
1) Dm: I IV7 #Imaj7
2) Am: IV bVII7 IIImaj7
3) C: II V I
4) Bb: III VI7 IImaj7
5) F: VI II7 Vmaj7
We can rule out numbers 1 and 2 as the one of the chords in each of the progression
do not show up in the major or minor harmonized scale chart.
We can then rule out numbers 4 and 5 as they do not have I or tonic chords.
This leaves number three as the best choice. This is one of the most common
progressions used in contemporary music. You will see this progression more than
any other progression, especially in jazz standards.
1) Dm: I IV7 #Imaj7
2) Am: IV bVII7 IIImaj7
3) C: II V I
4) Bb: III VI7 IImaj7
5) F: VI II7 Vmaj7
Using uppercase roman numerals place a II under the Dm7, a V under the G7 and
a I under the Cmaj7. To indicate the key place an uppercase letter before the II
with a colon following the letter to indicate the tonal center.
Harmonic Analysis
Full Diatonic
18 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
EXAMPLE 2
Using the above chord progression and the Major harmonized chord chart. The
roman numerals I II III IV would be applied.
At first thought this progression can be either in the key of C major or F major
based on the first or last chord. Upon further investigation we can see that major
chords function as either a I and IV chord. C major is the only key with both C and
F as major chords. The Dm7 is a II chord and the Em7 a III chord.
EXAMPLE 3
Using the above chord progression and the Major harmonized chord chart. The
roman numerals I VI II V would be applied.
Here the G7 offers the best clue and it is functioning as a V chord to the Cmaj7 I
chord. Am7 is the VI chord in the key of C and we see the old standby II V chords.
Harmonic Analysis
Full Diatonic
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 19
Try these Full Diatonic Major chord progressions in various keys using the Major
Harmonized Chord charts.
Try these Full Diatonic Minor chord progressions in various keys using the Minor
Harmonized Chord charts.
Songs Examples
Harmonic Analysis
Full Diatonic
20 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
See my book The Advanced Guide to Chord Progressions for Guitar - Vol I
for the most common Full Diatonic chord progressions with their analysis.
Lots of folk and children's songs as well as many rock and popular songs contain
Full Diatonic progressions or sections and are a good place to practice your RMA.
Here are a few examples of jazz songs with full diatonic progressions. Many songs
contain full diatonic sections. Full Diatonic is the most common harmonic principle.
All The Things Your Are Starts off with VI II V I IV major of the key of the
song
Tune Up Various II V I progressions modulating through
descending major key centers a whole step apart
Blue Bossa Starts full diatonic minor and modulates to Full
Diatonic major 1/2 step higher than starting key
center
Fly Me To The Moon measures 1-4 VI II V I
Sway All of the A or first section of the song
Moondance First section Full Diatonic Dorian
So What Full Diatonic Dorian with half step modulation to
Dorian
Autumn Leaves measures 1-4 II V I IV major
measures 1-4 II V I minor
Harmonic Analysis
Partial Diatonic
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 21
Partial Diatonic
A Partial Diatonic chord is defined as a chord that has its root in the harmonized
chord chart but its species is NOT in harmonized chord chart. Partial Diatonic
chords are used to link chords without leaving the current key center.
WORKSHEET NOTATION: Label these chords with UPPERCASE roman numerals and chord
type information. Example: I7, IVm6, I7, etc. There is no change of tonality or key center.
EXAMPLE 1
Using the above chord progression and the Major harmonized chord chart we see
a II V I in the key of C major. But what about that D7. The root D is the second
degree or II in the key of C major but the chord type is not correct. The II chord in
a major key is minor or m7 not a 7th chord. This is a Partial Diatonic chord. We
label this chord as a II7 chord.
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Partial Diatonic
22 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 23
22 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 23
Try these Partial Diatonic Major chord progressions in various keys using the
Major Harmonized Chord charts.
22 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 23
Harmonic Analysis
Partial Diatonic
22 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 23
Try these Full Diatonic Minor chord progressions in various keys using the Minor
Harmonized Chord charts.
Harmonic Analysis
Partial Diatonic
24 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 25
24 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 25
Secondary Dominants
V of ...
A common function of a Partial Diatonic chord in Tonic-Dominant harmony is to act
as a Secondary Dominant, a linking chord.
A Secondary Dominant chord is defined as any seventh chord built on a scale root
that resolves up a perfect fourth or down a perfect fifth to a Full Diatonic chord.
These chords function as a dominant (V) chord to the next chord, serving as a
temporarily tonicize the following chord.
For any secondary dominant chord its II chord can also precede it. Secondary
Dominant chords fall under the Partial Diatonic harmonic principle and are labeled
as such.
Here are the possible Secondary Dominant chords as defined by the above
definition for both Major and Minor tonalities.
VI7 --> V of II
V of II EXAMPLES Key of C
I VI7 II Cmaj7 A7 Dm7 ...
Cm7 Ab7 (Dbmaj7) ...
Note: Major only, Minor does not fit our definition as Ab7 would resolve to
Dm7b5 which is not a chord in the key of Cm.
VII7 --> V of III
V of III EXAMPLES Key of C
I VII7 III Cmaj7 B7 Em7 ...
Cm7 B7 Emaj7 ...
Note: Major only, Minor does not fit our definition as B7 would resolve to
Emaj7 which is not a chord in the key of Cm.
24 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 25
Harmonic Analysis
Partial Diatonic
24 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 25
I7 --> V of IV
V of IV EXAMPLES Key of C
I I7 IV Cmaj7 C7 Fmaj7 ...
Cm7 C7 Fm7 ...
Note: Major and Minor Tonalities
II7 --> V of V
V of V EXAMPLES Key of C
I II7 V Cmaj7 D7 G7 ...
Cm7 D7 G7 ...
Note: Major and Minor Tonalities
III7 --> V of VI
V of VI EXAMPLES Key of C
I III7 VI Cmaj7 E7 Am7 ...
Cm7 Eb7 Abmaj7 ...
Note: Major and Minor Tonalities
The I7, II7, III7 are possible in BOTH major and minor tonalities. The VI7 and
VII7 are possible in major tonalities only, .
