PRESTRESSING

TECHNOLOGY
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POST-STRESSING TECHNOLOGY
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INTRODUCTION PAGE 03
POST-TENSIONING DESIGN DATA PAGE 04
MULTI-STRAND POST-TENSIONING PAGE 05
SLAB POST-TENSIONING PAGE 17
MULTI-WIRE POST-TENSIONING PAGE 28
BAR POST-TENSIONING PAGE 31
GROUND ANCHOR SYSTEMS PAGE 35
EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING PAGE 38
CABLE STAY SYSTEMS PAGE 40
INCREMENTAL LAUNCHING SYSTEMS PAGE 44
HEAVY LIFTING SYSTEMS PAGE 45
LOAD HANDLING SYSTEMS PAGE 46
Data contained herein is subject to change without notice. Use of information and details presented in this document should
be verified by a qualified engineer for suitability to specific applications.
Emirates Tower - Dubai
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Wandoo Concrete Gravity Structure - Western Australia
INTRODUCTION
Structural Systems is a specialist professional Engineering
and Contracting Company, which provides innovative
skills and services to the Construction and Mining
Industries both nationally and internationally. Operations
commenced as BBR Australia Pty Ltd in 1961 and
became the public company, Structural Systems Limited
in 1987.
Our innovative design, advanced construction techniques
and effective project management skills make Structural
Systems the leader in the design and installation of
prestressing systems.
The wide range of services and systems offered in
this brochure are readily available through our network
of offices and a Structural Systems representative is
available to talk directly to you regarding your project.
Eleanor Schonell Bridge - Queensland
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PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
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POST-TENSIONING DESIGN DATA
STRAND PROPERTIES
STANDARD NOMINAL
DIAMETER
mm
STEEL AREA
mm
2
MASS
kg/lm
STRAND
MBL / Fm
(7)
kN
MIN. PROOF
LOAD
kN
STRAND
RELAXATION
(6)
(%)
MODULUS OF
ELASTICITY
MPa
AS 4672
(1)
12.7 super
15.2 super
15.2 EHT
100.1
143.3
143.3
0.786
1.125
1.125
184
250
261
156.4
(4)
212.5
(4)
221.9
(4)
2.5
2.5
2.5
180 to 205x10
3
180 to 205x10
3
180 to 205x10
3
BS 5896
(2)
12.9 super
15.7 super
100
150
0.785
1.180
186
265
158.1
(5)
225.3
(5)
2.5
2.5
180 to 205x10
3
180 to 205x10
3
prEN 10138-3
(3)
15.2 regular
15.7 regular
15.2 super
15.7 super
140
150
140
150
1.093
1.172
1.093
1.172
248
266
260
279
213.0
(5)
229.0
(5)
224.0
(5)
240.0
(5)
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
180 to 205x10
3
180 to 205x10
3
180 to 205x10
3
180 to 205x10
3
Notes: • All strands are 7 wire low relaxation steel.
WIRE PROPERTIES
STANDARD NOMINAL
DIAMETER
mm
STEEL AREA
mm
2
MASS
kg/lm
WIRE
MBL
(7)
kN
MIN. PROOF
LOAD
kN
STRAND
RELAXATION
(6)
(%)
MODULUS OF
ELASTICITY
MPa
AS 4672
(1)
7 LR 38.5 0.302 64.3 54.7
(4)
2.0 195 to 205x10
3
BS 5896
(2)
7 LR 38.5 0.302 64.3 53.4
(5)
2.5 195 to 205x10
3
Notes: (1) Australian / New Zealand Standard AS 4672 Steel Prestressing Materials.
(2) British Standard BS 5896 High Tensile steel wire and strand for the Prestressing of Concrete.
(3) European Standard prEN 10138-3 Prestressing steels - Part 3: Strand.
(4) At 0.2% Offset. Refer AS 4672.
(5) At 0.1% Offset. Refer BS 5896 or prEN 10138-3 as applicable.
(6) Relaxation after 1000 hrs at 0.7 x Breaking Load.
(7) MBL = Minimum Breaking Load (to AS 4672 and BS 5896). Fm = Characteristic Force (to prEN 10138-3).
