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Foundation Course in Humanities and Social Sciences
Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA)
Course Code: BSHF-101
Assignment Code: BSHF-101/AST/TMA/2013
Total Marks: 100

A. Descriptive Category Questions (DCQ) answer any two in 500 words each:
1. Analyze the evolution of man as a tool making animal. 20
Solution: As said above answer only 2 below are the solved answer


2. Does the post Industrial society differ from the Industrial society? Explain 20
Solution: Yes the Post Industrial society is differing from the Industrial society because of the
following reason:

* Limited production (i.e. artisanship vs. mass production)
* Primarily an agricultural economy
* Limited division of labor. In pre-industrial societies, production was relatively simple and the number
of specialized crafts was limited.
* Limited variation of social classes
* ParochialismSocial theories hold that communications were limited between human communities in
pre-industrial societies. Few had the opportunity to see or hear beyond their own village. In contrast,
industrial societies grew with the help of faster means of communication, having more information at
hand about the world, allowing knowledge transfer and cultural diffusion between them.
* Pre-industrial societies developed largely in rural communities. Capitalism developed largely in urban
1. Within the economy, there is a transition from goods production to the provision of services.
Production of such goods as clothing and steel declines and services such as selling hamburgers and
offering advice on investments increase. Although services predominate in a wide range of sectors,
health, education, research, and government services are the most decisive for a post-industrial society.
2. The importance of blue-collar, manual work (e.g., assembly line workers) declines and professional
(e.g. lawyers, doctors, and engineers) and technical work (e.g. computer programmers) come to
predominate. Of special importance is the rise of scientists (e.g., specialized engineers, such as genetic
or electric). Many mining towns and similar settlements face large scale unemployment as a result of the
increasing importance of both theoretical knowledge with a simultaneous decline in manufacturing and
increasing importance of environmentalism. Many industrial towns residents are on benefits, such as
the dole.
3. Instead of practical know-how, theoretical knowledge is increasingly essential in a post-industrial
society. Such knowledge is seen as the basic source of innovation (e.g., the knowledge created by those
scientists involved in the Human Genome Project is leading to new ways of treating many diseases).
Advances in knowledge also lead to the need for other innovations such as ways of dealing with ethical
questions raised by advances in cloning technology. All of this involved an emphasis on theoretical
rather than empirical knowledge and on the codification of knowledge. The exponential growth of
theoretical and codified knowledge, in all its varieties, is central to emergence of the post-industrial
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4. Post-industrial society seeks to assess the impacts of the new technologies and, where necessary, to
exercise control over them. The hope is, for example, to better monitor things like nuclear power plants
and to improve them so that accidents like that at Three-Mile Island or Chernobyl can be prevented in
the future. The goal is a surer and more secure technological world. The doctrine of the precautionary
principle is sometimes used in preventing the worst aspects of new technologies, such as cloning and
genetic engineering, when there is no evidence of their negative impact.
5. To handle such assessment and control, and more generally the sheer complexity of post-industrial
society, new intellectual technologies are developed and implemented. They include cybernetics, Game
theory and Information theory.
6. A new relationship is forged in the post-industrial society between scientists and the new
technologies they create, as well as systematic technological growth, lies at the base of post-industrial
society. This leads to the need for more universities and university-based student. In fact, the university
is crucial to post-industrial society. The university produced the experts who can create, guide, and
control the new and dramatically changing technologies


3. Analyse the role of Gandhi in the National Movement. 20
Solution: The nationalist movement grew into a wide spread mass anti-imperialist movement at the end
of the First World War. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi came into prominence at this time and became
the undisputed leader of the nationalist movement. Powerful mass movements were launched under
his leadership. These involved defiance of laws, peaceful demonstrations, boycott of educational
institutions, boycott of courts, boycott of educational institutions, picketing of shops selling liquor and
foreign goods, nonpayment of taxes and the closing of vital business. These non-violent but
revolutionary methods influenced millions of people belonging to all sections of society and infused in
them bravery and self-confidence. Millions now braved the repression resorted by the govt boldly
courted imprisonment and faced lathicharges and firings.Gandhiji lived the simple life of an ascetic and
talked to the people in a language they could understand. He came to be known to the people as
Mahatma Gandhi.