Harmonic Analysis
Partial Diatonic
26 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 27
26 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 27
Partial Diatonic Song Examples
I7
A Foggy Day - bar 10
Fly Me To The Moon - bar 4
Bluesette - bar 8
II7
Desafinado - bar 3
The Girl From Ipanema - bar 3
On Green Dolphin Street - bar 5
Jersey Bounce - bar 3
A Foggy Day - bar 7
Watch What Happens - bar 3
Bluesette - bar 6
III7
All of Me - bars 3-4 and bars 9-10
Bluesette - bar 4
VI7
( There are lots of examples of this secondary dominant chords in
turnarounds or turnbacks.)
VII7
( Not a lot of examples of this secondary dominant are found in the standard
jazz repetoire.)
26 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 27
Harmonic Analysis
Partial Diatonic
26 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 27
Chained Secondary Dominant Cycles
When several Secondary Dominant chords are used in a row and resolve up a fourth or
down a fifth to a seventh chord, they are called a chained secondary dominant cycle.
These Secondary Dominant chords can be preceded by there II chords.

For scale selection treat the Chained Secondary Dominant chords as series of
Unresolved V chords or II V chords.
Secondary Dominant Cycle Examples
I Got Rhythm (Bridge)*
III7 VI7 II7 V7
Scrapple the Apple (Rhythm Changes Bridge)*
III7 VI7 II7 V7
Jordu contains two secondary dominant cycles in the bridge.
Stompin' at the Savoy contains a secondary dominant cycle in the bridge
Harmonic Analysis
Partial Diatonic
28 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 29
28 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 29
starting on the IV7 chord.
Diminished Chords?
7 vs. 7-9
Some diminished chords are really functioning as disguised Secondary Dominant
chords. So...
Q. When is a diminished chord NOT a diminished chord?
To determine if a diminished chord is functioning as a disguised Secondary
Dominant write out all four notes of the diminished chord:
EXAMPLE: C#
o
7 = C# E G Bb
- Drop each note 1/2 step and make each a root of a 7th chord:
C7, Eb7, Gb7, A7
- If next chord is a major 7 or minor 7, which if it was a I chord and the
preceding chord could be its V chord. Then the diminished chord is really a 7
flat 9 chord A disguised Secondary Dominant. This is a common notational
practive to insure that a specific chord tone is played as the lowest note of the
chord voicing. Slash chord notation should have been used.
Examples in Key of C
#I7(bII) = VI
7
b
9
C
#7
= A
7b9
/C
#
#II7(bIII) = VII
7
b
9
D
#7
= B
7b9
/D
#
#IV7 (bV)= III
7
b
9
F
#7
= E
7b9
/F
#
#V7 (bVI)= II
7
b
9
G
#7
= D
7b9
/G
#
A. When a diminished seventh chord resolves to a chord 1/2 step above its
root it is functioning as a disguised Secondary Dominant chord.
28 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 29
Harmonic Analysis
Partial Diatonic
28 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 29
Songs Examples
See my book The Advanced Guide to Chord Progressions for Guitar - Vol I
for the most common Partial Diatonic chord progressions.
God Bless The Child bar 1 I7
bar 1 IV7
Have You Meet Miss Jones bar 2 I#7 (VI7)
Hello Dolly bar 6 I7
Lover Man bar 5 I7
bar 6 IV7
Meditation bar 3 VII7
bar 8 VI7
Satin Doll bar 5 II7
The Shadow of Your Smile bar 4 IV7
Someday My Prince Will Come bar 2 III7
bar 4 VI7
Take the 'A' Train bar 3 II7
Killer Joe bar 2 VII7 (Mixolydian)
Harmonic Analysis
Partial Diatonic
30 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Harmonic Analysis
Internal Modulation
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 31
Internal Modulation
An Internal Modulation is when a change of tonal center has occurred. This
modulation can be sudden, prepared, a temporary modulation or an actual
modulation. The modulation can be any interval from above or below the original
key. A modulation can be from a major to major tonality, a minor to minor tonality,
a major to minor tonality, or from a minor to major tonality. Or from a diatonic
tonality to a modal tonality or modal to diatonic.
Once a modulation has occurred use the other harmonic principles to identify a
chord's function.
WORKSHEET NOTATION: Use the notation for Full Diatonic, Partial Diatonic, Unresolved,
Chromatic, or Cycle as required by the individual principle.
Determining a Modulation
If you start getting lots of partial diatonic or chromatic chords in succession then
a possible modulation has occurred. Revisit the analysis of the chords in question
and apply the principles for Full and Partial Diatonic to determine if a modulation
to new tonality or key center has happened.
Pivot or Double Function Chords
A pivot or double function chord is defined as a chord that functions in both the
current tonality and the new tonality. This chord smoothly prepares a modulation
to the new key center.
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Internal Modulation
32 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Common Modulations
It would seem from the description of modulation that anything is possible.
However there are some common modulations to be aware of.
a) Closely related keys (Key Signature)
Full Diatonic I II III IV V VI
Example C Dm Em F G Am
Partial Diatonic Related Keys (Keep Root, reuse species)
Chromatic Related Keys (Root out of key)
bII bIII bV bVI bVII
b) Distant related key (Key Signature)
(No more than three accidentals difference)
Tierce de Picardy
Tierce de Picardy (Picardy Third) is a common practice of establishing a minor key but
resolving it major. Example II V I in the key of C would be Dm7b5 to G7 to Cm7. With
the Picardy Third resolution it would be Dm7b5 G7 Cmaj7. Songs such as How High
the Moon and Bluesette use this harmonic move.
Songs Examples
See my book The Advanced Guide to Chord Progressions for Guitar - Vol II
for the most common Internal Modulations.
Most folk, rock and blues songs remain in one key. Most jazz and pop standards
will modulate to new key centers.