MAXIMUM JACKING FORCES - RECOMMENDED VALUES
SSL POST TENSIONING SYSTEM STANDARD
AS 3600 BS 8110
BBR CONA MULTI SYSTEM
BBR VT CONA CMI SYSTEM
SLAB SYSTEM
WIRE SYSTEM
BAR SYSTEM
80% MBL
80% MBL
85% MBL
80% MBL
75% MBL
80% MBL
80% MBL
80% MBL
80% MBL
75% MBL
Notes: • In some cases higher or lower jacking forces are permitted by local standards.
• MBL = Minimum Breaking Load of tendon.
PRESTRESSING LOSSES - TYPICAL DATA
SYSTEM BBR CONA MULTI BBR VT CONA CMI SLAB WIRE BAR
ANCHORAGE & JACKING LOSS (%) 2 to 4 0.9 to 1.2 2 to 5 0 to 1 0 to 1
DRAW-IN ALLOWANCE (mm) 6 6 6 2 to 3 1 to 2
D
U
C
T

F
R
I
C
T
I
O
N

μ
Round Steel Duct
Flat Steel Duct
Polyethylene Duct
Greased & Sheathed
0.15 to 0.20
0.10 to 0.15
0.20 to 0.22
0.10 to 0.15
0.15 to 0.20
0.20
0.10 to 0.15
0.12 to 0.16
0.10 to 0.15
0.15 to 0.20
0.10 to 0.15
0.15
T
E
N
D
O
N

W
O
B
B
L
E

β
(
k
)

r
a
d
/
m
Round Steel Duct ≤ 50mm
Round Steel Duct > 50mm
Flat Steel Duct
Greased & Sheathed
0.016 to 0.024
0.008 to 0.016
0.006
0.006
0.016 to 0.024
0.016
0.008 to 0.012
0.008 to 0.016
0.008
Notes: • To reduce excess friction, it may be possible to flush the tendon with water or water soluble oil.
• If the duct or strand has a film or rust or the ducts are full of water, the friction values can increase significantly.
MULTI-STRAND POST-TENSIONING
MULTI-STRAND POST-TENSIONING
Structural Systems have two distinct systems available
for multi-strand applications. These systems are BBR
Cona Multi, and BBR VT Cona CMI.
BBR CONA MULTI
The BBR Cona Multi has been offered for the last 40
years and is available in standardised tendon sizes
from:
• 7 strands up to 61 strands for 12.7mm and 12.9mm
strand, or
• 4 strands up to 55 strands for 15.2mm and 15.7mm
strand.
The BBR Cona Multi can be used with galvanised steel
and polyethylene ducting. The system is a bonded
system with the ducting being pressure filled with a
cementitious grout.
Standard applications use the M1 range, with the M3
range being used for cryogenic applications, and other
specialist applications. Please consult SSL for details on
which system best suits your applications.
BBR VT CONA CMI
The BBR VT Cona CMI is a revolutionary, state of the art,
bonded, post-tensioning system incorporating world’s
best practice, and is available in standard tendon sizes
from:
• 4 strands up to 61 strands for 15.2mm and 15.7mm
strand.
The system has been granted European Technical
Approval in accordance with the testing procedures
contained within ETAG013 and is CE marked.
These tests included static tests,
fatigue tests, load transfer and
cryogenic tests.
European Technical Approval provides clear independent
review, full and complete system testing to the highest
European standard, quality assurance, and independent
auditing of all systems components. Every product
is tested to the same standards and afterwards an
independent auditor ensures that what is delivered
and installed on site fully complies with that which was
tested.
On completion of the tests, the approval body evaluated
the test results, drawings, specifications and the complete
system. The package was then circulated to all member
states of the EU for ratification.
Copies of the BBR VT European Approval Documents
are available for download from www.bbrnetwork.com
and www.structuralsystems.com.au.
The BBR VT Cona CMI has significant advantages over
the BBR Cona Multi as well as significant competitive
advantage over other ETAG approved systems. These
advantages include:
• Less space is required in the anchor zone which
results in less concrete, slimmer structures and less
eccentricity in the anchors.
• Significantly lower concrete strength prior to
stressing resulting in shorter construction cycles.
• Less reinforcement in the anchorage zone resulting
in time and cost savings.
