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THE ART OF WOODWORKING
HOMEWORI$HOP
WORKSHOP GUI DE
INVENTORY
()F
MEASURING TOOLS AND DEVICES
Carpenter'a
equare
For checkinq or
Try aquare
For checkin4 or
markin4 90"
an4l ee. El ade
avat l abl e t n 6-
Lo l2-tnch len4th
9tud finder
Device Lhat
locaLea wall ettuda
by an elecltrontc
fteld or Lhe natle
in a etud by a
ma4netic fteld
Chalk Iine
A lenqth of twtne,
covered with col-
ored chal k duaL
conLained tneide a
caae: Lhe twine ie
meaeur i n4 90'
an4l ea euch ae i n
the corner of a room;
can aleo be used ae
a eLrai4hted4e
onapped aqainett
walle 1;o mark lon4,
etrai qht l i nea
9liding bevel
AdjueLe ta mea'
Protractor
^ r t r a h a -
J u , v , v v r J ,
fer any an4le. Blade
atoree in handle
?pirit level
lndicat.ee when a work-
Uaeful for ae|tinq anqlee of
machine fencee
and bladee
French curve
Combination square
For checkin7 or markinq 45"
or 90' an4lea; deLachable
pi ece i e l evel or pl umb
by cenLertnq a
-/.
blade doublea ae ruler
or eLraiqhtedqe
bubbl e t n
a vt al
Trammel points
AtLached Lo a eltraiqhLedqe;
on€
Poi nf
berve! , ab Lhe
pivot and Lhe oLher acdbee
Compaoo
For markin4
a ci rcl e or an a(c around i r
utility knife
tharpened tip ecoree
ltneo an wood more
arce and circlea
precieely l,han
5trai4htedqe
For precteton marktn4 of atrar4ht ltnea and checkin4 flat
eurfacee. Thick metal ed4eo are machtned otraiqht,
a penci l
For drawinq curved linee
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MAKING CROWN MOLDING
Panel-
raioing
bit
Cove bit Roman
ogee bit
Usi ng si mpl e router bi ts to form a compl ex profi l e
Al t hough crown mol di ng appears el aborat e i t can act ual l y be
made wi th three common router bi ts. To make the mol di ng,
f i rst cut t hree boards l onger and wi der t han you wi l l need f or
t he t hree l ayers of mol di ng. I nst al l a panel rai si ng bi t i n your
rout er t abl e. Al i gn t he f ence and adj ust t he dept h of cut ,
then rout the profi l e for the f i rst board. Swi tch to the second
and t hi rd bi t s and boards, repeat i ng t he
process f or each
respecti ve profi l e. Next, ri p each board on
your tabl e saw,
so the fi rst board i s the wi dest and the thi rd the narrowest.
Gl ue and cl amp t he boards t oget her t o f orm t he mol di ng.
A
THE ART OF WOODWORKING
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KITCHEN
CABTNETS
THE ART OF WOODWORKING
KITCHEN
ST. REMY PRESS
MONTREAL
CABINETS
TI ME-LI FE BOOKS
ALEXANDRI A. VI RGl NI A
PUBLISHER
PRESIDENT
Series Editor
Series Art Director
Editor
Art Directors
Designers
Picture Editor
Writers
Contr ib uting lllustrato r s
Administrator
Production Manager
Coordinator
System Coordinator
Photographer
Proofreader
lndexer
Kenneth Winchester
Pierre L6veill6
Pi erre Home-Dougl as
Franci ne Lemi eux
Andrew
Jones
Jean-Pi erre
Bourgeoi s,
Normand Boudreau
Frangois Daxhelet,
)ean-Guy
Doi ron
Genevidve Monette
John
Dowling, Adam Van Sertima
Gi l l es Beauchemi n, Mi chel Bl ai s,
Ronald Durepos,
Jacques
Perrault,
Michael Stockdale,
James
Thdrien
Natalie Watanabe
Michelle Turbide
Domi ni que Gagn6
Eri c Beaul i eu
Robert Charti er
Judy
Yelon
Chri sti ne M.
Jacobs
THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by
ST. REMY PRESS
THE CONSULTANTS
fon
Eakes has been a cabinetmaker and custom renovator in
Montreal for more than 20 years. He is known primarily for his
teaching through books, videos, radio, and the TV show
Renovation Zone.
Giles Miller-Mead taught advanced cabinetmaking at Montreal
technical schools for more than ten years. A native of New
Zealand, he has worked as a restorer of antique furniture.
Kitchen cabinets.
p. cm.-
(The Art of woodworki ng)
Includes index.
I SBN 0- 8094- 9545- 7
l . Ki tchen-cabi nets. 2. Cabi network.
I. Ti me-Li fe Books. II. Seri es.
TTr97.5.K57 1996
684.1' 6-dc20 9s-46501
CI P
For information about any Time-Life book,
please call l-800-621-7026, or write:
Reader Information
Time-Life Customer Service
P.O. Box C-32068
Richmond, Virginia
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@ 1996 Time-Life Books Inc.
All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by
any electronic or mechanical means, including information
storage and retrieval devices or systems, without prior writ-
ten permission from the publisher, except that brief passages
may be quoted for reviews.
First printing. Printed in U.S.A.
Published simultaneously in Canada.
TIME-LIFE is a trademark of Time Warner Inc. U.S.A.
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Time-Life Books is a division of Time Life Inc.,
a wholly owned subsidiary of
THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY
TIME-LIFEINC.
President and CEO
John
M. Fahey
TIME-LIFEBOOKS
President
Managing Editor
Director of Design
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Consulting Editor
Vi c e
-
President, B o ok Pro du ction
Production Manager
Quality
A s sur an c e M anager
John
D. Hall
Roberta Conlan
Michael Hentges
Ellen Robling
John
R. Sullivan
Marjann Caldwell
Marlene Zack
fames
King
CONTENTS
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6 INTRODUCTION
12 LAYOUTAND DESIGN
14 A gallery of kitchen styles
17 Principles of layout
19 Dimensioning
23 Story poles
26 CASEWORK
28 Anatomy of a kitchen
cabinet case
30 Building materials
33 Building the cases
38 Shelving and storage
44 Assembling the cabinets
50 Face frames
DOORS
A gallery of cabinet
door designs
Board-and-batten doors
Frame-and-panel doors
Mounting doors
78 DRAWERS
80 Drawer construction
83 Building drawers
87 Drawer slides and runners
93 False fronts and hardware
98 INSTALLING CABINETS
100 Installation basics
L02 Installing the lower cabinets
II2 Islands and peninsulas
115 Installing the upper cabinets
118 Crown molding
I2O COTINTERTOPS
I22 A gallery of countertop surfaces
123 Installing countertops
I34 Backsplashes and edge treatments
140 GTOSSARY
T42 INDEX
I44 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
56
58
60
62
73
INTRODUCTION
Tom Santarslero on
CHOOSING
CABINET STYLE,S
espite the tremendous variety of kitchen cabinets, they all come down to two
basic types: face frame and frameless. Each has characteristics that greatly affect
how the heart of the modern home will appear and function. For the designer,
cabinetmaker, and installer, they also determine how the cabinets will be created.
Face frame cabinets are the most popular type of kitchen cabinet in North
America. This time-honored method of construction involves attaching a framework
of solid lumber to the front of a carcase. Doors and drawers can be mounted in
one of three ways: inset,lipped, or overlay. Inset, the most elegant in appearance, is
a true test of a craftsman's skill in construction and installation. Tight tolerances
are required to accommodate seasonal wood movement and yield a pleasing mar-
gin between frame and door. During installation, cabinets must be set perfectly level
and plumb to maintain that margin. My clients who choose framed cabinets are
very interested in forging a link with the past. They appreciate the classic look of well-
fitted doors and drawers that open with ease and close with a gentle puff of air as
they nest within the frame.
Frameless cabinetry was born in Europe after World War II. It addressed some
of the challenges of the time, such as the shortage of lumber and the need to rebuild
housing rapidly. The simplicity of the frameless, or European, kitchen cabinet greatly
reduced material, needs, and production time. Doors would align tightly together,
creating a clean, flowing line of casework. This reflected a modernist view of a changed
world where time was short and production and efficiency reigned supreme. This
construction method yielded other benefits. Drawers could be wider and deeper
because they didn't need to clear a face frame. And storage and removal of items
along with cleaning the cabinet interior became easier and more efficient.
Today, the line between face frame and frameless casework has blurred slightly.
Frameless cabinets are no longer limited to flush-laminate doors; most of the frame-
less kitchens I build feature traditional raised panel doors, multi-part cornice moldings,
and other accoutrements endowing each kitchen with warmth and comfort. For
building, installing, maximizing storage, and ease of use, frameless cabinets can't be
surpassed. If, on the other hand, you'd prefer a touch of timeless tradition in your
kitchen, your
cabinets are only a face frame away.
Tom Santarsiero is President
of the Ktchen Design Center
in Montclair, New
Jersey.
INTRODUCTION
Donald Silvers discusses
KITCHENFORM
AND FUNCTION
I
n *y work as a kitchen designer, I am continually
juggling
two requirements:
I creating spaces that are both wonderfulto look at and a pleasure to work in. Form
and function must work in tandem.
This was not always the case. In years past, cabinetmakers who designed kitchens
were virtually unknown, since the homebuilder was responsible for creating the
kitchen and its cabinets, and often brought to the kitchen the same economy of
means with which he built the rest of the house. For example, a ceiling height of
8 feet and three studs spaced 16 inches apart created the need for large quantities of
plywood. The homebuilder felt it was economically sound to use leftover plyvood
for kitchen cabinets so there would be no waste. The base cabinets were 22 inches deep
and the wall cabinets were 11 to 12 inches deep. These cabinets-really
just
running
shelves with doors-stubbornly resisted any form of change; base cabinets didn't
change to a 24-inch depth until the development of dishwaihers made it necessary.
In the kitchen environment of today, designing and building kitchens is much
more than a way of recycling leftover homebuilding materials. To create eye-catching
residential kitchens, today's designers have taken a cue from the extraordinary work
of cabinetmakers. The different woods and finishes that make up the cabinetmaker's
palette provide the freedom to conjure up any style. Wth his tools, the cabinetmaker
might carve cherry or oak woods, creating French or English Country cabinets, or
shape an intimate Arts and Crafts kitchen in beech. He could fashion an Art Deco look
in the richness of walnut, or an Art Nouveau, Victorian, or Early American look in
a variety of woods-pine, ash, maple, or mahogany, to name a few The cabinetmaker
might even work with laminates, putting at his disposal the entire color spectrum.
And let's not forget the stains that produce an array of hues and patinas. The range
of choices is breathtaking.
The cabinetmaker has also made the cook's life a delight by incorporating the
right kind of accessories that can make the cook's
job
easier, even fun. For example,
there are drawers and roll-outs with hardware that gives the cook fingertip control,
pantries that are only a foot wide yet 84 inches tall, providing enormous storage
when pulled out of a wall cabinet with ease. More and more, the kitchen designer of
today is drawing on the past and the present to create a kitchen environment that looks
and cooks beautifully.
Donald Silvers is a kitchen designer who teaches at the
University of California at Los Angeles. He is the author of
The Complete Guide To Kitchen Design With Cooking In
Mind, published by The Newark Management Institute.
INTRODUCTION
Sven Hanson talks about
ASMOOTH
INSTALLATION
itchen cabinets need top-quality installation to look good and function well.
Unlike fine furniture that can look good in a dusty corner of the shop, cabinets
don't come to life until after they have been installed. Unfortunately, we tend to put
off considering the problems of installation because it happens in an unfamiliar
environment and requires skills different from those needed to build the cabinets.
To avoid these problems, start with and stick to a detailed installation plan, cirawn
up well before the cabinets are finished. Don t be tempted to change it because you
suddenly like a 42-inch drop-in cooktop instead of the 36-inch one you originally
planned for. This will force you to modifr the range base, both adjacent cabinets,
and their drawers. It's far more efficient to bring all parties to the negotiating table
and make that kind of decision before you build the cabinets.
You will get to practice your psychological skills when you announce to the rest
of the household that the ktchen will be closed for a few days while the new cabinets
go in. Try to keep the blockade short and timed conveniently for everyone. Above all,
do not fall into the snake pit of trying to have your new kitchen ready
just
before
Thanksgiving or Christmas, investing in one of those
"if
everything goes to plan"
schedules. However, if you plan to get rid of your in-laws while convincing them
you are the complete idiot they thought, success beckons.
There is no right or wrong way to install cabinets. I like to install and level the
plinths for the lower cabinets the afternoon before the installation begins. For sheer
exhaustion, crawling around the floor to set all the bases level to the highest point of
the floor stands apart from most woodworking chores. The following morning, I
install the upper cabinets first, then the lower cabinets. As I screw the cabinets in
place,I always double-check for levelness. Nothing says
"idiot"
louder than a tilting
sink or cooktop. During installation, a dust curtain made of 4-mil plastic sheeting can
repel would-be snackers while keeping most dust and some noise contained. To fur-
ther reduce dust,you shouldblock anyair ducts and open the kitchen window a crack
Finally, I've observed many first-time installers who use surprisingly few tools.
I rely on many more and lay them out on a temporary workbench set at the edge
of the room.If your shop is apart from the
job
site, start making a list of the instal-
lation tools while you're still construaing the cabinets.Visualizing the installation helps
to fabricate a cabinet that is truly ready to install and helps organize your tools
(and
mindset) to finish the
job
properly. In 25 years I've never heard a single woodworker
say,
"I
wish I hadn't wasted so much time preparing for that
jobJ'
Sven Hanson is a cabinetmaker
in Albuquerque, Ne'w Mexico.
,;:j/,:;,!ii,
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IAOUTATDDESIGN
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i nce col oni al davs. the Ameri can
kitchen has been thought ofas the
heart of the home. It is the first room a
family shares each day; it is not only the
place where meals are prepared, but also
where they are often eaten. The kitchen
is where children and adults do their
homework, and where they linger for
conversation. Yet, although the role of
the ki tchen has not changed i n three
centuri es, i ts appearance has. Once,
cooking was done by the central fire-
place, and the larder was stored against
the col d, north-faci ng wal l . Today, a
kitchen must be carefully planned to
meet the demands of a busy household,
and to accommodate a battery of labor-
saving devices. This chapter focuses on
the work of today's kitchen-especial-
ly its cabinetry-introduces popular designs, and outlines
some basic principles that willhelp you create a kitchen that
meets your needs.
A kitchen design often starts as a natural extension ofthe
architectural style of a house.
Just
as trim, molding, and fur-
nishings can distinguish a home as being Victorian or Colonial,
cabinet doors, molding, and hardware can define the style of a
kitchen. For example, Victorian is an opulent style marked by
complex egg-and-dart molding, porcelain pulls, and exposed
hinges, while Shaker style is a model of austerity, relying on
simple, recessed frame-and-panel doors, an absence of mold-
ing, and the muted colors of milk paint. A gallery of kitchen
styles from traditional to modern is shown starting on page 14.
Whether you choose a traditional architectural style for your
kitchen or a blend of severalstyles, adequate room must be
The supply pipes and drain ofa kitchen
sink are marked on the wall with the aid
of a carpenter\ level
(above). The precise
location of the
fixtures
will then be
marked onto vertical andhorizontal site
story poles before being transferred to the
story poles
for
the sink cabinet itself.
you visualize your layout; floor plans and elevations for a typ-
ical L-shaped kitchen are shown on page 20. Once you have
settled on the placement of your cabinets, you can divide their
runs into individual cabinets and drawers. While most kitchen
cabinets adhere to basic dimensional standards inheight (page
19), their width and number of doors can be fine tuned to
reach a visually well-balanced kitchen design (page 22).
Accuracy is crucial when drafting floor plans and eleva-
tions. A site-referenced story pole (page 24) tells you every-
thing you need to know about a kitchen wall in precise detail,
including the location and size of the cabinets. By using these
small lengths of wood for each wall and cabinet, you can
proceed from floor plan to cutting list with a minimum of
errors. From there to your dream kitchen it is only a few
more careful steos.
orovided for work. The kitchen is a work-
ihop like any other, and should be laid
out with efficiency in mind. You would
not think of locating the table saw and a
planer at opposite ends of a workshop;
the primarywork centers of a kitchen-
in most cases, the sink, refrigerator, and
stove/cooking area-are no different.
Work triangles
(page
17) are one way to
minimize the trips between the three.
Arriving at an efficient layout for a
kitchen in a confined space can be a chal-
lenge. Invariably, the size and location
of your kitchen cabinets willhave to be
flexible enough to accommodate the
location of appliances, utilities, windows,
and doors. A sel ecti on ofbasi c l ayout
options is shown on page 18. Drafting
scale floor plans and elevations can help
Drawing your kitchen to scale is the best way to experiment with its
layout. The photo at left shows the
Jloor
plan of an L-shaped kitchen,
including the location of cabinets, windows, appliances, and utilities.
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A GALLERY OF KITCHEN STYLES
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hile a kitchen should reflect your
Y V personal culinary needs and
tastes, its design should not be chosen
without first addressing a few impor-
tant questions. Wiil the style comple-
ment or clash with the rest of the house
SHAKER
Many kitchens are Shaker-inspired, but
few
are as
faithful
to Shaker style as this
house designedby architect Charles Allen
Hill. With their
flat
recessed
frame-and-
panel doors, the cabinets achew ornamen-
tation, and evoke the Shalcer's elegant yet
utilitarian ethic. There's even a pegboard
over the range.
architecturally? A Victorian kitchen
would look out of place in a modern
house decorated with Mission furniture.
Budget is another important consider-
ation. The lumber costs alone for an
futs and Crafts-swle kitchen with cher-
ry cabinets and frame-and-panel doors
are beyond the reach of many. Popular,
less expensive options include the
European-style kitchen, which uses stan-
dardized melamine cabinets, or the
Country-style kitchen, in which rustic
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VICTORIAN
Less opulent than its namesake, this
kitchen designed by Maine architect
lohn
Gillespie nonetheless
features
sev-
eral hallmarls of the style, most notabf
tall upper cabinets with tongue-and-
groove doors, surface-mounted brass
hinges, and porcelain pulls. Note the
w ay th e Vi cto ri an m o tifs-cr ow n
molding ornate columns and arches
-are
carried into adjoining areas of
the house.
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charm can be derived from the minor
defects ofaged, recycled wood.
A kitchen design does not have to be
faithful to a single style. As the gallery
on these pages and the chart on page 16
show, several styles can be combined
EUROPEAN
Its hardware out of sight, the European-
style cabinet defines the modern kitchen.
Its clean, unadorned lines are enhanced by
recessed kghting and plenty ofuncluxered
laminate countertop. Subtle touches by
Maine designer
John
Scholtz, such as the
porcelain
frieze
and bacl<splash trim and
the ladderback Shaker chairs, lend a warm
tone to the immaculate decor.
LAYOUT AND DESIGN
with a careful eye to create a unique
design. Blending styles can make your
design more flexible: Shaker-style
kitchens are well-adapted to the modu-
lar construction of European-style cab-
inetry
(page26).
The discerning choice
of the right materials can also unifr a
contrasting kitchen with the surround-
ing house. Cherry cabinets, for exam-
ple, can provide a graceful transition
between a European-style kitchen and
a Colonial farmhouse.
c0t0NtAt
This is an ecleaic style that can be evoked
as much by decoration as by actual cabi-
netry. Framed by exposed timbers, the
kitchen at left, designed by Steven Foote
of Boston, is a pleasingly modern update
on the style. The brick, pine plank
floors,
and leaded glazingin the upper wall cabi-
nets all contribute to a colonial ambiance.
A more explicit reference to the style can
be
found
in the
frame-and-panel
doors
with oversized knobs.
l 5
DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
()F
PERI()D STYLES
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V
C()UNTRY
STYLE
Kaieed
frame-
and-panel
door
$
I
Wrought iron hingeo and pullo
SHAKER
Keceseed
panel
door with
pinned
mortise
and tenon
jointe
C
Wooden pull Eutterfly hinge Pierced tin panel
-;-_A=_
--_
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I , t l +
ARTS AND
CRAFTS
Leaded
glazed
window
VICT()RIAN 9urface-
mounted
braee door
hi ngea
Porcelain pull Egg-and-dart molding
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LAYOUT ANI ) DESI GN
PRINCIPLES OF LAYOUT
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A
successful ki tchen depends on
A three thi ngs: suffi ci ent space to
work, adequate lighting over the sink
and cooking areas, and cabinets arranged
so that everything from the cutlery to
the breadbox is at hand. Sometimes the
area destined for the kitchen is woeful-
ly inadequate in the first of these three
needs, Still, with a little creative
plan-
ni ng, a functi onal ki tchen can bi l ai d
out in the tightest ofspaces.
The cornerstone of kitchen layout is
positioning the stove, refrigerator, and
sink so they form a triangle (below).The
smaller the triangle, the more efficient
the use of space. As the illustrations on
page 18 show, there are several layout
opti ons for a ki tchen. The most pop-
ul ar of these, the U- and L-shaped
designs, allow for efficient work trian-
gles. A large kitchen can benefit from
the addition of an island, which tightens
the work tri angl e whi l e freei ng up
counter space. Conversely, a single wall
or corridor-style layout makes the best
use of a small space.
All appliances and fixtures come with
dimensional requirements of their own
that should be taken into consideration
before thei r posi ti ons are fi xed. For
exampl e, a si nk shoul d have counter
space ofabout 30 i nches on each si de
for washing dishes; a stove should have
20 to 24 i nches ofspace on both si des
for uncluttered andsafe cooking. The
doors of refrigerators, dishwashers, and
ovens create further demand for space;
these appl i ances shoul d be posi ti oned
fully open.
WORK TRIANGLES
U-ahaped
Layi ng out an etfi ci ent ki tchen
The three di agrams shown above demonstrate how to appl y the
pri nci pl e of the work tri angl e for three di fferent ki tchen l ayouts.
For maxi mum ef f i ci ency, t he peri met er of t he t ri angl e shoul d
not exceed 25 feet; Iess than 20 feet i s i deal . Pl an your l ayout
by f i rst drawi ng your ki t chen t o scal e, t hen sket ch i n t he appl i -
ances i n di f f erent arrangement s unt i l you come up wi t h an ef f i -
ci ent and sati sfactory use of space. l f possi bl e, l ay out the ki tchen
so the work tri angl es are cl ear of househol d traffi c. For further
ease of movement, make sure there i s at l east 36 i nches of cl ear-
ance around any peni nsul a
or i sl and.
LAYOUT AND DESIGN
A SELECTION
(lF
KITCHEN LAYOUT OPTI(INS
SINGLEWALL
Oood for a amall
apartment with
emall appliancee
CORRIDOR
More efficient
than einqle-
wall layout;
through traf-
fic can be
a problem
L.5HAPED
WITH I?LAND
)ffere more
efficient work
trianqle than
eimple L-ohaped
layouL; createe
oeparate cook-
tn1 area
U.5HAPED
The moat efficient
and veraatile kitchen
layout; two blind cor-
nere can be a diaad'
vantaqe ae they take
up valuable opace
L.qHAPED
More efficient than
either corridor or
ein4le-wall layout;
work trtanqle can be
kept emall and coun'
tera continuoua
DIMENSIONING
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tandard measurements for ki tchen
r.J cabi nets are deri ved from human
anatomy. For example, countertops are
comfortable for most users when they
are waist-high-typically, three feet off
the floor. Subtracting four-and-a-half
inches for a kickolate and one-and-a-
half inches for thi countertoD leaves a
30-i nch-hi gh cabi net.
Upper cabinets are usually shallower
than bottom ones for easier access to the
countertop. A general rule of thumb for
upper cabinets is to position the bottom
of the lowest cabinet at shoulder height.
This will fluctuate to allow for a range
hood over the stove or for mountine
appliances that used to crowd the counl
tertop, such as microwaves. You can also
leave a few inches beneath the cabinets
to accommodate lighting. Allow for an
inch or two at the top of the ceiling to
add molding.
Once you have determined the height
and depth of cabi nets, you can start
dividing the runs on your floor plan and
elevations into individual cases with face
frames, doors, and drawers
(page
22).
Start by positioning the sink and any
other major appliances in the run, then
divide the remainder of the run into cab-
inets. Depending on your kitchen needs,
these cabinets can be large or small, with
one or two doors; they could also consist
ofa bank ofdrawers. For visual balance
and ease of production, try to make the
cabinets proportional, so the width of a
large, two-door cabinet is twice that of a
smaller, one-door cabineu 30-38 inch-
es is a good width to work with for a
Iarge cabinet. Also take care to match
the upper and lower runs. For sample
floor plans and elevations ofan L-shaped
ki tchen, see pages 20-21.
STANDARD KITCHEN CABINET PR()P(!RTI(|NS AND DIMENSIONS
cabinet
Varies with
heiqht of
kitchen ceilin4
30-40
inchea
)pace
-
for liqht
15 i nchea
mi ni mum
Counterbop
24-26
inchee
Eackaplaah
32-33
incheo
Lower
cabinet
LAYOUT AND DESIGN
FAGE-ON VIEW OF AN I-SHAPED KITCHEN'S SH(]RT WAIL
FACE-ON VIEW OT IONGER WALL
LAYOUT AND DESIGN
LAYOUT AND DESIGN
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DIVIDING A RUN
24 inahea
The illuatration below
showa how to divide a low-
er and upper run of cabi-
nete. ln the lower run, the
diahwasher and aink are
poeiLioned, then the reat
4-8 inchea wider
than aink
of the run ia divided into
equal caaee. Next, the
caeee are divided into
drawera and doors. ln
thie example, the upper
cabinet run ia also divided
to match the lower run.
For different matchtng
effecte, aee Lhe illuatra-
ti on at the bottom of
the paqe.
2-inah
sPaae
:,
Double
eaee
;,)ingle i,
Double qase
' , 13- 19
i caee
1O" 13' 19 i
I,
inchea
wide
:,inohes i,
incheo,',1ide
" iwide
I 00 0 0I
MATCHING UPPER AND TOWER CABINETS
Matahing top run to bottom Matahing bottom run to top Staggered run
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STORY POLES
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tory pol es are a method of measur-
rJ i ng ki tchen cabi nets accuratel y for a
master cutting list without relying on a
tape measure or ruler. Carpenters have
been laying out entire homes on these
l ong, narrow sti cks of wood for cen-
turies, and this tried-and-true method
offers several advantages over standard
measuring techniques. For one, all mea-
surements are marked out full-size, mak-
i ng an error-free cutti ng l i st easi er to
calculate than from scale drawings.
Story poles also allow you to visualize
constructi on detai l s more easi l v. By
marking the measurements for each cab-
i net on the sti cks you have an exact pi c-
ture of each cabinet; lengths, widths, and
positions ofjoints can allbe marked lat-
er on the stock directly, without a tape
measure introducing error. For ease of
handling, make your story poles from
wood
t/+
inch to
3/+
inch thick and about
1r/: inches wide. To see the oencil marks
better, use l i ght-col ored wood.
When laying out a kitchen, site story
poles are first completed for each wall
of the kitchen
(pnge
24). On the hori-
zontal story pole, the location ofevery-
thi ng al ong that wal l i s marked: the
appl i ances and cabi nets i n the run,
doors, windows, and any electrical or
plumbing fixtures such as outlets or sink
pipes
(see photo, page 13). The vertical
story pole shows the height of the kick-
plate, lower cabinet, countertop, back-
spl ash, upper cabi net, and cei l i ng
molding, as well as any windows and
electricalor plumbing fixtures. A depth
story pole provides the depth of kick-
plate, cabinet, and countertop overhang.
Once the kitchen has been laid out
on story poles, individual story poles
are created for each cabinet
(page 25).
For maximum accuracy, each cabinet
should have three smaller story
poles:
hei ght, wi dth, and depth, each i efer-
enced to the respective site story pole.
These shorter story pol es wi l l tel l you
the dimensions of your cabinets
(right)
when it comes time to compile the mas-
ter cutting list (page
32).
CABINET
STORY
POLES
Depth atory pole
lndicatea depth of cab-
inet, kickplate, counter-
Lop overhan1, and
nailinq raile
Width at'ory pole
lndicatea width of
cabinet, Iocation of
drawera and doora,
and any intermediate
face frame attles.
Aloo may indicate
cutouta for electrical
or plumbinq eervicee
Height etory pole
lndicatea heiqhL of cabinet, kickplate, countertop,
and any drawer frame raila. Alao may indicaLe
cutouts for electrical or
plumbina
eervicea
Z J
LAYOUT AND DESIGN
LAYING OUT A KITCHEN WITH STORY POLES
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Maki ng hori zontal si te pol es
l -
I Usr ng chal k, sket ch a f ul l - si ze out l i ne of your ki t chen l ay-
out on t he si t e f l oor . Mar k bot h t he upper and l ower cabi net
r uns, i ndi cat i ng whi ch cases wi l l be cabi net s and whi ch wi l l
be appl i ances. Then cr eat e a hor i zont al si t e st or y pol e f or
each wal l i n t he ki t chen. On t he pol e, mar k t he l ocat i on of al l
cabi nets i n both runs
(above)
and any doors or wi ndows. l f the
ki t chen wal l i s unusual l y l ong, you can
j oi n
t wo st i cks t oget her
+ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ + h ^ l ; ^ + ^ ^ ^ ^
L U 5 l i d i l L i l C Ut SL d I L C,
Maki ng verti cal si te pol es
Fl oor s and cei l i ngs ar e of t en not f l at or l evel , so you need t o
know t he mi ni mum di st ance bet ween t he t wo t o pl an t he hei ght
of your cabi net s. St r i ke a l evel r ef er ence l i ne on t he wal l s ar ound
t he ki t chen. Then f i nd t he hi gh poi nt of t he f l oor and hol d t he
ver t i cal si t e st or y pol e at t hi s poi nt , pl umb t o t he r ef er ence
l i ne. Set a compass t o t he hei ght of t he ki ckpl at e and mar k
t hi s
poi nt
on t he st or y
pol e ( r i ght ) .
Use t he compass t o make
a si mi l ar mar k t o r ecor d t he hei ght of any mol di ng at t he t op
of t he pol e. Now mar k t he hei ght of t he upper and l ower cab-
i net s on t he ver t i cal pol e, as wel l as t he l ocat i on of any wi n-
dows on t hat wal l . Last l y, cr eat e a dept h st or y pol e f or t he wal l
i ndi cat i ng t he dept h of t he cabi net s and any ot her f eat ur es on
t he wal l adi acent t o t he r un.
/ , /
t t
\ /
r, / / /-
1 A
L. +
LAYOUT AND DESIGN
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Locati ng el ectri cal and
pl umbi ng servi ces
Use a car pent er ' s l evel t o dr aw pl umb
l i nes f r om t he l oc at i on of any pl umbi ng
or el ectri cal servi ces to the l evel reference
l i ne
(ri ght).
Transfer these l ocati ons to the
hori zontal and verti cal si te story pol es for
t he r u n.
