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CCGT Operations Principles


Steam Turbine
Operation
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CCGT Operations Principles
Impulse Turbine
Brancas Turbine
circa 1629 AD
First Recorded
example of a pure
Impulse turbine
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CCGT Operations Principles
Impulse Turbine
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CCGT Operations Principles
Impulse Turbine
High Torque
Low Efficiency
Low Axial Thrust
Low Stage Leakage
Small Glands
No Balance Piston
Mainly Used for HP
Cylinders
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CCGT Operations Principles
Reaction Turbine
Heros Turbine
circa 120BC
First recorded
example of Pure
Reaction Turbine
Charles Parsons
took out first
patent on a
Reaction Turbine
in 1883
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CCGT Operations Principles
Reaction Turbine
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CCGT Operations Principles
Reaction Turbine
Low Torque
High Efficiency
High Axial Thrust
High Stage Leakage
Large Glands
Balance Piston
Often Used in
Lower Pressure
Turbines
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CCGT Operations Principles
Compounding
Compounding for Velocity
Pressure Reduced in one stage
Several Velocity Stages
Used in HP cylinders
Mainly Impulse blading
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CCGT Operations Principles
Compounding
Compounding for Pressure
Pressure reduced in stages
One velocity row each stage
Mainly Impulse
Mainly used in IP Cylinder
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CCGT Operations Principles
Compounding
Compounding for P & V
Pressure reduced in stages
Several Velocity rows per
stage
Mainly Impulse Blading
Used in lower Pressure
cylinders
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CCGT Operations Principles
Turbine Growth
Limit to
number of
stages between
two bearings
Greater steam
flow requires
bigger exhaust
annulus
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CCGT Operations Principles
Steam Turbine Layout
IPSV Control Gear
Pedestal No 1
Front
Steam Chest
Steam Piping
LP Module
Generator
Rear
Lubrication, Jacking Oil
and Turning Systems
IPGV Control Gear
Pedestal
Location of Turbine and Generator
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CCGT Operations Principles
Steam Flow Diagram
GENERATOR
LP STEAM CHEST
LP ESV LP GOV
HP STEAM CHEST
HP ESV HP GOV
HP IP MODULE
TO REHEATER
LP MODULE
TO CONDENSER
IP STEAM CHEST
IP ESV IP GOV
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CCGT Operations Principles
Steam Valves & Pipework
IP Steam Inlet Top
IP Steam Inlet Bottom
IP Steam Chest, RH Top
IP/LP Crossover
Steam Pipes
HP Steam Chest,
LH Bottom
Bottom HP Loop Pipes
HP Exhaust
Bottom IP Loop Pipe
IP Steam Chest,
RH Bottom
Top IP Loop Pipe
Top HP Loop Pipe
IP/LP Crossover Steam Pipes LP Steam Inlet Pipes
HP Steam Chest, LH Top
LP Module
LP Steam
Inlet Pipes
LP Steam Valves
LP Steam Inlet
HP Steam
Inlet Bottom
HP Steam Chest,
LH Top
HP Steam Inlet Top
Top HP Loop
Pipes
HP/IP Module
Top IP Loop Pipe
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CCGT Operations Principles
Siemens HP / IP Cylinder
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CCGT Operations Principles
Steam Flow Direction (HP/IP)
IP Steam Admission
HP Steam Admission
IP Steam Exhaust to LP Cylinder
Cooling Steam Exhaust
HP Steam Exhaust to Reheat
HP Steam
IP Steam
Cooling Steam
Gland Steam
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CCGT Operations Principles
HP/IP Cylinder Section
Diaphragms
Inner Cylinder
Shaft Glands
Bladed Rotor
HP Steam Inlet
IP Exhaust Steam
Diaphragm Carrier
Shaft Glands
Journal Bearing
Thrust Bearing
Rear
Pedestal
Drain Connection
Outer Cylinder
Pedestal
Front
Journal Bearing
Shaft Glands
HP Exhaust Steam
HP Steam Inlet
Drain Connection
IP Steam Inlet
Drain Connection
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CCGT Operations Principles
Sealing Rings
Bottom Half Inner Cylinder
(Counter Supports)
Section B-B
Bottom Half
Outer Cylinder
Top Half
Outer Cylinder
Bottom Half
Outer Cylinder
Top Half
Diaphragm Carrier
Collar Bush
Collar Bush
Collar Bush
Collar Bush
Bottom Half
Outer Cylinder
Bottom Half
Inner Cylinder
Top Half
Inner Cylinder
Top Half
Outer Cylinder
Section A-A
Inner Cylinder and Diaphragm Carrier
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CCGT Operations Principles
HP Cylinder Blades & Blade Fixings
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CCGT Operations Principles
LP Cylinder Section
Diaphragm Carrier
Inlet Pipe
Shaft Glands
Rotor
HP Side
Safety Diaphragm
Inner Casing
Exhaust Hood
LP Exhaust Spray Pipe
Integral Bearing
Generator Side
Longitudinal Guide Key
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CCGT Operations Principles
LP Cylinder Cross-Section
Generator Side
HP Side
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CCGT Operations Principles
Double Flow LP Rotor
Arch Band
Shrouds on
final row of
blades
Allows longer
blades to flex
individually
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CCGT Operations Principles
Moisture In Steam - L.P. Exhaust
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CCGT Operations Principles
Two Pressure Turbine
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CCGT Operations Principles