European Approval ETA - Testng of Anchor Head
BBR CONA MULTI - M1
BBR VT CONA
CMI
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TECHNICAL DATA OF ANCHORAGES
BBR VT CONA CMI
STRAND SIZE BBR VT CONA CMI
15.2mm / 15.7mm
Anchorage Unit
Maximum No. Strands
406
4
706
7
1206
12
1906
19
2206
22
2706
27
3106
31
DIMENSIONS (mm)
Recess - Inner
Recess - Outer
Recess Depth
200 x 200
250 x 250
130
240 x 240
290 x 290
135
295 x 295
350 x 350
140
350 x 350
400 x 400
160
380 x 380
420 x 430
170
430 x 430
480 x 480
180
430 x 430
480 x 480
185
STRESSING ANCHORAGE RECESS DETAILS
STRESSING AND FIXED ANCHORAGE FIXED COUPLER FK CENTRE AND EDGE DISTANCES
BBR VT Cona CMI (Max no of Strands) 4 7 12
STRand mm
2
140 150 140 150 140 150
CRoSS SeCTIonal aRea mm
2
560 600 980 1050 1680 1800
ChaRaCT. TenSIle STRengTh R
m
MPa 1770 1860 1770 1860 1770 1860 1770 1860 1770 1860 1770 1860
ChaRaCT. MaxIMuM FoRCe F
m
kN 992 1040 1064 1116 1736 1820 1862 1953 2976 3120 3192 3348
BBR VT Cona CMI (Max no of Strands) 4 7 12
helIx and addITIonal ReInFoRCeMenT
MIn. ConCReTe STRengTh (Cyl.) f
cm.0
MPa 19 23 28 31 35 19 23 28 31 35 19 23 28 31 35
helIx
ouTeR dIaMeTeR mm 180 150 150 150 230 200 200 180 180 330 280 280 260 260
BaR dIaMeTeR mm 14 12 12 12 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14
lengTh, appRox. mm 182 181 216 216 232 232 277 277 277 332 332 332 382 282
pITCh mm 50 50 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 50 50 50 50 50
nuMBeR oF pITCheS 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 8 6
dISTanCe E mm 15 15 15 15 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 20 20
addITIonal ReInFoRCeMenT
nuMBeR oF STIRRupS 3 3 4 3 5 4 3 3 4 7 6 5 5 6
BaR dIaMeTeR mm 12 12 10 10 14 14 14 14 14 12 14 16 16 14
SpaCIng mm 60 55 40 50 55 60 65 65 60 60 55 70 65 50
dISTanCe FRoM anChoR plaTe F mm 30 30 30 30 33 33 33 33 33 35 35 35 35 35
ouTeR dIMenSIonS BxB mm 220 200 180 170 290 270 240 230 220 390 350 320 310 290
CenTRe and edge SpaCIng
MIn. CenTRe SpaCIng a
c
,b
c
mm 235 215 195 190 310 285 260 250 240 405 370 340 325 310
MIn. edge dISTanCe (pluS C) a
e
’,b
e
’ mm 110 100 90 85 145 135 120 115 110 195 175 160 155 145
dIMenSIonS oF anChoRageS
anChoR dIaMeTeR D
A
mm 130 170 225
anChoR lengTh L
A
mm 327 454 627
CoupleR FK dIaMeTeR D
FK
mm 185 205 240
CoupleR FK lengTh L
FK
mm 945 1152 1435
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MULTI STRAND POST-TENSIONING
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BBR VT CONA CMI (Max No. of Strands) 19 22 27 31
Strand mm
2
140 150 140 150 140 150 140 150
CroSS SeCtional area mm
2
2660 2850 3080 3300 3780 4050 4340 4650
CharaCt. tenSile Strength R
m
MPa 1770 1860 1770 1860 1770 1860 1770 1860 1770 1860 1770 1860 1770 1860 1770 1860
CharaCt. MaxiMuM ForCe F
m
kN 4712 4940 5054 5301 5456 5720 5852 6138 6696 7020 7182 7533 7688 8060 8246 8649
BBR VT CONA CMI (Max No. of Strands) 19 22 27 31
helix and additional reinForCeMent
Min. ConCrete Strength (Cyl.) f
cm.0
MPa 19 23 28 31 35 19 23 28 31 35 19 23 28 31 35 19 23 28 31 35
helix
outer diaMeter mm 420 360 360 330 330 475 420 360 360 330 520 475 430 420 360 560 520 475 430 430
Bar diaMeter mm 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14
length, approx. mm 457 457 432 432 382 482 482 482 482 382 532 532 532 427 432 532 532 582 467 432