/ / :
< 1 , ^
' - , c - R b
{^\Q, $\
t-'
z
a-\ /'\
\z--J /' 1 Horizontal
u
t QRb
cabineL
{-\F
$sJ
r-
t erort'Pote
\ _/ r
'
I
B3 DRAWERS
B5 DRAWERS
Creati ng cabi net story pol es
Make hor i zont al , ver t i cal , and dept h
story pol es for each cabi net, then reference
each t o i t s respect i ve si t e pol e f or t he run
t he cabi net i s i n. I n t he exampl e shown
at l eft, the hori zontal story
pol e
for a bank
of drawers i s bei ng referenced to i ts hori -
zont al si t e pol e. Mark out t he det ai l s of
t he cabi net i n t hi s case, t he f ace f rame
r ai l s and st i l es wi t hi n t he cabi net wi dt h.
0n t he vert i cal st ory pol e, mark t he hei ght
of t he ki ckpl at e, count ert op, backspl ash,
upper cabi net , and cei l i ng mol di ng, as wel l
as any wi ndows and el ect ri cal or pl umb-
i ng servi ces. Mark t he dept h of ki ckpl at e,
cabi net , and count ert op overhang on t he
dept h pol e. Be sure t o l abel al l pol es care-
f ul l y t o avoi d conf usi on l at er.
25
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ui l t-i n ki tchen cabi nets are rel a-
tively recent arrivals in domestic
ki tchens. Tradi ti onal l y, ki tchen cup-
boards were freestanding units with
frame-and-panel construction and face
frames, much like the china cabinet in
the parlor. Yet by the turn ofthe centu-
ry, the switch to built-ins had already
begun. It accelerated during the post-
WW II housing boom in Europe, when
the constructi on of mi l l i ons of new
homes prompted the development of
new wood products, tool s, and tech-
niques that saved labor and materials.
No room in the house benefitted from
these advances more than the kitchen.
The development of pll.rvood, parti-
cleboard, fiberboard, and other manu-
factured sheet goods made assemblyJine
production of large and rigid cabinets
CASEWORK
An appliance bay is a tidy way to keep
a countertop
free
of clutter. Blenders,
cffie makers, toasters, and other small
appliances can be kept out of sight
but readily accessible. While the
appliance bay shown above
features
louvered doors, space can be saved
by using tambour doors
(page 40).
and other hardware can then be added to
create an appropriate style.
While the wide availability of mate-
rials such as medium density fiberboard
has simplified casework, sheet goods
still have an Achilles' heel: their edges
are unattractive and need to be hidden.
Laminate board can be edged with hard-
wood strips
(page
48)or laminate edge
banding
(page
a9). The traditional face
frame
(page
50), a solid-wood frame con-
sisting ofrails and stiles that is attached
to the front of the finished case, is anoth-
er way to hide the edges of man-made
boards. More importantly, the face frame
can impart a traditional, handcrafted
feel to the kitchen.
Shelving and storage are key consid-
erations in casework construction. For
example, a bank of graduated drawers-
possible. The European 32-millimeter system-so called theidealsolutionforcutleryandkitchenutensils-shouldnot
because allthe holes for drawer slides, dowels, shelf supports, be an afterthought if you are using face frames on your cabi-
and hinges are spaced 32 millimeters apart-was revolution- nets.
(For
more on drawers, see chapter three.) Adjustable
ary in design. Its modular, predrilled melamine cabinets offered shelves
(page
38) can add flexibility to your cabinets, enabling
unparalleled flexibility. It also made the modern kitchen afford- you to store oversized bulk goods and adapt to changing culi-
able: Even the most modest home could now be outfitted with nary needs. They are also simple to install if you drill the sup-
a full complement of sleek kitchen cabinets. port holes before assembling the cases. Another modern storage
Building these cases is mainly a matter of cutting the stock idea, the lazy Susan
(page 42), makes good use of a perennial
to size and then
joining
it using one of the techniques shown weak spot in the kitchen: the lower corner cupboard. An appli-
on pages 33 to 37; the chart on page 3 I will help you choose ance bay
(photo
above and page 40) is a separate piece of case-
from available materials. Face frames. doors, drawer fronts, work in its own rieht.
Accurately cutting sheet goods to size can be a tricky task. In the photo at left, a
panel-cutting circular saw attachment is being used to rip a sheet of melamine
for
a kitchen cabinet. The Exqct-T-Guide model shown
features
a T-square-type
guide that rides in a U-shaped channel screwed to the edge of a plywood base.
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ih
-ffi
27
ANATOMY OF A KITCHEN CABINET CASE
f1
itchen cabinets should be kept as
A. basic as possible. Using sheet goods
(page
31) and simple
joinery
techniques
will keep the time and expense of build-
ing and installing a kitchen's worth of
cabinets to a minimum. Although their
construction is simple, it is important
that the cases be well-built. Drawers,
doors, and countertops will all be easier
to fit if the casework is strong, straight,
and square. Spending a little extra time
in the building stage will save much frus-
tration during installation.
The anat omi es bel ow and on t he
faci ng page show basi c cabi net con-
struction. Use the measurements from
your cabinet story poles (page 25) to
cut the stock for each cabinet to size.
The si des ofthe bottom cabi net can
extend right down to the floor, or you
can install leveler legs (page 44) that
wi l l hol d a cl i p-on ki ckpl ate. At thi s
t i me, i t i s a good i dea t o cut al l t he
grooves for the back panel s, and to
bore holes for any adjustable shelving
(page 38).
Ifyou are after a tradi ti onal l ook,
solid-wood face frames can be added
after the cabinets are built. If you do not
choose face frames, the exposed edge of
the olr.r,vood must be covered with some
sorf o?banding, either laminate or solid
wood. Whiie there are many ways to
join
boards, efficiency favors certain meth-
ods. Bi scui t, l ock mi ter, tongue-and-
groove
joints
and ready-to-assemble--or
RTA-fasteners, can all be used to pro-
duce
joints
that combine ease of instal-
lation with accuracy and strength.
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UPPER CASES
Holea for
adjuotable
shelving
Counteftop
nailer
Face frame
(paqe 50)
LOWER CASES
\
CASEWORK
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RTA fastener Eiaauit joint
Loak miter joint
BUILDING MME,RIALS
f
radi ti onal l y, al l cabi nets were bui l t
I ent i rel v oi sol i d wood. But cl ose
exami nati on of anti cue furni ture can
offer an instructive suiprise. Yesterday's
woodworkers often used less attractive
woods like poplar and pine for hidden
parts such as drawer sides and cabinet
From the economical to the expensive,
a uast array of sheet goods is available
for
use in casework. The photo at left
shows e selection of sheet goods, includ-
ing samples of melamine-coated parti-
cle board, medium density
fiberboard,
and veneered olvwood.
backs;there was no point in putting wal-
nut and cherry where it would never be
seen. Today, cabinetmakers stillsave the
cherry and walnut for the drawer fronts,
but they rely on man-made sheet goods
for the insides of the cabinets. Not onlydo
they save money and conserve resources,
but sheet goods also outperform wood
in terms of dimensional stability.
The chart below offers an overview of
different materials used in making kitchen
cabinets, from melamine to plyr,vood to
solid wood. Each has its own strengths
and weaknesses. The chal l enee i s to
choose the best product for eachiompo-
nent and for the style ofyour cabinets.
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CASEWORK MATERIATS
MATERIAL
GABINET-GRADE PLYWOOD
(softwood
veneer core)
Rotary cut
Oak, ash
Mapl e, bi rch
Wal nut
Pi ne, popl ar, al der
C()MPOSITE
Medi um densi ty
fi berboard
(MDF)
Particleboard
Mel ami ne
hardwood veneer
Pl ai nsawn veneer Hi eh
SOLID WOOD
Cheny
RELATIVE C()ST
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate to low
Moderate to low
Moderate to hi gh
LOW
Moderate
Low
Moderate
CHARACTERISTICS
Easy to work, very strong and di mensi onal l y stabl e; face veneer not as attracti ve
as
pl ai nsawn vari ety. Edges must be faced wi th sol i d wood; needs l i ttl e sandi ng.
Same as above but face veneer resembl es edge-j oi ned boards.
One of the fi nest cabi net woods. Reddi sh-brown col or darkens wi th age;
f i negrai ned texture accepts natural fi ni shes wel l . Moderatel y di ff i cul t to work;
resi ns i n the wood can l eave burn marks.
Strong, stable hardwoods with prominent, open
grain; accepts natural finishes well.
Strai ght-grai ned, stabl e hardwoods that provi de a smooth fi ni sh. Densi ty can
make t hese woods di f f i cul t t o work; mapl e i n
part i cul ar
can bl unt t ool s.
Choi ce cabi net wood wi t h ri ch col or and grai n; easi l y worked wi t h al l hand
and power tool s; accepts natural fi ni shes wel l .
Much softer i han above woods, yet j ust
as stabl e. Easy to work but al so easi l y
damaged. Very l i t t l e f i gure; t ypi cal l y f i ni shed wi t h pai nt .
St rong and di mensi onal l y st abl e; edges easy t o rout , shape, or groove;
avai l abl e wi t h pl ywood f ace veneers. Can be f i ni shed or pai nt ed wi t h l i t t l e
or no sandi ng. Some vari et i es can emi t t oxi c f umes when sawn; use of
carbi det i pped t ool s i s recommended.
Sl i ghtl y l ess strong and stabl e than MDF; hol ds fasteners poorl y. More di ffi cul t
to work and fi ni sh; avai l abl e wi th pl ywood face veneers.
Common t erm f or pl ywood or part i cl e board surf aced wi t h a hard pl ast i c
l ami nate; comes i n a vari ety of col ors. Tough and l ong-l asti ng; onl y as strong
as i ts substrate.
30
CASEWORK
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TYPES OF PLYWOOD
Types of
plywood
The basi c desi gn of al l pl ywood i s t he same: a core covered
on bot h si des by l ayers of crossbandi ng and a f ace veneer.
The most common type has a veneer core. All softwood plywoods
are made t hi s way, and t hey are st abl e, warp-resi st ant , and
i nexpensi ve. Hardwood pl ywoods can al so be made wi t h sol i d
l umber or part i cl eboard cores. The mi ddl e pl y of l umber-core
pl ywood consi st s of several narrow st ri ps of sol i d wood-usu-
al l y mahogany, popl ar, or basswood-edge-gl ued t oget her.
Part i cl eboard-core pl ywood has a sol i d core of part i cl eboard
PLYWOOD FACE VENEER GRADES
HARDWOOD PTYWOOD
Premi um Face veneer wi th wel l -matched seams
and smooth surface; made of specific
hardwood, such as wal nut or mahogany.
Even col or and grai n
Good Face veneer si mi l ar to
premi um,
but not as well matched. Free of
sharp contrasts i n col or and grai n
Sound Face veneer smooth, but not matched
for color or grain; defects only on back
veneer. General l y i ntended for pai nti ng
Utility Veneers have rough grain and may
have knothol es up to % i nch, as wel l as
some di scol orati on, stai ni ng, and sl i ght
spl i ts, Not matched for col or or
grai n
Back May have larger defects than utility
grade, but none that i mpai r panel
strength. Not matched for color or grain
Specialty Made to order to meet specific
requi rements, such as separate panel s
wi th matchi ng grai n patterns
or medi um densi t y f i ber boar d. Lumber - cor e pl ywood hol ds
nai l s and scr ews best and i s pr ef er abl e wher e addi t i onal
st rengt h and f l at ness are requi red.
"Cabi net -qual i t y"
pl ywoods
wi t h suoeri or f ace veneers are recommended f or vi si bl e sur-
faces such as doors and drawer faces. There are two broad cat-
egori es of cabi net -qual i t y pl ywood: rot ary sawn and pl ai nsawn.
Whi l e equal i n st r engt h, pl ai nsawn pl ywood can r esembl e a
gl ued- up sol i d wood panel , whi l e r ot ar y sawn veneer i s easi l y
i denti f i ed as
pl ywood.
S()FTWOOD PTYW()OD
Sanded smooth; can take
a cl ear fi ni sh; face veneer matched for
grai n and col or, free of open defects
Sanded smooth; can take a natural
f i ni sh, but i s more of t en
pai nt ed
Smooth and sanded; may have
mi nor spl i t s
Smooth; may have some broken grai n,
sandi ng defects and knothol es up to
% inch
Sanded; si mi l ar t o C grade, but knot -
hol es and sol i t s are smal l er
Used mai nl y f or i nner pl i es and back
veneer; may have knot hol es up to
2% inches
c
C Plugged
D
3 l
CASEWORK
Maki ng a cutti ng l i st
Maki ng a mast er cut t i ng l i st f or a ki t chen
f ul l of cabi net s may seem l i ke a daunt i ng
t ask, yet i f you have been scrupul ous about
marki ng accurate story pol es for al l your cabi -
net s, t hen deduci ng a cut t i ng l i st i s rel at i vel y
strai ghtforward. Wri te a separate cutti ng l i st
for each cabi net on an i ndex card
(l efi l .f,Aake
a rough sketch of the cabi net and
j ot
down a
l i st of al l the components and materi al s, tak-
i ng t hei r measurement s f rom t he cabi net ' s
story poles
(page
2fl To avoid confusion laier
on, make sure to l abel the card the same as
your cabi net. The master cutti ng l i st can then
be cal cul ated based on the requi rements l i st-
ed on al l t he cards. To speed t hi ngs up at t he
l umberyard, you may wi sh to create separate
master l i sts for sol i d stock and sheet stock.
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ESTIMATING BOARD FEET
CASE
I
22%"
I
FACE FRAME
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31%"
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Nailer:4@
2B%" X 4" X%"
Baak panel:
3U/' ' X 29' ,1" X' ,/"
1i de:2@
51t/r" X 22" X'/o"
Sti l e:2@
31'/"" X 2" X'/o"
Median rail:
271" X 2" X%"
Rai l :2@
26' ,/;' X 2" X%"
CATCULATING BOARD FEET
0rdering lumber by the board foot
The
"board
foot" is a unit of measurement used to
cal cul ate the vol ume of a gi ven amount of stock. l t
is commonly used with hardwood lumber. As shown
in the illustration at righi, the standard board foot is
equi val ent to a pi ece that i s I i nch thi ck, 12 i nches
wi de, and 12 i nches l ong. To cal cul ate the number
of board feet i n a pi ece of wood, mul ti pl y i ts three
dimensions together. Then, divide the result by 144
i f the drmensrons are i n i nches, or by 12 i f
j ust
one
di mensi on i s i n feet.
The formula for a standard board:
1" x 12" xI2" + I44
=
I
( or
1" x 12" x 1' + 12
=
1)
So, if you had a 6{oot-long
plank that is 1 inch thick
and 4 inches wide, you would calculate the board
feet as fol lows: 1
"
x 4" x 6' + 12
=
2
(or
2 board feet).
Other examoles are shown in the illustration.
Remember that board feet are calculated on the
basi s of the nomi nal rather than actual di mensi ons
of the stock; consequently, the board feet containec
in a2-by-4 that actually measures ll|-by-3/zinches
would be calculated using the larger dimensions.
1" x 12" x 12"
=
1 aLandard board foot
Rt
2- by- 6=Bboar df eet
2-by-4
=
5% board feet
1- W12=Bboar df eet
1- W- 6=4boar df eet
1- W- 3=2boar df eet
32
BUILDING THE CASES
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A
fter
you
have cal cul ated a master
f\ cutti ng l i st for your cabi ners, you
are finally ready to start building them,
As you cut the materials to size, careful-
ly mark each piece to indicate which cab-
inet it belongs to. Then cut the grooves
for the back panels and bore the holes
for any adjustable shelving (page
38).
With this groundwork done, assem-
bly is largely a matter of choosing a
join-
ery method. If you are comfortable with
your tabl e saw, tongue-and-groove
joints (page
j5)
are agood choice. Those
well-versed in using a plate
jointer
may
want to
j oi n
thei r cases wi th bi scui ts
(below),
a
joint
equal in strength to the
tongue-and-groove. Ifyou have a shaper
or a very solid router table and a heary-
duty router, lock miter
joints (page
36)
are sol i d, durabl e, and easy to cut. If
space in your workshop is at a premi-
um or if you need to disassemble and
move your cabinets, ready-to-assemble
-or
RTA-fasteners (page
37) may be
the best choice.
JOINING CASES WITH BISCUITS
Cutting sheet goods such as melamine on the table saw often results in rough
edges, chipping and tearout. Installed on a table saw's arbor, the Modulus scor-
ing saw attachment shown above
features
a smaller blqde that cleanly scores
the sheet before the main blade cuts it, resulting in a professional, smooth cut.
1
Marki ng the sl ot l ocati ons
I For each cabi net, i denti fy the outsi de
f ace of al l f our panel s wi t h an X, t hen
mark l ocati on l i nes for the bi scui t sl ots on
each of the four corners.
(On
l ower cabr-
net s, whi ch t ypi cal l y do not have a t op
panel ,
mark t he l ocat i on l i nes bet ween
t he count ert op nai l ers and t he si de pan-
el s.) To start, pl ace
one si de
panel
out-
si de-f ace down on a work surf ace and
hol d t he t op panel
at a 90" angl e t o i t .
Use a penci l
t o mark l i nes on t he adj oi n-
i ng panel s
about2 i nches i n from each
corner
(l efi l .
Mark addi ti onal l i nes about
every 4 t o 6 i nches. Repeat t o mark sl ot
l ocati ons on the other three corners of the
case. Add reference l etters to hel p vou
i denti fy the corners.
33
CASEWORK
r')
Cutting the slots
L m" set up shown above wi l l al l ow
you t o cut t he sl ot s f or
one mat i ng corner of t he case wi t hout movi ng t he
panel s. Pl ace
a si de panel of t he case out si de-f ace down on a work surf ace,
then set the top
panel
outsi de-face up on top. Offset the top
panel f rom t he edge of t he si de panel by t he st ock t hi ckness
and cl amp t he panel s i n pl ace; make sure t he mat i ng sl ot l oca-
ti on marks on the two preces of stock are perfectl y al i gned. Set
t he
proper dept h of cut on t he pl at e
j oi ner
f ol l owi ng t he manu-
f act urer' s i nst ruct i ons. To cut t he sl ot s i n t he t op panel , but t
t he t ool ' s f acepl at e agai nst t he end of t he t op panel , al i gni ng
t he gui del i ne on t he f acepl at e wi t h a sl ot l ocat i on mark and
rest i ng t he t ool on a support board t he same t hi ckness as t he
st ock. Cut a sl ot at each mark
(above,
l ef i l . f o cut t he mat i ng
sl ot s i n t he si de panel , but t t he
j oi ner' s
base pl at e agai nst t he
t op
panel and al i gn t he cent er gui del i ne on t he pl at e wi t h a sl ot
location mark
(above,
right).
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Q
Cutting slots for a partition
rJ Vert i cal
part i t i ons
or f i xed shel ves
between case si des can al so be
j oi ned
wi th
bi scui ts. Use a frami ng square to l ay out
the thi ckness of the
parti ti on
on the mat-
i ng panel s, t hen l ay t he part i t i on at op one
of the
panel s wi th i ts l ower edge al i gned
wi t h t he l ayout l i ne. Cl amp t he assem-
bl y to a work surface. Cut the sl ots i n the
panel and
part i t i on as i n st ep 2 above.
Reoeat to make the sl ots at the other end
of t he part i t i on and t he second mat i ng
panel
(righil.
Since some plate
joiners
cut
sl ot s sl i ght l y of f cent er, keep t he same
si de of the
parti ti on face-up for both cuts.
Faceplate
Top panel
)upport board
)ide panel
Layout linea
Eottom panel
34
CASEWORK
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JOINING CASES WITH TONGUE-AND-GROOVE J()INTS
' l
Setti ng up the tabl e saw
I Use a dado head on a t abl e saw t o
cut grooves i n the si de panel s and tongues
i n t he t oo and bot t om oanel s. Cut t he
grooves f i rst . I nst al l a dado head set t o
hal f the thi ckness of the stock, and attach
an auxi l i ar y wood f ence t o suppor t t he
wor kpi ece dur i ng t he cut . Bui t i ng a si de
panel agai nst t he f ence as shown, sl i de t he
ri o f ence t oward t he bl ade unt i l t he out -
si de f ace of t he workpi ece i s i n l i ne wi t h
the edge of the saw blade
(right).
LasIly,
set t he bl ade hei ght equal t o hal f t he
t hi ckness of t he st ock.
9ide panel
Cutti ng the groove
Lav t he si de oanel i nsi de- f ace down
on t he saw t abl e and but t i t s t oo end
agai nst t he auxi l i ary wood f ence. Use t he
mi t er gauge equi pped wi t h an ext ensi on
to feed the panel i nto the bl ades
(l eft),
pressi ng t he workpi ece agai nst t he f ence
t hroughout t he cut . Keep your hands wel l
away f rom t he bl ades. Repeat t he cut f or
t he bot t om end of t he oanel .
35
CASEWORK
Q
Cutti ng the tongues
r.J To cut tongues i n the top and bottom
panel s, f i r st unpl ug t he saw and add a
spacer t o t he dado head. Lower t he bl ades
bel ow t he t abl e surf ace and move t he
auxi l i ary wood f ence so i t overl aps t he
cut t ers sl i ght l y. Turn on t he saw and rai se
t he dado head t o cut a not ch i n t he auxi l -
i ar y f ence. Set t he hei ght of t he dado
head and i t s wi dt h of cut equal t o hal f
t he st ock t hi ckness. Wi t h t he t op
panel
out si de-f ace up on t he t abl e saw, but t
one si de agai nst t he f ence. Feed t he pan-
el into the cutters
(right),
applying slight
pressure
toward the fence throughout the
operat i on. Repeat f or t he ot her si de of
t he t op
panel
and t he bot t om
panel .
JOINING CASES WITH A LOCK MITER JOINT
Maki ng the cuts
I nst al l a l ock mi t er bi t t n your r out er and mount t he t ool i n a
t abl e. At t ach a not ched auxi l i ary f ence and screw an ext ensi on
t o t he mi t er gauge. Set t he bi t hei ght so t he uppermost cut t er
i s cent ered on t he end of t he oanel wi t h t he
panel
f l at on t he
t abl e. Posi t i on t he auxi l i ary f ence so t he bi t wi l l mi t er t he st ock
wi t hout short eni ng i t . Next , make t est cut s i n t wo pi eces of pl y-
wood scr ap t he same t hi ckness as your panel s. But t i ng one
pi ece of scr ap agai nst t he f ence and t he mi t er gauge ext ensi on,
feed i t i nto Ihebi I
(above,
l eft).fo cut the mati ng pi ece, cl amp
a gui de bl ock t o i t t o r i de at op t he f ence. Then f eed t he boar d
on end i nto Ihe bi t bbove, ri ght), keepi ng i t f l ush agai nst the
f ence wi t h one hand whi l e pushi ng i t and t he gui de bl ock f or -
war d wi t h t he ot her . Test t he f i t and adj ust t he posi t i on of t he
f ence as necessar y bef or e maki ng t he cut s i n t he case panel s.
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*
36
CASEWORK
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USI NG READY-TO-ASSEMBLE FASTENERS
' l
Prepari ng the hol es
I To
j oi n
a case wi t h ready-t o-assembl e or RTA f ast eners,
f i rst dry assembl e t he f i ni shed case and secure i t squarel y wi t h
cl amps
(page
47). To hel p posi t i on
t he f ast eners, draw l i nes on
t he si des of t he case i ndi cat i ng t he cent er of t he t op and bot -
t om panel s. (l n
t he exampl e shown, t he bot t om of t he case i s
set 4 i nches f r om t he f l oor . ) Whi l e speci al st epped dr i l l bi t s
ar e avai l abl e t o bor e t he
pi l ot
hol es and count er si nk t hem i n
a si ngl e st ep, a si mpl e al t er nat i ve i s t o use t wo di f f er ent -
si zed bi t s. St art wi t h a bi t sl i ght l y wi der t han t he base of t he
f ast ener; wrap a l engt h of t ape around t he bi t t o mark t he
desi red dept h-sl i ght l y more i han t he l engt h of t he f ast ener
base. Dr i l l a ser i es of count er si nk hol es t o t he appr opr i at e
dept h, spaci ng t he hol es about 5 i nches apart . Then i nst al l a
bi t sl i ght l y smal l er t han t he f ast ener shank t o dri l l t he pi l ot
hol es. Mar k t he appr opr i at e dept h wi t h maski ng t ape, t hen
bore the holes hbovd.
Instal I ing the fasteners
l f you wi sh t o move your cabi net s
f rom one ki t chen t o anot her
(or
i f your
cabi net s are l arge and you i nt end t o di s-
assembl e t hem bef ore t ransport i ng t hem
t o t he i nst al l at i on si t e) , si mpl y dr i ve a
fastener i n each predri l l ed hol e
(l efi l .fhe
fasteners can be removed l ater and the
cabi net s knocked down f or easy t rans-
port . l f you want t o i nst al l your
cabi net s
permanent l y,
t hen remove t he cl amps
and appl y gl ue to the mati ng edges of the
l oi nt s
bef ore dri vi ng t he f ast eners.
37
SHELVINGAND STORAGE
/l ooks seldom complain about hav-
U ing too much storige space in their
kitchens. Appliances, pots, cans, spice
racks, cookbooks, and dishes all seem to
conspire to fill every nook and cranny of
available space. Efficient shelving and
storage devices can create a surprising
amount of space simply by keeping
things organized. For example, the
height of adjustable shelves
(below)
can
From towel racks to slide-out garbage
bins, there are many commercial stor-
age devices on the market designed to
reduce time spent rummaging in lower
cabinets. The photo at left shows slide-
out shelving mounted on drawer slides.
be changed to accommodate different-
sized dry goods or dishes. Corner cabi-
nets are parti cul arl y prone to wasti ng
valuable space; items at the veryback of
such cabinets tend to be forgotten. A lazy
Swan
(page42)
is an elegant solution to
this problem: Its two round shelves
rotate around a central shaft, making all
the contents readily accessible.
Appliance clutter is another common
kitchen complaint. Certain appliances
that see frequent use, such as toasters,
coffee makers, and blenders, often crowd
the countertop. An appliance bay with
a sliding tambour door
(page
40) pro-
vides a tidy place to keep these kitchen
conveniences plugged in and out ofsight,
vet easilv accessible.
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INSTATTING ADJUSTABTE SHELF SUPPORTS
1
Dri l l i ng hol es for the sl eeves
I Adj ustabl e shel vi ng requi res two paral l el rows of hol es to be
dri l l ed i n the si de panel s of the cabi net case. The commerci al
j i g
shown above al l ows you to bore hol es at 1-i nch i nterval s and
ensures that correspondi ng hol es wi l l be perfectl y al i gned. Set a
si de panel i nsi de{ace up on a work surface and cl amp the
j i g
to
the edges of the panel ; the hol es can be any di stance from the
panel edges, but about 2 i nches i n woul d be best for the panel s
shown. Fi t your dri l l wi th a bi t the same di ameter as the sl eeves
and i nst al l a st op col l ar t o mark t he dri l l i ng dept h equal t o t he
sl eeve l engh. Starti ng at ei ther end of one of the
j i g' s
rai l s, pl ace
t he appropri at e bushi ng i n t he f i rst hol e of t he bushi ng carri er.
(The
bushi ng keeps the bi t perfectl y square to the workpi ece.)
Hol di ng the dri l l and carri er, bore the hol e. Dri l l a seri es of evenl y
spaced hol es al ong both rai l s. Remove the
j i g
and repeat for the
ot her si de panel of t he case, caref ul l y posi t i oni ng t he
j i g
so t he
hol es wi l l be al i gned wi t h t hose i n t he f i rst panel .
38
CASEWORK
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|llr fil] rll1 llli illl rll1 lllt llll illl llll ill] lll1 ljlr llll lltl llll llll llll
5HO? TI ?
A ohop-made shel f
dri l l i nq
j i q
IheT-ehaped
j i q ohown aN
ri qhl wi l l al l ow
you No bore a row
of evenly opaced
hol ee ae accuratel y ae
a commerci al j i g. Make
Nhe
j i q from 1-by-3 stock,
beinq careful lo screw Ihe
fence and arm togeLher aN a
perfect 90" angle. Mark a line down
l he center of the arm and bore hol es
al onq i t at 2-i nch i nNerval e wi l h the
same bi L you woul d use f or t hread'
ed sl eeves.To uset.he
1i q,
cl amp i Lto a
r)
Mounti ng the sl eeves and supports
Z. To i nst al l t he t hreaded sl eeves wi t h-
out damagi ng t hem, use a sl eeve-set t i ng
ounch. Pl ace a sl eeve on t he end of t he
punch
and
push t he sl eeve f i rml y i nt o
one of the hol es i n a si de
panel (above).
I nsert a sl eeve i nt o each hol e you have
dri l l ed, t hen screw shel f support s i nt o
the sl eeves at each desi red shel f l ocatron.
oi de panel wi th l he fence buLted agai nel ,.:
ei t her end ol t he oanel andt he mar ked
Y
cent erl i ne 2 i nches i n f rom i t e edge.
Fi N your dri l l bi l wi th a otoV col l ar, bore Nhe
hol ee, and, repooi ti on Nhe j i q for each new row.
39
CASEWORK
BUILDING AN APPLIANCE BAY
1
Mi l l i ng tambour sl ats
I Start by cutti ng the tambour stock to si ze; make the
l ength of the stock equal to the wi dth of the tambour door
pl us
% i nch. Then pl ane t he st ock t o a t hi ckness equal t o
t he desi red wi dt h of t he sl at s; t ypi cal l y % t o I i nch. Mi l l
the sl ats i n three steps
(ri ght).
Fi rst,
j ornt
the edges of the
stock
(,4).
Next, use a Yo-i nch roundi ng over bi t to shape
the two l ong edges of the stock on your router tabl e
(B).
Fi nal l y, ri p a / o- t o %-i nch-t hi ck st ri p f rom each edge t o
make the fi rst two sl ats
(C);
use a push sti ck to keep your
f i ngers away f rom t he bl ade. Joi nt t he st ock agai n, t hen
repeat the l ast two steps unti l you have enough sl ats to
make t he t ambour door. The combi ned hei ght of t he sl at s
shoul d total 2 or 3 i nches more than the hei ght of the door
openi ng. Tri m al l t he sl at s t o l engt h.
r' )
Gl ui ng the sl ats to a backi ng
Z
t l r"
l i ght wei ght canvas as backi ng f or t he sl at s. St ret ch
t he canvas over a
pi ece
of mel ami ne and
pul l
i t t aut , smoot h-
i ng out al l t he wr i nkl es. Secur e i t i n pl ace wi t h st apl es. To
hel p al i gn t he sl at s, screw t hree boards t o t he pl ywood t o
f or m a U- shaped
j i g.
The devi ce shoul d be as wi de as t he
sl at s ar e l ong and per f ect l y squar e. Sl i de al l t he sl at s i nt o
pl ace t hen screw a f ourt h board t o cl ose t he t op of t he
j i g.
Remove t he sl at s and appl y an even coat of whi t e gl ue t o
t he canvas. Gl ue t he sl at s back i n pl ace
hbovd, t hen wei ght
t hem down t o get a good bond. Let t he assembl y dry over-
ni ght . Unscr ew t he
j i g
and t r i m t he excess canvas wi t h a
shar o kn i f e.