Gandhiji made social report a part of the programme of the nationalist movement. His greatest
achievement in the field of social reform was the campaign against inhuman institution of untouchability
which had degraded millions of Indians. His other achievement was in the field of cottage industries. He
saw in the charkha, the spinning wheel, the salvation of the village people and its promotion became
part of the congress programme.In addition to infusing people with the spirit of nationalism it provided
employment to millions and created a large group of people who were ready to throw themselves into
the struggle and court imprisonment. The charkha became so important that it eventually became a part
of the flag of the Indian National Congress.

Gandhiji devoted himself to the cause of Hindu-Muslim unity .He regarded communalism as anti-
national and inhuman. Under his leadership the unity of the nationalist movement was secured and the
people worked hard for independence


4. How do you assess the performance of Indian Economy during the initial years of
Globalization (since 1991)? 20
Solution: As said above answer only 2
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B. Middle Category Questions (MCQ) answer any four in 250 words each:
5. Discuss the achievements of Renaissance in the field of art and architecture. 12
Solution: Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early
17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of
certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance
architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Developed first
in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the Renaissance style quickly spread to
other Italian cities. The style was carried to France, Germany, England, Russia and other parts of Europe
at different dates and with varying degrees of impact.

Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as
they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman
architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels,
as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more
complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval building


6. Has the Indian Economy made any progress in the field of Distributive justice? 12
Solution: As said above answer only 4

7. Discuss the directive Principles of State policies. Discuss the fundamental Rights
guaranteed by the Indian Constitution. How are the different? 12
Solution: As said above answer only 4


8. What role do non-state actors play in the democratic process? Discuss. 12
Solution: Non-State Actors (NSA's) continue to play a crucial role in the democratic process of any
country. For Pacific NSA's, their role as a partner in Pacific development is highlighted in the Cotonou
Agreement. Development driven actions under the 10th Development Fund (2008-2013), are sourced
from the European Development Fund (EDF) and the budget of the European Commission. Pacific
Regional Programme: Under the Pacific Regional Programme the EU has overall allocated a total of
472.9 million euro (in total) to be implemented through the Pacific Island Forum Secretariat (PIFS) for
the period 2008-2013. For regional NSA's: the allocation is 3 to 4 million euro. Table A below (I have
requested SOCS for this table; allocate space for this) has a breakdown of the allocation for NSA's for
country specific programmes under the non focal sectors for the period 2008-2013.

EU maintains dialogue with Non State Actors: In recognition of civil society's role under the Cotonou
Agreement, the EU through its Delegations in Fiji, Samoa, and New Caledonia, continues to maintain
regular dialogue with civil service partners directly, or through its own delegations within the region
disseminating key and relevant information informing NSA's on EU policies and strategies for the Pacific
and call for proposals, to enhance their work on the ground as outlined in the Cotonou Agreement.

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Non-state actors (NSAs) have a stake in the healthy functioning of the multilateral trading system. NSAs
are expected to present their concerns to the WTO through their respective governments. In recent
years the WTO has made efforts to better reach out to NSAs while preserving its fundamental nature as
an intergovernmental organization. For example, the WTO Public Forum is open to all participants, most
WTO documents are publicly available, and regular WTO briefings are held for non-governmental
organizations (NGOs) and parliamentarians. Hearings in some dispute settlement proceedings have also
been opened to the public upon agreement among the parties. Despite these developments, the
effectiveness of NSA participation remains debatable.


9. What role does coordination play in the management of organizations? Discuss. 12
10. Discuss the concept of governance. Is fostering openness in the system a part of
good governance. 12

11. How do you look at the concept of Human Security? Discuss. 12
Solution: Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose
proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for
security should be the individual rather than the state. Human security holds that a people-centered
view of security is necessary for national, regional and global stability.

The concept emerged from a post-Cold War, multi-disciplinary understanding of security involving a
number of research fields, including development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and
human rights. The United Nations Development Programme's 1994 Human Development Report is
considered a milestone publication in the field of human security, with its argument that insuring
"freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of
global insecurity.

Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness, that it has become little
more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes, and that it does not help the
research community understand what security means or help decision makers to formulate good
policies. In order for human security to challenge global inequalities, there has to be cooperation
between a countrys foreign policy and its approach to global health. However, the interest of the state
has continued to overshadow the interest of the people. For instance, Canadas foreign policy, three
Ds, has been criticized for emphasizing defense more than development

12. Discuss the concept of Digital Divide. How do you think it can be bridged? 12

Solution: Concept of Digital Divide
Broadly speaking, the difference is not necessarily determined by the access to the Internet, but by
access to ICT (Information and Communications Technologies) and to Media that the different segments
of society can use. With regards to the Internet, the access is only one aspect, other factors such as the
quality of connection and related services should be considered. Today the most discussed issue is the
availability of the access at an affordable cost and quality.

The problem is often discussed in an international context, indicating certain countries are far more
equipped than other developing countries to exploit the benefits from the rapidly expanding Internet.
Here is the latest State of the Internet Report from Akamai for Q1 2012, showing average and maximum
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connection speeds, Internet Penetration and Broadband adaption, Mobile usage, as well as trends in
this data over time.

The digital divide is not indeed a clear single gap which divides a society into two groups. Researchers
report that disadvantage can take such forms as lower-performance computers, lower-quality or high
price connections (i.e. narrowband or dialup connection), difficulty of obtaining technical assistance, and
lower access to subscription-based contents.

Digital Divide Bridging the Gap
The idea that some information and communication technologies are vital to quality civic life is not new.
Some suggest that the Internet and other ICTs are somehow transforming society, improving our mutual
understanding, eliminating power differentials, realizing a truly free and democratic world society, and
other benefits.

In many countries, access to the telephone system is considered such a vital element that governments
implement various policies to offer affordable telephone service. Unfortunately some countries lack
sufficient telephone lines.

Literacy is arguably another such element, although it is not related to any new technologies or latest
technological devices. It is a very widely shared view in many societies that being literate is essential to
one's career, to self-guided learning, to political participation, and to Internet usage.


C. Short Category Questions (SCQ) 6+6
a) Secularism
Solution: Secularism is the principle of separation of government institutions, and the persons
mandated to represent the State, from religious institutions and religious dignitaries. In one sense,
secularism may assert the right to be free from religious rule and teachings, and the right to freedom
from governmental imposition of religion upon the people within a state that is neutral on matters of
belief. (See also separation of church and state and Lacit.) In another sense, it refers to the view that
human activities and decisions, especially political ones, should be unbiased by religious influence.Some
scholars are now arguing that the very idea of secularism will change.

Secularism draws its intellectual roots from Greek and Roman philosophers such as Marcus Aurelius and
Epicurus; medieval Muslim polymaths such as Ibn Rushd; Enlightenment thinkers such as Denis Diderot,
Voltaire, Baruch Spinoza, John Locke, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and Thomas Paine; and more
recent freethinkers, agnostics, and atheists such as Robert Ingersoll and Bertrand Russell.
The purposes and arguments in support of secularism vary widely. In European laicism, it has been
argued that secularism is a movement toward modernization, and away from traditional religious values
(also known as secularization). This type of secularism, on a social or philosophical level, has often
occurred while maintaining an official state church or other state support of religion. In the United
States, some argue that state secularism has served to a greater extent to protect religion and the
religious from governmental interference, while secularism on a social level is less prevalent. Within
countries as well, differing political movements support secularism for varying reasons.


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b) Bharatnatyam
Solution: Bharatanatyam is a classical Indian dance form originating in the South Indian state of Tamil
Nadu. This dance form denotes various 19th and 20th century reconstructions of Sadir, the art of temple
dancers. Sadir in turn, is derived from ancient dance forms that include some acrobatic karanas.
Bharatnatyam is usually accompanied by Karnataka Sangeetha. It has its inspirations from the sculptures
of the ancient temple of Chidambaram. Bharatanatyam, as the name depicts is the combination of:
'Bha' - Bhavam (means expression), 'Ra' - Ragam (means music), 'Ta - Talam (means beat or rhythm) and
Natyam (means dance) in Tamil. Bharatanatyam is a reworked dance-form from the traditional "sadir"
known for its grace, purity, tenderness, and sculpturesque poses. Today, it is one of the most popular
and widely performed dance styles and is practiced by male and female dancers all over the world.


c) Ellora Paintings
Solution: As said above answer only 2

d) Kyoto Protocol
Solution: As said above answer only 2

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