pitCh mm 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 40 50 50 50 50 40 50
nuMBer oF pitCheS 9.5 9.5 9 9 8 10 10 10 10 8 11 11 11 11 9 11 11 12 12 9
diStanCe E mm 27 27 27 27 27 31 31 31 31 31 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35
additional reinForCeMent
nuMBer oF StirrupS 7 7 7 7 7 8 7 7 7 8 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8
Bar diaMeter mm 16 16 16 16 16 16 20 20 20 16 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
SpaCing mm 65 65 65 65 65 65 75 70 65 55 80 80 75 70 60 85 75 70 65 60
diStanCe FroM anChor plate F mm 42 42 42 42 42 46 46 46 46 46 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
outer diMenSionS BxB mm 490 450 410 390 370 530 480 440 420 400 590 540 490 470 440 630 580 530 500 480
Centre and edge SpaCing
Min. Centre SpaCing a
c
,b
c
mm 510 465 425 410 390 550 500 460 440 420 610 555 505 485 460 650 595 545 520 495
Min. edge diStanCe (pluS C) a
e
’,b
e
’ mm 245 225 205 195 185 265 240 220 210 200 295 270 245 235 220 315 290 265 250 240
diMenSionS oF anChorageS
anChor diaMeter D
A
mm 280 310 360 360
anChor length L
A
mm 744 946 1090 975
Coupler FK diaMeter D
FK
mm 290 310 390 390
Coupler FK length L
FK
mm 1600 1821 2466 2242
TECHNICAL DATA OF ANCHORAGES
Structural Systems has gained certification
from BBR as a ‘PT Specialist Company’
authorised to install the BBR VT Cona CMI
systems and all other BBR ETAG approved
post tensioning systems.
BBR VT CONA CMI
STRESSING AND FIXED ANCHORAGE FIXED COUPLER FK CENTRE AND EDGE DISTANCES
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Note: Intermediate and larger sizes available on request.
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NO. STRANDS 4 7 12 19 22 27 31
ANCHOR HEAD
Diameter Ø
A
(mm)
Height H
A1
(mm)
100
50
130
55
160
65
200
85
225
95
255
105
255
110
COUPLER HEAD K
Diameter Ø
K
(mm)
Height H
K
(mm)
185
85
205
85
240
90
290
95
310
105
390
125
390
130
NO. STRANDS 4 7 12 19 22 27 31
BEARING TRUMPLATE
Diameter Ø
P
(mm)
Height H
P
(mm)
130
120
170
128
225
150
280
195
310
206
360
250
360
250
NO. STRANDS 4 7 12 19 22 27 31
TRUMPET A
Diameter Ø
TA
(mm)
Length L
TA
(mm)
72
230
88
328
127
509
153
580
170
715
191
871
191
757
TRUMPET K
Diameter Ø
TK
(mm)
Length L
TK
(mm)
185
539
203
640
240
730
275
775
305
840
375
1265
375
1150
SYSTEM COMPONENT DETAILS
BEARING TRUMPLATE
ANCHOR HEAD COUPLER HEAD TYPE K
TRUMPET TYPE A TRUMPET TYPE K
BEARING TRUMPLATES
ANCHOR AND COUPLER HEADS
PLASTIC TRUMPETS
BBR VT CONA CMI
MULTI STRAND POST-TENSIONING
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TENDON PROPERTIES
Notes: • Table indicates maximum number of strands that can be accomodated by the tendon stressing unit.
• Larger ID ducting should be selected for tendons > 80m, or if strands are installed after concreting, or where tight or extended curvatures occur.
• Plastic sheaths conforming to ETAG013 should be used. Alternatively, corrugated polyethylene ducting may be used if permitted in the local region.
• Refer page 4 for additional design data and details.
• Maximum jacking force is usually 0.8 x MBL.
• For radii of curvature and straight portion diagram refer to BBR CONA Multi System.
STRESSING ANCHORAGE
FIXED ANCHORAGE
FIXED COUPLER FK
TENDON
UNIT
MAXIMUM
STRANDS
NO.