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40
CASEWORK
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-)
Routi ns the tambour track
<
r. , l St art i ng at t he bot t om of t he panel ,
draw the desi red shape of the tambour door
t r ack on one of t he case si des. Fashi on
a t emol at e t hat cooi es t he i nsi de l i ne of
thi s track. Pl ace the templ ate atop the case
si de, al i gni ng i t wi t h t he t r ack' s i nsi de
l i ne. I nst al l a t op- pi l ot ed f l ush t r i mmi ng
bi t i n your rout er; t he di amet er of t he bi t
shoul d be %u i nch gr eat er t han t he t hi ck-
ness of t he door . Set t he r out er on t he
t empl at e and adj ust t he cut t i ng dept h t o
make a / a- i nch- deep gr oove; use shi ms
under t he pat t ern i f necessary. Rout t he
track
(ri ght),
keepi ng the beari ng pressed
agai nst t he pat t er n t hr oughout t he cut .
To rout t he t ambour t rack i n t he oooosi t e
case si de, turn the
pattern over and repeat.
Instal l i ng the door
Once t he si des are prepared you can
assembl e t he case f or t he appl i ance bay.
Make t he wi dt h of t he case equal t o t he
l engt h of t he sl at s pl us t he t hi ckness of
t he si des, l ess t he combi ned dept h of
t he gr ooves. ( Al so
add Xu i nch t o gi ve t he
door a bi t of pl ay. ) Not e t hat t he appl i ance
bay has no t op or bot t om; i t i s desi gned
t o f i t bet ween t he count er t op and upper
cabi net , and t he l ack of a bot t om panel
makes i t easi er t o sl i de t he appl i ance i n
and out . To i nst al l t he t ambour door , t i l t
t he case ont o i t s back, t hen si mpl y sl i de
the door from the bottom
(/eft).
The bottom
of t he door wi l l r est on t he count er and
i t s wei ght wi l l hol d i t up when opened,
t her ef or e no st ops or l at ches ar e r equi r ed.
Template Shim
-=t
4 I
CASEWORK
INSTALTING A LAZY SUSAN
1
Finding the
pivot point
I A lazy Susan's trays rotate around a
central post screwed to the top and bot-
tom of a corner cabi net. To l ocate the
pi vot poi nt of the shaft, pl ace one of the
t rays on t he f l oor of t he cabi net and
adj ust i t so i ts ci rcumference cl ears the
two back panel s by about 1 i nch. Sl i de a
penci l i n the tray' s shaft hol e and trace
a ci rcl e.
(The
manufacturer may provi de
a posi ti oni ng templ ate to make thi s step
easi er. ) Then use a f rami ng square t o
l ocate the
poi nt i n the ci rcl e that i s the
same di st ance f rom each back
panel
hbovd. Thi s i s the
pi vot poi nt. Transfer
these measurements to the top panel -
or the nai l er i f the cabi net has no top.
r')
Centering the
pivot
brackets
I Center the lower
pivot
bracket on the
pivot point (right),then
screwthe hardware
i n pl ace. Turn t he cabi net upsi de down
and repeat to i nstal l the upper bracket.
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42
CASEWORK
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5HO7 Tt?
5lide-out shelves
thel vee that el i de oul of a
aabinet not only reduce back
eNrai n andl i me soenN
ru m m a qin
4
thr o u
4h
I ow e r
cabinern, thay aleo increa*
usabl e atoraqe epace. To
keep l he aonl ente of l he
shel ves from el i di nq off, ql ue
edqi nq otri pa cut from
5/+-
i nch hardwood et ockt o Nhe
shel f si des and ende. l neLal l
bot t om-mount ed shel f
sl i des a6 you woul d f or a
drawer (paAe O7).
r')
Installing the
post
and trays
I For the model of l azy Susan shown,
t he post consi st s of t wo t el escopi ng
rods that are extended to fi t the cabi net
once the trays are sl i d i n pl ace. Sl i de the
lower tray onto the
post (rnset),
followed
by the col l et and upper tray. Pl ace the
post i n the bottom pi vot bracket, then
extend the rod upward so its top fits in the
upper pi vot bracket. Ti ghten the l ocki ng
screw. Next, posi ti on the upper tray at
the desi red hei ght and mark i ts l ocati on
on the post. Lift the tray and align the top
of the col l et wi th the mark. Ti ghten the
collet in
place (above),
then lower the
upper tray i nto posi ti on.
43
ASSEMBLING THE CABINETS
{
l . you have cut the componenents of
.l - your cabi nets accuratel y, assembl i ng
them wi l l be a strai shtforward task.
Whi l e the proceduri shown 0n pages
46-47 is based on biscuit
joints, gluing
and clamping is identical for most oth-
er i oi nerv methods.
Ifyour cabinets do not have sides that
extend below their bottom panels, you
willneed to installlegs to support them.
Commerci al l evel er l egs (bel ow) are
quickly bolted in place and allow you to
i nstal l a l evel run of cabi nets on an
uneveu floor. They also accommodate
a bracket for a clip-on kickplate.
Hiding the edges of nelantirte or ply-
wood cabinets is essettial
for
cr clean,
professi onal l ook. Here n l anti note
trintmer ctts solid wood edging
flush
with the sides of a cabinet. For ntore
on edge treatntents, see pages 48-49.
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INSTALLING ADJUSTABLE LEGS
1
Dr i l l i ng hol es f or t he l eg bol t s
I Posi t i on t he l ess on t he cabi net bot -
t oms so t hat when t he ki ckpl at e i s cl i pped
ont o t he f r ont l egs
@age
104) , i t wi l l be
i nset f r om t he cabi net ' s f r ont edge by
about 4 i nches. The l egs shoul d al so be
set i n f r om t he si des of t he cabi net by t he
same amount . The si mpl e l i pped
j i g
shown
at r i ght wi l l hel p you bor e t he hol es f or
t he l eg bol t s i n exact l y t he same pl ace
on al l cabi net s. To make t he
j i g,
scr ew
t wo oi eces of l - i nch- souar e st ock t o one
cor ner of a pi ece of pl ywood. Mar k a l i ne
4 i nches pl us t he t hi ckness of t he kr ck-
pl at e f r om t he i nsi de edge of each l i p,
t hen dr i l l a hol e i n t he pl ywood wher e t he
l i nes i nt er sect . Make t he hol es f or t he l egs
by hol di ng t he
j i g
i n posi t i on and dr i l l i ng
a hol e i n each cor ner of t he cabi net bot -
tom panel (right).
44
CASEWORK
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r)
Attaching the leg bases
L tav the bottom
panel
face-down on
a work surface. l nsert a bol t wi th a washer
t hr ough one of t he hol es you dr i l l ed i n
t he
previ ous
st ep, and t hread one of t he
l eg bases ont o t he bol t . Hol di ng t he base
so t hat i t s round surf ace f aces t he f ront
of t he cabi net
(ri ght ),
t i ght en t he bol t
snugl y. Then i nst al l t he ot her l eg bases.
Inserti ng the l egs
The f i nal st ep i s t o i nsert t he l egs
i n t he bases. The t ype of l evel er l eg
shown at l eft has matchi ng grooves and
ri dges. Si mpl y pl ace t he l eg i n t he base
and push down l i ght l y whi l e t ur ni ng
unt i l i t snaps i nt o pl ace. The l eg hei ght
can then be adj usted when the cabi net
i s i nstal l ed
@age
104).
45
CASEWORK
GTUING AND CLAMPING THE CABINETS
' l
Assembl i ng the fi rst corner
I Lay one of t he cabi net si des f ace-up
on a work surf ace, i nsert gl ue i n each bi s-
cui t sl ot , and add t he cor r ect - si zed bi s-
cui t s. Appl y gl ue t o t he exposed bi scui t s,
t hen f i t t he cabi net bot t om ont o t he si de
panel , mat chi ng t he bi scui t s and sl ot s.
r)
Addi ng t he nai l ers
L non t he bot t om panel i n pl ace wi t h
a 90" cl amp or a combi nat i on of hand-
screws and cl amps as shown i n t he next
st ep. Appl y gl ue i n t he sl ot s f or t he r ear
and count ert op nai l ers and pl ace t he bi s-
cui t s i n t he sl ot s. Appl y gl ue t o t he nai l ers
e n d c p i t h p m i n n l a r p l n q p r i 2
q n 2 a p r
between the rear nai l ers to create a gap
bet ween t he t wo t hat wi l l al l ow
you t o
slide the back into place (step
4). Clamp
the assembly togelher
(rrght).
-\\.--.-
t-.---
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CASEWORK
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Cl ampi ng t he cabi net
Wi t h t he cabi net st i l l on i t s si de,
sl i de i t so t hat one edge ext ends of f t he
wor k sur f ace. Remove t he 90" cl amp
hol di ng t he bot t om and i nst al l a bar
cl amp acr oss t he f r ont of t he cabi net ,
al i gni ng r t wr t h t he bot t om panel . Repeat
t hi s nr ocedr r r e t o secr r r e t he r est of t he
case. You wi l l need f r ve bar cl amps: t wo
for the case bottom and one each for the
t wo count er t op nai l er s and upper r ear
nai l er Pr ot ect t he si de nanel s wi t h wood
pads ; pl ac e a l - i nc h wood c hi p under
t he bot t om pads t o f ocus some of t he
pr essur e mi dway bet ween t he edges of
t he panel . Make sur e al l edges ar e f l ush
and check t he cabi net f or squar e bef or e
t i ght eni ng t he c l amps . Fi nal l y , s et t he
assembl y on t he f l oor and sl i de t he back
panel into post|on (righil.
Q
I nst al l i ng t he second si de
r-,, Appl y gl ue to the exposed edges of
t he bot t om panel
and t he nai l ers. I nsert
t he bi scui t s, t hen set t he second si de
panel atop the assembl y
(/eft).
o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o
o
47
CASEWORK
SOLID W(IOD EDGING
r)
Instal l i ng the edgi ng
L Vttt", the stri ps al a 45' angl e on each
end. Tr i m t he edgi ng t o f i t as
you i nst al l i t .
Fi r ct e r r t t hp odsi no f nr t he l onsest si des
L ' ' v v v 6 r I r b
t o t he exact hei ght of t he cabi net . Spr ead
a t hi n bead of gl ue on t he mat i ng sur f aces,
and f ast en t he edgi ng t o t he cabi net wi t h
f i ni shi ng nai l s and a nai l gun
( r i ght ) or
a
hammer . l f you ar e usi ng a hammer , dr i l l
pi l ot hol es f or t he nai l s t o avoi d spl i t t i ng
t he wood. Cut t he t op and bot t om
pi eces
sl i ght l y l onger t han t he wi dt h of t he cabi -
net , t hen t r i m t hem unt i l t hey f i t . Gl ue
and nai l t hem i n pl ac e. Fi nal l y , t r i m t he
edgi ng f l ush wi t h t he cabi net usi ng a
rouler
(photo, page 44).
1
Maki ng the edgi ng
I Make sol i d wood edgi ng by r i ppi ng i t
f r om a pi ece of st ock sl i ght l y t hi cker t han
your cabi net panel s; t hi s wt l l al l ow you
t o t r i m i t f l ush af t er i nst al l at i on. Pl ane a
l engt h of har dwood st ock such as mapl e
or oak t o t he desi r ed t hi ckness. Set t he
r i p f ence on your t abl e saw t o cut a %-
i nch{ hi ck st r i p. Feed t he wor kpi ece i nt o
the bl ade
(l eft),
keeptng l i ght pressure
agai nst t he f ence; f i ni sh t he cut wi t h a
push bl ock. Ri p f our pi eces of edgi ng f or
each cabi net , cut t i ng t hem sl i ght l y l onger
t han t he cabi net .
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4B
CASEWORK
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C()MMERCIAT EDGE BANDING
1
Appl yi ng commerci al edge bandi ng
I Commerci al edge bandi ng i s anot her
met hod of hi di ng t he edges of mel ami ne;
si mpl y choose a col or that matches your
cabi net s. The commerci al edge-bandi ng
uni t shown at ri ght works by f eedi ng t he
panel al ong a fence; an adj ustabl e heater
mel ts the bandi ng' s adhesi ve
j ust
before i t
contacts the edge of the panel . Practi ce
on some scrap st ock unt i l you f i nd a t em-
oerat ure and f eed rat e t hat works wel l .
An i nexpensi ve but more t i me-consumi ng
al t ernat i ve i s t o i nst al l commerci al edge
bandi ng on your cabi net s usi ng an i r on
set on hi gh heat, maki ng sure you do not
l et the i ron rest i n one pl ace.
r')
Trimming the edges of the banding
Z nt t ne ends,
push
t he bandi ng around
t he corner wi t h t he f l at si de of a chi sel
t o br eak i t cl eanl y, t hen cut i t of f wi t h
a downwar d sl i ce of t he chi sel . Use an
edge tri mmer to tri m the edges. The model
shown features two spri ng-mounted razor
cutters and can fi t any panel between %e
and 1 i nch t hi ck. Pl ace t he t r i mmer on
t he edge of t he panel at one end and
squeeze the two edges together, then pull it
sl owl y and smoothl y al ong the edge
(l eft).
You can al so use a wi de, very sharp chi sel
for the
j ob.
Hol d the tool fl at to the panel ,
45" t o t he edge, and move al ong i n a
si ngl e st roke-one f or each si de of t he
panel . Fi ni sh wi t h ei t her sandpaper or a
smooth fi l e for a perfectl y fl ush edge.
49
FACE FRAMES
I
face frame is a solid wood fronting
Aappl i ed to ki tchen cabi nets. Face
frames are not essential; in fact they are
noticeably absent on European-style
cabi nets, whose conceal ed, mi cro-
adjustable hinges make it possible to
install doors that seamlessly cover the
entire cabinet front. However, face
frames can add a traditional look to a
European kitchen.
When laying out a face frame, remem-
ber to add an extra Yrinch to any stile
positioned
next to a wall; this will allow
you to scribe and trim the stile if the
wall is out-of-plumb. If the cabinet has
drawers, you will also require dividers
between them. If your cabinets feature
fully recessed doors and drawers, cock-
beading
(page
53) can add a subtle, dec-
orative touch.
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Face
frames
can be
joined in a number of ways, including pock-
et holes, biscuits, and dowels. Here, a commercial pocket hole
cutter bores a hole in a
face frame
rail. Pocket holes can also be
used to attach the
face frame
to the cabinet; be sure to cut
the holes in the case sides and rails before assembling them.
ANATOMY OF A FACE FRAME
Drawer rail Ineide stile
50
CASEWORK
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JOINING FACE FRAMES WITH DOWELS
' l
Dri l l i ng hol es
I Use a dowel i ng
j i g
t o dr i l l hol es f or
dowel s i n t he f ace f rame members. The
model shown at ri ght not onl y al i gns t he
hol es i n bot h rai l s and st i l es, but al so hol ds
t he bi t exact l y perpendi cul ar t o t he wood
surface. Fol l ow the manufacturer' s i nstruc-
t i ons t o set up t he
j i g
f or t he t hi ckness of
the face frame stock, then adj ust the
j i g
to
dri l l t wo hol es about
1/ , i nchi n
f rom ei t her
end of one of t he st i l es. I nsert t he bushi ng
t hat mat ches t he dowel di amet er i nt o t he
bushi ng car r i er of t he
1i g,
and at t ach a
col l et t o t he dri l l bi t and adl ust i t t o bore
a hol e Xu t nch deeper t han hal f t he l engt h
of i he dowel s.
(Al l ow
f or t he t hi ckness of
t he
l i g
and bushi ng when maki ng t hi s mea-
surement . ) Cl amp a st i l e i n your workbench
and
pl ace t he
j i g
on t he st i l e, al i gni ng i t
wi t h one end of t he workpi ece. Set t he
bushi ng carri er i n t he appropri at e hol e i n
t he dowel i ng
j i g.
Hol di ng t he
l i g
st eady,
dr i l l t he hol e. Repeat t o dr i l l t he second
hol e, t hen bore t he hol es at t he opposi t e
end of t he st i l e, i n bot h ends of al l r ai l s
(ri ght ),
and i n any i nsi de st i l es t hat al so
requi re dowel hol es.
r")
Insefti ng the dowel s
L l nsert dowel s i n the drawer rai l s and
i nsi de st i l es f i rst , t hen i n t he out er st i l es.
To i nsert the dowel s, cl amp the appropri ate
frame member to your bench, spread gl ue
on one end of the dowel , then tap i t home
wi th a mal l et
(/efi l .
Assembl e the frame
(page
53).
5 l
CASEWORK
PLATE J(IINER STAND
To reduce t he set up t i me needed
to cut sl ots for bi scui t-j oi nted face
f rames, mount your pl at e j oi ner
i n a
shop-made st and l i ke t he one shown
at l eft. Bui l d the
j i g
from
3/q-i nch
pl ywood, except for the barrel sup-
port ,
whi ch shoul d be sol i d wood.
Refer to the i l l ustrati on for suggest-
ed di mensi ons.
Screw the handl e support to the
base, then attach the handl e brack-
et s, spaci ng t hem t o f i t your t ool .
Wi t h t he
pl at e j oi ner
rest i ng upsi de
down on t he handl e support , but t
the barrel support agai nst the motor
housi ng and trace the outl i ne of the
barrel on the stock. Cut or bore a
hol e for the barrel , then saw the sup-
port i n two across i ts wi dth, through
t he cent er of t he hol e. Screw t he
bottom part to the base and fi t the
ot her hal f on t op. Bore hol es f or
hanger bolts through the top on each
si de of t he openi ng, t hen dri ve t he
hanger bol ts i nto the bottom of the
support . For qui ck i nst al l at i on and
removal of the tool , use wi ng nuts
to hol d the two hal ves together.
Screw t he auxi l i ary t abl e t o t he
f i xed-angl e f ence of t he
j oi ner. (l t
may be necessary t o dri l l hol es i n
the fence to accept the screws.)
To use the stand, secure the
j oi ner
i n i t, then cl amp the base to a work
surface. Set the fence at the correct
height and, for repeat cuts, clamp stop
bl ocks to the auxi l i ary tabl e to center
the workoiece on the cutter wheel. To
cut a sl ot , put t he workpi ece f l at
on t he t abl e and but t ed agai nst t he
j oi ner' s
f acepl at e, t hen t urn on t he
tool and push the stock and the tabl e
toward the culter
(\eft,
belowl
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52
CASEWORK
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ASSEMBTING THE FACE FRAME
Cl ampi ng up t he f r ame
Assembl e t he f r ame wor ki ng f r om t he
mi ddl e out war d, gl ui ng up any dr awer
r ai l s and i nsi de st i l es f i r st . I n t he f r ame
shown at r i ght , st ar t by gl ui ng t he i nsi de
st i l e t o t he t wo f ace f r ame r ai l s. Appl y
gl ue t o t he exposed dowel s t hen push
t he r ai l s i nt o pl ace. Ti ght en t he assem-
bl y wi t h a bar cl amp. Next , spr ead some
gl ue on t he dowel s i n t he r ai l s and i nst al l
t he ot her st i l es; t i ght en t hem i n pl ace wi t h
t wo mor e bar cl amps. Check t he assembl y
f or squar e by measur i ng acr oss t he t wo
di agonal s
( r i ght ) . I hey
shoul d be equal .
l f not , pl ace a bar cl amp acr oss t he l onger
di agonal and t i ght en i t unt i l t he f r ame
i s s quar e.
INSTATLING C()CKBEADING
' l
Maki ng cockbeadi ng
I Make cockbeadi ng as you made sol i d
wood edgi ng
(page
48), ri ppi ng Y, i nch-
t hi ck st r i ps f r om a pi ece of har dwood
st ock % i nch t hi cker t han t he t hi ckness
of t he f ace f rame. To round over t he out -
si de edge of t he cockbeadi ng, i nst al l a / , -
i nch canoe bead bi t i n a rout er and i nst al l
t he t ool i n a t abl e. Rai se t he hei ght of
t he bi t so i t i s cent ered on t he st ock, and
adj ust t he posi t i on of t he f ence t o
j ust
behi nd t he cut t er. At t ach a f eat herboard
t o t he t abl e t o hol d t he st ock agai nst t he
f ence, and cl amp t wo more f eat herboards
t o t he f ence on ei t her si de of t he bi t t o
prevent t he st ock f rom l i f t i ng up.
(l n
t he
i l l ust rat i on, t he f ront f eat herboard has
been removed f or cl ari t y. ) Wi t h t he work-
pi ece l yi ng f l at on t he t abl e, f eed i t i nt o
t he bi t
( / ef f ) ,
f i ni shi ng t he cut wi t h a
push st i ck. Ri p t he cockbeadi ng t o wi dt h
and t hen cut i t t o l engt h, mi t er i ng t he
ends at 45".
| /
/ - , L ,
53
CASEWORK
I nst al l i ng t he cockbeadi ng
Dry f i t t he cockbeadi ng st ri ps; pare
any i l l - f r t t i ng
j or nt s
wi t h a chi sel . Lay t he
f r ame on a f l at sur f ace. Spr ead some
gl ue on t he out si de f ace of a st r i p of
cockbeadi ng and posi t i on i t on t he f r ame,
al i gni ng t he back edges of t he t wo. Dr i ve
i n f i ni shi ng nai l s wi t h a hammer or an ai r
nailer
(lefil.
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INSTALLING THE FACE FRAME
Attachi ng the face frame to the casework
Appl y some gl ue t o t he edges of t he cabi -
net . Pl ace t he f ace f r ame i n oosi t i on and
al i gn i t wi t h t he t op, bot t om, and si des of
t he cabi net . I n t he i l l ust r at i on at r i ght , t he
r i ght si de of t he f r ame over hangs t he cabi -
net ; t hi s i s t o al l ow t he st i l e of t he f ace
frame to be tri mmed to fi t the profi l e of the
wall
(page
104). Fasten the face frame in
pl ace wi t h a f i ni shi ng nai l ever y 4- 6 i nches.
54
CASEWORK
r.{r rll ffi dr trr il r}.x rili r$ ffi r$ rrr L* $ $ U *
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1HO? TI ?
Making
wood pl ugo
!
Save t i me maki ng
wood pl uge by usi nq a
ni er ^. e nf f Ane f . n r e. anve
Nhem f r om t hei r hol ee, Uee a
pl , , t g cuLt er on Lhe dr i l l pr eoo t o
bore a row of
Vl uqe
tro the depLh you
requi re. Cover the row wi th a oLri p of
ma s k i n q Na p e , I h e n r i p t h e p l u g e L o
l enqLh on r, he band eaw. )i mpl y peel of f
Lhe t , aVe Lo remove Lhe row of pl , t ge.
Usi ng screws and wood pl ugs
l f you ar e i nst al l i ng your f ace f r ames
wi t h scr ews, count er bor e t he f ast ener s
and cover t hei r heads wi t h wood pl ugs.
Posi t i on t he f r ame i n pl ace as you woul d
f or f ace- nai l i ng
( page
54) . dr i l l and
count er bor e scr ew hol es, t hen dr i ve t he
; ^ ^ r ^ ^ ^ T ^ - ^ k o
t h o n l r r o c
) u r c v Y ) r r
P r d u c .
r u i l r d . . -
i nst al l a nl up cr r t t er t he same dr amet er
as t he count er bor ed hol es i n your dr i l l
pr ess. Choosi ng some wood t hat mat ch-
es t he f r ame st ock f or gr ai n and col or ,
bor e as many pl ugs as you need i n t he
sl ock
(above,
l eft). Pry the pl ugs free
wi t h a scr ewdr i ver or nar r ow chi sel .
( See
t he Shop Ti p at l ef t f or an al t er nat e pr o-
cedur e. ) To i nst al l t he pl ugs, appl y gl ue
i n t he hol e, t hen t ap t he pl ug i n pl ace.
Tr i m t he excess wi t h a chi sel . Hol di ng
t he chi sel bevel - si de up on t he f r ame,
remove the waste i n f i ne shavi ngs bbove,
r i ght ) unt i l t he pl ug i s per f ect l y f l ush.
Thi s wi l l pr oduc e a muc h c l eaner s ur -
f ace t han i f t he pl ug wer e sanded f l ush.
55
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f
abinet doors are arguably the most
\-r important single decorative feature
of a kitchen. They are the first item to
greet the eye and, because they are usu-
ally so numerous, can also be the most
impressive. The style, finish, and con-
struction deserve careful attention.
Once. cabinetmakers were concerned
primarily with building simple, sturdy
doors that would stand up to the pun-
ishment meted out to them in dailyuse.
Form certainly followed function by a
wide margin;kitchen cabinets, and espe-
cially their doors, were the most utili-
tarian of furniture. But gone are the days
of one-style-fits-all kitchens. Today,
homeowners carefirlly consider the peri-
DOORS
A brad driver secures a strip of molding
to the
frame
of a kitchen cabinet door
sandwiching a central pane of glass
betvveen the molding and a rabbet cut
into the inside edge of the
frame.
For
more on building glass doors, see page 69.
Considerations of style should not
cloud the need for durability. Kitchen
doors work hard and. since wood is
prone to swelling and warping, solid
doors such as board-and-batten doors
should only be installed on small cabi-
nets. Frame-and-panel, veneered-panel,
and glass doors are better able to accom-
modate wood movement caused bv fluc-
tuations in heat and humidity.' Also,
different doors require different degrees
of precision when building them. A
flush-mounted door, for example, is cut
to close tolerances; an error as slight as
Zu inch can sooil the look of an other-
wise finely eiecuted cabinet. Overlay
doors, on the other hand, do not require
od and sryle of their dwellings before determining the decor of
their kitchens. Some of the possibilities are shown in the layout
And Design chapter
(page 16).
Once the basic choice is made, door style can be arrived at.
Perhaps it is a basic board-and-batten door
(page
60) for a
country cottage. An futs and Crafts bungalow might demand
finer work, with doors featuring glass panes set in glazing bars
(page
70). Most homeowners will probably prefer traditional
frame-and-panel doors
(page
62). But even here there are vari-
ations, such as arched panel (page
67),veneered.panel
(page
68), and glass panel doors
(page
69). This chapter introduces
five door styles and the steps to building each, so you can pro-
duce doors that will lend character to
your
kitchen.
the same precision as they exceed the size of their openings.
Advances in the manufacturing of door hardware, particu-
larly hinges, have greatly improved both the appearance of cab-
inet doors and the ease of mounting them
(page
73). Classic or
antique-sryle doors may still be hung from such decorative and
attractive fasteners as surface-mounted hinges that come in
polished iron or brass finishes. Other hinge options include
the simple but efficient butt hinge
(page
76) for flush-mount-
ed doors, and the piano hinge for corner cabinet doors.
European-style cup hinges (page
7a) have virtually become
the standard hardware for melamine kitchen cabinets. Not
only are these versatile hinges fully concealed; they are also
simple to install and easily adjustable.
The versatile European cup hinge can be used to hang a vari-
ety ofkitchen cabinet doors. In the photo at left, a
full
overlay
frame-and-panel
door is being mounted on a
face frame
cabinet. The door can be adiusted or removed with ease.
57
A GALLERY OF CABINET DOOR DESIGNS
1rl
f the four door types shown below
\-/ and on the fol l owi ng page, al l but
the board-and-batten door are bui l t
using frame-and-panel techniques. The
board-and-batten door
(page
60) is a
sol i d panel door featuri ng a seri es of
planks with rabbeted edges held togeth-
er by battens screwed across the back of
the door. Frame-and-p anel doors
(page
62) fearve a
panel
that floats within a
frame composed of rai l s and sti l es
assembled with mortise-and-tenon or
cope-and-stick
joints. The floating pan-
el in the center ofthe door can be raised
or shaoed for decorative effect. The rails
and stiles have an integrated molding
cut into them;for added embellishment
you can also cut an arch or curve into
the upper rai l and panel .
Veneered-panel doors
(page
68) fea-
ture a panel made from veneered sheet
stock that i s gl ued to the frame. To
conceal the pl ate j oi nts
between the
panel and the frame, rabbets are cut
i nto the i nsi de edges of the frame at
the back. Glass-panel doors
(page69)
are essentially a frame-and-panel door
wi th a pane of gl ass repl aci ng a fl oat-
i ng panel . The pi ece of gl ass si t s i n
rabbet s cut al ong t he edges of t he
frame. It i s hel d i n pl ace by stri ps of
molding. A variation of the glass panel
door features gl azi ng bars that hol d
smaller panes in place (page70).Iorned
by mitered half-laps, the glazing bars
have rabbets cut along their back edges
to accommodate the gl ass and gl ass-
stop molding.
Although a door is always made to fit
its cabinet, it does not always have to be
sized exactly to fit its opening, as shown
i n the i l l ustrati on on the opposi te page.
Fl ush-mounted and ful l -recess doors
can be ti me-consumi ng to construct
because ofthe fine tolerances required
to fit and hang them properly. They are
particularly unsuitable for board-and-
batten doors, as these doors tend to
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expand and contract wi th changes i n
humidity. Full-overlay or lip-rabbeted
doors are easier to make. A full-overlay
door covers the entire width of the cab-
inet, while a lip-rabbeted door has rab-
bets cut around its outside edges at the
back so that only a part of its thickness
is exposed.
One of the most commonly used doors
is the one typically used for European-
style cabinets-a piece of laminated par-
ticleboard such as melamine simolv cut
to size. While inexoensive and eisier to
mai ntai n, mel ami ne doors need edge
banding
(pages
48-49) to conceal their
non-laminated edses.
DOORS
DOOR MOUNTING METH()DS
B OARD.AND
-
BATTEN D O ORS
T
ike their early colonial counterparts,
L
modern cabi net makers seeki ng a
rustic or
"country"
look often turn to
board-and-batten doors. These simple
but sturdy doors consi st of rabbeted
planks held together by strips or bat-
tens ofwood fastened across their backs.
The most common of these features bat-
tens screwed to the back of the door in
the form of aZ;the diagonal batten con-
necting the two horizontal battens at
the too and bottom acts as a brace to
strenghen the door and prevent sagging.
Because they are solid panel doors and
will swell and shrink with changes in
humidity, board-and-batten doors are
often mounted on smaller cabinets as
overlay doors. In some cases, the battens
can interfere with interior shelving. One
solution is to recess the battens in dadoes
cut into the back of the doors. Another
more el aborate method of braci ng a
board-and-batten door is to rout a slid-
ing dovetail across the back ofthe boards.
Rout a matching dovetail slide in the bat-
tens, and secure them in place with a sin-
gle screw in the center ofthe door.
Combining rustic strength and charm,
board-and-batten doors are ideal
for
small cupboards in a country kitchen.
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e*t
JOINTS USED IN BOARD.AND.BATTEN DOORS
thiplap Chamfered ahiplap
Beaded ahiplap Double-beaded ahiplap
60
DOORS
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MAKING A BOARD-AND-BATTEN D()()R
r)
Assembl i ng the dool
L Cl anp t he door t oget her and pl ace i t i nsi de- f ace up on a
wor k sur f ace. Then cut t wo bat t ens sl i ght l y shor t er t han t he
wi dt h of t he door and nar r ower t han t he door boar ds. Posi t i on
the two pi eces
of wood across the top and bottom of the assem-
bl y as shown. Then f i t an el ect r i c dr i l l wi t h a combi nat i on bi t
and count er bor e hol es f or scr ews and wood pl ugs at 2- i nch
i nt er val s al ong t he bat t ens, al t er nat i ng bet ween t he t op and
bot t om of each boar d. Make cl ear ance hol es exceot i n t he
' l
Cutti ng the rabbets
I I ns t al l a dado head hal f as wi de as
t he st ock t hi ckness on your t abl e saw.