Modulation Interval
All The Things You Are bar 6 & 14 Up a Major Third
How High The Moon bar 3 Descending Whole Steps
Tune Up bar 3 Descending Whole Steps
Solar bar 3 Descending Whole Steps
Airegin bridge Descending Half Steps
Bluesette bar 3 Descending Whole Steps
Harmonic Analysis
Unresolved
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 33
Unresolved
The Unresolved harmonic principle is when a chord is in the harmonized chord
chart but does not resolve to its I chord. Most common would be a V chord or II V
chords not resolving to their I or tonic chord. This is sometimes referred to as a
deceptive resolution. Unresolved chords appear identical to Partial Diatonic chords
and are active chords (II IV V VII) but do not resolve to passive chords (I II VI).
WORKSHEET NOTATION: Label these chords with UPPERCASE roman numerals and the
tonality of what would have been if the chords did resolve to their I chord.
The Duke Ellington , Billy Strayhorn classic Satin Doll is a great example of the
Unresolved harmonic principle.
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Unresolved
34 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Songs Examples
Unresolved II V
Four bar 4, 13
Groovin' High bar 3 - 4
Joy Spring bar 3 - 4
Lover Man bar 1 - 2
Satin Doll bar 1 - 2, 3 - 4, 6
Wave Intro vamp
Harmonic Analysis
Chromatic
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 35
Chromatic
Chords ascending or descending by Chromatic half steps between roots. The root
and species are NOT in the harmonized chord chart.
WORKSHEET NOTATION: Label these chords with a flat or sharp, UPPERCASE roman numeral
and chord type using the roman numeral of its unaltered scale degree. The tonality or key
center does not change.
EXAMPLE 1
Using the above chord progression and the Major harmonized chord chart we see
a II V I in the key of C major. But - what about that Eb7. The root Eb is not in the
key of C major. An Eb7 chord is V chord in the key of Ab Major or Ab Minor. The
progression has not modulated the a new tonal center. This chord is functioning as
a chromatic connection from Cmaj7 to Dm7. Label this chord as a bIII7 chord.
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Chromatic
36 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 37
36 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 37
EXAMPLE 2

Using the previous chord progression and the Major harmonized chord chart, the
roman numerals III bIII7 II bII7 would be applied.
EXAMPLE 3
Using the above chord progression and the Major harmonized chord chart. The
roman numerals I bIII7 II bII7 would be applied.
36 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 37
Harmonic Analysis
Chromatic
36 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 37
Try these Chromatic Major chord progressions in various major keys.
* See the Secondary Dominant section of the Partial Diatonic chapter for
information on Diminished chords.
Common Chromatic Chords
bII or #I
bIII or #II
bV or #IV
bVI or #V
bVII or #VI
Harmonic Analysis
Chromatic
38 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Songs Examples
See my book The Advanced Guide to Chord Progressions for Guitar - Vol I
for the most common chromatic chord progressions.
Four 2nd ending III bIII7
Groovin' High bar 13 - 16 III #IIm7 II bII7
How High The Moon bar 15, 31 bIII7
Michelle bar 3 bVII7
bar 4 bVI7
Moonlight In Vermont bar 4 bVII7
One Note Samba bar 1 - 8 III bIII II bII
bar 5 of coda bIIImaj7
bar 7 of coda bIImaj7
Harmonic Analysis
Cycle
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 39
Cycle
A Cycle is when there is an equal distance between roots (at least 3 chords) and
the same species for each chord, ascending or descending. Chords can ascend or
descend by intervals of a minor seconds (m2), major seconds (M2), minor thirds
(m3), major thirds (M3) or perfect fourths (P4). In order of common to least
common P4, m2, M2, m3, M3. A cycle of dominant seventh chords moving in perfect
fourths (Chained Secondary Dominants) is an example the most common Cycle
harmonic principle.
A cycle is sometimes used as a means to modulation to a new tonality or key center.
Example C E7 A7 D7 G7 C (I III7 VI7 II7 V I).
WORKSHEET NOTATION: Bracket the chords of the cycle indicating the intervalic relationship
between the chords. There is typically not a change in tonality or key center.
The standard Watch What Happens contains a cycle for the first and second
endings using major seventh chords a minor second apart.
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Cycle
40 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Song Examples
See my book The Advanced Guide to Chord Progressions for Guitar - Vol II
for the most common chord Cycles.
Watch What Happens 1st ending Major 7 chords descending and
ascending minor seconds
Watch What Happens 2nd ending Major 7 chords ascending minor
seconds
I Got Rhythm Bridge A cycle of Secondary Dominant
chords with a distance of a perfect
fourth between roots
Jordu Bridge Contains two dominant seventh
chord cycles
Stompin' at the Savoy Bridge Contains two dominant seventh
chord cycles
Harmonic Analysis
Common Chord Functions
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 41
Common Chord Functions and
Progressions
Common Major Keys
Rock: E, A, D, G, C
Folk/Country: E, D, C
Jazz: C, F, Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, G
* Their relative minor keys are also common.
Common Chord Progressions
For a thorough listing of common chord progressions see my book The Advanced
Guide to Chord Progressions for Guitar - Vol I and II. Volume I deals with
chord progressions using the Full Diatonic, Partial Diatonic and Chromatic
harmonic principles. Volume II deals with Internal Modulation, Unresolved and
Cycle principles.
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Common Chord Functions
42 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 43
42 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 43
Harmonic Function of Chords
Individual chords can be categorized by their most common harmonic function. The
following list is based on the Major Harmonized chord scale and shows a chord's
most common function.
I Tonic Approximately
II Supertonic 75 to 80% of
V Dominant all chord progressions
I Tonic
I7 V of IV Secondary Dominant (see Secondary Dominant Chapter),
Partial Diatonic major or minor or Internal Modulation Pivot Chord to new key
I7 True Diminished Chord, usually a linking chord between the I and II.
#I7 VI7b9, disguised Secondary Dominant ( V of II )
bII7 Minor Third Substitution, Tritone sub for V, Usually precedes the I. Common
Chromatic harmonic move.
II Supertonic - functions as subdominant of I, substitute for IV
II7 V of V Secondary Dominant (see Secondary Dominant Chapter),
Partial Diatonic major or minor or Internal Modulation pivot chord to new key
#II7 VII7b9, disguised Secondary Dominant ( V of III )
bIII7 VII7b9, disguised Secondary Dominant ( V of III )
bIII7 Minor Third Substitution, Tritone substitution for VI, Usually precedes the II.