MAXIMUM
STEEL
DUCT ID/
OD
mm
MINIMUM
STEEL
DUCT ID/
OD
mm
MINIMUM RADII
OF CURVATURE
/ MINIMUM
STRAIGHT
PORTION
m
TENDON MIN BREAKING LOAD to prEN 10138-3
kN
15.2 regular 15.7 regular 15.2 super 15.7 super
406
706
1206
1906
2206
2706
3106
4
7
12
19
22
27
31
45 / 50
60 / 65
80 / 85
100 / 105
105 / 110
120 / 125
130 / 135
45 / 50
55 / 60
70 / 75
90 / 95
95 / 100
105 / 110
110 / 115
2.0 / 0.8
4.0 / 0.9
5.2 / 1.0
6.5 / 1.1
7.0 / 1.15
7.7 / 1.3
8.4 / 1.3
992
1736
2976
4712
5456
6696
7688
1064
1862
3192
5054
5852
7182
8246
1040
1820
3120
4940
5720
7020
8060
1116
1953
3348
5301
6138
7533
8649
BBR VT CONA CMI
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BBR CONA MULTI
TENDON PROPERTIES
TENDON UNIT MAXIMUM METAL DUCT TENDON MBL TO AS4672 TENDON MBL TO BS5896
STRANDS ID/OD or prEN 10138-3
No. mm kN kN
Using 12.7mm strand Using 12.9mm strand
705 7 50 / 57 1288 1302
1205 12 70 / 77 2208 2232
1905 19 85 / 92 3496 3534
3105 31 105 / 112 5704 5766
4205 42 120 / 127 7728 7812
6105 61 150 / 157 11224 11346
15.2mm/15.2 EHT strand 15.7mm BS / 15.7 EN strand
406 4 50 / 57 1000 / 1044 1060 / 1116
706 7 65 / 72 1750 / 1827 1855 / 1953
1206 12 80 / 87 3000 / 3132 3180 / 3348
1906 19 100 / 107 4750 / 4959 5035 / 5301
2206 22 110 / 117 5500 / 5742 5830 / 6138
3106 31 120 / 127 7750 / 8091 8215 / 8649
4206 42 135 / 142 10500 / 10962 11130 / 11718
5506 55 150 / 157 13750 / 14355 14575 / 15345
Notes: • Table indicates maximum number of strands that can be accomodated by the tendon stressing anchorage unit.
• Duct sizes are quoted for typical situations. It may be possible to slightly reduce duct size in some situations. Consideration should be given to the use of larger
ducts where tight or extended curvatures occur. Refer to SSL office for advice. Alternate duct sizes are generally available in 5mm ID increments
• Partial tendons are also permissible.
(i.e. a 15No. 12.7mm strand tendon would be specified as “1905-15”, supplied with a 1905 stressing anchorage and would have a MBL of 15 x 184 = 2760 kN, etc.)
• Maximum Multi-strand Jacking force is usually 0.8 x MBL.
• Refer page 5 for additional design data and details on standards.
• MBL = Minimum Breaking Load
Structural Systems has been offering the BBR Cona Multi
post-tensioning system for over 40 years. This multi-
strand system is predominantly used in civil structures
including bridges, silos, tanks and off-shore structures
and is a robust and reliable “bonded” prestressing
system.
The BBR Cona Multi system consists of up to 61 No.
12.7mm/12.9mm or 91 No. 15.2mm/15.7mm strands to
form tendons which are installed inside round ducting.
The individual strands are anchored in a common
anchor head with a wedge grip system and the strands
are simultaneously stressed. Individual strand stressing
is possible in some circumstances. After stressing the
ducting is pressure filled with a cementitious grout.
The choice between the anchorage types depends on
structural requirements, availability and dimensional
constraints.
For standard applications type M1 anchorages are
generally preferred. Type M3 are used for cryogenic
applications or where it maybe necessary to use a
rectangular anchorage for clearance reasons. (It is
recommended that SSL is consulted for non-standard
plate sizes).
STRESSING ANCHORAGES (LIVE ENDS)
ANCHORAGE TYPE M1
WEDGE
GRIPS
ANCHOR
HEAD
ANCHORAGE CASTING
P.E. TRUMPET
DUCT
GROUT INLET
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MULTI-STRAND POST-TENSIONING
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ANCHORAGE TYPE M3
The type of stressing anchorage used may vary
depending on the application, size and number of
anchorages required, type of tendon sheathing, project
location and availability of components. The tables
below provide performance and dimensional data for
two typical anchorages. Several other BBR anchorage
configurations are also available and there may be some
variations in dimensions to those shown. The designer
should check with Structural Systems for full and current
technical information on the preferred anchorage type.