At t ach an auxi l i ar y wood f ence and r ai se
t he bl ades t o cut a not ch i n i t , t hen set t he
cut t i ng hei ght - agai n one- hal f t he t hi ck-
ness of t he boar ds. To secur e t he wor k-
pi ece, cl amp t wo f eat her boar ds and a
suppor t boar d t o t he t abl e as shown.
Usi ng a push st i ck, f eed t he st ock i nt o
t he bl ades, t hen f l i p t he boar d over and
repeat the cut al ong the other edge
(l eft).
To al l ow f or wood movement , cr eat e a
sl i ght expansi on gap bet ween t he boar ds
at t he bac k of t he door by r unni ng one
edge of each boar d acr oss t he
j oi nt er .
pl aces wher e t he scr ew wi l l
j oi n
t he bat t en t o an out si de door
boar d. Then, hol di ng t he bat t en squar e t o t he edge of t he door ,
dri ve i n each screw
(above,
l eft).Cut a thi rd batten to fi t di ago
nal l y bet ween t he t wo al r eady i n pl ace
and scr ew i t i nt o posi -
t i on. To conceal t he scr ews, appl y a dab of gl ue t o t hei r heads,
t hen i nser t nl r r cs i n t he hol es. Tan t he nl r r ss i n ol ace wi t h a
wooden mal l el hbove, ri ght), then use a chi sel to tri m the pro-
l ect i ng
st ubs f l ush wi t h t he door sur f ace.
6 l
FRAME-AND-PANEL DOORS
p l easi ng t o t he eye and st ruct ural l y
.L sound, the frame-and-panel door i s
the most enduri ng and popul ar of al l
cabinet door designs. Because its panel
floats in a rigid frame of rails and stiles,
a frame-and-panel door withstands the
swelling and shrinking of wood brought
on by changes in humidity better than
any other sol i d-wood door. The fl exi -
bility of its design allows for a wide vari-
ety ofattractive options, such as veneered
panels
(page
68), glass doors
(page
69),
and glazing bars (page 70).The top rail
of the frame can even be arched to soft-
en the rectangular lines ofthe doors and
add a touch ofelegance
(pnge
67).
The frame deri ves i ts consi derabl e
strength from the
joinery
methods used
i n i ts constructi on. Thi s secti on covers
building a frame-and-panel door using
morti se-and-tenon
j oi nery
wi th i nte-
grated moldin g (page
63) and cope-and-
stick
joints (page
66). Before starting to
build a frame-and-panel door, however,
take care to size the stock properly. Make
the stiles equalto the height of the door
openi ng; the rai l s shoul d be as l ong as
the width of the door plus the trvo tenons
at either end-typically about Z inch-
minus the width of the stiles.
Depending on the desirecl oppearance
of a
frane-and-panel
door, the pan-
el's inside edges can be ntolded to
Jit
in the grooves of the
f'arne
or beveled
on
four
si des to
"rai se"
the certter
of the panel. Irr the photo at left, a
panel i s bei ng rai sed wi th an ogee
panel -rai si rtgbi t on a router tabl e.
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RAISED PANET STYTES
62
DOORS
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MAKING A FRAME.AND-PANEL DOOR
r)
Gutti ng the tenon shoul ders
L t o cut t he t enon shoul ders, set t he
hei ght of t he dado head at about % i nch.
St andi ng t he r ai l on edge f l ush agai nst
t he f ence and mi t er gauge, f eed t he
workpi ece i nt o t he bl ades. Turn t he rai l
over and repeat on t he ot her si de of t he
t enon. Cut t he t enon shoul der s at t he
opposi t e end of t he r ai l t he same way
(ri ght).
Repeat the
process
wi th the sec-
ond rai l . To add i nt egrat ed mol di ng, f i t a
r out er wi t h t he appr opr i at e bi t , mount
t he t ool i n a r out er t abl e and cut al ong
t he i nsi de edges of t he rai l s and st i l es.
1
Cutti ng the tenon cheeks
I I nst al l a dado head sl i ght l y wi der t han
the tenon l ength on your tabl e saw. Attach
and not ch an auxi l i ary f ence, t hen set t he
wi dt h of cut equal t o t he l engt h of t he
t enon t o saw t he t enon cheeks; adj ust t he
cut t i ng hei ght t o about one-t hi rd t he t hi ck-
ness of t he st ock. But t i ng t he rai l agai nst
t he f ence and t he mi t er gauge, f eed t he
st ock f ace down i nt o t he bl ades. Turn t he
rai l over and repeat t he cut on t he ot her
si de of the tenon. Then repeat the
process
at the opposi te end of the rai l
(l eft)
and
wt t h t he second rai l .
Prepari ng the rai l s for gl ue
up
Remove t he auxi l i ar y f ence and dado
head. I nst al l a combi nat i on bl ade and
adj ust i t s angl e t o 45". To set t he wi dt h
of cut , mark a l i ne on t he mol ded edge of
a rai l t he same di st ance f rom t he t enon
shoul der as t he mol di ng wi dt h. Al i gn t he
mark wi th the bl ade where i t exi ts the tabl e
openi ng, t hen but t t he f ence agai nst t he
rai l . Adj ust t he bl ade hei ght unt i l one t oot h
protrudes j ust
beyond the tenon shoul der.
To make t he cut s, but t t he rai l agai nst t he
f ence and hol d i t f l ush agai nst t he mi t er
gauge
to feed i t mol ded-edge down i nto the
bl ade. Repeat t o cut t he ot her end of t he
rai l
(l eft)
and both ends of the second rai l .
Tenon
ehoulder
63
DOORS
Prepari ng the sti l es
Mar k a l i ne on t he mol ded edge of
each st i l e t he wi dt h of a rai l away f rom
t he end of t he board. Wi t h t he t abl e saw
bl ade angl ed at 45' , al i gn t he cut t i ng
edge wi th the mark and cut i nto the mol d-
ed edge; adj ust t he cut t i ng hei ght so t he
cut f i ni shes at t he
poi nt
where t he mol d-
i ng ends and t he f ace of t he st i l e begi ns.
Next, sl i ce off the stri p of mol di ng between
t he 45' cut and t he end of t he st i l e wi t h
a band saw ?iehil.
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f,
Smoothi ng the cut edge
r , f On t he t abl e saw, adj ust t he r i p f ence
so t he bl ade l i nes up wi t h t he begi nni ng
of t he cut
you made i n st ep 1 when t he
st i l e i s but t ed agai nst t he f ence. Hol d t he
st i l e f l ush agai nst t he mi t er gauge. Sl i de
t he st ock back and f or t h al ong t he mi t er
gauge to smooth the cut edge
(lefil.
trl
Cutting the mortises
L.f Cut the morti ses i n the sti l es on a dri l l
press usi ng a commerci al morti si ng attach-
ment . Al i gn a rai l wi t h each st i l e and mark
t he out l i ne of t he mort i ses. I nst al l a mor-
t i si ng at t achment on your dri l l press and
cl amp t he st i l e t o t he f ence, cent eri ng t he
mort i se out l i ne under t he chi sel and bi t .
Set t he dri l l i ng dept h sl i ght l y deeper t han
t he t enon l engt h, t hen make a cut at each
end of t he mort i se bef ore bori ng out t he
waste in belween
(right).
64
DOORS
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Gl ui ng up the door
Gl ue up a
panel
f rom %-i nch{hi ck sol i d st ock and cut i t t o
si ze; addi ng % i nch t o each si de t o al l ow t he
panel
t o f i t t he
groove i n t he f rame. Then rout t he edges of t he panel t o pro-
duce t he rai sed cent er, as shown i n t he phot o on page 62.
Make successi ve passes unti l the edge of the panel fi ts i nto the
groove i n the frame. To reduce tearout, rout the top and bottom
edges bef ore rout i ng t he si des. Squeeze some gl ue i nt o t he
mort i ses i n t he st i l es and on t he t enon cheeks and shoul ders at
t he ends of t he rai l s; al so appl y some adhesi ve on t he cont act -
i ng surf aces of t he mi t er cut s i n t he rai l s and st i l es. Do not add
any gl ue t o t he panel grooves. Then, assembl e t he door and set
on t wo bar cl amps on a work surf ace, al i gni ng t he rai l s wi t h t he
bars of t he cl amps. To keep t he cl amps f rom f al l i ng over, prop
each one on a not ched wood bl ock. Prot ect i ng t he f rame wi t h
wood pads, t i ght en t he cl amps
j ust
enough t o f ul l y cl ose t he
j oi nts (abovd,
then use a square to check whether the corners
of t he door ar e at r i ght angl es. Fi ni sh t i ght eni ng t he cl amps
unt i l t he gl ue squeezes out of t he
j oi nt s,
checki ng occasi onal l y
t hat t he corners remai n square. 0nce t he gl ue has dri ed, use a
cabi net scraper t o remove any remai ni ng adhesi ve.
Three-wing alot-
tinq cutter
I
Cutti ng grooves
for the panel
/ Assembl e t he rai l s and st i l es. Then,
protecti ng the stock wi th wood
pads,
use
two bar cl amps to hol d the frame together
securel y. Fi t a rout er wi t h a %-i nch t hree-
wi ng sl ot t i ng cut t er and mount t he t ool i n
a router tabl e. Remove the fence and set
t he f rame on t he t abl e. Adj ust t he cut t er
hei ght to pl ace the groove mi dway between
the bottom of the frame and the edge of
t he mol di ng. Gr i ppl ng t he bar cl amps
f i rml y, but t t he i nsi de edge of t he f rame
agai nst t he bi t near one cor ner , t hen
rotate i t agai nst the di recti on of bi t rota-
t i on t o cut t he groove al ong t he rai l s and
sti l es
(/eff,).
Keep the frame f l at on the
t abl e as you f eed i t i nt o t he bi t . Rai se a
panel to f i t the frame
(photo, page 62),
t hen di sassembl e t he f rame.
65
DOORS
C()PE.AND-STICK JOINERY
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1
Cutti ng tongues i n the rai l s
I The cope-and-st i ck
j oi nt provi des a
met hod of
j oi ni ng
st i l es and rai l s i n f rame-
and- panel const r uct i on. Tongues i n t he
rai l s mesh wi t h grooves i n t he st i l es; t he
rout er bi t t hat cut s t he
grooves f or t he
panel
al so carves a decorat i ve mol di ng i n
t he i nsi de edges of t he f rame. To cut t he
t ongues, i nst al l a pi l ot ed copi ng bi t -t he
r ai l cut t er - i n your r out er and mount
t he t ool i n a t abl e. But t t he end of a
r ai l agai nst t he bi t and adj ust t he dept h
of cut so t hat t he t op of t he uppermost
cut t er i s sl i ght l y above t he wor kpi ece.
Posi t i on t he f ence oaral l el t o t he mi t er
gauge sl ot i n l i ne wi t h t he edge of t he bi t
pi l ot . Fi t t he mi t er gauge wi t h an ext en-
si on and l ay the outsi de face of the stock
f l at on t he t abl e; keep t he ends of t he
workpi ece and ext ensi on but t ed agai nst
the fence throughout each cut
(l eft),
r')
Cutting the
grooves
L Unpl uc t he rout er and repl ace t he
copi ng bi t wi t h a pi l ot ed st i cki ng bi t -
al so known as a st i l e cut t er . To set t he
cui t i ng dept h, but t t he end of a compl et -
ed rai l agai nst t he st i l e cut t er; adj ust t he
hei ght of t he bi t unt i l one of i t s cut t ers i s
l evel wi th the rai l tongue
(i nset).
Al i gn the
f ence wi t h t he edge of t he pi l ot beari ng.
Use two featherboards to secure the work-
pi ece duri ng t he cut : Cl amp one t o t he
rout er t abl e oooosi t e t he bi t and secure
t he ot her on t he i nf eed si de of t he f ence.
Make each cut wi th the stock outsi de-face
down, pressi ng the i nsi de edge of the work-
pi ece agai nst the fence
(rtght).
Use a push
sti ck to compl ete the pass. Repeat on the
i nsi de edees of al l rai l s and st i l es.
,,/
\
/y -/
66
DOORS
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RAISING AN ARCHED PANEL
1
Rai si ng the arch
I Bandsaw t he panel t o si ze, addi ng
% i nch on each si de t o al l ow t he oanel t o
f i t t he groove i n t he f rame. I nst al l a panel -
rai si ng bi t i n your rout er and mount i he
t ool i n a t abl e, set t i ng i t f or a shal l ow cut .
Cl amp a f ree-st andi ng bi t guard t o t he
t abl e, and a gui de ext endi ng f r om t he
i nf eed end of t he t abl e t o t he bi t ' s oi l ot
beari ng.
(Do
not use a fence for thi s oper-
at i on, as you wi l l need t o pi vot
t he
panel
beyond the bi t.) Usi ng the gui de as a pi vot
poi nt (ri ght), pi vot
one end of the arch
i nt o t he bi t and st ar t r out i ng t he ar ch,
keepi ng t he panel f l ush wi t h t he pi l ot
beari ng throughout the cut. Make several
passes on t he arch, rai si ng t he bi t % i nch
at a t i me unt i l t he panel f i t s t he groove
i n t he f rame.
Rai si ng the si des
To r ai se t he si des and end of t he
panel , use the same setup or remove the
gui de and bi t guard and i nst al l a f ence on
your router tabl e. Lower the bi t to a shal l ow
cut t i ng dept h. Then, hol di ng t he panel
f l at on t he t abl e, f eed i t i nt o t he bi t wi t h
your ri ght hand and press i t f l at agai nst
the gui de wi th your l efl
(l eft).
Repeat for
t he ot her si de and t he end of t he oanel .
Make as many passes as necessary f or
the panel to f i t i n the grooves i n the frame,
rai si ng t he bi t % i nch at a t i me and t est -
i ng bet ween passes. Then gl ue up t he
door as you woul d a regul ar f rame-and-
panel
assembly
(page
65, step 8).
DOORS
VEENERED-PANEL D()()R
' l
Prepari ng the frame pi eces
I Rr p t he f our f r ame pi eces
t o wr dt h, t hen cr osscut t hem sl i ght l y
l onger t han t hei r f i ni shed l engt h. Fi t a r out er wi t h a decor at i ve
mol di ng bi t , i nst al l t he t ool i n a r out er t abl e, and r out t he out -
si de edge of each f r ame pi ece. Next , cut a r abbet i n t he back
f ace of each of f r ame pi ece. Set t he cut t i ng hei ght t o equal t he
t hi ckness of t he panel ; t he wi dt h shoul d be one- hal f t he st ock
t hi ckness. Cl amp f eat her boar ds t o t he saw t abl e t o suppor t t he
wor kpi ece. I nser t a shi m bet ween t he ver t i cal f eat her boar d and
the fence to keep the pressure off the rabbeted part of the stock.
Feed the workpi ece face up i nto the dado head ti ght). CUI the
f r ame pi eces t o si ze. maki ng 45" mi t er cut s at each end. Dr y-
assembl e t he f r ame, t hen cut t he panel t o f i t i t . Mar k t he panel
edges and t hei r mat i ng f r ame pi eces t o hel p you cor r ect l y assem-
bl e t he door at t he t i me of gl ue up.
r)
Cutti ng bi scui t sl ots i n the frames
. a ^
C- Cut t he panel t o si ze and mar k a l i ne acr oss t he panel and
f r ame pi eces about 4 i nches f r om each edge and at 6- i nch
i nt er val s i n bet ween. Di sassembl e t he door and cl amp one
f r ame pi ece t o a wor k sur f ace, pr ot ect i ng t he st ock wi t h wood
n : d c Qp i t h o n r n n o r d o n + L
^ { ^ ^ ' + ^ - ^ ^ l ^ + ^ ; ^ i n c r
i h o n
q p i
V u u J ,
r u L L r r u
V r u p u r
u u p L I l U l d L U L U l l d p l d L U j u l , . - , . . . , - , , - - .
t he t ool ' s base pl at e on t he bot t om of t he r abbet i n t he f r ame
pi ece. Set t he cut t i ng hei ght so t he sl ot s wi l l be made i n t he
mi ddl e of t he r abbet ed por t i on of t he f r ame, as shown by t he
r ed dot t ed l i ne i n t he i l l ust r at i on. Wi t h a suppor t boar d under
t he
j oi ner
t o k eep l t l ev el , al i gn t he gui del i ne on t he t ool
wi t h a sl ot l ocat i on mar k. Hol di ng t he
l oi ner
wi t h bot h hands,
cut a groove at each mark
(abovd.
Repeat for the other frame
n i p c p q i h p n r ^ r r i i h p m: t i n o c l n t c , i n t h p n : n p l t h p
. . . - . . . * . . , . o . , , - s ame way .
Assembl i ng the door
Once al l t he sl ot s have been cut , gl ue up t he door . Set t he
f r ame oi eces and t he oanel f ace- down on a cl ean wor k sur f ace
and squeeze gl ue i nt o each sl ot , i nser t i ng bi scui t s as you go.
To pr event t he bi scui t s f r om expandi ng bef or e ever yt hi ng i s put
t oget her , assembl e t he door s as qui ckl y as possi bl e, f i t t i ng t he
frame pi eces to the panel (above),
Set the door on two bar cl amps
on a wor k sur f ace. Wi t h wood pads pr ot ect i ng t he f r ame, t i ght -
en t he cl amps
j ust
enough t o cl ose t he
j oi nt s.
I nst al l t wo mor e
cl amps, acr oss t he t op of t he door , pl aci ng t hem per pendi cul ar
t o t he f i r st t wo. Fi ni sh t i ght eni ng unt i l gl ue squeezes out of
t he
j oi nt s.
0nce t he adhesi ve has dr i ed, r emove any excess
wi t h a cabi net scr aoer .
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6B
DOORS
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GLASS-PANEL D()()R
1 Cutti ns a rabbet around the
l -
I i nsi de of a door f r ame
Make and gl ue up a frame as you woul d for
a frame-and-panel door
(page
63). Usi ng
a wood pad for protecti on,
cl amp the frame
t o a wor k sur f ace. Then i nst al l a %- i nch
r abbet i ng bi t i n a r out er and set t he dept h
of cut t o t he combi ned dept h of t he mol d-
i n o : n d t h p n a n o n f o l : c c v n r r i n t o n d i n
" ' b " " -
i nst al l i n t he f r ame. Hol d t he t ool f i r ml y
wr t h bot h hands whi l e r est i ng t he base-
pl at e on t he f r ame near one cor ner , t hen
t ur n on t he r out er and gui de t he bi t i nt o
the i nsi de edge of the door. Move the router
cl ockwi se al ong the edges ?i ght) unti l the
cut i s comol et ed. Souar e t he cor ner s wi t h
a wooden mal l et and a wood chi sel bel ow).
Make t he cut s agai nst t he gr ai n f i r st t o
avoi d spl i t t i ng t he f r ame.
O
Fi tti ng the gl ass
I t o hol d t he gl ass i n t he f r ame. make
gl ass- st op mol di ng by r out i ng a decor at i ve
p d o e
i n
p i t h p r
s i d p n f : l n n o n i p e
p
n f c n l .
i d st ock. Ri p t he mol di ng t o wi dt h, t hen
mi t er f or r r nr eces t n f i t i he
f r ame Set t he
frame and the gl ass on a work surface, then
pl ace t he mol di ng i n posi t i on. Bor e a pi l ot
hol e ever y 2 i nches usi ng an el ect r i c dr i l l
f i t t ed wi t h a smal l f i ni shi ng nai l wi t h t he
head sni pped of f . Dr i ve t he br ads i n pl ace
usi ng ei t her a hammer or a br ad dr i ver
(photo, page 57). When usi ng a hammer,
hol d t he mol di ng f l ush agai nst t he f r ame
of t he door ; sl i de t he hammer al ong t he
sr r r f ace of a ni ece of car dboar d
t o avoi d
breaki ng the gl ass (/eff).
69
DOORS
Ifyou prefer the look ofsntaller panes ofglass rather
thatr one larger single pane in yotn'door yotr can choose
to make glnzing bars. The molded strips are joined with
mitered half-laps. Rabbets are cut along the back edges of
the bars to acconmtodate panes of glass and glass-stop
molding. The ends of the bars can be
joined
to the outer
rnils end stiles with dowels or cope-and-stick
joints.
oi\{r_.
Q'--
\.
\-
,\t"n-
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MAKING A GLAZING BAR D()OR
' l
Mol di ng t he gl azi ng bar s
I The
j oi nt
r s made i n t hr ee st ages: St ar t by cut t i ng t he pr op-
er pr of i l e i n t he gl azi ng bar s, as shown above; next , cut r ab-
bet s i nt o t he opposi t e si des of t he bar s t o hol d t he gl ass and
mol di ng st r i ps
( st ep
2) ; I i nal l y, pr oduce t he mi t er ed hal f - l ap
(sfeps
3 to 5). For the fi rst stage, i nstal l a pi l oted roundover bi t
i n a r out er , mount t he t ool i n a t abl e, and al i gn t he f ence wi t h
t he bi t ' s pi l ot bear i ng. The st ock shoul d be wi de enough so t hat
maki ng a pass on each si de of t he bar wi l l l eave a %- i nch- wi de
l i p bet ween t he cut s. Suppor t t he wor kpi ece dur i ng t he oper a-
t i on wi t h t hr ee f eat her boar ds: Cl amp one t o t he t abl e opposi t e
t he bi t and t wo t o t he f ence on each si de of t he cut t er .
( l n
t he
i l l ust r at i on, t he f eat her boar d on t he out f eed si de of t he f ence
has been r emoved f or cl ar i t y) . Feed t he bar i nt o t he bi t unt i l
your f i nger s appr oach t he cut t er , t hen use t he next pi ece as a
push st i ck or move t o t he ot her si de of t he t abl e and pul l t he
wor kpi ece t hr ough t he cut . Repeat t he pass on t he ot her si de
of t he bar
( above) .
Pr epar e an ext r a bar t o hel p set up t he cut
i n st ep 3.
DOORS
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Q
Maki ng the mi ter cuts
r-,1 Remove the dado head and i nstal l a crosscut bl ade. Adj ust
the bl ade angl e to 45" and attach a mi ter gauge extensi on. To
set t he bl ade hei ght , hol d t he ext r a gl azi ng bar on t he saw
t abl e so t he t ongue you cut i n st ep 2 i s f l ush agai nst t he ext en-
si on. The t op of t he bl ade shoul d be l evel wi t h t he l ower si de
of t he l i p
(i nset ).
Then mark t he mi t er cut s on bot h si des of
t he bar s; at t hei r wi dest
poi nt s,
t he Vs shoul d be t he same
wi dt h as t he st ock. To make t he cut , hol d t he t ongue of t he
bar f l at agai nst t he mi t er ext ensi on and al i gn one of t he
marks wi t h t he bl ade. But t a st op bl ock agai nst t he end of
t he st ock and cl amp i t t o t he ext ensi on f or subsequent cut s.
Cl amp t he workpi ece t o t he ext ensi on and f eed t he gl azi ng
bar i nt o t he bl ade whi l e hol di ng i t f i r ml y i n pl ace. Rot at e
t he
pi ece
and make t he same cut on t he ot her si de of t he V.
Repeat t he process t o cut t he V on t he opposi t e si de of t he
bar
(above).
r)
Cutting rabbets for the glass panes
I l nstal l a dado head on your tabl e saw sl i ghtl y wi der than the
desi red rabbets. The tongue remai ni ng after the rabbets are cut
shoul d measur e % i nch wi de. I nst al l a wooden auxi l i ar y f ence
and mark t he rabbet dept h on i t -t he combi ned t hi ckness of
t he gl ass and t he mol di ng st ri p. Posi t i on t he auxi l i ary f ence over
t he dado head and rai se t he bl ades t o not ch t he f ence t o t he
hei ght of t he marked l i ne. Turn of f t he saw and mark t he wi dt h
of t he rabbet s on t he l eadi ng end of t he gl azi ng bar. But t one
of t he mar ks agai nst t he out er bl ade of t he dado head, t hen
posi ti on the fence fl ush agai nst the bar. Use three featherboards
t o support t he pi ece as i n st ep 1, addi ng a support board t o
provi de extra pressure to the featherboard cl amped to the tabl e.
(Agai n
i n t hi s i l l ust rat i on, t he f eat herboard on t he out f eed si de
of the tabl e has been removed for cl ari ty.) Feed the bars by hand
(l eft)
unl i l your fi ngers approach the featherboards, then use the
next workpi ece t o f i ni sh t he
pass.
Compl et e t he cut on t he f i nal
workpi ece by pul l i ng i t f rom t he out f eed si de of t he t abl e.
7r
DOORS
Cl eani ng the V-cuts
Once al l t he mi t er cut s have been
made, use a narrow chi sel t o pare away
t he wast e. The wi dt h of t he channel at
t he bot t om of t he V shoul d eoual t he
wi dt h of t he l i p. Hol di ng t he chi sel bevel -
side up, pare away the waste
(right)
until
t he bot t om of t he V i s smoot h and f l at .
Work careful l v to avoi d tearout.
f,
Cutti ng the hal f-l aps
r . , l Rei nst al l t he dado head i n your t abl e saw and adj ust i t
t o t he wi dt h of t he bar ' s l i p. Set t he cut t i ng dept h t o one-
hal f t he st ock t hi ckness, You wi l l need t o saw a hal f - l ap i n
t he bot t om of one gl azi ng bar, t hen make an i dent i cal cut i n
t he t op of t he mat i ng pi ece. Set up t he cut by al i gni ng t he
mi ddl e of t he V- cut wi t h t he dado head, whi l e hol di ng t he
bar f l ush agai nst t he mi t er gauge ext ensi on. Keep t he wor k-
pi ece f l at on t he saw t abl e and f l ush agai nst t he ext ensi on
as you cut t he hal f -l aps
(above).
Use dowel s or copi ng cut s
(page
66) t o secure t he gl azi ng bars t o a f rame-and-panel
door , t hen i nst al l gl ass panes as you woul d f or a gl ass- panel
door
(page
69).
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72
MOUNTINGDOORS
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fr
hoosing the appropriate hinges for
*-L your kitchen cabinet doors depends
primarily upon the style of cabinets you
are building. Surface-mounted hinges,
though limited in terms of weight capac-
ity and ease of adjustment, are idealfor
anti que or rusti c cabi nets. Butt hi nges
(page
76), available in iron or brass, are
commonl y used on f l ush-mount ed
doors and si t i n shal l ow mort i ses cut
i nto the door and case. Long, narrow
cabinets often require piano hinges for
strengh and proper weight distribution.
Tilt-out hinges (pnge
77) are practical
for turning false drawer fionts into small,
handy storage units.
\Ahen style is not an issue, and ease of
i nstal l ati on and adj ustabi l i ty are more
important, European-type cup hinges,
or 32-millimeter hinges,
(pnge
74) are
an ideal choice. Fully concealed, strong,
and simple to adjust once in place, cup
A SETECTI()N
()F
DO()R HINGES
hinges have become widespread in the
homebui l di ng i ndustry. Avai l abl e for
both European-style and face frame cab-
inets, cup hinges come with a variety of
mounting plates that allow the installer
to controlthe amount of overlay.
Before installing any hinge, read the
manufacturer's instructions regarding
placement. If you are working with fine,
delicate woods, tap the stock for machine
screws after drilling pilot holes to reduce
the chance of splitting. A spot of glue in
the hol e wi l l i mprove the hol di ng abi l -
ity of the fastener.
Locating doorknobs need not involve
tedious measurement
front
door to door.
The si mpl e
j i g
showrt i n the photo at
right, made
front
a piece of plywood and
two lips cut
from
solid stock, Iocates knobs
in exnctly the sarne spot ot't each door.
0
e
Piano hinge
0 0 a
DOORS
MOUNTING AN OVERLAY D()()R
r)
Instal l i ng the hi nges
L t o wor k comf or t abl y, pl ace t he door
f ace down on a wor k sur f ace. Wr t h t he
mount i ng pl at e at t ached t o t he hi nge ar m,
f i t t he body of t he hi nge i n t he hol e you
dr i l l ed i n st ep 1. Then, maki ng sur e t hat
t he hi nge ar m i s per f ect l y per pendi cul ar
t n i hp odop nf i hp dnnr f : qt pn i hc hi nop
i n pl ace wi t h t he scr ews pr ovi ded by t he
manulaclurer
(risht).
' l
Dr i l l i ng hol es f or hi nges
I Dr i l l t he hol es f or Eur opean cup hi nges
wi t h a commer ci al dr i l l i ng
j i g
and gui de, or
make your own
j i g
by i nst al l i ng a pl ywood
f ence and backup boar d on your dr i l l pr ess.
Fi t t he dr i l l wi t h a 35- mi l l i met er For st ner
br t , and scr ew t he f ence and backup boar d
t oget her as shown. Fol l ow t he hi nge man-
uf act ur er ' s i nst r uct i ons r egar d i ng r ecom-
mended bor i ng dept h and di st ance f r om
i hp
pds p
nf i hp dnnr ' r r qo : ni onp nf s nr : n
wood t o pr oper l y posi t i on t he
j i g.
Cl amp
t he
1i g
t o t he dr r l l pr ess t abl e, and mar k
t he cent er l i ne of t he hol e on t he f ence.
Next , mar k t he l ocat i on of t he hi nges on
t he door s; dependi ng on t he si ze of t he
door you ar e wor ki ng wi t h. hi nges can be
i nst al l ed anywher e f r om 3 t o 6 i nches
f r om ei t her end of t he door ; mar k a si mi l ar
cent er l i ne on t he f ence. Lay t he door f ace
down on t he dr i l l pr ess t abl e and but t i t
agai nst t he f ence, al i gni ng a hi nge mar k
wi t h t he cent er l i ne. Hol d t he door st eady
and dr i l l t he hol e
( / ef f ) .
Sl i de t he door
al ong, l i ne up t he second hi nge mar k wi t h
t he cent er l i ne, and dr i l l t he second hol e.
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DOORS
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Instal l i ng the mounti ng pl ate
Wi t h t he mount i ng pl at e st i l l at t ached t o t he hi nge, al i gn
the door wi th the cabi net as shown, and extend the hi nge arms to
but t t he mount i ng pl at e agai nst t he panel . Maki ng sure t hat
the adj ustment screws on the mounti ng pl ate are i n mi d-posi ti on,
mark a ref erence l i ne, unscrew t he mount i ng pl at e f rom t he
hi nge arms, and fasten i t to the cabi net si de
(above).
Thi s need
not be overl y preci se; t he hi nge can easi l y be adj ust ed af t er
i nstal l ati on
(step
4).
INSTATTING EUR()PEAN-STYIE FACE FRAME HINGES
Hangi ng the door
Sl i de t he hi nge arms ont o t he mount i ng pl at e unt i l t hey
cl i ck i nto posi ti on (above),
then screw them together. Cl ose the
door and check i t s posi t i on. Adj ust t he hei ght , dept h, or l at eral
posi t i on of t he door by l ooseni ng or t i ght eni ng t he appropri at e
adj ust ment screws on t he hi nge arms and mount i ng pl at e.
Instal l i ng the hi nge
European-st yl e hi nges are al so avai l abl e
f or f ace f rame cabi net s, t he
predomi nant
cabi net st yl e i n Nort h Ameri can ki t chens.
I nst al l t he hi nges t o t he doors i n t he same
manner you woul d an overl ay door, but
f ast en t he mount i ng pl at e t o t he i nsi de
edge of the face frame
(left).