Common Chromatic harmonic move
III Mediant - substitute for I
III7 V of VI Secondary Dominant (see Secondary Dominant Chapter),
Partial Diatonic major or minor or Internal Modulation pivot chord to new key
IV Subdominant
IVm7 Tonic relief, Temporary key center, Transitional chord between the IV and I, or the II
and I
IV7 Partial Diatonic or Internal Modulation pivot chord to new key
#IV7 III7b9, disguised Secondary Dominant ( V of VI )
#V7 II7b9, disquised Secondary Dominant ( V of V )
42 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 43
Harmonic Analysis
Common Chord Functions
42 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 43
V Dominant
Vm7 II of the I7 (II of V of IV)
bVI7 Substitute for IV usually leads to V
VI Submediant - substitute for I, often follows I or occurs between III and II
VI7 V of II Secondary Dominant (see Secondary Dominant Chapter),
Partial Diatonic major or Internal Modulation pivot chord to new key
VII7 V of III Secondary Dominant (see Secondary Dominant Chapter),
Partial Diatonic major or Internal Modulation pivot chord to new key
bVII7 Minor Third Substitution, Usually occurs between the IV and I. V substitute for
IVm7, substitute for V usually leads back to I
VII7 Leading Tone - substitute for V
Harmonic Analysis
Common Chord Functions
44 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Harmonic Analysis
Common Harmonic Sequences
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 45
Common Harmonic Sequences
(and not so common)
Here are some common harmonic sequences and their analysis with scale choices.
(Scale selection is the topic of the next chapter).
Im ImL7 Im7* Im6
Examples of songs with this harmonic sequence or variations are: More, Michelle,
Embraceable You, Stairway to Heaven.
Scale Choices:
Aeolian (Natural Minor) on the Im
Harmonic Minor on the ImL7
Aeolian (Natural Minor) on the Im7
Dorian on the Im6
- or the Aeolian (Natural Minor) scale over the entire sequence, stressing
the inherit chromatic line of the progression.
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
* minMaj 7
Harmonic Analysis
Common Harmonic Sequences
46 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Im7 Im7+5 Im6
Examples of songs with this harmonic sequence are: Witchcraft, Secret Agent Man
Theme
Scale Choices:
Aeolian (Natural Minor) on the Im7
Harmonic Minor on the Im7+5
Dorian on the Im6
Picardy Third
A Picardy Third is when a minor II V resolves to a Major I chord, not the expected
Minor I chord. Rarely does the reverse happen where a major II V resolves to a
Minor I. (see Internal Modulation chapter)
Scale Choices:
For the II V of a II V I use
1) Harmonic Minor of the I chord (Traditional Sound)
2) Locrian of the II (Contemporary Sound)
For the I of a II V I use major of the I or Lydian of the I
Chromatic Sevenths
I bVII7 bVI7 V
I bVII7
Examples of songs with this harmonic sequence are: Fever, Hit the Road Jack (I,
bVII, bVI, V), Tequila (I7 bVII7), Killer Joe (I7 bVII7).
Scale Choices:
Use the Major scale on the I chord
Use the Mixolydian +4 scale on the bVII7 and bVI7 chords
Use the Mixolydian scale on the V chord
Harmonic Analysis
Common Harmonic Sequences
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 47
Confirmation Sequence
The Confirmation sequence gets its name from the Charlie Parker song of the same
name. This sequence typically begins on the I chord of the key and works it way
to the IV chord of the key using a series of II V's. The IV chord would be a major
chord type (major or seventh).
Here is an example from the song Bluesette.
This song could be initially labeled as:
I VII III7* VI II7* IVm7 I7* IV
* Secondary Dominant chords resolving to their I chords.
But would be better labeled as a series of II V's resolving to their I chords, which
serve as double function chords, both a I of the V and a II of the next cycle:
I II V/I II V/I II V I/IV
Scale Choices:
For the II V of a II V I use
1) Harmonic Minor of the I chord (Traditional Sound)
2) Locrian of the II (Contemporary Sound)
Harmonic Analysis
Common Harmonic Sequences
48 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis
Scale Selection
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 49
Scale Selection
Once a harmonic analysis has been completed then scale selections can be made.
These scale selections can be either vertical and horizontal choices.
Vertical Scale Choices
This is a scale per chord approach. When a new chord is encountered the scale
is changed based on the chart below. This is a basic scale selection approach.
Additional scales can be played against these chords using the same principles that
are used with chord substitution (see the Substitution Principles chapter).
Chord Type Basic Scale (Starting on Root)
Major Ionian (Major)
Lydian
m7 Dorian
Aeolian (Natural Minor)
Harmonic Minor
mL7 Tonic Minor
m6 Dorian
7 Mixolydian
Diminished 7 Diminished
Augmented 7 Whole Tone
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Scale Selection
50 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 51
50 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 51
Horizontal Scale Choices
Scale choices can be made based on the overall tonality of a progression or portions
of a progression using horizontal scale choices. The scale will stay in effect until the
analysis requires a different scale.
Here are the scale choices applied to the six harmonic principles.
Full Diatonic Chords
Full Diatonic Major
Use the Major scale of the I chord
Full Diatonic Minor
Use the Natural Minor scale of the I chord on I and III chords
Use the Harmonic Minor scale of the I chord on V and VII chords
Use the Natural Minor scale or Harmonic Minor scale of the I chord
on II, IV, and VI chords
Sample Scale Choices for II V of a II V I
1) Harmonic Minor of the I chord (Traditional Sound)
2) Locrian of the II for a more contemporary sound
Partial Diatonic
Use the vertical scale per chord approach.
- For Seventh chords resolving up a perfect fourth (or down a perfect fifth) to
a major chord type use a Mixolydian scale.
- For Seventh chords resolving up a perfect fourth (or down a perfect fifth) to
a minor chord type use a Mixolydian -2 -6 scale.
Internal Modulation
Use a Full Diatonic or Partial Diatonic solution.
50 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 51
Harmonic Analysis
Scale Selection
50 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 51
Unresolved
Use the vertical scale per chord approach.
Cycle
Use the vertical scale per chord approach
Chromatic
Use the vertical scale per chord approach.