STRESSING ANCHORAGE TYPE M1 - ANCHORAGE CASTING WITH P.E. TRUMPET (LIVE END)
STRAND SIZE TYPE M1 ANCHORAGE DETAILS
12.7mm / 12.9mm
Anchorage Unit
Maximum No. Strands
705
7
1205
12
1905
19
3105
31
-
-
4205
42
6105
61
15.2mm / 15.7mm
Anchorage Unit
Maxiumum No. Strands
406
4
706
7
1206
12
1906
19
2206
22
3106
31
4206
42
Dimensions (mm)
A x A
B
C
Inside Dia. D
Outside Dia. E
Anchor Nom. Dia. F
Nom. Height G
165
155
100
77
55
120
55
215
345
85
110
77
150
55
265
415
100
139
92
190
65
335
485
116
179
112
240
80
350
550
125
193
117
350
80
395
605
145
223
137
290
100
460
725
175
265
157
350
120
Notes: • Local zone and general zone anchorage reinforcement is normally required for all unit types and details are usually determined by the Designer to suit the specific application.
• Unless otherwise specified by the Designer, SSL Multi-strand tendons will normally be supplied with Type M1 stressing anchorages.
• Tendon grouting is achieved via 19mm poly pipe inlets at all anchorage ends and at intermediate venting points.
STRESSING ANCHORAGE TYPE M3 - FABRICATED PLATE ANCHORAGE (LIVE END)
STRAND SIZE TYPE M3 ANCHORAGE DETAILS

12.7mm / 12.9mm Anchorage Unit 705 1205 1905 3105 - 4205 6105 -
Maximum No. Strands 7 12 19 31 - 42 61 -
15.2mm / 15.7mm Anchorage Unit 406 706 1206 1906 2206 3106 4206 5506
Maximum No. Strands 4 7 12 19 22 31 42 55
Dimensions A x A 175 220 270 345 375 440 600 600
(mm) B 220 435 545 785 820 910 1230 1400
C 20 30 40 55 60 70 100 120
Outside Dia. D 90 115 140 195 210 232 275 325
Outside Dia. E 55 75 90 110 115 140 160 160
Notes: • Local zone and general zone anchorage reinforcement is normally required for all unit types and details are usually determined by the Designer to suit the specific application.
• Unless otherwise specified by the Designer, multi-strand tendons will normally be supplied with Type M1 stressing anchorages.
• Tendon grouting is achieved via 19mm poly pipe inlets at all anchorages and at intermediate venting points.
ANCHORAGE TYPE M1
Notes: • Local zone and general zone anchorage reinforcement is normally required for all unit types and details are usually determined by the Designer to suit the specific application
• Swage type dead end anchorages recommended for tendon units 3105/1906 and larger
DEAD END ANCHORAGES - BULB TYPE & SWAGE TYPE
STRAND SIZE ANCHORAGE UNIT BULB TYPE ANCHORAGE (mm) SWAGE TYPE ANCHORAGE (mm)
A B C D E F
12.7mm and 12.9mm 705 175 150 600 150 150 250
1205 300 250 1000 200 200 350
1905 375 300 1000 250 250 500
3105 450 425 1100 350 300 650
4205 600 450 1100 450 375 850
6105 700 550 1200 700 450 1000

15.2mm and 15.7mm 406 150 150 600 150 150 250
706 200 170 600 200 200 350
1206 350 300 1000 250 250 500
1906 450 350 1000 300 300 500
2206 500 350 1000 300 300 500
3106 550 475 1100 350 350 650
4206 700 550 1200 400 350 850
5506 800 600 1200 550 475 1000
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MULTI-STRAND POST-TENSIONING
BULB TYPE DEAD END SWAGE TYPE DEAD END
Transfer beams in buildings
Note: For swage type, strand length ‘F’ shall be
debonded (using grease or similar).