75
DOORS
INSTALLING A FLUSH.MOUNTED DOOR
' l
Routi ng hi nge mofti ses
I To rout the morti ses for butt hi nges on
a f l ush-mount ed door, f i rst make a hi nge
mort i si ng
j i e (i nset ).
Draw a cent erl i ne
across t he wi dt h of a pi ece of %-i nch
pl ywood and cent er a hrnge l eaf on t he
board' s edge. Trace t he prof i l e of t he
hardware on the templ ate. Next, i nstal l a
strai ght-cutti ng bi t i n a router and rest the
bi t on t he l ef t edge of t he hi nge out l i ne.
Make a mark at the Ieft si de of the router
base pl ate. Repeat the
procedure
at the
ri ght and i nsi de edges of t he out l i ne. Use
a square to compl ete the templ ate profi l e
and cut i t out on a band saw. Now posi ti on
the hi nge on the cabi net si de and measure
the di stance from the bottom of the cabi -
net to the mi dpoi nt of the hi nge. Measure
t he same di st ance f rom t he cent erl i ne
of t he t empl at e t o ei t her end of t he
j i g
and t r i m i t t o l engt h. Fi nal l y, cut t wo
smal l bl ocks f or l i os and nai l t hem t o t he
f ront of your t empl at e. To use t he
j i g,
ol ace t he cabi net on i t s si de on a work
surface, then set the router' s depth of cut
t o t he t hi ckness of t he hi nge l eaf . But t
t he t empl at e agai nst t he bot t om of t he
cabi net and cl amp bot h i n pl ace. Usi ng
t he t empl at e as a gui de, rout t he mor-
Iise
(above,
right). BuIt the template
agai nst t he t op of t he cabi net and repeat
the cut. Use a chi sel to square the corners.
r)
Hangi ng the door
L t o cut mat i ng mort i ses i n t he edge of
t he door, secure t he workpi ece edge-up i n
a vi se. Mark the hi nge outl i nes on the edge
of the door transferri ng thei r l ocati on from
t he cabi net si de; make sure t he hi nge pi n
proj ects over the edge. Cl amp an edge gui de
t o t he f ace of t he door t o orovi de a wi der
beari ng surface for the router, then rout the
mort i ses. Next , shrm t he door wi t h a pi ece
of wood so t he door i s l evel wi t h t he cabi -
net. Set the hi nge l eaves i n the morti ses cut
i n the cabi net si des, and screw the hardware
in place
tighil.
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76
DOORS
INSTALLING A TILT-OUT SINK TRAY
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1
Attachi ng the hi nges
I A t i l t -out si nk t ray i s a handy space-
savi ng f i xt ure f or st ori ng soap, scouri ng
pads, and sponges out of si ght yet cl ose
at hand. To i nst al l t he t ray, f i rst remove
t he f al se drawer f ront f rom t he cabi net
and pl ace i t on a work surf ace. Fol l ow
t he manuf act urer' s i nst ruct i ons t o t race
t he openi ng of t he t r ay on t he i nsi de
of t he drawer f ront . Next , l i ne up a hi nge
wi t h t he edge of t he out l i ne and cent er
i t on t he drawer f ront ,
(When
t he hi nge
i s cl osed, i t wi l l be i n t he mi ddl e of t he
drawer f ace. ) Hol d t he hi nge t o t he out -
l i ne and scr ew i t t o t he dr awer f r ont .
Repeat the process for the other hi nge.
r)
Re-attachi ng the drawer front
L Xtacn the two screws that hol d the
tray i n pl ace
before i nstal l ati on. Then, mak-
i ng sure t o spri ng t he mechani sm of t he
hi nge f i r st , l i ne up t he hi nge i n t he mi ddl e
of the drawer frame and screw the enti re
uni t i n pl ace. At t ach t he ot her hi nge, and
hang the tray from the two screws,
77
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'p
roperly proportioned and well-built
I drawers are an indispensable part of
any kitchen. Like cabinet doors, well-
styled drawer fronts can contribute
handsomely to the overall look of a
kitchen. Yet their appealing faces hide
the kitchen's most abused elements: the
drawers themselves. Their organization
and construction are of paramount impor-
tance, for a visually striking kitchen can
be a frustrating place to work if its draw-
ers are haphazardly located or
jam
every
time they are opened.
Kitchen drawers must be built to last.
They are yanked open and slammed shut
countless times a day. Worse, drawers in
the kitchen are often weighed down with
appliances and crammed full of cutlery
and utensils, so any shortcut made in
their construction will eventually com-
promise their strength and utility.
D
Drawers can inJluence look and
feel
of a
kitchen. With their molded edges and
round pulls, the bank of overlay drawers
in the kitchen shown above speaks of a
very traditional, almost Victorian, style.
83). Other options, like the lock miter
(page
37), dado (page
35), and the dou-
ble dado are suitable alternatives.
Kitchen drawers place tough demands
on the mounting method used to secure
them to the casework. Side-mounted firll
extension sltdes (page
89) are designed to
withstand very rigorous use, and are the
best choice if your budget permits.
Bottom-mounted slides (page
87) are
not quite as strong, but are less expensive
and easier to install.
When it comes to the appearance of
a kitchen, the front is the most important
part of a drawer. The design of your
drawer fronts will help set the tone for
the kitchen's style. Howwell the drawers
are installed will also prove to be a last-
ing testimonial to your craftsmanship.
It can be a time-consuming task to hang
a drawer so it rests perfectly straight and
This chapter details the techniques involved in building
strong, attractive, smoothly functioning drawers. The con-
struction guides on pages 80 and 81 offer an overview ofyour
options for drawer faces,
joinery,
mounting, and materials.
Your eventual choice will depend on your experience, shop
level, let alone several banks of drawers in a cabinet run.
Applytng a false front to the drawer (page
93) can reduce the
time spent fussing with levels and drawer slides. Wth minimal
experience, you can quickly and accurately install false fronts
on both inset and overlay drawers. Even if the mounted draw-
setup, and timetable. When it comes to
joinery,
there is little ers themselves are slightly uneven, they will appear to be hung
question that the strongest
joint
is the through dovetail
(page
with the precise eye of a master cabinetmaker.
A bank of inset drawers in a
frameless
cabinet like the one
shown at left allows little room
for
error. By installing
fake fronts,
the drawers need not be hung perfectly; the
false
fronts
can then be positioned straight and level to the case.
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DRAWER CONSTRUCTION
INSET DRAWER OVERLAY DRAWER
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Also hnwn as a
llush-f'ont
drawer, an ilset
dra;er
fi ts
enti rel y wi thi n i ts cabi net. To hi de
the ud grain of the drawer sides, s raltbet can
be ctff irtto the bttck
Jace
of the drawer
f'ont
as
shown above, or a
false Ji'ottt
can be ndcled.
Arr overlay drawer
fenttn"es
n sepnrote
.fhlsa
fi'ont
screwed to the drawer.fi'ortt. A
false .fitrtt
is typically lorger thart its drawer c0tulterpart
so thnt it overlays tlrc
face Ji'nrrte
of tlrc cobitrct.
-q
DRAWER J()INTS
Commonly ueed Lo join drawer
backe Lo eidee; autLable for solid
wood. plywood. or melamirte.
Through dovetail
Very otron4, deco-
rative jotnt eutLable
for any drawer cor'
ner; end qrain of
drawer aidee can be
concealed wtth falae
front. Ueed only
with eolid wood.
Lock miter
joint
AIao known aa a drawer lock joint;
cut wtLh a epectal ehaper cul,Ler
or rouLer btt. )uttable for aolid
wood, plywood, and melamine.
Double dado
Can be uaed
for all cornera
of a drawer;
conceal 6 ena
gratn of etdee.
Sui tabl e onl y
for eolid wood.
Front/back
Front/back
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DRAWERS
MATERIALS FOR DRAWERS
MATERIAT
Sol i d wood
Cabi net-grade pl ywood
Mel ami ne
Medi um densi ty fi berboard
USES
Si des, backs, f ront s,
fal se fronts
Si des, backs, fronts, fal se
fronts, drawer bottoms
Si des, backs, fronts, fal se
fronts, bottoms
Si des, backs, f r ont s,
fal se fronts
COMMENTS
Use pi ne or ot her i nexpensi ve wood f or dr awer car -
case; save more at t ract i ve speci es f or f al se f ront s
Use pl ai nsawn
veneer for fal se fronts; tri m edges of fal se
fronts and top edges of drawer si des wi th sol i d wood
bandi ng
(page
48); use %"
panel s
for drawer bottoms
Tri m al l edges wi th l ami nate edge bandi ng
(page
49);
use %"
panel s
for drawer bottoms
Easy t o work, yet f ai rl y heavy f or drawer const ruct i on;
must be
pai nt ed
or veneered
DRAWER HANGING METHODS
Wooden runners
thop-made otripe of wood acrewed
to orde panela of cabinet eiL in groovee
cut i n drawer etdee; drawer can be
exLended to about. % of i ta l ength.
Eottom-mounted alidee
Commercial meLal ahdee; runnero
screwed to the lower cornera of the
drawer mate with tracke faetened
Lo cabinet eidee: drawer can be
extended about% of ita len7f,h.
Commercial metal alidee; runnero
aLtach Lo drawer eide and mate wiLh
track mounted on cabinet atdee; exten-
sion mechaniam tn eome modele allows
drawer to be fully exLended.
B1
DRAWERS
PLANNING BANKS OF DRAWERS
PTANNING BANKS
()F
DRAWERS
Si de mounted runners
Wi t h f l ush f ront
Wi t h overl appi ng f ront
Bottom mounted runners
Wi t h f l ush f ront
Wi th overl appi ng front
Wooden runners
Wi t h f l ush f ront
Wi t h overl appi ng f ront
Layi ng out a bank of drawers
There i s onl y one general l y accept ed rul e of t humb f or pl anni ng
drawer hei ght s: a l ower drawer shoul d never be smal l er t han
the one above. The human eye appreci ates order i n proporti on;
pl aci ng l arger drawers at op smal l er ones makes a cabi net l ook
top-heavy. Otherwi se, drawers are a matter of taste. Experi ment
wi th the desi gns shown above or take measurements from other
CALCULATING DRAWER DIMENSIONS
Subt ract t hese amount s f rom t he openi ng di mensi ons or cabi net dept h.
ki t chens you l i ke. Once you have deci ded on a l ayout , mark t he
l ocati on of the drawers on the cabi net' s story pol e
(page
25). l f
your cabi net s have f ace f rames, use t he chart bel ow t o cal cu-
l at e t he si ze of t he drawer
pi eces.
For exampl e, t he wi dt h of a
drawer si de to be used wi th bottom-mounted runners shoul d be
% i nch l ess t han t he hei ght of t he drawer openi ng,
DEPTH
%" + thi ckness of fal se front
1
1
+ thi ckness of fal se front
'/ou
Y4'
HEIGHT
%'
%'
You
YAu
WIDTH
1 u
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%'
%'
%'
%'
YB'
Ya'
t--;---l
t-;-l
t--:---l
l l
r-:---l
t t
Graduated
drawera
Two middle
drawers of
equal height,
Three upper
drawera of
equal height
Three lower
drawera of
equal height
82
+ t hi ckness of f al se f ront
BUILDINGDRAWERS
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rawers tend to take a lot of abuse,
Ll so strength is of utmost importance
when building them. A drawer that has
been stapled together may look fine, and
will even work well-for a while. But in
a few years it will start to loosen, sag,
and eventually fall apart.
When designing for strengh, noth-
ing tops the through dovetail
joint.
Many
woodworkers remain intimidated by the
degree ofprecision needed to execute
this
joint
properly, yet commercial router
jigs
have placed this once-exacting task
within reach of every cabinetmaker. If
you do not have a router, the double-
dado, a
joint
almost as strong as the
CUTTING THROUGH DOVETAITS
through dovetail, can be cut on your
table saw. Unfortunately, neither of these
joints
works well in plywood, one of the
most common kitchen cabinet materi-
als. For plywood, a lock miter
(page
37)
or dado
joint
can be used.
A lock miter
joint
is an easy way to
turn out perfectly
fining
drawer
parts by the dozen. The joint
fea-
tures identical cuts in the end of one
board and the
face
of the mating
board. The steps
for
making a lock
miter
joint
are shown on page 37.
Routing through dovetail
joints
When
j oi ni ng
a drawer wi t h dovet ai l j oi nt s, cut t he
pi ns i n t he
f ront and back of t he drawer, and t he t ai l s i n t he si des. To
cut the dovetai l s wi th the commerci al
j i g
shown above, screw
the pi n-
and tai l -board templ ates to backup boards, then secure
one of the drawer si des end up i n a bench vi se. Protecti ng the
st ock wi t h a wood pad, cl amp t he t ai l t empl at e t o t he work-
pi ece so t he undersi de of t he t empl at e i s but t ed agai nst t he
end of the board. Al so cl amp a stop bl ock agai nst one edge
of t he drawer si de so t he t ai l s at t he ot her end wi l l mat ch.
I nst al l a t op-pi l ot ed dovet ai l bi t i n t he rout er and set t he
dept h t o sl i ght l y more t han t he t hi ckness of t he drawer f ront .
Cut t he t ai l s by f eedi ng t he t ool al ong t he t op of t he t empl at e
and movi ng the bi t i n and out of the
j i g' s
sl ol s
(above,
l eft).
Keep the bi t pi l ot pressed
agai nst the si des of the sl ot. Repeat
t o rout t he t ai l s at t he ot her end of t he board and i n t he ot her
drawer si de. Then use t he compl et ed t ai l s t o out l i ne t he oi ns
on t he drawer f ront and back. Secure ei t her one i n t he vi se,
cl amp t he pi n- boar d t empl at e t o t he boar d wi t h t he sl ot s
al i gned over t he out l i ne, and secure t he st op bl ock i n pl ace.
Rout the pi ns wi th a top-pi l oted strai ght bi t
(above,
ri ghi l .
83
DRAWERS
DOUBLE DADO JOINTS
1 Cutti ns dadoes i n the drawer front
I Mar k one end of t he dr awer f r ont ,
di vi di ng i t s t hi ckness i nt o t hi r ds. Then,
i nst al l a dado head on vour t abl e saw.
adj ust i ng i t s wi dt h t o one{hi rd t he t hi ck-
ness of t he drawer f ront . Set t he cut t i ng
hei ght equal to the thi ckness of the drawer
si des. Next , i nst al l a t enoni ng
j i g;
t he
model shown sl i des i n t he mi t er sl ot .
Pr ot ect i ng t he st ock wi t h a wood pad,
cl amp t he dr awer f r ont t o t he
j i g;
mar k
t he out si de f ace wi t h an X. Move t he
l i g
si deways t o al i gn t he bl ade wi t h t he mi d-
dl e t hi r d of t he boar d. Tur n on t he saw
and sl i de t he
j i g
al ong t he mi t er sl ot t o
cut t he dado. Turn t he drawer f ront over
and cl amp i t t o t he
j i g
t o cut t he dado
at the other end
(right).
r)
Tri mmi ng the tongues
L l nst al l a wood auxi l i ary f ence on t he ri p f ence. Mark a
cut t i ng l i ne on t he edge of t he dr awer f r ont t hat di vi des t he
t ongue on i t s i nsi de f ace i n hal f . Wi t h t he st ock f l ush agai nst
the mi ter gauge, i nsi de-face down, al i gn the mark wi th the bl ade.
But t t he f ence agai nst t he st ock and rai se t he bl ades t o cut
a rel i ef not ch i n t he f ence. Set t he cut t i ng hei ght t o t ri m t he
hal f t ongue. Hol di ng t he drawer f ront f i rml y agai nst t he gauge,
f eed i t i nt o t he cut t ers
(above).
Turn t he board around and
reoeat t he orocedure at t he ot her end.
Q
Cutti ng matchi ng dadoes i n the drawer si des
r . J To
j oi n
t he dr awer si des t o t he f r ont , cut a dado near t he
f r ont end of each si de. The dado must mat e wi t h t he hal f -
t ongue on t he f r ont . Set t he cut t i ng hei ght t o t he l engt h of t he
hal f - t ongue and scr ew a wooden ext ensi on boar d t o t he mi t er
gauge. To set t he wi dt h of cut , but t t he dr awer si de agai nst
t he f r ont and use a penci l t o out l i ne t he hal f - t ongue on t he
dr awer si de. Hol d t he si de agai nst t he ext ensi on and al i gn t he
mar ks wi t h t he dado head. Cl amp a st op bl ock f l ush agai nst
the end of the stock and feed the board to cut the dado hbovd.
Repeat t he cut on t he ot her si de.
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B4
DRAWERS
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PREPARING THE DRAWER F()R A B()TT()M PANEL
Cutti ng the groove for the bottom panel
Dry-assembl e t he drawer and mark any
spot s where t he
j oi nt s
bi nd; use a chi sel t o
pare smal l amount s of wood t o achi eve a
good f i t . Next , use
your
t abl e saw t o cut
a groove i n t he drawer f ront and si des t o
accommodat e t he bot t om panel . I nst al l a
dado head, adj ust i ng t he wi dt h t o t he
t hi ckness of t he bot t om panel
st ock. Set
t he cut t i ng hei ght t o hal f t he st ock t hi ck-
ness and adj ust t he ri p t ence t o l eave a
%-i nch border bet ween t he bot t om of
t he groove and t he board edge. Feed t he
drawer f ront across t he t abl e usi ng a push
slick
(right). (Caution:
In this illustration the
bl ade guard has been removed f or cl ari -
t y. ) Repeat t he cut on t he dr awer si des.
Fi nal l y, r ai se t he bl ade hei ght a bi t hi gh-
er t han t he st ock t hi ckness and r i p t he
dr awer back t o wi dt h. Thi s wi l l al l ow t he
bot t om panel t o sl rde i nt o posi t i on when
t he drawer i s assembl ed,
ASSEMBLING THE DRAWER
1
Cl ampi ng the drawer
I A web cl amp wi t h corner bracket s i s
i deal f or gl ui ng up drawers. The web di s-
t ri but es pressure evenl y among al l f our
corners, whi l e t he bracket s hel p t o spread
t he pressure al ong t he l engh of each
j oi nt .
To use t he web cl amps shown, appl y gl ue
t o t he cont act i ng sur f aces and assem-
bl e t he drawer on a work surf ace. Next ,
f i t t he corner bracket s i n ol ace. Wrao t he
st r aps ar ound t he dr awer car case and
t i ght en t hem wi t h t he buckl es bef or e
l ocki ng t hem i n pl ace (l ef t ).
When t he
adhesi ve has cur ed, r emove t he cl amps
and appl y edge bandi ng t o t he t op edges
of t he drawer.
85
DRAWERS
O
l nstal l i ng the bottom
L f ri m the bottom oanel ' /,e i nch nar-
rower than the soace between the two
grooves. Sl i de t he panel i nt o pl ace f rom
the back
(above).
Do not appl y any gl ue.
Thi s wi l l al l ow t he drawer si des t o expand
or cont r act wi t h changes i n humi di t y;
par t i cul ar l y i f t he si des ar e made f r om
sol i d wood. Secure t he bot t om wi t h a
couol e of f i ni sh nai l s i n t he drawer back.
rlt ffr lll IIt ffi lj{t ilt llll fill lllt flfl ljli ljlt II] fin itl tjll ntl
1HO? Tt?
Eliminating
drawer rattle
Drawer bolNome
al wayof i t at ad
l ooeel y to al l ow for
wood movement,
Unfor1unatel y, thi o
can somel i meo l ead
l o an annoyt nq
raNlle. An eaoy fix
for thi s i o to j am
l i ttl e wedqee
belween the bottom
panel and the drawer
si des. Cut four l o si x wedaes
for each offendi na drawer.
ge
eure
Lo cut , l hem eo t he grai n i e ori ent ed aN a
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ri qhL anql e No t he t aper. Thi o wi l l make i t eaoy
to break off . To inet all each wedqe, Nap iN in place.
Finally break off lhe excees by liflinq the wedqe.
DRAWER SLIDES AND RUNNERS
INSTATTING BOTTOM.MOUNTED STIDES
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f
ommercial slides have simplifed the
U installation of drawers to the point
where that they have virtually supplant-
ed all other drawer-hanging hardware,
and for good reason. The slides are sim-
ple
to install and can be secured with
only three or four screws. Some com-
mercial slides even allow for fine tunins
and can be adjusted vertically after thi
screws have been installed.
For the ki tchen user, commerci al
drawer slides also offer unmatched
durability. Good quality side-mounted
slides
(page
89) are rigorously tested;
they must open and close flawlessly at
Ieast 100,000 times and support a load
of 150 pounds when ful l y extended.
Bottom-mounted slides
(below)
cannot
bear nearly as much weight, but are con-
siderably less expensive. Wooden slides
(page
91) still have a place. Inexpensive
to make, they are perfectly suitable for
light-duty situations.
Some bottom-mounted drawer slides can extend
a drawer its
full
length to display the contents inside.
1
Attachi ng the runner to the drawer
I Bottom-mounted sl i des consi st of two
parts:
a runner that attaches to the bot-
t om of t he drawer sl i de and a t rack t hat
i s secured t o t he cabi net si des. Bef ore
i nst al l i ng t he f i rst drawer, pl ace i t i n f ront
of t he case and l ay out t he sl i de par t s
besi de i t . Make sur e you under st and
where each pi ece goes
and i ts ori entati on.
To posi t i on t he r unner , set t he dr awer
on i t s si de and but t t he r unner agai nst
the bottom of the drawer si de as shown.
I nset t he hardware %e i nch back f rom t he
drawer f ront so i t wi l l not i nt erf ere wi t h
t he f al se f ronl
(page
93). f he runner
can be secured f rom bel ow or f rom t he
si de. l f you are usi ng sol i d wood or pl y-
wood, attach i t from the si de. l f you have
chosen mel ami ne, at t ach t he runner f rom
bel ow
(/eff).
In both cases, dri l l pi l ot hol es
f i rst t o avoi d spl i t t i ng t he mat eri al .
87
DRAWERS
Posi ti oni ng the tracks
Once you have det er mi ned t he spaci ng of t he dr awer s
(page
82), posi ti on the tracks for bottom-mounted sl i des on the
si des of t he cabi net . Pl ace a t rack on t he cabi net si de, usi ng a
f rami ng square t o hol d i t at a ri ght angl e t o t he cabi net f ront .
For f ace f rame cabi net s, pl ace t he t rack al most f l ush wi t h t he
f ront edge of t he cabi net ; f or f ramel ess cabi net s l i ke t he one
shown above, i nset t he drawer by t he t hi ckness of t he f al se
f ront st ock; t ypi cal l y about % i nch. Measure out t he appropri at e
drawer hei ght from the cabi net story pol e (page
25) then move
t he square and t rack t oget her t o al i gn t he bot t om of t he t rack
wi t h t hi s di st ance hbovd. Gi ven t he combi ned t hi ckness of t he
runner and t rack, t hi s means t he bot t om of t he drawer si des
wi l l be act ual l y about %z- i nch hi gher t han on t he st or y pol e.
Thi s bi t of ext ra cl earance over t he drawer bel ow wrl l not be
not i ceabl e si nce t he f al se f r ont s wi l l cover t he gap. Fi nal l y,
mark t he oredri l l ed hol es rn t he t rack ont o t he cabi net si de.
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Q
Fastening the tracks
r-, f Dri l l a oi l ot hol e at each of t he marks
you made i n st ep 1, wrappi ng a pi ece of
t ape ar ound t he dr i l l bi t t o ensur e t hat
t he screws do not pass
t hrough t he si de
of t he cabi net . Then f ast en t he t r ack i n
pl ace wi th a screw i n each hol e ti ghi l .
l f you have more than one drawer to i nstal l
at a certai n hei ght, cut a pl ywood spacer
t o f i t bet ween t he t rack and t he cabi net
bot t om. You can use t hi s t o pl ace al l t he
tracks at exactl y the same hei ght wi thout
measuri ng. Repeat st eps 1 and 2 f or t he
ot her drawers i n t he cabi net .
88
DRAWERS
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INSTALLING SIDE.MOUNTED SLIDES
'l
Attaching the drawer runners
I Unl i ke bot t om-mount ed sl i des, t he
runners of a si de-mount ed drawer sl i de
can be attached to the si de of a drawer at
any hei ght . To make i nst al l at i on easi er,
al ways offset the runner the same di stance
from the bottom edge of the drawer si de.
The runner i n t he i l l ust rat i on was ol aced
3% i nches f rom t he edge, measuri ng t o
t he cent er of t he r unner . Make a si mol e
j i g
t o posi t i on al l t he runners at exact l y
t he same spot on each drawer. Fast en
some one-i nch-square st ock as a l i p t o a
12-i nch l engt h of pl ywood, t hen t ri m t he
j i g
t o wi dt h t o hol d t he runner at t he ri ght
posi ti on
as shown. To attach each runner,
f i rst separat e t he runner f rom t he t rack.
Then cl amp t he
j i g
t o t he drawer si de and
hol d t he runner agai nst i t , maki ng sure i t
i s f l ush wi t h t he drawer f ront . Secure t he
runner with screws tight).
r)
Fastening the tracks
Z- Posi ti on the tracks on the si des of the
cabi net accordi ng t o t he desi red spaci ng
(page
82) For the l owest track, si mpl y
measure t he of f set of t he drawer runner
(above)
f rom t he cabi net bot t om, addi ng
Yo i nch f or cl earance. Draw a l i ne at t hi s
hei ght . Hol d t he t rack agai nst t he cabi net
srde and cent er t he
predri l l ed
screw hol es
over t he l i ne. For f ace f r ame cabi net s,
posi t i on t he t rack so i t i s nearl y f l ush wi t h
t he f r ont of t he cabi net ; f or f r amel ess
cabi net s, i nset t he t rack by t he t hi ckness
of the fal se front stock. Fasten the track
wi t h screws
(l ef t ).
f he hi gher t racks
can be posi t i oned by addi ng t he drawer
hei ght speci fi ed on the cabi net story pol e
@age
25)to the runner offset. Remember
t o measur e t o t he cent er of t he t r ack.
Repeat steps I and 2 for the other drawers.
Poaitioninq jiq
89
DRAWERS
Q
Instal l i ng the drawer
vl l f you have caref ul l y posi t i oned and
i nst al l ed t he r unner s and t r acks, t he
drawers can be hung by si mpl y sl i ppi ng
t hei r runners i nt o t he sl i des mount ed on
the cabi net si des. To remove the drawer,
ext end i t f ul l y t hen t ri p t he l ever rel eases
on both sl rdes kbove).
lljt fill ffi llt llit tlll tllt fitr filt ljlt lllr fill filt illt llll ilIl tlll lllt
9HO7 Tt ?
7ui l di ng up faae frame cabi neto
)i nce mosl commerci al drawer
sl i des are desi anedto be ecrewed
di recbl y to the ei dee of a cabi nel ,
l hey cannol be ueed on f ace
frame cabi neNe wi thout cerl ai n
adjuet menNe. M anuf acturer e
make epeci al brackeLe
No bri dqe t hi e qap buI a
much elurdier, ehoe- made
al ternaNi ve i e No bui l d up Nhe cabi -
neN ei dee, Ri o eome 1' /z-i nch-Nhi ck
eol i d etock equal i n wi dLh l o Nhe
diet ance belween Nhe edge of the face
frame andthe ei dee of Nhe cabi net,.You
will need three upriqhL pieceo IhaN eNreNch
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between the bothom and l op of Nhe cabi neN. Dri l l
pi l ot,
hol es i n Nhe
upri qhLo every f our t o si xi i ches. Locai l e each oi Lhe upri qh\ e eo
i t i o oppooi t e a pre-dri l l ed suew hol e i n the ol i de, then f asten the
o?acero tro the cabi net si de wi th wood screws. Now Nhe sl i de can
be oecurel y i nsl al l ed i n l i ne wi th the i nsi de edqe of Ihe f ace frame.
90
DRAWERS
HANGING DRAWERS WITH SHOP-MADE RUNNERS
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I
Longbefore the advent of commer-
cial drawer slides, cabinetmakers
were making simple yet
fficient
drawer runners
from
wood. The
drawer in the
face frame
cabinet
shown at right has dadoes cut into
its sides that slide over wooden
runners mounted to the inside of
the cabinet. Four notched blocks
scretued to the
face frame
and cabi-
net back support each runner. To
install wooden runners in a
frame-
less cabinet, see the steps below.
1
Cutting grooves
in the drawer sides
I Before assembl i ng the drawer, cut a
groove for the runner i n the outsi de face
of each drawer si de. To make i nst al l at i on
easi er, offset each groove
the same di s-
tance from the bottom edge of the drawer
si de. There are no ri gi d rul es for the wi dth
of the groove, but i t shoul d accommodate
sl i des t hat are t hi ck enough t o support
t he drawer. On your t abl e saw i nst al l a
dado head the same wi dth as the groove.
Draw cut t i ng l i nes f or t he groove i n t he
mi ddl e of t he l eadi ng end of one drawer
si de. Al so mark t he dept h of t he groove;
i t shoul d be no mor e t han one- hal f t he
st ock t hi ckness. But t t he l i nes f or t he
groove agai nst the dado head, then crank
t he bl ades up t o t he dept h l i ne. But t t he
ri p fence fl ush agai nst the stock and make
the cut. Repeat for each drawer si de.
91
DRAWERS
r)
Instal l i ng the sl i des
L l t ul l t he sl i de st ock so i t s t hi ckness
and wi dth are about hz i nch l ess than the
di mensi ons of t he gr oove i n t he dr awer
si des. Tri m t he sl i des a f ew i nches short er
t han t he cabi net si des, t hen dr i l l t hr ee
count er bor ed cl ear ance hol es i n each.
Posi t i on t he wooden sl i des as you woul d
commercial side-mounted slides
@age
89.
Hol d a sl i de so i t i s i nset f rom t he f ront
edge of t he cabi net by t he t hi ckness
of t he f al se f ront st ock, t hen screw i t i n
pl ace (ri ghi l .
Test-f i t the drawer. l f i t i s
t oo l oose, add shi ms under t he sl i des;
i f t oo t i ght , r emove i t and pl ane or sand
i t sl i ght l y t h i n ner .
Q
Fi ne-tuni ng drawer fi t
r-, 1 Sl i de t he drawer ont o i t s runners. l f t he si des bi nd, remove
t he drawer and mark any shi ny areas on t he si des-hi gh spot s
t hat can be shaved of f wi t h a hand pl ane. To secure t he drawer
f or pl ani ng, cl amp a wi de board t o a workbench wi t h one edge
ext endi ng over t he si de as shown. Remove t he bot t om of t he
drawer and hang t he drawer on t he board so t he bi ndi ng si de
i s f aci ng up. Then cl amp anot her boar d t o t he wor kbench,
but t i ng i t agai nst t he drawer; use a bench dog t o keep t he sec-
ond board f rom movi ng. Gri ppi ng t he pl ane wi t h bot h hands,
shave off the marked spots wi th smooth, even strokes
(above).