Mitchell Thrust Bearing
Single thrust collar
with pad ring each
side
Floating pad
arrangement
Hydraulically
increases bearing
surface as thrust load
is increased
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CCGT Operations Principles
Thrust Pad Ring
Tilting Pads
Elastic Ring
Direction of Rotation
Tilting Pads
Elastic Ring
Thrust Bearing Cage
Pin for Friction Detection
Spigot
Anti-Friction Metal
Positioning Spigot
Section A-A
Front
Rear
Elastic Ring
Tilting Pads
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CCGT Operations Principles
Governor System Principles
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CCGT Operations Principles
Governor System Principles
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CCGT Operations Principles
Electronic Turbine Governor
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CCGT Operations Principles
Turbine Response to Load Rejection
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CCGT Operations Principles
Overspeed Bolt Mechanism
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CCGT Operations Principles
Turbine Protection Devices
Primary Governor
Secondary Governor
Over-speed Bolts
Emergency Stop Button (Electro-Mechanical)
Low Lube Oil Pressure / Power Oil Pressure Trip
Low Vacuum Unloading & Trip
Low Boiler Pressure Unloading & Trip
High Condenser Water Level Trip
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CCGT Operations Principles
Turbine Steam & Drains
HP Cylinder
Vent Valve
HP Exhaust NRV
Bypass Valve
To Turbine Drains Flash Vessel
Cold Reheat
Drain
IP Cylinder
Drain
IP Exhaust
Drain
LP Strainer
Drain
To Piping Drain
Flash Vessel
Inner-Space
Venting Lines
IP
Casing
HP
Casing
LP Strainer
LP
Stop Valve
LP
Gov Valve
IP
Inlets
HP
Inlets
IP
Chests
HP/IP Cylinder
HP
Chests
Cold Reheat
HP Exhaust NRV
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CCGT Operations Principles
Steam Bye-Pass Arrangement
Assist in achieving quality
steam prior to start-up
Run-up can be done on
both HP & IP cylinders
resulting in faster loading
rates
Reduces thermal cycles
Inefficient & Costly
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CCGT Operations Principles
Flange Heating
Steam is fed through
flanges to assist in
controlling cylinder
differential
temperatures
Also assists control
of differential
expansion
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CCGT Operations Principles
Cylinder Gland Types
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CCGT Operations Principles
HP Cylinder Gland
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CCGT Operations Principles
Seal Ring Segment
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CCGT Operations Principles
Gland Steam System
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CCGT Operations Principles
Turbine Lubricating Oil System
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CCGT Operations Principles
Turbine Lubricating Oil Purifier
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CCGT Operations Principles
Turbine Oil Purifier
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CCGT Operations Principles
Critical Speeds
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CCGT Operations Principles
Critical Speeds Profile
A
-------- = 8 to 12
C - B
For a true Critical Speed
A
Vibration
Amplitude
C
B
1st
Critical
2nd
Critical
Speed
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CCGT Operations Principles
Poissons Ratio
As the shaft speed increases
the centrifugal forces cause
the shaft to grow bigger in
diameter
As the diameter increases,
so the length reduces
Can cause problems with
differential expansion
during Run-up & Run
Down
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CCGT Operations Principles
Turbine Expansion Arrangements
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CCGT Operations Principles
Turbine Instrumentation
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CCGT Operations Principles
Pedestal Displacement,
Linear Variable
Differential Transformer
L.V.D.T.
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CCGT Operations Principles
Rotor Differential Expansion,
Proximity Probe
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CCGT Operations Principles
Shaft Eccentricity Pick Ups
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CCGT Operations Principles
Bearing Metal Temperature,Thermocouples
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CCGT Operations Principles
Turbine Warming
Maximum Differential
Temperature
between Steam & Metal
< 150C
Maximum Rate of Rise of
Inner Surface Metal
Temperature
<200 C / hour
Maximum Differential
Temperature Between
Inner Surface & Flange
Mid Wall
< +/- 25 C
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CCGT Operations Principles
Range of Acceptable Steam Temperatures for
Manual Start up
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CCGT Operations Principles
Enthalpy Limits for Steam Turbine Start Up
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CCGT Operations Principles
Turbine Run-Up
Turbine Speed Table
Criteria Max Shaft Speed
Turbine Oil Temperature below minimum <500 rpm
HP Cylinder Inner Surface Metal Temperature <350 C <1000 rpm
HP Cylinder Inner Surface Metal Temperature <400 C <2500 rpm
HP Cylinder Inner Surface Metal Temperature >420 C Synch Speed