1 3
MULTI-STRAND POST-TENSIONING
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COUPLING ANCHORAGE - TYPE K
STRAND SIZE TYPE K COUPLING ANCHORAGE DETAILS
12.7mm / 12.9mm Anchorage Unit 705 1205 1905 3105 - - -
Maximum No. Strands 7 12 19 31 - - -
15.2mm / 15.7mm Anchorage Unit 406 706 1206 1906 2206 3106 4206
Maximum No. Strands 4 7 12 19 22 31 42
Diameter (mm) N 168 208 258 328 328 405 460
Trumpet length (mm) P (approx) 550 650 700 900 950 1100 1200
Notes: • Unless otherwise specified by the Designer, multi-strand coupling anchorages will normally be supplied as Type K
• Refer to SSL for details and availability of larger K type coupler units
COUPLING ANCHORAGE - TYPE C
STRAND SIZE TYPE C COUPLING ANCHORAGE DETAILS
12.7mm / 12.9mm Anchorage Unit 705 1205 1905 3105 - 4205 6105 -
Maximum No. Strands 7 12 19 31 - 42 61 -
Dimensions (mm) Q 108 108 108 108 - 148 refer -
R 170 200 230 340 - 385 to -
S 550 650 740 1140 - 1320 SSL -
15.2mm / 15.7mm Anchorage Unit 406 706 1206 1906 2206 3106 4206 5506
Maximum No. Strands 4 7 12 19 22 31 42 55
Dimensions (mm) Q 125 125 125 125 125 145 refer refer
R 160 200 230 270 300 350 to to
S 520 630 730 860 930 1090 SSL SSL
Notes: • Unless otherwise specified by the Designer, SSL Multi-strand Coupling Anchorages will normally be supplied as Type K
• Refer to SSL for details and availability of larger C type coupler units
1 4
PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
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SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRESSING JACKS
STRAND SIZE SPACE REQUIREMENTS
12.7mm / 12.9mm Tendon Unit 705 1205 1905 3105 - 4205 6105 -
15.2mm / 15.7mm Tendon Unit 406 706 1206 1906 2206 3106 4206 5506
Jack unit CC 110 CC 200 CC 300 CC 600 CC 600 CC 630 CC 1000 CC 1200
Dimensions (mm) A 710 750 810 1200 1200 1000 1130 1300
B 1400 1500 1600 2400 2400 2000 2300 2600
C 250 300 330 500 500 600 600 600
E 200 230 260 400 400 500 420 450
F 595 620 675 1100 1100 950 950 1050
Notes: • Details based on jacks having 200mm working stroke. Alternative jacks may be available and/or more suitable. Contact SSL for further details
• Check jack size and availability with your local SSL office
STRESSING ANCHORAGE RECESS DETAILS
STRAND SIZE RECESS DETAILS
12.7mm / 12.9 mm Tendon Unit 705 1205 1905 3105 - 4205 6105 -
15.2mm / 15.7mm Tendon Unit 406 706 1206 1906 2206 3106 4206 5506
Dimensions (mm) F x F 230 270 340 420 420 460 560 650
G 140 140 150 165 165 185 200 225
H x H 310 370 400 510 510 560 660 750
Notes: • Depth G achieves 50mm cover to trimmed strand ends.
• Alternative or smaller recesses may be possible depending on actual conditions and jack used. Refer to your local Structural Systems office.
MULTI-STRAND POST-TENSIONING
1 5
MULTI-STRAND POST-TENSIONING
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TENDON CURVATURE
A straight portion L adjacent to the anchorage must be observed to limit the screw pull of the strand bundle against
the anchorage. Reduction may be allowed in certain specific instances.
TENDON ECCENTRICITY
TYPE e mm

705/406 10
1205/706 11
1905/1206 14
3105/1906 15
2206 21
4205/3106 25
6105/4206 28
SHEATHING AND CORROSION PROTECTION
For conventional applications, corrugated galvanised steel ducts are used with a wall thickness of 0.3mm.
For applications requiring enhanced corrosion protection and improved fatigue resistance of the tendons, use
of corrugated plastic duct is recommended. This fully encapsulated, watertight system offers superb corrosion
protection, and the plastic duct eliminates fretting fatigue between the strand and duct. It also provides reduced duct
friction. All ducts are manufactured in a variety of standard lengths and are coupled on site. Steel ducts are available
in diameters ranging from 40mm to 160mm in approximately 5mm increments.