Test -f i t t he drawer and repeat unt i l i t sl i des smoot hl y. Repl ace
i hp hnf i nm nanpl
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92
FALSE FRONTS AND HARDWARE
INSTALLING FALSE FRONTS
()N
INSET DRAWERS
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f,
alse fronts solve the problem of
I hanging drawers so they are perfectly
straight and level. Wth the false front
system, all the drawers in a cabinet are
mounted as close to level as possible,
then the fronts are positioned individ-
ually so they are plumb and level with
the case or face frame. Shims are used
to fine-tune the fit. The location of the
false fronts are marked with nail tios set
in the drawers, then the draweri are
removed and the false fronts are fastened
in place.
False fronts can be used with either
frameless or face frame cabinets. The for-
mer always uses inset drawers (below),
while the latter can have either inset or
overlay drawers (page
80).
Instal l i ng knobs or pul l s i s not
tricky, but take the time to do it right.
The key is to center the hardware on
the drawer front. Techniques for
installing the two different types of
hardware are shown on page 97 .
One of the
final
touches in making a
drawer is adding the appropriate han-
dle or knob. Here a drawer knob is at-
tached to a
frame-and-panel false front.
'l
Preparing the drawer
I 0nce t he drawer sl i des have been
properly mounted
(pages
87-92), set the
drawer face-up on a work surface and drive
t wo brads i nt o t he drawer f ront , l eavi ng
thei r head protrudi ng. Make sure the brads
are not l ocated where the drawer pul l wi l l
be i nstal l ed. Then sni p off the heads, l eav-
i ng about % i nch exposed.
= - - l
- l =
93
DRAWERS
Attachi ng the fal se fronts
Appl y a t hi n l ayer of gl ue t o t he f ront of t he drawer. Posi -
t i on t he f al se f r ont i n pl ace, l i ni ng up t he i ndent at i ons you
made i n st ep 2 wi t h t he br ad t i ps. Cl amp t he f al se f r ont i n
pl ace, t hen dr i l l a pi l ot hol e near each cor ner f r om t he i nsi de
of t he dr awer ; mar k t he
pr oper dept h on t he bi t wi t h some
maski ng t ape t o avoi d dr i l l i ng t hr ough t he f r ont . Fi nal l y f ast en
t he f al se f ront wi t h screws % i nch short er t han t he t ot al t hi ck-
ness of the drawer Iront
(above).
fii1 lili iltl fill lllt lljl llll ilti llll illl llll ill lll1 lll1 llll lllJ lllt lllj
5HO7 Tl ?
Sizing faloe fronls
uei n6t wo st i aks
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r)
Marki ng the drawer fronts
Z l nstal l al l the drawers on thei r sl i des.
St art i ng wi t h t he bot t om drawer, posi -
t i on i t s mat chi ng f al se f r ont i n pl ace.
Use oaoer or car dboar d shi ms t o l evel
t he f al se f ront and creat e an even gap
of about % i nch bet ween i t and t he cab-
i net bot t om. Pul l out t he drawer above
t o ensure t hat i t cl ears t he bot t om f al se
f ront ; t ri m t he f ront i f necessary. When
you are sat i sf i ed wi t h t he f i t , push t he
f al se f ront i nt o t he drawer, dri vi ng t he
brad t i ps i nt o t he wood. Appl y l ami nat e
edge bandi ng
(page
4& to the edges of
the fal se front, then proceed to step 3 to
i nstal l i t. Mark the rest of the fal se fronts
the same way, shi mmi ng each one agai nst
t he f i ni shed drawer beneal h i t bbove).
For CuNNinq tatoe
lffi$S$#,ffi;;
fronl s l o ei ze, two
otrai qht, and equare
sl i ckg can oerve ag
accural ,e
4auqeo
for
measuri nq I he i nei de
wi dt h of a ki bchen cabi -
neL, Tl ace Nhe sti cks oi de by
si de i n Nhe cabi net , bul t i nq one
ot i ck aqai noN one oi de and Lhe ot her
aqai nel Nhe oppooi t e si de. Mar k a l i ne
acro; e t he eNi cks. Remove t hem and real i qn t he
marke. I he combi ned l enquh of t he st i cks wi l l gi ve you
Nhe correct, meaouremenN for Ihe l enath of the fal ee fronN.
94
DRAWERS
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INSTALTING FALSE FRONTS ON OVERTAY DRAWERS
1
Chamferi ng the fal se fronts
I Fal se f ront s on overl ay drawers t ypi -
cal l y have some sort of edge t reat ment ,
such as roundi ng over, chamferi ng
(shown
here), or more i nvol ved shapi ng. Fi rst si ze
t he f al se f ront s t o mat ch t he drawer car-
case f ront , pl us t he desi red overl ap. To
chamfer the edges of the fal se front, i nstal l
a pi l oted 45" chamferi ng bi t i n a router and
mount t he t ool i n a t abl e. Al i gn t he f ence
wi t h t he bi t ' s pi l ot beari ng and adj ust t he
hei ght of t he bi t t o cut al l but %u i nch of
t he f ront ' s edges and ends. Cl amp t wo
f eat herboards t o t he f ence, one on ei t her
si de of t he bi t , t o hol d t he st ock agai nst
t he t abl e.
( l n
t he i l l ust r at i on t he f r ont
f eat herboard has been removed f or cl ari -
t y. ) To reduce t earout , chamf er t he ends
bef or e t he si des. Feed t he wor koi ece
across t he t abl e wi t h a push
st i ck, usi ng
your l ef t hand t o press t he st ock agai nst
the f ence
(righil.
r)
Marki ng the fal se front
L Ltl arnfal se fronts for an overl ay drawer
as you would for an inset drawer
(page
93).
The exampl e at l ef t shows t wo si de-by-
si de drawers over a pai r of doors. A sup-
port bl ock i s cl amped beneat h t he drawer
t o hel p posi t i on
t he f al se f r ont i n pl ace.
Fi rst prepare
t he f ront of t he drawers by
i nsert i ng and cut t i ng of f a pai r
of brads
(page
93). To pl ace
the support bl ock,
draw a l i ne on t he drawer rai l where t he
l owest part of the fal se front wi l l be. Cl amp
t he bl ock i n pl ace,
t hen set t he f al se f ront
on t op of rt . Fi net une t he bl ock' s posi t i on
by t appi ng i t l i ght l y wi t h a mal l et unt i l
t he f al se f ront si t s l evel and at exact l y t he
rrght hei ght . Then move t he f ront ri ght or
l ef t t o cent er i t hori zont al l y. Fi nal l y, hol d
t he f ront i n posi t i on
and
push
t he drawer
i nto the front to mark i t
(l ef).fhe
front
can be screwed to the drawer
(page
94)
or gl ued i n pl ace (page
96).
95
DRAWERS
Q
Gl ui ng on fal se fronts
r. , l Remove t he drawer and spread a
thrn l ayer of gl ue on the back of the fal se
front. Pl ace the front i n
posi ti on, wi th the
t wo brads i n t hei r i mpressi ons. Hol d t he
assembl y together, usi ng qui ck-acti on bar
cl amps al ong t he edge of t he f ront and
deep-throated C cl amps al ong the bottom
edge; protect the stock wi th wood pads
where necessary. Ti ght en t he cl amps
evenl y unt i l t here are no gaps bet ween
the fal se front and the drawer bbovd.
tjli filj ilti llll lll] llll llli illi illl lllj llli llli ill illl llll llll lll1 llll
)HO? Tt ?
1eauri ng fal se l ronts
wi th doubl e-facedtape
Doubl e-f aced t ape i e
a qui ck and eaey
/
way to
Vooi ti on S._
and hol d f al ee
l ronNe i n pl ace
whi l e i not al l i nq
Nhem. Sl i ck a eNri V
of doubl e-faced LaVe
to the fronl of the
drawer carcage. For face frame cabi '
neNo (ehown here), hold the f alse front
i n pl ace wi t h a 6u??ort board. For
f ramel ees cabi net s. shi m Lhe f ront ,
wi th paper or card,board, shi me. Then
oush t he f ronN aaai neL t he drawer so
i t ut i cke t o Nhe i aVe, Fi nal l y, i neLal l
Ihe fal ee front wi th ocrewe.
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fri
DRAWERS
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HANDTES AND PULTS
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Instal l i ng knobs
I Drawers wi t h si nel e knobs shoul d have
t he knob cent er ed i n t he mi ddl e of t he
drawer f ront . To f i nd t he cent er, draw
di agonal s connect i ng opposi t e cor ner s,
marki ng
j ust
near t he mi ddl e of t he drawer
(ri ght);
do not make the l i nes too dark or
t hey wi l l be di f f i cul t t o er ase l at er . Dr i l l
a cl ear ance hol e f or t he knob; t he hol e
shoul d be
j ust
a shade l arger t han t he bol t
so t he knob base wi l l have somet hi ng t o
bear agai nst . l nst al l t he knob af t er appl y-
i ng a f i ni sh t o t he f ront .
r' )
Instal l i ng drawer pul l s
L me hol es f or drawer pul l s are a l i t t l e
more ti me-consumi ng to mark. Most fronts
ar e l ai d out so t he pul l i s l evel and cen-
tered both hori zontal l y and verti cal l y; some
t al l er drawers may have pul l s pl aced
a bi t
bel ow t he hal f way mark. For a si ngl e cen-
t er ed pul l , begi n by dr awi ng a l i ne t hat
di vi des t he f ront i n hal f l engt hwi se. Use
a f rami ng square t o l ay out t he l i ne, t hen
doubl e check wi t h a r ul er t o make sur e
that i t i s even at both ends. Measure out
t he exact mi dpoi nt of t hi s l i ne and make
a mark. Measure the di stance from center
t o cent er of t he t wo ends of t he pul l and
di vi de t hi s number i n t wo. Mark out t hi s
di st ance on t he cent er l i ne, measur i ng
f r om bot h si des of t he mi dpoi nt . Dr i l l
cl earance hol es t hrough t he f ront at t hese
t wo poi nt s. I nst al l t he pul l af t er appl yi ng
a f i ni sh t o t he f ront .
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\l!:
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11
V ) .
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Pinpointing irregularities in
kitchen surfaces is covered on
page 102. Lower cabinet runs
(page
fia) are usually installed
first, followed by the upper cab-
inets (page
115). Some cabinet-
makers, however, install the
upper cabinets first, arguing that
it is easier to do this task with the
lower cabinets out of the way.
While either option will work,
stand-alone kitchen peninsulas
and islands (pages
112-114) are
best installed last, as they can cre-
ate traffic
jams
during installa-
they are expected to work in the
Positioning and installing the upper cabinets of a kitchen
is more dfficult than installinglower cabinets. Simple
jigs
such as shop-made cabinet jacks (left) and tempo-
rary support raik (page
ll5) make the
job
much easier.
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I
NSTALLNG
CABINETS
f
nstalling kitchen cabinets can
I be the best of times. and the
worst. Best, because it marks the
completion of an arduous task;
worst. because installation of
perfect cabinets in an imperfect
kitchen is sure to put your cab-
inetmaking skills to the test.
Until now, you have worked on
paper and in the relative calm of
your workshop, carefully craft-
ing your cabinets one by one.
But a kitchen is not a workshop.
When you bring your cabinets
on site and start installing them,
you may find yourself dealing with problems you had not
anticipated, often working against the clock.
For example, no matter how painstakinglyyou have exe-
cuted your story poles and built your cabinets to their spec-
ifications, there will undoubtedlybe gaps between the carcases
and the walls, floors, and ceilings. This is because the walls of
a room, unlike your cabinets, are rarely straight. Fortunately,
out-of-plumb walls can easily be straightened by adding addi-
tional rails to the end cabinets
(page
104) and scribing them
(photo,
above). The scribe rail can then be planed or sanded
to conform to the wall.
The chapter that follows guides you through the steps
and techniques necessary to install your kitchen cabinets
and make sure they are plumb and level. A general review
of installation techniques (pages
100-101) outlines several
options for installing both lower and upper cabinet runs.
A transfer scribe accurately
follows
the contours
of a wall and draws a matchingline onto a scribe
rail. Once the rail is planed or sanded to this line,
the cabinet will fit seamlessly when it is installed.
tion, no matter how well
finished kitchen.
Placed on levelers, plinths, or their own integral bases, the
lower cabinets (page
104) arc shimmed from behind so their
faces are plumb and aligned flush with each other, then the
cases are fastened to the wall studs. Utility hookups such as hot
and cold water supplies, drain pipes, and electrical outlets
require special planning (page
108). Before installing cabinets
around such hookups, check with a professional plumber and
electrician to ensure that the pipes are sound and the wiring is
in good condition. Upper cabinets are mounted using nailer
rails, European-style supports, or beveled wooden support rails
(page
115).As in the lower cabinets, variations in the length of
a cabinet run maycall for filler snips to bridge gaps between cab-
inets. The final touch is decorative crown molding (page
118),
which dresses the
joint
betr,veen the cabinets and the ceiling.
99
INSTALLATION BASICS
hen installing your kitchen cabi-
nets, the technique you choose to
keep them l evel wi l l depend on your
method of construction. If your lower
cabinets feature an integral toe kick, you
can use leveler legs
(page
44) or shims
(page
106) to position the cabinets level,
pl umb, and square wi th one another
before nailing the cases to the studs. If
your cabinets are simple carcases, leveler
legs or a plinth base are both suitable.
While the plinth base
(page
112) can
be used with any Iower cabinet, it is par-
ti cul arl y wel l -sui ted to i sl ands and
oeninsulas. This is because both of these
iabinet tvDes are difficult to secure to
the floor while hiding the fasteners. The
ol i nth i s l evel ed fi rst wi th shi ms or
i dj ustabl e l evel ers, then fastened i n
olace with a few L-brackets screwed to
ihe floor and inside of the plinth. The
island or peninsula is then screwed onto
the ol i nth,
Upper cabinets can either be screwed
to the wal l studs through nai l er rai l s
(page
1 16),specialized commercial hard-
ware, or hung on beveled wooden sup-
oort rails screwed to both the cabinet
i nd the wal l studs
(opposi te).In
both
upper and lower cabinets, shims are used
to level the cabinets and make them all
appear to be a si ngl e uni t seaml essl y
j oi ned
to the ki tchen. Scri be rai l s and
filler strips should take care ofany gaps.
Kickplate
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0
0
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, F
w
w
kick clio
i Adiuatable
\ , E1,
f f i - - - - - - , /
l E F ' : : - : : ! a
: # / : .
w-^
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/t
uor)tinq
'g
plate
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INSTALLING CABINETS
UPPER CABINETS
(Page
1 15)
ISTAND
(Page
1 12)
5ide view
Adjuetable
leveler
INSTALLING THE LOWER CABINETS
rla
he walls and floors of a kitchen are
I typically far from plumb, level,
straight, and square. Common irregu-
larities such as bows in the wall or a
warped floor can create problems when
it comes time to install cabinets that are
perfectly square. In older homes, the
studs in the walls may also be placed at
intervals other than the standard 16-inch
spacing used today. The best planned
kitchen will pose installation challenges
that cannot be tackled until the cabinets
are ready for assembly on-site. However,
you need to identify these irregularities
A chalkline simplifies marking out
long level lines, such as indicating
the top of a lower run of cabinets.
before you begin putting the cabinets
in place.
Your first task is to draw level hori-
zontal lines on the walls where the cab-
inets will go (below). If the kitchen floor
is not level, you can adjust the height of
the cabinets later with shims or various
types of commercial levelers. Next, you
need to locate the wall studs. which are
crucial to securing the cabinets in place.
This is easily done with an electronic
device known as a stud finder, which
detects differences in the thickness ofa
wall by means of a magnetic field.
Lastly, the squareness of corners will
affecta close fit
(opposite).
Scribe rails,
used to cover gaps, must be wide enough
to span anyvoids between cabinet sides
and the adjoining wall.
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PREPARING FOR INSTALLATION
1
Drawi ng l ayout l i nes
I Use a l ong carpenter' s l evel to draw a
l i ne on the wal l at the hei ght of the l ower
cabinets tighil. Measure this line from
t he hi ghest poi nt of t he f l oor where i t
meets the wal l
(page
24). l t you have
adj oi ni ng cabi net runs, st art marki ng
from the highest floor point of the respec-
t i ve wal l s. Thi s ensures t hat you wi l l onl y
need to shi m the cabi net bottoms to l evel
the tops of the cabi nets.
(l f you started
f rom a l ower poi nt on t he f l oor, cabi net
bottoms woul d requi re scri bi ng-a more
l abori ous approach. ) The l i nes can al so
be easi l y l ai d out wi th a chal k l i ne (pho-
to, above). Repeat the procedure to mark
the bottom of the upper cabi nets.
r02
INSTALLING CABINETS
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r)
Checki ng the corners for square
L tl se a carpenter' s square to determi ne
i f a corner i s square
(l eft).
l f not, measure
the gap, and use thi s fi gure to make scri be
rails
(page
104). Use a plumb bob to see
i f t he wal l l eans i nward. l f i t does, mea-
sure t he gap at i t s wi dest poi nt .
Q
Locati ng wal l studs
r. , f Use an el ect roni c st ud f i nder t o
l ocate the centers of the studs i n the
wal l s. Fol l owi ng t he manuf act ur er ' s
i nst ruct i ons, cal i brat e t he sensor and
pl ace t he devi ce agai nst t he wal l . Press
t he operat i ng but t on and sl i de t he sen-
sor si deways across the wal l
(bel ow);
the red l i ght wi l l come on as the devi ce
passes
over a stud. Determi ne the edges
of each stud and mark i ts center. You
can al so snap a chal k l i ne up t he cent er
of each stud to l ocate i t for both uooer
and l ower cabi net s.
103
INSTALLING CABINETS
INSTALLING A LOWER CABINET RUN
r)
Shi mmi ng the cabi nets temporari l y
Z- Posi t i on t he cabi net i n pl ace wi t h
t he scr i be r ai l t ouchi ng t he wal l . Sl i p
shi ms beneat h t he cabi net unt i l t he t op
of t he cabi net i s l evel
(ri ghi l .
For cabi -
net s wi t h l evel er l egs, adj ust t he hei ght
of t he l egs unt i l t he cabi net i s l evel
(page
110).
' l
Addi ng scri be rai l s
I l nst al l a corner cabi net f i rst . Cut a
scri be rai l wi de enough t o span t he gap
between the edge of the cabi net and the
wal l . The scri be rai l shoul d be t he same
l engt h as t he cabi net f ace, and made
f rom t he same mat eri al . Gl ue t he rai l i n
pl ace so i t s f ace i s f l ush wi t h t he cabi net .
Cl amp t he scri be rai l i n pl ace (l ef t )and
l et t he gl ue cure.
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INSTALLING CABINETS
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Q
Scri bi ng the rai l
r-t Set a transfer scri be sl i ghtl y l arger
t han t he gap you det ermi ned f or t he
scri be rai l
(page
103). Pl ace the steel
poi nt agai nst t he wal l and l ay t he
pen-
ci l poi nt on t he scr i be r ai l . Keep t he
two poi nts l evel as you sl i de the transfer
scri be down t he wal l
(above),
marki ng
t he cont our of t he wal l on t he rai l .
Pl ani ng the scri be rai l s
Sand or pl ane the edge of the scri be
rai l down t o t he l i ne you scri bed i n st ep
2. Ti l t t he t ool a bi t t oward t he rear
of t he cabi net as you pl ane t he scr i be
rai l , creat i ng a sl i ght bevel
(/ ef f ).
Thi s
bevel need not be very pronounced, but
wi l l ensure a snug f i t when t he cabi net
i s i nst al l ed.
t 0s
INSTALLING CABINETS
f,
Instal l i ng the cabi net
r-, 1 Reposi t i on t he cabi net i n pl ace wi t h
t he scr i be r ai l t ouchi ng t he wal l . Shi m
t he bot t om and si des of t he cabi net so
i t i s l evel and i t s t op i s al i gned wi t h t he
r ef er ence l i ne on t he wal l . Fast en t he
cabi net i n pl ace by scr ewi ng t hr ough
t he shi ms and r ear nai l er s i nt o t he wal l
st uds
(/ ef f ).
Tri m t he excess f rom t he
shi ms wi t h a sharp kni f e. Al i gn t he next
cabi net i n t he r un and scr ew i t t o t he
f i rst cabi net
(bel ow),
Repeat t o i nst al l
t he r emai nder of t he r un.
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INSTALLING ADJACENT RUNS
1
Al i gni ng adj acent cabi nets
I To i nst al l runs of cabi net s on adj acent
wal l s, start wi th the corner cabi net. Level
and i nst al l t he case as you di d i n st ep 5
(above),
then al i gn the next cabi net. Pl ace
and adj ust shi ms as needed so t he cabi -
net f aces ar e f l ush and I evel . Cl amp t he
cabi nets together i n posi ti on (rghf).
0
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INSTALLING CABINETS
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rl Jl l l l I
j i ]t
rl l i l l l l l rrl
l l l l i l i l l i l r l i l l i l l
i l l i i ti l {i l l tl i l i l t{ i i l 1 i i l l
ul ur iii lu ili i.u uJ ilJ iti t$ {lJ di ul i.ri ru u ui ut
5HO? TI ?
Makingthiak shims
l f you muet ehi m a wi de qap, add a suffi ci enbl y thi ck pi ece of pl ywood
Lo a ef , andard cedar shi m. Thi e el i mi nat ee t he need f or eeveral
ahi me, whi ch may ehi f L and compl i cat e I he l evel i nq
?roceoo.
Uoi nq a pi ece of pl ywood of uni f orm t hi cknees al so
r)
Fasteni ng the cabi nets
L Once you have al i gned t he cabi -
nets, fasten them together wi th screws.
Dr i l l t hr ee count er sunk oi l ot hol es at
t he f r ont and t he back of one cabi net
si de. l f you
are usi ng %-i ncht hi ck st ock
f or your cabi net s, make t hese hol es 1%
i nches deep. Then dr i ve t he f ast ener s
i n pl ace (above).
enauree t hat , t he shi m wi l l noL i nl roduce addi -
t i onal i rregul ari t i es, as may happen when
pl aci nq many ohi mo nexf,l o each other.
Joi n I he ehi m I o t he pl ywood wi t h
a shorL screwi make sure Lhe
head of t he l ast ener i s
eunk bel ow t he sur -
f ace of t he ehi m.
. a' - '
,/
, a t '
.a/
'..,."
' x.t -
I
y' ' '
' \ti
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/ .-
G)
d*.
r07
INSTALLING CABINETS
Q
Instal l i ng fi l l er stri ps
r-J Mi nor aberrati ons i n the measurement of the wal l s and cabi -
nets can l eave you wi th a gap between the l ast cabi nets to be
i nstal l ed. l f the space cannot be el i mi nated by addi ng scri be rai l s
of equal wi dth at ei ther end of the run, cut a fi l l er stri p the l ength
of the cabi net face and wi de enough to bri dge the gap between
FITTING CABINETS AROUND UTITITY H()()KUPS
1
Locating utility cutouts
I Usi ng t he cabi net st ory pol es f or t he
appropri ate cabi net
(page
24), transfer
t he measurement s f or pl umbi ng and el ec-
t ri cal out l et s ont o t he back oanel of t he
cabi net ti ghD. l ndi cate the posi ti on and
si ze of each ut i l i t y cut out .
t he t wo cabi net s. Cut t he pi ece f rom t he same mat eri al as t he
cabi net s, t hen screw i t t o t he cabi net al ready i nst al l ed. Screw
an addi i i onal stri p al ong the top edge of the cabi net bbovd, as
wi de as t he f ront f i l l er st ri p and as l ong as t he dept h of t he cabr-
net s. Sl i de t he next cabi net i n pl ace, and i nst al l i t as i n st ep 2.
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Location
-
,-/ofdrain
r 08
INSTALLING CABINETS
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Gutting holes
L Cut t he hol es usi ns a dri l l f i t t ed
wi t h a hol e saw t he sai re srze as t he
cutout
(abovel.
Make the holes slightly
l arger t han t he pi pe. A keyhol e saw
can be used for l arger hol es.
Q
Attaching shut-off valves
\, Fi t decorati ve fl anges over the pi pes,
t hen f ast en shut -of f val ves t o t he
pi pe
ends. These t aps usual l y r equi r e onl y
wrenches
(l ef t )t o
f ast en t hem i n
pl ace.
A f l exi bl e suppl y t ube t hen f eeds t he
water to the taos.
109
INSTALLING CABINETS
INSTALLING KICKPLATES
1 Level i ns the cabi net
l -
I l f
your
cabi net s have i nt egrat ed t oe
kicks
(page
100), proceed to step 2. For
cabi net s wi t h l evel er l egs, use a l evel t o
gui de you whi l e you adj ust the l egs
(ri ght).
Shi f t t he l evel f rom t he f ront t o t he si de
and repeat as necessary unt i l t he cabi net
i s l evel on al l si des. Secur e t he cabi net
i n pl ace by dri vi ng f ast eners t hrough t he
nai l ers i nt o t he wal l st uds.
Scri bi ng the ki ckpl ate
To f i t t he ki ckpl at e,
pl ace
i t on t he
f l oor i n front of the cabi net bel ow). Use
a t ransf er scri be t o scri be t he ki ckpl at e
as you di d the scri be rai l
(page
105).
The t op edge of t he ki ckpl at e shoul d be
l evel ; use shi ms i f necessary. Pl ane t he
ki ckpl at e t o t he l i ne.
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1 1 0
INSTALLING CABINETS
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)rrtrr$a'r
Fi tti ng the retai ni ng cl i ps
Draw a centerl i ne down the l eneth
of t he ki ckpl at e' s i nsrde f ace. l ndi cat e
t he l ocat ron of each l evel er l eg on
t he ki ckpl at e. Screw t he rect angul ar
mounti ng pl ates at each of these poi nts,
t hen sl i de t he cl i ps ont o t he mount i ng
plates (above).
Attachi ng the ki ckpl ate
Li ne up t he cl i ps wi t h t he l egs
( l ef t )
t hen snap t he ki ckpl at e i n pl ace.
Sl i de
t he cl i ps sl i ght l y al ong t he mount i ng
pl at es, i f necessary, so t hey l i ne up wi t h
t hei r respect i ve l egs when t he ki ckpl at e
i s properl y posi t i oned.
1 1 1
ISLANDSAND PENINSULAS
I
f your ki t chen i s l arge enough, t he
I addi ti on of a freestandi ng i sl and can
tighten work triangles, reduce kitchen
traffic, and eliminate countertop clutter.
Incorporating a sink or range and addi-
tional storage space into the island can
improve the overall efficiency of your
kitchen even more.
Installing a kitchen island requires a
different approach than the one used for
kitchen cabinets, as the island has no
support from the walls. One solution is
to set the island on a plinth. This is a
wooden frame with a perimeter slightly
smaller than the cabinet. The plinth is
assembled with splined miter
joints, Iev-
eled, and fastened to the floor;the island
cabinet is then screwed to the plinth. The
plinth can be made from plywood or
solid wood. The former is recommend-
ed ifthe floor is uneven; separate kick-
olates can be scribed and added later,
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With its large tiled countertop, sink, and ample storage below, the kitchen
island above does double duty as a dishwashing and
food
preparation
qrea.
Instead of resting on a plinth, the island is set on a molded base
frame.
INSTALLING A KITCHEN ISLAND
1
Prepari ng the frame
pi eces
I Assembl e the ol i nth from veneered
%-i nch pl ywood or sol i d st ock usi ng
spl i ned mi t er
j oi nt s
at t he corners. Fi rst ,
ri p the four frame pi eces to wi dth-typi -
cal l y, 4 i nches. To cut the frame pi eces to
l engt h, t i l t t he t abl e saw bl ade t o 45"
and mi t er t he ends; when assembl ed,
t he ol i nt h shoul d be i nset 3 i nches f rom
al l si des of t he i sl and cabi net . Next , make
some spl i nes f rom %-i nch pl ywood; t hey
shoul d be as l ong as t he wi dt h of t he
f rame pi eces and % i nch wi de. To cut the
grooves i n the frame pi eces for the spl i nes,
remove the saw bl ade and i nstal l a dado
head set t o t he t hi ckness of t he spl i nes.
Adj ust t he hei ght of t he saw bl ade so i t
cuts a 45" dado i nto the mi tered end of the
frame pieces
(right);lhe
depth of the dado
shoul d be hal f t he wi dt h of t he spl i nes.
t12
INSTALLING CABINETS
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r)
Assembl i ng the pl i nth
L nppl y gl ue
to the ends of the frame
pi eces, spreadi ng i t i n t he dadoes you
cut i n st ep 1. Spread adhesi ve on t he
spl i nes and t ap t hem i nt o t he dadoes.
Assembl e and cl amp t he pl i nt h
usi ng
a large web clamp
(above);
the model
shown features speci al corners that di s-
t r i but e t he cl ampi ng pr essur e
evenl y
al ong t he mi t er
j oi nt s.
Level i ng the pl i nth
Scr ew an adj ust abl e l evel er at each
corner of t he pl i nt h, i nst al l i ng t he f i rst one
at t he hi ghest f l oor el evat i on of t he f our
corners. Set thi s l evel er as l ow as
possi bl e.
t hen rai se or l ower t he ot hers as needed
unti l the top of
pl i nth
i s l evel
(/eft).
1 1 3
INSTALLING CABINE,TS
Shi mmi ng t he
pl i nt h
l f t he f l oor i s uneven,
you wi l l undoubt edl y end up wi t h
gaps bet ween t he bot t om of t he
pl i nt h and t he f l oor once t he
pl i nt h has been l evel ed. Fi l l t he gaps wi t h shi ms, posi t i oni ng
each one so i t s wi de end i s out si de t he
pl i nt h
ar ea
( above) .
Add a dr op of gl ue t o each shi m t o hol d i t i n pl ace, and use
a car pent er ' s l evel t o ensur e t hat you do not shi f t t he pl i nt h
as vou i nser t addi t i onal shi ms.
l nst al l i ng t he i sl and cabi nel
Cent er t he i s l and c abi net on t he
pl i nt h, and mar k out t he posi t i on of t he
pl i nt h on t he cabi net bot t om. Scr ew t he
cabi net i n pl ace
( r i ghi l ,
dr i vi ng t he f as-
t ener s t hr ough t he cabi net bot t om i nt o
t he pl i nt h. Af t er t he cabi net i s i n pl ace,
scr i be and i nst al l ki ckpl al es
( page
l l 0)
on t he out si de f aces of t he pl i nt h.
F
Fasteni ng the pl i nth to the fl oot
r - , 1 Fast en t he
pl r nt h
t o t he f l oor usi ng L- shaped angl e br ack-
et s Set t he br acket s i n ol ace and scr ew t hem t o t he i nsi de
f ace of t he
pl i nt h; use t wo br acket s
per si de. Then scr ew t he
har dwar e t o t he f l oor
( above) .
Once t he pl i nt h has been f as-
t ened i n pl ace, cut t he shi ms f l ush wi t h t he out si de f ace of
t he pl i nt h.
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tr4
INSTALLING THE UPPE,R CABINETS
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T f
pp.r. cabi nets can be fastened to
LJ the wal l s i n one of three ways. The
easiest method is simply to screw the cab-
inets to the wall studs throueh nailers
(bel ow). l f
you want a l ess pErmanent
solution, you can hang the cabinets from
shop-made interlocking rails
(page
116).
One rail is screwed to the back of the cab-
inet, the other to the wall. Cabinets can
also be hung using commercially avail-
able adjustable rails and cabinet supports
(photo,
right). Whatever method you
choose, the cabinets need to be leveled
before final installation.