For Seventh chords functioning as a bII7, bIII7, bV7, bVI7 or bVII7 use a
Mixolydian +4 scale.
Alternate Scale Choices
Alternate scale choice should be based on the same principles as chord substitution.
The Lydian Scale Uses vs. Ionian Scale
If a major chord is not in a full or partial diatonic progression then the Lydian scale
is the better vertical scale choice.
Harmonic Analysis
Scale Selection
52 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Harmonic Analysis
Substitution Principles
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 53
Chord & Scale Substitution Principles
Diatonic Chord Substitutions
Passive
Passive chords can be substituted for Passive chords. (See the harmonized charts
for active/passive chord designations)
Example VI and III chords can substitute for a I chord
Triads with the third of the scale present are passive.
Active
Active chords can be substituted for Active chords. (See the harmonized charts
for active/passive chord designations)
Triads with the fourth of the scale present are active.
Example (Major & Minor)
PASSIVE ACTIVE
I V
III II
VI VII
IV
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Substitution Principles
54 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 55
54 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 55
Direct Substitutions
A direct substitute is when the root of the substitute chord matches the root of the
original chord.
There are two types of direct substitutions, replacement and expansion with the
substitution characteristics of being superimposable or non-superimposable.
Replacement
Original chord is removed for the substitute.
Expansion
Original chord remains plus the substitute in the same time frame.
54 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 55
Harmonic Analysis
Substitution Principles
54 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 55
Superimposed
Various upper partials (9, 11, 13). No new harmonic analysis is needed, same
scales choices apply.
Superimposed substitutions are direct substitutions, either replacing or
expanding the existing chord.
Non-superimposable
Alterations (#4, b5, #5, b9, #9, #11, b13). No new harmonic analysis is needed,
possible new scales choices apply.
Non-superimposed substitutions are direct substitutions, either replacing or
expanding the existing chord.
Harmonic Analysis
Substitution Principles
56 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 57
56 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 57
Note Substitution
6 for maj7, m6 for m7, mL7* for m7. No new analysis is needed, same scales
choices apply.
Note substitutions are direct substitutions, either replacing or expanding the
existing chord.
Chord Inversions
No new harmonic analysis is needed, same scales choices apply.
Linking Chords
Connective chords, A NEW harmonic analysis is needed, resulting in new scale
choices.
Re-harmonizations
New chords. A NEW harmonic analysis is needed, resulting in new scale choices.
* minMaj7
56 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 57
Harmonic Analysis
Substitution Principles
56 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 57
The Minor Third Substitution Principle
The Minor Third Substitution Principle state that a chord, ANY type, whose
roots are 1 1/2 steps (a minor third) apart can substitute for each other. The most
common are 7th chords. These chords can be proceeded by their II chords.
Example Key of C
V bVII7--> bII7--> III7
G7 Bb7 --> Db7 --> Fb7 (E7)
Fm7 Bb7 | |
IVm7 Abm7 Db7 |
bVIm7 Bm7 E7
VIIm7
bVII7
A common substitution. Sometimes only the IVm7 or IVm6 chords are used.
This substitution is sometimes referred to as a Backdoor, due how the
resolution to the I is approached.
Harmonic Analysis
Substitution Principles
58 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
bII7
This is the most common Minor Third substitution used in jazz called the
tri-tone substitution. This turns a Full Diatonic progression into a Chromatic
progression.
III7
A rare substitution.
Harmonic Analysis
Worksheets
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 59
Worksheet Examples
This section contains a blank Harmonic Analysis worksheet and some sample song analysis.
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
60 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 61 60 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 61
Original Key:
TITLE
60 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 61 60 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 61
Original Key: Eb
TITLE
Misty
E
bmaj7
I
B
bm7
E
b7
Vm7 I7
A
bm7
D
b7
II V
E
bmaj7
Cm
7
I VI
F
m7
B
b7
G
m7
C
7
F
m7
B
b7
E
b6
/
II V III VI7 II V I
To A
Song Form AABA
B
bm7
E
b7
A
bmaj7
/ A
m7
D
7
Cm7 F
7
II V I II V II V
G
m7
C
7
F
m7
B
b7
III VI7 II V
A
bmaj7
A
bm6
IV IVm6
UR UR Internal Modulation ( IM)
UR
1. 2.
Eb) Eb Ionian Eb Mix Ab Dorian Db Mix Eb Ionian
C Mix -2 -6
Ab) Ab Ionian A Dorian D Mix C Dorian F Mix
Eb) Eb Ionian C Mix -2 -6 Eb Ionian
Sample analysis of the standard Misty. This song is typically done in the key of Eb when
done instrumentally. This progression uses the Harmonic Principles: Full Diatonic, Partial
Diatonic, Unresolved and Internal Modulation. This sample worksheet also contains
the scale choices.
B
TURNBACK
TURNBACK
A
62 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 63 62 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 63
TITLE
Rhythm Changes
B
bmaj7
B
b7
E
bmaj7
E
bm6
B
bmaj7
F
7
B
bmaj7
F
7
I I7 IV IVm6 I V I V
B
bmaj7
G
m7
C
m7
F
7

I VI II V
To A
Song Form AABA
B
bmaj7
D
7
/ G
7
/ C
7
/
I III7 VI7 II7
F
7
/
V
Chained Secondary Dominant Cycle a Perfect Fourth apart - aka Rhythm Changes Bridge
SD TURNBACK
Bb. Bb Ionian
Bb Mixolydian Eb Dorian Bb Ionian
D Mixolydian G Mixolydian C Mixolydian
F Mixolydian
1.
2.
Sample Analysis of the I Got Rhythm / Rhythm Changes. This is the original version.
Many versions and chord subs are possible. Next to the Blues progression this is the second
most common chord progression in jazz. This progression uses the Harmonic Principles: Full
Diatonic, Partial Diatonic and Cycle.
* Following the bass line (Slash Chord Voicings) is a nice optional touch when playing the song.
B
bmaj7
B
b7
/A
b
E
bmaj7
/G

E
bm6
/G
b
B
bmaj7
/F

F
7
B
bmaj7
F
7
A
B
*
Original Key: Bb
62 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 63 62 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 63
Original Key: Bb (G Common)
TITLE
Bluesette
G
maj7
I
/ E
m7
A
7
I/II V
D
m7
G
7
I/II V
C
maj7
/ C
m7
F
7
B
bmaj7
/
I/IV II V I
B
bm7
E
b7
A
bmaj7
/ A
m7b5
D
7

II V I II V
Bm7 B
b7
A
m7
A
b7
G
maj7
/
III bIII7 II bII7 I
F
#m7b5
B
7
II V
IM *
IM
G) G Ionian Em) F# Locrian Dm) E Dorian A Mix -2 -6 C) D Dorian G Mixolydian
Bb) Bb Ionian
Ab) Ab Ionian Gm) A Locrian (A Micardy Third)
G) G Ionian Bb Mix -2 -6 G Ionian Ab Mix -2 -6 G Ionian
Sample Analysis of the jazz standard Bluesette. This song is typically done in the key of Bb
or G. This progression uses the Harmonic Principles: Full Diatonic, Partial Diatonic,
Unresolved and Internal Modulation.
A
Common II V cycle to the IV chord starting on the VII chord. Sometimes called the "Confirmation
Sequence" after the Charlie Parker tune of the same name. Also referred to "back cycling" to the I.
64 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Harmonic Analysis
Major & Minor Scale Charts
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 65
Major & Minor
Scales
Harmonized Chord Charts
Major
Minor
Harmonic Analysis
Major & Minor Scale Charts
66 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 67 66 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 67
Major Key
Full Diatonic Key Tonality
I
Passive
II
Active
III
Passive
IV
Active
V
Active
VI
Passive
VII
Active
Triads
4 part
maj
maj7
mi
m7
mi
m7
maj
maj7
maj
7
mi
m7
dim
m7b5
C C D E F G A B
G G A B C D E F#
D D E F# G A B C#
A A B C# D E F# G#
E E F# G# A B C# D#
B B C# D# E F# G# A#
F# F# G# A# B C# D# E#
C# C# D# E# F# G# A# B#
F F G A Bb C D E
Bb Bb C D Eb F G A
Eb Eb F G Ab Bb C D
Ab Ab Bb C Db Eb F G
Db Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C
Gb Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F
Cb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb
66 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 67
Harmonic Analysis
Major & Minor Scale Charts
66 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 67
I
Passive
II
Active
III
Passive
IV
Active
V
Active
VI
Passive
VII
Active
Triads
4 part
mi
m7
dim
m7b5
maj
maj7
mi
mi7
maj
7
maj
maj7
dim
dim7
Minor Key
Full Diatonic Key Tonality
C# C# D# E F# G# A B#
G# G# A# B C# D# E Fx
D# D# E# F# G# A# B Cx
A# A# B# C# D# E# F# Gx
D D E F G A Bb C#
G G A Bb C D Eb F#
C C D Eb F G Ab B
F F G Ab Bb C Db E
Bb Bb C Db Eb F Gb A
Eb Eb F Gb Ab Bb Cb D
Ab Ab Bb Cb Db Eb Fb G
A A B C D E F G#
E E F# G A B C D#
B B C# D E F# G A#
F# F# G# A B C# D E#
Harmonic Analysis
Major & Minor Scale Charts
68 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Harmonic Analysis
Traditional Scale Charts
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 69
Traditional Scales
Harmonized Chord Charts
Tonic Minor
Harmonic Minor
Diminished
Whole Tone
Harmonic Analysis
Traditional Scale Charts
70 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 71 70 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 71
Harmonic Minor
Full Diatonic Tonality
I
Passive
II
Active
III
Passive
IV
Active
V
Active
VI
Passive
VII
Active
Traids
4 part
mi
mL7
dim
m7b5
aug
+(L7)
mi
m7
maj
7
maj
maj7
dim
dim7
A A B C D E F G#
E E F# G A B C D#
B B C# D E F# G A#
F# F# G# A B C# D E#
C# C# D# E F# G# A B#
G# G# A# B C# D# E Fx
D# D# E# F# G# A# B Cx
A# A# B# C# D# E# F# Gx
D D E F G A Bb C#
G G A Bb C D Eb F#
C C D Eb F G Ab B
F F G Ab Bb C Db E
Bb Bb C Db Eb F Gb A
Eb Eb F Gb Ab Bb Cb D
Ab Ab Bb Cc Db Eb F G
70 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 71
Harmonic Analysis
Traditional Scale Charts
70 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 71
Tonic Minor
Full Diatonic Tonality
I
Passive
II
Active
III
Passive
IV
Active
V
Active
VI
Passive
VII
Active
Traids
4 part
mi
mL7
mi
m7
aug
+(L7)
maj
7
maj
7
dim
m7b5
dim
m7b5
A A B C D E F# G#
E E F# G A B C# D#
B B C# D E F# G# A#
F# F# G# A B C# D# E#
C# C# D# E F# G# A# B#
G# G# A# B C# D# E# Fx
D# D# E# F# G# A# B# Cx
A# A# B# C# D# E# Fx Gx
D D E F G A B C#
G G A Bb C D E F#
C C D Eb F G A B
F F G Ab Bb C D E
Bb Bb C Db Eb F G A
Eb Eb F Gb Ab Bb C D
Ab Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F G
Harmonic Analysis
Traditional Scale Charts
72 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Diminished
Full Diatonic Tonality
All the chords are Diminished chords and can not create a specific tonality.
Whole Tone
Full Diatonic Tonality
All the chords are Whole Tone or Augmented chords and can not create a
specific tonality.
Harmonic Analysis
Modal Scale Charts
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 73
Modal Scales
Harmonized Chord Charts
Ionian
Dorian
Phrygian
Lydian
Mixolydian
Aeolian
Locrian
Harmonic Analysis
Modal Scale Charts
74 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 75 74 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 75
The Modes Tonal Tendencies
Every mode has three primary chords and three secondary chords and one
diminished chord. The primary chords are the major or minor triads containing
the characteristic scale interval and the I chord of the mode. The secondary chords
are the remaining major and minor triads and teh lone diminished chord in each
mode. In the case of the Locrian mode the diminished chord is also the tonic chord,
a primary chord.