The European-styl e cabi net sLtpport shown i n the cutaway cabi net
nt right provides stronger support
for
mounting upper cabinets than
screws driven into the wall. Screwed to the inside corner of a cabinet,
the hardware
features
a metal hook that protrudes through the back and
clips onto a rnil
fastened
to the wall behind the cabinet. Adjustment
screws allow the cabinet to be leveled and tightened against the rail.
INSTALLING UPPER CABINETS
' l
Instal l i ng a temporary support rai l
I At t achi ng a t emporary support rai l wi l l hel p you hol d t he upper cabi net s
i n posi t i on as you i nst al l t hem. Screw a st rai ght pi ece of 1-by-2 st ock t o t he
wal l
(abovd,
al i gni ng i t s t op wi t h t he l ayout l i ne i ndi cat i ng t he bot t om of
t he upper cabi net run. Make sure t o dri ve t he f ast eners i nt o t he wal l st uds.
INSTALLING CABINETS
Instal l i ng addi ti onal cabi nets
Posi ti on the second cabi net i n the run
next to the fi rst and cl amp them together
so the faces are fl ush. Dri ve two screws i n
the second cabinet
(right),
leauing them
sl ack so you can shi m t he cabi net as i n
t he
previ ous
st ep. Shi m t he second cabi -
net unt i l i t i s l evel , t hen screw i t t o t he
f i rst cabi net . Ti ght en t he screws
j oi ni ng
t he second cabi net t o t he wal l . Screw t he
cabi net s t oget her. Repeat t o i nst al l t he
ot her cabi net s i n t he run
O
Instal l i ng the fi rst cabi net
Z- Posi t i on t he f i rst cabi net i n t he upper
run i n i ts corner, setti ng i t on the support
rai l . l f necessary, add a scri be rai l
(page
105), t hen reposi t i on t he cabi net and
screw i t to the wal l studs wi th two screws
dri ven t hrough t he back of t he cabi net
near the top. Do not dri ve the fasteners al l
the way; l eave some sl ack so you can shi m
t he cabi net . Cl amp a l evel t o t he si de
of t he cabi net and sl i p shi ms behi nd t he
case unti l i t i s pl umb (l eft),
then ti ghten
the screws. Dri ve a second pai r of screws
i nt o t he wal l st uds t hrough t he back of
the cabrnet at the bottom.
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1 1 6
INSTALLING CABINETS
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USING BEVELED NAILERS
ffi llti llll llll lllt llfl tllj tlll tll} IlIt lllt llll llli fltt lII llll lllt llli
1HO? TI ?
Shop- made cabinet jacke
Cabi net j acke
eerve as an ext ra pai r of
hands, hol di nq a ca6e i n pl ace whi l e you
i nst al l i t . You can eaoi l y make your own
ehop-bui l t j acke.7i mpl y
screw trhree pi ecee
of
Vl ywood
or mel ami ne Noqel her i nbo Nhe
l -ohape shown aN ri qhL Vake the pi ecee
ae l onq as the di el ance bel ween the upper
cabi net rs and t he count erl op. The cenNer
Vi ece
ehoul d be wi de enou4h t o ouVpor N
a cabi nel uni f .
Hangi ng the cabi nets
l f you are usi ng bevel ed nai l ers t o i nst al l
your cabi net s, f i rst screw a l engt h of
1-by-6 t o t he back of an upper cabi net .
Posi t i on t he case on t he wal l so t he bot -
t om of t he case i s al i gned wi t h t he l i ne
on t he wal l i ndi cat i ng t he bot t om of t he
upper cabi net s, t hen mark t he l ocat i on
of t he 1-by-6 on t he wal l . Remove t he
st ri p of wood and cut a 45" bevel down
i t s mi ddl e. Crosscut t he oi eces t o t he
desi red l engt h. Screw one of t he st ri ps
t o t he wal l st uds as a bat t en, i t s bevel
poi nt i ng up and f aci ng t he wal l . Scr ew
t he ot her pi ece
t o t he back of t he cabi -
net as shown. At t ach a second rai l an
equal di st ance f rom t he bot t om of t he
cabi net t o act as a shi m. Scr ew a f i l l er
st r i p t o t he back of t he cabi net f l ush
wi t h t he bot t om, t hen hang t he case i n
place (top,
left).
CROVTNMOLDING
f
rown mol di ng adds a ni ce fi ni sh-
\-i ins touch to a set of kitchen cabi-
nets. Itian also hide uneven ceilings and
visually integrate the cabinets with the
room's architecture. Simple one-piece
crown molding is available in a variety of
profiles to match the sryle ofyour kitchen
cabinets, and is easily cut and installed.
You can also make your own with a table-
mounted router and a couple of bits
(see
back endpaper). \tVhen choosing crown
molding, make sure it is properly pro-
portioned for the kitchen;molding that
is too wide will have the effect of lower-
ing the ceiling. Molding 3 or 4 inches in
Custom crown moldingis available
wi th el aborate carved patterns
and scrollwork, in a wide range of
modern and antique styles
(left).
width is about right for an average 8-
foot-high ceiling.
While cutting mitered corners at the
end of a cabinet run requires care, the
real challenge in installing crown mold-
ing is attaching it firmly and invisibly to
the cabinets, particularly when there is
only enough space between the cabinet
tops and the cei l i ng for the mol di ng
itself. Attaching a nailer to the molding
(below)
allows it to be fastened to the
cabinet from underneatn.
Crown mol di ng does not have to
extend all the way to the ceiling. In the
case ofexceptionally high ceilings, there
may be a gap of as much as a foot. This
hidden space above the cabinet can be
used to good effect; by placing fluores-
cent l i ghts on top ofthe cabi nets, the
resulting indirect lighting can add so-
phistication to your kitchen.
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INSTALLING CROWN MOLDING
1
Attachi ng the nai l er
I To orovi de an anchor for the fasteners
when i nst al l rng crown mol di ng, at t ach a
nai l er t o t he mol di ng f i rst . Ri p a %-by-I Y, -
i nch pi ece of st ock equal i n l engh t o t he
pi ece of mol di ng you are i nst al l i ng on t he
cabi net . To ease pai nt i ng or f i ni shi ng,
t he nai l er shoul d be cut f r om t he same
mat er i al as t he mol di ng. Pr ot ect i ng t he
st ock wi t h wood pads, gl ue t he edge of
t he nai l er f l ush t o t he bot t om edge of t he
mol di ng; support t he t wo pi eces wi t h a
shi m as you cl amp t hem t oget her
(ri ght ).
Repeat f or t he ot her pi eces of mol di ng.
INSTALLING CABINETS
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Cutti ng the mol di ng to l engh
Mar k t he l engt h of t he t op of t he cabi net r un on t he upper
f ace of t he nai l er . Set your mi t er saw t o cut a 45' angl e and
posi t i on t he mol di ng r i ght - si de up on t he saw so t he mar k i s
al i gned wr t h t he bl ade. Secur e t he mol di ng i n pl ace wi t h t he
saw' s vi se knob; use a scrap pi ece
of wood i f necessary. Make
t he cut , keepi ng your hand wel l cl ear of t he bl ade
(abovd.
I nst al l i ng t he mol di ng
Posi t i on t he cr own mol di ng on t op of
t he cabi net r un, al i gni ng t he heel of t he
mi t er you
cut i n st ep 2 wi t h t he cor ner of
t he cabi net . The nai l er shoul d ext end out
over t he ext er i or of t he cabi net f r ont by
t he t hi ckness of t he door s. l f t her e i s suf -
f i ci ent space, scr ew t he cr own mol di ng t o
t he t op of t he cabi net s t hr ough t he nai l er s,
spaci ng t he f ast ener s ever y 6 t o 8 i nches.
Otherwi se, dri ve the fasteners from under-
neat h. Mi t er t he pi ece of cr own mol di ng
f or t he end of t he cabi net , t hen scr ew i t
i n
pl ace (l eft).
1 1 9
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{ L - t , ' l
\
' . .
\,a"-- ='--
----=-
'{>
+
+.
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s indispensable to the
kitchen as a workbench
is to the shop, the countertop
bears the brunt of the kitchen's
workload. In addition to suD-
porting the preparation and
cooking of meals, the counter
is also an all-purpose work sur-
face used for scores of other
daily household tasks, from
brewing coffee to writing let-
ters, from fixing appliances to
sundryarts and crafts activities.
Itmustbe solidenough to stand
on, easily cleaned with a damp
cloth, and durable enough to
look as good after 10 years as
the day it was installed.
Fortunately, the technical
innovations that transformed
kitchen cabinetmaking in the post-war era have made this kind
of performance commonplace. In particular, the perfection of
plastic laminate has put attractive and resilient countertops
within the reach of even the tightest of homebuilding budgets.
Solid-surface materials sold under such brand names as Corian
and Avonite offer even better performance-but at a price. And
there still is a place in the kitchen for natural materials like
wood and stone. The guide on page 122 will help you choose
the best counter surface for your kitchen; the pages that follow
outline the
procedures
and technioues necessarv to install it.
While initallation methods differ somewhat among coun-
tertop materials, there are many similarities. The procedure
for installing a sink in a countertop with a plastic laminate
surface (page 125), for example, can be easily adapted to oth-
er countertops. One of the appeals of plastic laminate is its
COLINTERTOPS
A tile baclcsplash can elevate an ordinary kitchen into a
work of art. In the kitchen shown above, a baclesplash of
decorative ceramic tiles is carried over into an elaborate
mural in the open space above the range, providing a tra-
ditional contrast to the clean, modern lines of the cabinets.
ease ofapplication
(page
126).
The original fitting need not
be painstakingly exact; once
the laminate is glued in place,
it can be trimmed perfectly
flush with the substrate using a
laminate trimmer. This cus-
tom-fitting ability is particu-
larly useful when melding the
top sheet of laminate with a
contrasting edge treatment
(page
1j7). Plastic laminate is
the material used to make inex-
pensive, popular pre-molded
counter tops
(page
132).These
countertops have the top, edge
treatment, and backsplash
combined in one unit, and take
much of the work out of
installing a countertop. Solid-
surface countertops
(page
129) are more difficult to install but
the results are rewarding. The ability to mold edges and exe-
cute invisible joints
and repairs has made solid-surface coun-
tertops second only to plastic laminate in popularity, despite
their higher cost.
Getting all the details right is the mark of true craftsman-
ship, and installing a backsplash (pages 134-1j6) is an excellent
way to add an individual touch to your kitchen. Since a back-
splash does not bear as much abuse as a countertop, you have
considerably more leewaywhen choosing the material. Wood
and tile, which can be problematic as countertop surfaces, are
excellent choices for backsplashes. Selecting the perfect piece
of hardwood or using ceramic tiles with an antique hand-
painted pattern as a backsplash could be the difference that
makes your kitchen unique.
Solid-surface countertop materials offer superior
joint-cuxing
and shaping abilities.
The kitchen at left
features
countertops made
from
Corian, a popular solid-surface
material. Note the molded corners and seamless transition
from
countertop to sink.
t21
tl-
h. ideal countertop is not only
I attractive. durable, heat-resistant
and waterprool but easy to form,
install, and repair, and inexpensive.
Alas, this wonder has yet to be invented.
Fortunately, there are several products,
both man-made and natural, that
come close.
Plastic laminate is the most common
countertop facing material. First created
in 1913, this material is formed bybond-
ing paper, phenolic resins, and melamine
plastic under heat and pressure. Plastic
laminate has since become the standard,
covering millions of tables and counters
around the world.
Made of cast acrylic and polyester,
solid-surface countertops were invented
in the late 1960s, and are the closest to an
ideal counter surface, but for their
expense. Ifyour budget permits, you can
opt for the opulence ofstone, such as
granite or marble. Wood can be a very
attractive counter, but many people shy
away from using it near the sink where
it will become wet.
Some of the best-designed kitchens
make use of several contrasting mate-
rials, taking advantage oftheir differ-
ent strengths. For example, a counter
might be mostly wood or tile but
switch to stainless steel around the
sink. Another option is a plastic lam-
inate or solid-surface countertop with
an inset cutting board of wood. Lastly,
do not forget the decorative possibil-
ities of the baclsplash, where the use of
either wood or tiles can add a hand-
crafted touch.
Plastic laminate is tough, inexpensive,
and relatively easy to apply. Because
it is paper thin, however, it cannot be
shaped and is very dfficult to repair.
Tile is heat- and water-resistant and
available in a variety of patterns, colors,
and
finishes.
The grout between the tiles
can become stained and mildewed unless
ahigh-quality epoxy grout is used.
Solid-surface material, such as Corian
or Avonite, is expensive, but can be
worked much like wood, since the pat-
tern and color is consistent through its
entire thickness. It can also be
joined
or repaired with invisible results.
Granite is the most prestigious-and
expensive-material
for
countertops:
extremely hard, smooth, and ideal
for
rollingpastry dough. It is also heavy
and difficult to install.
Marble is very expensive but is
not as tough as granite. And like
granite, it needs to be cut and
p oli sh e d profes sio n alf .
Wooden countertops are warm and
pleasant-w ell suited
for
country
-
style
kitchens, but the least durable of the lot.
They are best used
for
part of a counter,
such as a chopping block insert.
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A GALLERY OF COUNTERTOP SURFACES
INSTALLING COUNTERTOPS
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Wooden and plastic laminate coun-
tertops are installed by simply screw-
ing them to the supporting cabinets.
In the photo at left, a wooden coun-
tertop with mitered solid wood edging
i s bei ng secured to a corner cabi net
that
features
a lazy Susan; the
fasten-
ers are driven through the cabinet's
countertop nailers into stretchers
attached to the underside ofthe top.
BUITDING UP THE COUNTER
Attachi ng stretchi ng and cl eats
Count er subst r at es ar e usual l y made of %- i nch medi um- den-
si t y f i berboard, chosen f or i t s di mensi onal st abi l i t y. To doubl e
t he
per cei ved t hi ckness of t he count er t op and i ncr ease i t s
st r engt h, bui l d up t he subst r at e wi t h st r et cher s and cl eat s.
Fi r st cut t he subst r at e t o si ze, maki ng sur e t o i ncl ude t he
amount of overhang; t ypi cal l y % i nch. Then prepare a number
of 4-i nch-wi de st ret chers and cl eat s of t he same mat eri al as
t he subst rat e. Screw t he st ret chers al ong t he edges of t he
subst rat e, t hen at t ach cl eat s bet ween t he st ret chers, spaci ng
t hem every 1B t o 20 i nches. l f you are
j oi ni ng
t wo sheet s of
subst rat e i nt o an L-shaped count ert op
(above),
make sure t o
secure a cl eat on t he i oi nt .
t23
COUNTERTOPS
CUTTING A HOLE FOR THE SINK
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1
Marki ng the substrate
I Most new si nks come wi t h a t empl at e
t hat wi l l hel p you posi t i on and mar k t he
openi ng on t he subst r at e. l f you do not
have a t empl at e,
you can make one f rom
cardboard. Pl ace t he si nk f ace down on
t he cardboard and t race i t s out l i ne. Next
draw a second l i ne % i nch i nsi de t he f i rst
one t hen cut out t he t empl at e al ong t hi s
i nner l i ne. Draw a pai r of l i nes di vi di ng t he
t empl at e i n hal f bot h vert i cal l y and hori -
zont al l y. Cent er t he si nk on t he subst rat e
at op i t s l ower cabi net , marki ng i nt ersect -
i ng l i nes on t he subst rat e. Pl ace t he t em-
pl at e i n posi t i on and al i gn t he t wo pai rs of
l i nes. Trace the outl i ne wi th a
penci l (/efi l .
r)
Cutti ng the openi ng
L Once you have marked out t he posi -
t i on of t he si nk, check t hat t he l i ne does
not cross any of t he screws hol di ng t he
st ret chers and cl eat s. Next , dri l l aY, -i nch
access hol e t hrough t he subst rat e
j ust
i nsi de t he per i met er . I nst al l a combi na-
t i on bl ade i n a saber saw and l ower t he
bl ade t hr ough t he hol e. Hol di ng t he t ool
f i r ml y, t ur n i t on and st ar t cut t i ng al ong
the l i ne ti ghi l . f ry to cut as cl ose to the
l i ne as
possi bl e.
Thi s need not be exact ,
as t he edge wi l l be hi dden by t he l i p of
t he si nk. To keep t he wast e pi ece f rom
breaki ng of f as you near t he end of t he
cut , support i t wi t h your f ree hand. Sol i d-
sur f ace t oos shoul d never be cut wi t h
a saber saw; i nst ead, use a rout er wi t h a
st rai ght bi t and a pl ywood t empl at e.
t24
COUNTERTOPS
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INSTALLING A TAMINATE COUNTERTOP
r)
Tri mmi ng matched pi eces
Z- Whenever two pi eces
of pl asti c l ami nate meet i t i s i mportant
t hat t hey mat ch perf ect l y.
Any gaps wi l l be very not i ceabl e and
unat t ract i ve. Tri mmi ng t he t wo sheet s bef ore i nst al l at i on i n t he
j i g
shown here however wi l l resul t i n preci sel y mat ched edges
every t i me. The procedure i s si mi l ar t o t ri mmi ng a si ngl e sheet
6tep 1). To set up the
j i g,
secure both sheets between the boards,
1 Tri mmi ns l ami nat e
t -
I A sheet of pl ast i c l ami nat e can be r i pped t o wi dt h on your
t abl e saw, but i t i s easi er t o cr osscut i t wi t h t he
j i g
shown her e.
To set up t he
j i g,
f i r st
j oi nt
t wo boar ds so t hey each have one
st r ai ght edge. Wi t h a f r ami ng squar e, dr aw a l i ne acr oss t he
l ami nat e at t he desi r ed l engt h. Next , sandwi ch t he l ami nat e
bet ween t he boar ds as shown. Al i gn t he l i ne wi t h t he edges of
t he boar ds and cl amp t he whol e assembl y t o t he wor k sur f ace.
I nst al l a f l ush- t r i mmi ng bi t i n your r out er and set t he cut t i ng
dept h so t he pi l ot
bear i ng wi l l r ub agai nst t he
j i g.
Pl ace t he
r out er f l at on t he
j i g
and ease t he bi t i nt o t he l ami nat e, maki ng
sur e t he bear i ng r ubs agai nst t he
j i g
t hr oughout t he cut
( l ef t ) .
l f a sheet i s damaged at bot h ends, f i r st t r i m one end t o get a
cl ean edge, t hen mar k of f t he desi r ed l engt h and t r i m t he ot her
end. Cut t he l ami nat e at l east an i nch l onger and wi der t han
necessar v: i t can be t r i mmed f l ush l at er .
over l appi ng t hem by 4 t o 5 i nches, and cl amp t he assembl y
i n pl ace. To suppor t t he out er sheet , cl amp i t t o t he t abl e r n
a second
j i g
about 6 i nches f rom t he f vst
(i nsei l .
To t ri m t he
sheet s, set t he rout er on t he
j i g
wi t h t he pi l ot bearrng agai nst
t he edge, t hen pul l i t t hrough t he sheet s
(above).
Keep a sl i ght
pressure
agai nst t he
j i g
t hroughout t he cut .
Fl ueh-tri mmi nq bi t
t25
COUNTERTOPS
Posi ti oni ng the l ami nate
At t ach t he l ami nat e sheet t o t he sub-
st rat e wi t h cont act cement . Fi rst f i ni sh
the edges of the substrate
(page
138);
ot her wi se t he edge of t he l ami nat e wi l l
show. Tri m t he sheet t o approxi mat e si ze,
and
j oi nt
any mat i ng edges
(sf ep
2). f he
sheet shown at l ef t i s f or an L-shaped
count er; t he i nsi de corner can be t ri mmed
af t er gl ui ng. Appl y an even coat of con-
t act cement t o t he subst rat e and l et i t
dry. Then appl y a t hi n coat t o bot h sur-
f aces and l et dry unt i l i t i s t acky. As con-
t act cement bonds i nst ant l y, set %-i nch
dowel s on t he subst rat e about 12 i nches
apar t . Lay t he l ami nat e sheet on t he
dowel s wi t hout l et t i ng i t t ouch t he sub-
strale
(lefil.
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/
Gluing down the laminate
' tSl i de
the l ami nate sheet over the dow-
el s to posi ti on i t properl y; si nce the sheet
i s sl i ght l y oversi zed, you have some mar-
gi n for error. Starti ng at one end, remove
t he f i rst dowel and oress t he l ami nat e
agai nst the substrate. Work toward the
ot her end, removi ng dowel s and pressi ng
the laminate down as you go (right).
Press
t he l ami nat e sheet agai nst t he subst rat e
wi t h a r ol l er
( i nset ) .
l f you ar e deal i ng
wi t h t wo mat chi ng sheet s, dr aw a l i ne
across the substrate where the two sheets
ar e t o meet . When i nst al l i ng t he f i r st
sheet, begi n by l ayi ng down the edge start-
i ng at t hi s l i ne. To i nst al l t he second
sheet , begi n by caref ul l y but t i ng i t s edge
agai nst the fi rst pi ece.
r26
COUNTERTOPS
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Tri mmi ng the edges
r - , 1 Use a r out er or l ami nat e t r i mmer
mount ed wi t h a f l usht ri mmi ng bi t t o t ri m
t he edges of t he l ami nat e. Fi rst , remove
any gl ue squeeze-out f rom t he
j oi nt .
Then
set t he cut t i ng dept h so t he bear i ng wi l l
r ub t he mi ddl e of t he subst r at e. To t r i m
t he edges, hol d t he t ri mmer f l at on t he
count er and ease i t i nt o t he l ami nat e.
Cont i nue movi ng t he t r i mmer al ong t he
edge
(ri ght),
worki ng agai nst the di recti on
of bi t rotati on and keepi ng sl i ght pressure
aga i nst the su bstrate.
Cutti ng out the si nk openi ng
The l ami nat e coveri ng t he si nk open-
i ng can be cut out usi ng t he same met hod
you used t o t ri m t he edges. St art i ng t he
cut , however, i s a bi t more t ri cky. You
can ei t her dr i l l a hol e t hr ough t he l ami -
nat e and use a regul ar bot t om-mount ed
f l ush- t r i mmi ng bi t or you can equi p a
pl unge r out er wi t h a speci al panel pi l ot
bi t . Thi s bi t has a poi nt ed t i p t hat can
penet rat e
t he l ami nat e: t he shaf t of t he
bi t t hen act s as a pi l ot t o gui de t he t ri m-
mer. Si nce t hi s bi t does not have a pi l ot
beari ng i t may burn t he edge, but t hi s wi l l
be hi dden under t he si nk
r27
COUNTERTOPS
I
Screwi ng the counter to the cabi net
/ Posi t i on t he count er on t he cabi net
and anchor the counter wi th wood screws,
driving them in from below
(right).
Secure
each screw t hrough t he cabi net ' s coun-
t er t op nai l er s and i nt o t he st r et cher s
at t ached t o t he undersi de of t he coun-
t ert op. Sel ect t he si ze of your f ast eners
car ef ul l y; t oo l ong a scr ew coul d pi er ce
t he l ami nat e.
INSTALLING THE SINK
1
Testing the fit
I l nsert t he si nk i nt o t he count er t o check t he f i t hbovd.
Tri m t he count er openi ng i f necessary. Mark t he hol es on t he
count er t op f or t he t aps and cut t hem out wi t h a hol e saw.
Appl y pl umber' s put t y t o t he undersi de of t he si nk ri m.
(Some
si nks come wi t h a speci al cl osed-cel l f oam t ape t hat serves
the same
purpose.)
Lower the sink into place (above)
and adjust
i t so i t rests square to the edge of the counter.
l')
Securing the countel
L me si nk i s hel d i n pl ace wi t h speci al cl amps t hat pul l i t
down agai nst t he count er t op. To i nst al l each cl amp, i nsert i t s
hook i nt o t he mat chi ng cl i p on t he si nk. Ti ght en i t
( above)
unt i l t he serrat ed end t ouches t he subst rat e. 0nce al l t he
cl amps are i n pl ace, begi n t o secure t he si nk as evenl y as pos-
si bl e, gr adual l y t i ght eni ng each cl amp a l i t t l e at a t i me unt i l
t he ri m i s f l ush wi t h t he count ert op; avoi d overt i ght eni ng.
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Counter
etretcher
Counf,ertop
nailer
COUNTERTOPS
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INSTATTING A SOTID.SURFACE COUNTERT()P
1
Attaching funing strips
I Unl i ke par t i cl eboar d,
sol i d sur f ace
mat er i al expands and cont r act s wi t h
changes i n t emperat ure, so i t cannot be
at t ached t o a f ul l subst r at e. I nst ead,
at t ach i t di rect l y t o t he cabi net s or t o
f urri ng st ri ps. Furri ng st ri ps add hei ght t o
t he count ert op and al l ow a bui l t -up edge
to be added l ater. Cut a number of
,/o-by-
4-i nch boards to match the deoth of the
countertop. Attach the stri ps to cabi net
modul es wi th wood screws, spaci ng them
about 18 i nches apart . Add an ext ra f ur-
ri ng stri p wherever two sheets are to be
j oi ned
and 3 i nches f rom ei t her si de of
an openi ng f or a si nk or cookt op.
r)
Addi ng si l i cone seal er
I t o al l ow f or expansi on, t he count er
must be f ast ened t o t he f ur r i ng st r i ps
wi th si l i cone seal er about every 8 i nches.
Posi t i on t he count er i n pl ace and adj ust
i t so i t i s square to the cabrnets. l f the end
of the countertop meets a wal l , l eave an
}{-i nch gap
to al l ow for expansi on. l f you
ar e
j oi ni ng
t wo mat chi ng sheet s, f i r st
st i ck a l engt h of al umi num conduct i ve
tape
(commerci al
duct tape i s too porous)
t o t he f urri ng st ri p where t hey wi l l meet
(see
st ep 3), t hen appl y t he si l i cone on
top of the tape.
r29
COUNTERTOPS
Joi ni ng t he sheet s
Lay t he f i r st sheet of sol i d- sur f ace
mat er i al i n pl ac e on t he f ur r i ng s t r i ps ,
cl ampi ng i t t o keep i t f r om movi ng. Lay
t he second sheet r n pl ace, ar r angi ng t t
so there i s an even gap of /, i nch between
t he t wo sheet s. Wor k qui ckl y; t he si l i cone
wi l l s et wi t h i n 20 m i n ut es , mak i ng t he
count er t op dr f f r cul t t o move. Make a dam
under t he gap wher e i t ov er hangs t he
c abi net s wi t h s ome al umi num c onduc -
ti ve tape
(/eft).
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Appl yi ng
j oi nt
adhesi ve
Sel ect i ng t he r i ght col or and pat t er n
t o mat ch t he count er t op,
pr epar e a t ube
of sol i d- sur f ace
l oi nt
adhesi ve accor di ng
t o manuf act ur er ' s di r ect i ons.
( Thi s
usual l y
i nvol ves i nl ect i ng a t ube of cat al yst i nt o
a l ar ger t ube of adhesr ve and mi xi ng t he
t wo. ) Fi l l t he gap hal f f ul l wr t h t he mi xt ur e,
wor ki ng f r om back t o f r ont . Be sur e t o
keep t he t ube ver t i cal . Push t he sheet s
t noer her r o scl r ee/ e our t he excess adhe
si ve. Pop any ai r bubbl es wi t h a t oot hpt ck
and add ext r a adhesi ve t o ar eas wher e
t he adhesi ve l i es bel ow t he sur f ace of t he
count er t op. Do not r emove t he excess;
i t wi l l be sanded down l at er .
1 3 0
COI-INTERTOPS
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f,
Clamping the sheets together
r,f Attach a strip of wood to the countertop on either side of the gap with beads of
hot-mel t gl ue.
Cl amp a
pai r
of handscrews to the stri ps to pul l
the two sheets snugl y
together. Do not cl amp them too ti ghtl y si nce thi s can squeeze out al l the adhesi ve.
Let the
gl ue
cure for one hour, then l oosen the cl amps and tap off the wood stri ps.
Use a putty knife with rounded edges to remove any leftover hot glue.
fi
Smoothingthe surface
\,f Remove the excess adhesi ve and
l evel the
j oi nt
wi th a bl ock
pl ane.
Make
sure the bl ade i s very sharp and the cor-
ners are sl i ghtl y rounded. A bel t sander
wi t h 120-gri t paper wi l l al so work but
i t produces
much more dust and runs
the ri sk of gougi ng
the counter. Smooth
t he
j oi nt
f urt her wi t h a random orbi t
sander using 18O-grit sandpaper
(above).
To keep t he dust down, moi st en t he
counter. Fi nal l y, buff the enti re surface
wi t h a synt het i c pol i shi ng pad.
Agai n,
keep t he surf ace moi st . The f i nal
j oi nt
shoul d be perfectl y
i nvi si bl e.
Since their color and pattern run
through their entire thickness, solid-
surface countertops offer unmatched
shaping and
joinery
abilities. In the
photo at left, a solid-surface counter-
top is bonded seamlessly with a sink
of the same material. Thebuilt-in
drain board to the right of the sink
was made by routing grooves in the
countertop with a carbide-tipped bit.
131
COUNTERTOPS
INSTALLING A PRE-M()LDED COUNTERTOP
1
Lami nati ng the countertop end
I Appl y pl ast i c l ami nat e t o t he vi si bl e end of a pr e- mol ded
count er t o hi de any
gaps or exposed edges. For exampl e, when
t he count er i s
pushed agai nst t he wal l t her e wi l l be a wi de
gap on t he exposed end bet ween t he backspl ash and t he wal l .
Fi l l t hi s gap wi t h a wooden bl oc k . To c ov er t he end, us e a
pr e- f or med st r i p or cut a r ect angl e of l ami nat e sl i ght l y over si ze,
r)
l oi ni ng pre-mol ded countertops
L Pr e- mol ded count er t ops ar e t ypi cal l y avai l abl e i n l engt hs up
t o 12 f eet l ong, so t hey r ar el y have t o be
j oi ned
i n a cabi net
r un. Cor ner
j oi nt s,
however , ar e common. Cut t i ng a pr e- mol ded
count er t op at a per f ect 45" angl e i s t r i cky, t hough, and i s a
1ob
best l ef t t o a pr of essi onal wi t h a l ar ge r adi al - ar m saw. Joi ni ng
the countertoos wi th counter connectors afterward i s somewhat
easi er . Pl ace t he t wo sect i ons f ace- down on a wor k sur f ace and
but t t he mat i ng edges of t he. l oi nt t oget her . To pl ace t he con-
nect or s, make a mar k acr oss t he
j oi nt
6 i nches f r om ei t her
end. Ref er r r ng t o t he mar ks, dr i l l a 35mm- di amet er r ecess on
ei t her si de of t he
j oi nt ,
set back 1% i nches f r om t he
1oi nt .
For m
a channel bet ween t he r ecesses f or t he bol t by maki ng t wo cut s
wi t h a dovet ai l saw, t hen cl eani ng out t he wast e wi t h a chi sel .
To
j oi n
t he t wo count er t ops, al i gn t hem, i nser t t he connect or s,
and t i ght en t hem wi t h a wr ench unt i l t hey ar e bot h snug ?i ghi l .