Mode Characteristic Scale Degree
Dorian 6
Phrygian 2
Lydian 4
Mixolydian 7
Aeolian 3
Locrian 5
Ionian 1
Due to the close relationship of each mode to its embedded major tonality there is
a possibility of unintended modulation.
Mode Examples in C
Dorian Avoid VII C Dorian avoid F7 to Bbmaj7
Phrygian Avoid VI C Phrygian avoid Eb7 to Abmaj7
Lydian Avoid V C Lydian avoid D7 to Gmaj7
Mixolydian Avoid I C Mixolydian avoid C7 to Fmaj7
Aeolian Avoid III C Aeolian avoid Bb7 to Fbmaj7
Locrian Avoid II C Locrian avoid Ab7 to Dbm7
Basically avoid the tendency for a 7th chord wanting to resolve to its tonic as if it
were a major or minor tonality.
Each of the following Modal Scale charts have their primary, secondary and
diminished chords indicated.
74 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 75
Harmonic Analysis
Modal Scale Charts
74 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 75
Ionian
Full Diatonic Modal Tonality

I*
Primary
II
Secondary
III
Secondary
IV
Primary
V
Secondary
VI
Primary
VII
Diminished
Traids
4 part
maj
maj7
mi
m7
mi
m7
maj
maj7
maj
7
mi
m7
dim
m7b5
* Characteristic Scale Step
C C D E F G A B
G G A B C D E F#
D D E F# G A B C#
A A B C# D E F# G#
E E F# G# A B C# D#
B B C# D# E F# G# A#
F# F# G# A# B C# D# E#
C# C# D# E# F# G# A# B#
F F G A Bb C D E
Bb Bb C D Eb F G A
Eb Eb F G Ab Bb C D
Ab Ab Bb C Db Eb F G
Db Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C
Gb Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F
Cb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb
Harmonic Analysis
Modal Scale Charts
76 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 77 76 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 77
Dorian
Full Diatonic Modal Tonality
I
Primary
II
Primary
III
Secondary
IV
Primary
V
Secondary
VI*
Diminished
VII
Secondary
Triads
4 part
mi
m7
mi
m7
maj
maj7
maj
7
mi
mi7
dim
dim7
maj
maj7
* Characteristic Scale Step
A A B C D E F# G
E E F# G A B C# D
B B C# D E F# G# A
F# F# G# A B C# D# E
C# C# D# E F# G# A# B
G# G# A# B C# D# E# F#
D# D# E# F# G# A# B# C#
A# A# B# C# D# E# Fx G#
D D E F G A B C
G G A Bb C D E F
C C D Eb F G A Bb
F F G Ab Bb C D Eb
Bb Bb C Db Eb F G Ab
Eb Eb F Gb Ab Bb C Db
Ab Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F Gb
76 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 77
Harmonic Analysis
Modal Scale Charts
76 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 77
Phrygian
Full Diatonic Modal Tonality
I
Primary
II*
Primary
III
Secondary
IV
Secondary
V
Diminished
VI
Secondary
VII
Primary
Triads
4 part
mi
m7
maj
maj7
maj
7
mi
m7
dim
dim7
maj
maj7
mi
m7
* Characteristic Scale Step
A A Bb C D E F G
E E F G A B C D
B B C D E F# G A
F# F# G A B C# D E
C# C# D E F# G# A B
G# G# A B C# D# E F#
D# D# E F# G# A# B C#
A# A# B C# D# E# F# G#
D D Eb F G A Bb C
G G Ab Bb C D Eb F
C C Db Eb F G Ab Bb
F F Gb Ab Bb C Db Eb
Bb Bb Cb Db Eb F Gb Ab
Eb Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb Cb Db
Ab Ab Bbb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb
Harmonic Analysis
Modal Scale Charts
78 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 79 78 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 79
Lydian
Full Diatonic Modal Tonality
I
Primary
II
Primary
III
Secondary
IV*
Diminished
V
Secondary
VI
Secondary
VII
Primary
Triads
4 part
maj
maj7
maj
7
mi
m7
dim
m7b5
maj
maj7
mi
m7
mi
m7
* Characteristic Scale Step
C C D E F# G A B
G G A B C# D E F#
D D E F# G# A B C#
A A B C# D# E F# G#
E E F# G# A# B C# D#
B B C# D# E# F# G# A#
F# F# G# A# B# C# D# E#
C# C# D# E# Fx G# A# B#
F F G A B C D E
Bb Bb C D E F G A
Eb Eb F G A Bb C D
Ab Ab Bb C D Eb F G
Db Db Eb F G Ab Bb C
Gb Gb Ab Bb C Db Eb F
Cb Cb Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb
78 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 79
Harmonic Analysis
Modal Scale Charts
78 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 79
Mixolydian
Full Diatonic Modal Tonality
I
Primary
II
Secondary
III
Diminished
IV
Secondary
V
Primary
VI
Secondary
VII*
Primary
Triads
4 part
maj
7
mi
m7
dim
m7b5
maj
maj7
mi
m7
mi
m7
maj
maj7
* Characteristic Scale Step
C C D E F G A Bb
G G A B C D E F
D D E F# G A B C
A A B C# D E F# G
E E F# G# A B C# D
B B C# D# E F# G# A
F# F# G# A# B C# D# E
C# C# D# E# F# G# A# B
F F G A Bb C D Eb
Bb Bb C D Eb F G Ab
Eb Eb F G Ab Bb C Db
Ab Ab Bb C Db Eb F Gb
Db Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb Cb
Gb Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb Fb
Cb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bbb
Harmonic Analysis
Modal Scale Charts
80 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 81 80 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 81
Aeolian
Full Diatonic Modal Tonality
I
Primary
II
Diminished
*III
Primary
IV
Primary
V
Primary
VI
Primary
VII
Primary
Triads
4 part
mi
m7
dim
m7b5
maj
maj7
mi
m7
mi
m7
maj
maj7
maj
7