Check t hat t he count er t ops ar e
per f ect l y al i gned and f l ush, t hen
f i ni sh t r ght eni ng t he connect or s.
then affi x i t to the counter wi th contact cement. Instal l a bottom-
mount ed f l ush- t r i mmi ng br t i n a r out er or l ami nat e t r i mmer
and set t he cut t i ng dept h t o about / , i nch. To t r i m t he end,
ease t he bi t i nt o t he l ami nat e, t hen move t he bi t al l ar ound
i ts edges
(abovd.
Keep the base of the tool fl at agai nst the end
t o ensure a smoot h cut .
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r32
COUNTERTOPS
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Scri bi ng t he backspl ash
Si nce wal l s ar e sel dom st r ai ght , you
wi l l pr obabl y need t o scr i be t o f i t t he wal l ,
t hen sand down t he hi gh spot s. Posi t r on
t he count er t op i n pl ace and set a t r ansf er
scr i be sl i ght l y wi der t han t he di st ance
bet ween t he wal l and t he l i p. Hol d t he
t ool as shown at l ef t t hen pul l i t al ong t he
wal l t o mar k t he backspl ash. Repeat f or
t he ot her wal l .
Sandi ng backspl ash
As t he l i p of t he backspl ash i s onl y
about I i nch t hi ck, i t i s f ai r l y easy t o
sand i nt o shape. Wi t h a ver y l i ght t ouch
sand down t o t he scr i bed l i ne wi t h a
bel t sander
( bel ow) .
Hol d t he sander
agai nst t he edge at an angl e so i t wi l l
r emove sl i ght l y mor e mat er i al f r om
t he bot t om edge t han t he t op. Thi s wi l l
ensur e a ver y cl ose f i t at t he wal l . Repeat
f or t he ot her wal l .
133
BACKSPLASHES AND EDGE TREATME,NTS
MAKING A TILE BACKSPLASH
r)
Appl yi ng masti c
^t ^,
( -
C' ean t he pl ywooc wi t h a sl ght l y
dampened c l ot h t o p, c k up any dus t .
Pr ot ect t he count er t op wi t h naski ng
t anp and : nnl v a st r npr oJS
coat of mas-
t i c wi r h a ser r at ed t r owel , smoot h, ng i t as
you go t o cr eat e a sur f ace l r ke a f r eshl y
nl nr ar pd f i pl r l Dn nnt t r v l n r ^nvor t nn l ar op
an ar ea at f i r st ; t he mast i c set s i n about
30 mi nut es.
1 Attachi ns the substrate
t -
I To pr ovi de
a
gl ui ng
sur f ace and t o add
depth to a ti l e backspl ash, screw a /:tnch-
t hi ck pl ywood subst r at e t o t he wal l f i r st .
Dpt pr mi ni no t hp r - nr r er ^t l pnst h nf t hc sr r h-
e v l v i i i i i i , i i b
c t r a i o n e n h o i r i n l r y l a a 1 " . ^
+ ; l ^ . a r ^ ^ {
J L I O L C U o r l U L l l l u n y U L L O U > E L l l C ) O l q U l
f i xed wi dt h and t he end of t he backspl ash
us ual l y wi l l not f al l at t he c ount er ' s end.
The end of t he backspl ash i s usual l y sl i ght -
l y set back
( see page 136) . I o f i nd t he
cor r ect l enpt h l av or r t al t he t i l es on t he
count er wi t h an
I
i nch space bet ween
t her n and cut t he subst r at e t o t hi s l engt h:
r i n i f o n r r : l i n i h o n o r o h t n { i h o t i l p c . n l r r s
I i nch. Mar k t he pl acement of t he st uds
on t he wal l , t hen secur e t he pl ywood wi t h
two screws i n each stud
(/eft).
l f neces-
sar y. use t wo p eces of pl ywood t r i mned
c n t h p v i n i n : t : c t r r d
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134
COUNTERTOPS
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Mounti ng the ti l es
Cut %-i nch-t hi ck spacers t o separat e
t he t i l es. Make sure t he t i l es are al l cl ean
and dust free. Starti ng i n one corner, pl ace
two spacers on the counter i n front of the
wal l wher e t he f i r st t i l e wi l l go. Set t he
t i l e on t he spacers and pi vot i t i nt o pl ace,
separat i ng i t f rom t he wal l corner wi t h
another spacer. Press the ti l e agai nst the
substrate, gi vi ng i t a sl i ght twi st to ensure
a t i ght f i t . Then i nst al l t he rest of t he
ti l es, separati ng them wi th spacers
(l ghf).
Attachi ng mol di ng
Add mol di ng t o t he t op of t he back-
spl ash after the ti l e masti c has cured. The
wi dt h of t he mol di ng shoul d be equal t o
t he combi ned t hi ckness of t he subst rat e
and t he t i l es. Mi t er t he end of t he mol d-
i ng, then tri m i t to l ength. Appl y a bead of
gl ue to the pl ywood substrate then pl ace
t he mol di ng i n posi t i on. Fast en i t t o t he
substrate wi th a fi ni shi ng nai l every 5 to
6 i nches. Remove t he maski ng t ape and
seal t he t i l es by f i l l i ng al l t he gaps wi t h
epoxy gr out , and appl yi ng a
j oi nt
of si l i -
cone between the ti l es and countertoo.
t 3s
COUNTE, RTOPS
INSTALLING A W()()DEN BACKSPLASH
r)
Instal l i ng a return
L Wf r " " t he bacnspl asn er os. mav. P a
r et ur n mol di ng f r om some scr ap l ef t over
f r om t he backspl ash. Mi t er t he r et ur n so
i t f r l l s t he gap bet ween t i e bac k s pl as h
and t he wal l , f or mi ng a s quar e end and
cont i nui ng t he mol ded pr of i l e. Si nce t h s
pi ec e wi l l not be s ubj ec t ed t o a l ot of
s t r e s s i t c a n b e s , mp l y
g l u e d ' n p l a c e
and t hen hel d wi t h s ome mas k i ng t ape
unt i l t he gl ue cur es.
1 Attachi ns the backsnl ash
I -
I To make a wooden backspl ash w, t h
n o l d e d t o p a n d s i d e e d g e s . ' r s l a l l a
squar e- edged boar d, t hen add a mol di ng
( page
135) or shape t he edge of a wi der
boar d wi t h a r out er or shaper and nst al l
t he backspl ash i n one pi ece. I n ei t her case,
scl ecr a
' pr - pt h
of at t r act i ve har dwooc f or
your backspl ash and pl ane i t t o a t hi ck-
ness of / t a / , i nch. Cut i t t o si ze, makr ng
r t sl r ght l y sho' t er t l ^an t he cour t e" t op t o
cr eat e a set back at t r e end. l Vi t er t ne er ds
as shown. l ndi cat e t he pl acement of each
s t ud wi t h a l i ght mar k on t he wal l , t hen
nai l the board i n pl ace (l eft).
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1 3 6
COUNTERTOPS
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INSTATTING A DECORATIVE EDGING
' l
Appl yi ng wooden edgi ng
I Appl y sol i d wood edgi ng to the countertop before you gl ue
down the pl asti c
l ami natel op
(page
126).
(Ihi s
wi l l ensure there
are no cracks bet ween t he upper l ami nat e and t he edgi ng. ) Mi l l
t he edge st ock t o a t hi ckness of %i nch and t he desi red wi dt h.
A chamfering bit reveals a walnut
divider between plastic laminate top
and edge surfaces. This effect was
created by applying a solid wood
edge to the counter substrate, then
adding laminate to the top and edge.
Not only is this an auractive way to
ease the counter
front
but it also dis-
guises the dark edges of the laminate.
Spread a f i l m of gl ue on t he wood, t hen f ast en t he pi ece i n
pl ace
wi t h f i ni shi ng nai l s ever y 4 t o 6 i nches. l f t he edge wi l l
be chamfered
(step
9,
pl ace
the nai l s at l east % i nch bel ow the
top edge; thi s wi l l protect the router bi t from bei ng damaged.
(N
r 37
COUNTERTOPS
Q
Chamferi ng the edge
r - J By chamf er i ng t he cor ner s of t he
bui l t -up edgi ng, you wi l l expose t he wood
edge you added i n t he f i rst st ep. l nst al l a
pi l ot ed chamf eri ng bi t i n your rout er and
set t he cut t i ng dept h t o % i nch. Hol di ng
t he t ool wi t h i t s base f l at on t he count er-
t op, ease t he bi t i nt o t he l ami nat e unt i l t he
beari ng t ouches t he count er edge. Move
t he t ool ar ound t he count er , wor ki ng i t
agai nst the di rectron of bi t rotati on. The btt
cannot cut ri ght i nt o t he apex of an i nsi de
cor ner , but t he r esul t i ng l amb' s t ongue
pattern i s an attracti ve effect.
r)
Appl yi ng l ami nate
I t rt m a l engt h of
pl ast i c l ami nat e a bi t
wi der t han t he t hi ckness of t he count er .
Fasten i t to the counter edge wi th contact
cement
(l ef t )and press i t down f i rml y
wi th a rol l er. When the adhesi ve has cured,
t r i m t he l ami nat e f l ush wi t h a r out er or
l ami nat e t ri mmer. Use a chi sel t o square
up any i nsi de cor ner s, t hen r emove any
excess cont act cement wi t h a scraper.
0nce t hi s i s done, appl y l ami nat e t o t he
countertop
@ages
I 25-1 27).
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138
COUNTERTOPS
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MOLDING A WO()DEN EDGE
Rout i ng an ogee pr of i l e
Nai l a sol i d wood st r i p t o t he edge of t he count er
( page
137)
bef or e gl ui ng t he pl ast i c l ami nat e down on t he count er t op.
Si nce you wi l l be shapi ng t he edge wi t h a r out er , make sur e
t o pl ace
t he f ast ener s wel l bel ow t he bi t ' s dept h of cut
( above) .
Next , at t ach t he l ami nat e t op and t r i m i t f l ush
( pages
J26-
127) . To shape t he edge, i nst al l a pi l ot ed
ogee or ot her edge-
R()UTING A DRIP EDGE IN A S()LID-SURFACE C()UNTER
f or mi ng bi t i n your
r out er . Set t he t ool on t he counr er anc
adl ust t he cut t i ng dept h so t he bear i ng wi l l r i de agai nst t he
l ower edge of t he count er. To shape t he edge, set t he rout er
f l at on t he count er t op, t hen ease t he bi t i nt o t he wood. Move
t he rout er around t he count er, worki ng agai nst t he bi t ' s di rec-
t i on of r ot at i on.
Shapi ng a dr i p edge
A dr i p edge i s a sl i ght l y r ai sed edge t hat
pr event s
mi nor spi l l s f r om r unni ng of f t he
count er t op. Appl y a st r i p of mat chi ng
sol i d- sur f ace mat er i al t o t he edge of t he
count er t op, cr eat i ng a r ai sed edge. Af f i x
t he edgi ng wi t h adhesi ve desi gned espe-
ci al l y f or t he mat er i al
( pages
130- 131) .
I nst al l a pi l ot ed
dr i p edge bi t i n your
r out er
and adj ust t he cut t i ng dept h so t he t op
of t he cur ve i s even wi t h t he r out er base;
t he i nset shows how t he bt t shoul d meet
t he count er . To shape t he count er , hol d t he
router base agai nst the edge, then l ower i t
unt i l t he pi l ot
bear i ng t ouches t he coun-
tertop surface. Keepi ng the router pressed
f l at agai nst t he edge, move t he t ool al ong
the counter
(/ei t).
139
GLOSSARY
A-B-C.D
Adjustable leveller: Any commercial
foot or leg attached to lower kitchen
cabinets to level and support them.
Auxiliary fence: A wooden attachment
to a tool's rip fence that serves to attach
accessories and prevent accidental
damage to the fence.
Backsplash: A continuation of the
countertop along the back wall; can be
part of the countertop itself or made
from tile orwood.
Biscuit: A thin oval wafer of com-
pressed wood that fits into a semicir-
cular slot cut by a plate joiner.
Blank A piece of solid or glued-up
wood used to create a furniture part.
Board-and-batten door: A door
made of boards fastened together
wi th l ap
j oi nts and hel d together
by a diagonal batten.
Board foot A unit of wood volume
measurement equivalent to a piece of
wood one inch thick, 12 inches long,
and 12 inches wide.
Caul: In veneering or gluing uP a
carcase, a board pl aced between
the clamps and the workpiece to dis-
tribute clamping pressure.
Chalk line: A length of twine loaded
with chalk dust used to mark long lines
that are normally either level or plumb.
Chamfer: A decorative bevel cut along
the edge of a workpiece.
Cheek The face of the projecting
tenon in a mortise-and-tenon
joint.
Cockbeading: A narrow decorative
molding applied to the inside edges
of a face frame or drawer opening.
Cope-and-stick
joint: A method of
joining stiles and rails in frame-and-
panel construction. Tongues in the
rails mesh with grooves in the stiles;
a decorative molding is cut along the
inside edge of the frame.
Counterbore: To drill a hole that per-
mits the head of a screw to sit below
the wood surface and be concealed
with a wood plug.
Countersink: To drill a hole that per-
mits the head of a screw to lie flush
with or slightlybelow a wood surface.
Dado: A rectangular channel cut
in a workpiece.
Dado head: A combination of blades
and cutters used to form dadoes and
grooves in wood. The assembly is
mounted on a table saw with two
blades separated by one to five cutters
to achieve the right width.
Drip edge: A raised profile at the edge
of a countertop that prevents spills'
E-F-G-H-I-l
Edgebanding: Strips of material used
to cover the edges of plywood and
composite boards; can be solid wood
or plastic laminate.
End grain: The arrangement and
direction of the wood fibers running
across the the ends of a board.
Face frame: A decorative wooden
frame fixed around the front of a
cabinet, providing extra rigidity to
the cabinet.
False front A piece of wood installed
over a drawer front, usually to conceal
the end grain of the sides or to create
a lipped front.
Featherboard: A piece of wood with
thin fingers or
"feathers"
along one end
to hold a workpiece securely against the
fence or table of a power tool.
Fence: An adjustable guide used to
keep the edge of a workpiece a set dis-
tance from the cutting edge of a tool.
Filler strip: A thin strip of either
wood or laminate-covered material
used to conceal gaps between cabinets.
Furring strip: A narrow length
of wood installed atop a lower cabi-
net to support the counter and
raise its height.
Glass-stop molding: Decorative strips
of wood used to hold panes of glass in
a cabinet door.
Glazingbars: Molded strips of wood
joined
by half-laps to hold several
panes ofglass in a single cabinet door.
Inset drawer: A drawer that fits flush
within a frameless cabinet.
Island: A freestanding cabinet or
cabinet run isolated from the walls
of a kitchen.
fig
A device for guiding a tool
or holding workpiece in position.
K-L-M-N-O-P-Q
Kickback The tendency of a
workpiece to be thrown back in
the direction ofthe operator ofa
woodworking machine.
Kickplate: The board that covers the
toe kick of a lower kitchen cabinet or
the exposed faces of a plinth.
Laminate trimmer: A lightweight
router used to trim plastic laminate
and solid wood edging flush with
its substrate.
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Lockmiter joinfiA joint
cut with a
special router bit that produces
an interlocking connection with
a mitered outside corner.
Melamine A popular brand of plas-
ti c l ami nate made from bonded
pl asti c, paper, and phenol i c resi n;
available in sheets or bonded to ply-
wood or particleboard.
Miter gauge: A device that slides in a
slot on a saw or router table, providing
support for the stock as it moves past
the blade or bit; can be adjusted to
different angles for miter cuts.
Mortise-and-tenon joint
A
joinery
technique in which a projecting tenon
cut in one board fits into a matching
hole, or mortise, in another.
Mortise: A hole cut into a piece of
wood to receive a tenon.
Nailer rails: Wooden rails attached
to the backs of cabinets that support
the cabinets when screwed to the
wall studs.
Overlaydrawer: A drawer that par-
tially or fully overlays the frame of a
face frame cabinet.
Panel saw: A track-mounted circular
saw used for accurate cuts oflarge
sheet goods such as plywood.
Plainsawn veneer: Veneer that
has been cut from the log in a flat
sheet; hardwood plywood with
plainsawn face veneer closely resem-
bles solid wood.
Plinth: A mitered wooden frame
that acts as a base for lower cabinets
or islands.
Push block or stick A device used to
feed a workpiece into a blade or cutter
to protect the operator's fingers.
R-S
Rabbeh A step-like cut in the edge
or end of a board; usually forms part
of a
joint.
Rail: The horizontal member of a
frame-and-panel assembly, See stile.
Ready-to-assemble (RTA)
fastener:
A type of threaded fastener with a
stout shaft and a narrow head; used
for fast assembly of cabinets.
Scribing: Marking a line with a com-
pass or scribing tool to copy the irreg-
ularity of a wall onto a cabinet or
counter where it butts against a wall.
Once the wood is planed or sanded
to this line, the cabinet or counter
will fit seamlessly against the wall.
Shim: A thin, wedge-shaped piece of
material used to level cabinets and fill
minor irregularities.
Shoulder: In a mortise-and-tenon
j oi nt,
the part of the tenon that i s
perpendicular to the cheek.
Solid-surface materiaL A composite
board made of cast acrylic and poly-
ester used for kitchen countertops;
sold under such names as Corian
and Avonite.
Stile: The vertical member of a frame-
and-panel assembly. See rail.
Storypole A long, thin piece of wood
with the measurements for a
proiect
indicated on its length.
Stud finder: A device that electronical-
Iy pinpoints the location of wall studs.
T.U-V.W-X.Y-Z
Thmbour door: A type of door made
from narrow slats attached to a flexible
canvas backing that slides in tracks
routed in the sides of the carcase.
Tearout: The tendency of a blade or
cutter to tear wood fibers.
Template A pattern used to guide a
tool in reproducing identical copies
oI a plece.
Tenon: A protrusion from the end of
a workpiece that fits into a mortise.
Three-wing slotting cutter: A piloted,
groove-cutting router bit.
Toe kick The recess running along
the bottom of a lower cabinet that
allows space for the feet of a person
standing before the cabinet.
Tongue-and-groove jointA joint
in
which a tongue cut in the edge or end
of one piece fits into a groove in the
mating piece.
Tiansfer scribe: A compass-like device
that transfers the profile of one surface
onto another.
Utilityhookup: The point where util-
ities such as water, sewage, and elec-
tricity are connected.
Wood movement: The shrinking
or swelling of wood in reaction to
changes in relative humidity.
Worktriangle: An ergonomic prin-
ciple measuring the efficiency of a
workspace that connects the three
most common
places
of work in
that space; in a kitchen, typically the
refrigerator, stove, and sink.
I4I
INDEX
A-B.C
Adjustable shelving
Shelfsupports, i8-i9
Shop-made shelf drilling
jigs
(Shop Ti p), 39
Appliance bays, 27, 38, 40- 4 I
Arts and crafts style, 16
Backsplashes
Ti L;, 121, 134- 135
Wooden, 136
Biscuit
joints, 29, 33- 34, 46- 47
Plate
joiner
stands, 52
Board-and-batten doors, 58, 60-61
Board.feet,32
Build It Yourself
Plate ioiner stands,52
Cabinetjacks,
gS
Cabinets
Dimensions, 19,20-22
See also Casework; Doors;
Hardware; Layout; Lower
cabinets; Upper cabinets
Casework,27,28
Gluing :up,46-47
Lower cases,29
Upper cases,28
Sie also
Joinery;
Lower cabinets;
Upper cabinets
Cockbeading, 53-54
Colonial style, I5
Countertops, 121
Backsplashes
ti l e, 121, 134-135
wooden, 136
Decorative edgings, 137- 1 i9
Installation, 123
plastic laminate countertoPs,
125-128, 137-139
pre-molded countertops,
132- 133
si nks, I24, 127,128
solid surface countertoPs,
129- 131, 139
Plastic laminate, l2l, 122,
125-128, 132-133
edgings, l37-139
Solid-surface, 120, l2l, 122,
129- 131
drip edges, 139
Wooden, 122, 123
Country style, 16
Crown molding, 16, 118-119
Making crown molding,
back endpaper
Cutting lists, 32
D-E-F
Dado ioints,
80
Double dado
joints, 8Q 84
Desi gn, 13
Arts and crafts style, 16
Colonial style, I5
Country style, i6
European style, 15
Shaker style, 14,16
Victorian style, 14, 16
Doors, 57
Board-and-b atten, 5 8, 60- 6 l
Frame-and-p anel, 5 8, 62- 6 5
arched panels,67
cope-and-stick
joints,
66
raised panels, 62
Glass panel, 57,58, 59, 69
glazingbars, 70-72
Hinges,73-76
Mounting techniques, 59, 73
flush-mounted doors, 76
overlay doors,74-75
Veneered-panel, 58, 59, 68
Double dado
joints, 80, 84
Drawers. T9
Assembly,85-86
Bottom panels, 85, 86
Di mensi ons,82
Eliminating drawer rattle
(Shop Tip), 86
False fronts, 78, 79, 93-96
securing false fronts with
double-faced tape
(Shop Ti p), 96
sizing false fronts
(Shop Ti p), 94
Inset, 78, 80,93-94
]oinery,
80
double dado
joints, 84 84
lock miter
joints,
84 83
through dovetail
joints, 80, 83
Knobs andpulls,9j,97
Layout,82
Materials, Sl
Mount i ng, 79, 87
bottom-mounted slides,
81. 87-88
building up face frame cabinets
(Shop Tip), 90
side-mounted slides, 8 1, 89- 90
wooden runners, 81, 91-92
Overlay, 79,80,95-96
Drawer slides, 38, 8l
Drip edges, 139
Edge treatments,44
eommercial edge banding, 49
Countertops
decorative edgings, 1 37- 1 39
drip edges, -139
Solid wood, 44, 48
European cup hinges, 56,74-75
European style, 15
Face frames, 28, 50- 51, 53- 55
Building up face frame cabinets
for mounting drawers
(Shop Tip), 90
Making wood plugs (Shop Tip), 55
Fasteners
Concealment
making wood plugs
(Shop Ti p),55
Knockdown fasteners,
front
endpaper
Ready-to-assemble
( RIA), 32
Floor pians, 12
Flush-front drawers.
See Inset drawers
Frame-and-panel doors, 58, 62-65
Arched panels,67
Cope-and-stick
joints, 66
Raised panels,62
G-H-I
Gl ass panel doors, 57,58,59,69
Glazing bars,70-72
Glazing bars,70-72
Handles, 16
Drawers,93,97
Hansen, Sven, 10-l l
Hardware
Doors, 57
Drawer slides, 38
bottom-mounted slides,
81. 87-88
side-mounted slides, 81, 89- 90
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Knobs and pul l s, 16,93,97
Shelf supports, 38-39
See also Hinges
Hinges, 16,73
European cup hinges, 56,74-75
European face frame hinges, 75
Inset drawers, 78, 80, 93-94
I.K-L
IigS
Cabi net
i acks,98,
117
Circular'saws
panel-cutting
attachments, 26
scoring saw attachments, 33
Drills
shop-made shelf drilling
jigs
(Shop
Tip), 39
Plate
joiners
plate joiner
stands, 52
Temporary support rails, 115
loinery,29
Biscuit joints,
33-34, 46-47
plate joiner
stands, 52
Board-and-batten doors, 60
Cope-and-stick joints,
66
Dado
joints,
80
Double dado
joints,
8Q 84
Lock miter joints,
29, 36, 80, 83
Through do-setail joints,
8Q 83
Tongue-and-groove joints,
35- 36
Kickplates, 1 10- 1 1 1
Kitchen islands. 112
Plinths, 100, 101, I 12- 1 14
Knobs, l6
Drawers,93,97
Layout, 13, -18
Drawers,82
Proportions and dimensions,
19,20-22
Work triangles, 17
Lazy Susans, 38,42-43
Legs
Leveler legs, 44- 45, 1 00
Levelling techniques, 100, 102
Lock miter
j
oints, 29, 36, 80, 83
Lower cabinets
Casework,29
Installation, 99, 100, 104-106
adjacent walls, 1 06- I 08
levelling techniques, 100,
102- 103
making thick shims
(Shop
Ti p), 107
utility hookups, 108- 109
wall studs, 103
Kickplates, 1 10- I I I
Layout, 19, 20-22, 24-25
Lumber
Boardfeet,32
Cutting lists, 32
Drawers, 81
Pl ywood,30, 31, 81
M-N-O-P-Q-R-S
Mol di ngs, l 6
See a[so Crown molding
Overlay drawers, 79, 80, 95-96
Panels
Arched panels,67
Raised panels,62
Peninsulas. See Kitchen islands
Plastic laminate countertops,
t2l, 1 22, I 25- 1 29, 1 32- 1 33
Edgi ngs, l 37-139
Pl ate
i oi ner
stands,52
Plate
joints.
See Biscuit
joints
Pl umbi ng,13
Sinks, 124, 127,128
Utility hookups, 108- 109
Pl ywood, 30,31,81
Santarsiero, Tom,6-7
Shaker style, 14, 16
Sheet goods, 30
Pl ywood, 30,31,81
Reducing tearout, 33
See also Plastic laminate
countertoDs
Shelf supports, SA-SS
Shelves
Adjustable shelving supports,
38-39
Slide-out shelves
(Shop
Tip), 43
Shims
Making thick shims
(Shop
Ti p), 107
Shop Tips
Cabinet installation, 107, 117
Casework, 39,43,55
Drawers, 86,90,94,96
Silvers, Don, 8-9
Si nks, 124, 127, 128
Sink trays, 77
Solid-surface countertops,
120,127, 122, 129-131
Drip edges, 139
Story poles, 13,23-25
T-U*V
Tambour slats.40-41
Through dovetail
joints,
8Q 83
Tiles
Backsplashes, 121, 1 34- I 35
Countertops, I22
Tilt-out sinktrays, TT
Tongue-and-groove joints,
29, 35- 36
Tools
Circular saws
panel-cutting attachments, 26
scoring saw attachments, 33
Drills
shop-made shelf drilling jigs
(Shop
Ti p), 39
Laminate trimmers, 44
Measuring tools, back endpaper
Plate joiner
stands, 52
Routers
bits, back endpaper
Table saws
blades,
front
endpaper
Tiansfer scribes. 99
Upper cabinets
Casework,28
Installation, 98,99,
100, t } t , 115- 116
beveled nailers, 117
commercial cabinet supports,
1 1 5
crown mol di ng, I 18-119
making thick shims
(Shop
Ti p), l 0Z
shop-made cabinet
jacks
(Shop
Ti p), l l Z
Layout, 19, 20-22, 24-25
Utility hookups, 108- 109
Veneered-panel doors, 58, 59, 68
Victorian sIyle, 14, 16
W-X-Y-Z
Wood. 30
See also Lumber; Sheet goods
Wood plugs (Shop
Tip), 55
Work triangles, 17
r43
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The editors wish to thank the
following
LAYOUTAND DESIGN
Lee Valley Tools, Ltd., ottawa, ont.; Stanley Tools, Division of the Stanley works,
'
New Britain, CT; Tritech Industries, St-Lambert,
Que.
CASEWORK
Adjustable Clamp Co., Chicago, IL; American Clanryinq
(Canada) Inc., Cambridge Ont.;
6lack & Decker/Elu Power Tools, Towson, MD; Bradbury Industries, Toronto, Ont.;
canadian Industrial Distributors, Inc., Montreal,
Que.;
cMT Tools, Oldsmar, FL;
Delta International Machinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph, Ont.; Freud Westmore Tools, Ltd.,
Mississausa, Ont.i Hitachi Power Tools U'S.A. Ltd'' Norcross, GA;
Julius
Blum Inc., Stanley] NC; Lee Valley Tools, Ltd., ottawa, on-t.; Modulus, St-Hubert,
Que.;
Les Realisations Loeven-Morcel, Montreal,
Que.;
Sears, Roebuck and Co.' Chicago, IL;
Senco Products, Inc., Cincinnati, OH; Steiner-Lamello A'G.
Switzerland/Colonial Saw Co., Kingston, MA; Tool Trend Ltd', Concord, Ont'
DOORS
Adiustable Clamp Co., Chicago, IL; American Tool Cos., Lincoln, NE; CMT Tools, Oldsmar, FL;
Delia Internationil MachineryTPort.r-Cable, Guelph, Ont.; Great Neck Saw Mfrs. lnc.
(Buck
Bros.
Division), Millbury, VA;
Julius
Blum Inc., Stanley,.NC; Sears, Roebuck an$_Cg., Chicago, IL;
Steiner-Lamello A.G. Switzerland/Colonial Saw Co., kingston, MA; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord, Ont.
DRAWERS
Adi ustabl e Cl amp Co., Chi cago, IL; Del ta Internati onal Machi nery/Porter-Cabl e, Guel ph' Ont.;
David Keller, Petaluma, cA;
iulius
BIum Inc., stanley, NC; Sears, Roebuck and co., chicago, lL;
StanleyTools, Division of the StanleyWorks, New Brilain, CT; Steiner-Lamello A.G.
Switlerland/Colonial Saw Co., Kingston, MA; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord, On1
INSTALLING CABINETS
Adiustable Clamp Co., Chicago, IL; Delta International Machinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph, Ont.;
'
Hi tachi i ' ower Tool i U.S.A. Ltd., Norcross, GA;
Jul i us
Bl um Inc' , Stanl ey, NC;
Lee Valley Tools, Ltd., Ottawa, Ont.; Ornamental Mouldings,.High Point, NC; Sears,
Roebuck and Co., Chicago, IL; Stanley Tools, Division of the Stanley-Works, New Britain' CT;
Steiner-Lamello A.G. Switzerlind/Colonial Saw Co., Kingston, MA; Tritech Industries, St-Lambert,
Que'
COI.]NTERTOPS
Adjustable Clamp Co., Chicago, IL; Avonite, Inc., Sylmar,. CA; Black &_Decker/Elu Power Tools,
TowJon, MD; CMt Tools, Oldimar, FL; Delta lnternational Machinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph, Ont';
'
Lee Valley Tools, Ltd., Ottawa, Ont.; Sears, Roebuck and Co., Chicago, IL;
Senco Products, Inc., Cincinnati, OH
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The
following
persons also assisted in the preparation ofthis book:
Lorraine Dor6, Kerry & Victoria McCluggage' Scott Yetman
PICTURE CREDITS
Cover Robert Chartier
6,7 Carolyn
Jones
8,9 Gary Moss
10,11 Michael Tincher
14,15,27,38,79 Brian Vanden Brink
87 Courtesy
fulius
BIum, Inc.
112 Brian Vanden Brink
I l8 Courtesy Ornamental Mouldings
l20,l2l Brian Vanden Brink
l 3l Courtesy Avoni te, Inc.
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WORKSHOP GUI DE
TABLE SAW BLADES F()R KITCHEN CABINETS
Combination blade
Al l -purpoee eaw
blade; can rip and
crogocut l umber
Melamine blade
9pecialieed blade ueed
f or cut Lt nq l amt nat ee
, UCn aA mel Amt ne-
c ove re ti pa rLt c le boa rd
Plywood blade
Hae many emal l
teel,h tthaL make a
cmoot h, apl i nt er-
free cut tn plywood
Dado blade
Two blades are fitted
ort ei rhe" ei de of chi pper
bladea, which are added
a9 nece' sary T. o vary
t he wi dLh of Lhe cut

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