* Characteristic Scale Step
A A B C D E F G
E E F# G A B C D
B B C# D E F# G A
F# F# G# A B C# D E
C# C# D# E F# G# A B
G# G# A# B C# D# E F#
D# D# E# F# G# A# B C#
A# A# B# C# D# E# F# G#
D D E F G A Bb C
G G A Bb C D Eb F
C C D Eb F G Ab Bb
F F G Ab Bb C Db Eb
Bb Bb C Db Eb F Gb Ab
Eb Eb F Gb Ab Bb Cb Db
Ab Ab Bb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb
80 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 81
Harmonic Analysis
Modal Scale Charts
80 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 81
Locrian
Full Diatonic Modal Tonality
I
Primary
*II
Secondary
III
Primary
IV
Secondary
V
Primary
VI
Secondary
VII
Secondary
Triads
4 part
dim
m7b5
maj
maj7
mi
m7
mi
m7
maj
maj7
maj
7
mi
m7
* * Characteristic Scale Step Scale Step
A A Bb C D Eb F G
E E F G A Bb C D
B B C D E F G A
F# F# G A B C D E
C# C# D E F# G A B
G# G# A B C# D E F#
D# D# E F# G# A B C#
A# A# B C# D# E F# G#
D D E F G Ab Bb C
G G Ab Bb C Db Eb F
C C Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb
F F Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb
Bb Bb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab
Eb Eb Fb Gb Ab Bbb Cb Db
Ab Ab Bbb Cb Db Ebb Fb Gb
Harmonic Analysis
Modal Scale Charts
82 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Harmonic Analysis
Pentatonic Scale Charts
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 83
Contemporary
Scales
Harmonized Chord Charts
Blues Major
Blues Minor
Pentatonic Major
Harmonic Analysis
Pentatonic Scale Charts
84 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 85 84 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 85
Blues Major
Full Diatonic Tonality
I III IV V VI VII
Triads
4 part
maj
7
maj maj
7
maj
7
maj
maj7
maj
C C Eb F G Ab Bb
G G Bb C D Eb F
D D F G A Bb C
A A C D E F G
E E G A B C D
B B D E F# G A
F# F# A B C# D E
C# C# E F# G# A B
F F Ab Bb C Db Eb
Bb Bb Db Eb F Gb Ab
Eb Eb Gb Ab Bb Cb Db
Ab Ab Cb Db Eb Fb Gb
Db Db Fb Gb Ab Bbb Cb
Gb Gb Bbb Cb Db Ebb Fb
Cb Cb Ebb Fb Gb Abb Bbb
84 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 85
Harmonic Analysis
Pentatonic Scale Charts
84 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 85
I II III IV V VI VII
Triads
4 part
mi
m7
dim
m7b5
maj
maj7
mi
mi7
maj
7
maj
maj7
dim
dim7
Blues Minor
Full Diatonic Tonality
I III IV V bVI VII
Traids
4 part
mi maj mi mi maj
maj7
maj
A A C D E F G
E E G A B C D
B B D E F# G A
F# F# A B C# D E
C# C# E F# G# A B
G# G# B C# D# E F#
D# D# F# G# A# B C#
A# A# C# D# E# F# G#
D D F G A Bb C
G G Bb C D Eb F
C C Eb F G Ab Bb
F F Ab Bb C Db Eb
Bb Bb Db Eb F Gb Ab
Eb Eb Gb Ab Bb Cb Db
Ab Ab Cb Db Eb Fb Gb
Harmonic Analysis
Pentatonic Scale Charts
86 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Pentatonic
Full Diatonic Tonality
I II III V VI bVII
Triads
4 part
maj
7
mi
m7
mi
m7
mi
m7
mi
m7
maj
maj7
C C D E G A Bb
G G A B D E F
D D E F# A B C
A A B C# E F# G
E E F# G# B C# D
B B C# D# F# G# A
F# F# G# A# C# D# E
C# C# D# E# G# A# B
F F G A C D Eb
Bb Bb C D F G Ab
Eb Eb F G Bb C Db
Ab Ab Bb C Eb F Gb
Db Db Eb F Ab Bb Cb
Gb Gb Ab Bb Db Eb Fb
Cb Cb Db Eb Gb Ab Bbb
Harmonic Analysis
Summary
Harmonic Analysis
Summary
PB Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 87
Summary
I hope this book has shed some light on how chords function. Enjoy and explore!!!
Feel free to E-mail me any questions or comments (curt@curtsheller.com). Visit my
website for updates and additional online information.
www.curtsheller.com
Curt Sheller
TONIC
SUBDOMINANT
DOMINANT
V IV
I
Harmonic Analysis
Summary
Harmonic Analysis
Summary
88 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection PB
Harmonic Analysis
Summary
Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection 89
Index
Symbols
4-part chord
4-part chords 10
A
Alternate Scale Choices
Lydian 51
B
Bluesette 63
C
Chord
Active 11
Passive 11
Chord Inversions 54
Chromatic 14, 41
Chromatic Sevenths 46
Common Major Keys 41
Country 41
Folk 41
Jazz 41
Rock 41
Cycle 14
Cycles 41
D
Diatonic Substitutions
Active 53
Passive 53
Dominant 10
F
Full Diatonic 13, 15, 19, 20, 41
H
Harmonic Analysis 9
Harmonic Function of Chords
Dominant 42
Leading Tone 43
Supertonic 42
Tonic 42
V of II 43
V of III 43
V of IV 42
V of V 42
V of VI 42
Harmonized Chord Scale 10
I
Internal Modulation 13, 41
K
Key center 11
L
Leading Tone 10
Linking Chords 56
Lydian Scale 51
M
Mediant 10
Minor Third Substitution Principle 57
Misty 61
N
Note Substitution 56
P
Partial Diatonic 13, 41
Picardy Third 46
R
Re-harmonizations 56
Rhythm Changes 62
RMA 9
Root Movement Analysis 9
Harmonic Analysis
Summary
90 Harmonic Analysis for Chord Substitution and Scale Selection
S
Scale Choices
Expansion 54
Replacement 54
Subdominant 10
Submediant 10
Substitution Characteristics
bII7 58
bVII7 57
III7 58
Supertonic 10
T
Tonic 10
Tonic-Dominant Harmony 11
Triad 10
triad 10
U
Unresolved 13, 41
W
Worksheet Examples 59
20050602.1.2.5