Notes: • “e” is indicative only and depends
on actual duct ID and number of
strands in tendon
TENDON SHEATHING AND CORROSION PROTECTION
POLYETHYLENE DUCT DETAILS
ECCENTRICITY OF TENDONS
TENDON CURVATURE LIMITATIONS
12.7mm / 12.9mm 705 1205 1905 3105 - 4205 6105 -
15.2mm / 15.7mm 406 706 1206 1906 2206 3106 4206 5506
Minimum Radius, R (m) 4 4.5 5 6 6.5 8 8 10
Minimum Straight 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.15 1.3 1.3 1.5
Portion, L (m)
Notes: • Check with SSL office for availability and lead time for standard and/or alternative polyethylene
duct sizes
TENDON TYPE
12.7mm/12.9mm 15.2mm/15.7mm
DUCT DIMENSIONS (mm)
O.D. I.D. WALL THICKNESS
705 406 61 48 2.0
1205 706 75 65 2.0
1905 1206 94 82 2.0
3105 1906 110 98 2.0
4205 3106 125 110 2.0
6105 4206 160 138 2.0
Galv. Steel Duct
(refer page 6)
Polyethylene Duct
(refer left)
1 6
PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
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MULTI-STRAND POST-TENSIONING
The minimum required distance of the bearing plates
to concrete edges and to adjacent anchorage bearing
plates depends in general on:
• the post-tensioning force to be transmitted
• the concrete strength
• the bearing plate dimensions
• the reinforcing steel behind the bearing plate
• structural requirements
a
o
= min. distance between axis of two
anchorages
b
o
= min. distance from concrete edge to
anchorage axis
D
sp
= suggested outside diameter of reinforcing
steel spirals
f’c = nominal concrete cylinder strength
Prestressing forces can usually be applied at 80% of
nominal concrete cylinder strength.
MINIMUM DISTANCE FOR BEARING PLATES TO CONCRETE EDGES AND BETWEEN
ADJACENT ANCHORAGES
Tung Chung Bridge - Hong Kong
MINIMUM ANCHORAGE SPACING AND EDGE DISTANCES
f’c
MPa
DETAILS
mm
12.7mm & 12.9mm STRAND UNITS 15.2mm & 15.7mm STRAND TENDON UNITS
705 1205 1905 3105 4205 406 706 1206 1906 2206 3106 4205
32
ao 220 290 365 465 545 205 270 355 450 480 570 665
bo 130 155 190 235 275 120 145 180 225 240 285 335
Dsp 200 250 320 410 480 180 230 300 390 425 520 590
40
ao 205 270 340 435 505 200 255 330 420 450 535 620
bo 125 150 185 225 260 120 145 175 215 230 275 310
Dsp 190 240 310 390 460 180 230 290 370 400 490 560
50
ao 195 255 320 410 475 200 250 310 395 420 500 585
bo 120 145 180 220 250 120 145 175 210 225 265 300
Dsp 180 230 300 380 440 180 230 290 360 390 470 540
Notes: • The above details are provided as a guide only and designers should normally satisfy themselves by calculation that the adopted details are suitable for the actual application.
Mt Henry Bridge - Western Australia
1 7
SLAB POST-TENSIONING
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SLAB POST-TENSIONING
Designers, builders, owners and end users of buildings
require more efficiencies today than ever before. The
Structural Systems Slab Post-Tensioning System offers
all the stakeholders in a building project many benefits
including:
• Reduced structural depths
• Greater clear spans
• Design flexibility
• Formwork versatility
• Reduced construction costs
• Enhanced construction speed
• Improved durability
• Minimum maintenance costs
The system is comprised of high-strength steel strands
placed inside flat ducting, anchored at one end by
deforming the strand and casting it into the concrete,
then at the other end by means of a steel anchorage
casting and anchor block(s) with gripping wedges. After
the concrete has reached a suitable transfer strength,
the individual strands have a specified load applied by
calibrated jacks. The duct is filled with a water/cement
grout mixture to ensure that the system is bonded and
corrosion protection is maintained in service.
Applications for the Structural Systems Slab Post-
Tensioning System include:
• Low to high rise residential and commercial
buildings
• Industrial floor slabs on grade
• Transfer floor structures
• Car parks
• Water tank bases and walls
• Transverse stressing of bridge decks
West India Quay - London
Al Nuaimiah Towers - Dubai
1 8
PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
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LIVE END ANCHORAGES
SLAB POST-TENSIONING
DEAD-END ANCHORAGES
BULB-TYPE SWAGE-TYPE
grout tube
grout tube
bulbed strand ends
swaged strand ends
spacer plate
(not always required)
swage plate
strands
duct
anchorage casting
anchorage block
duct
grout tube
duct
Notes:
• Similar non-reusable recess-
formers are used at angled edges
• Standard flat duct is produced from
0.4mm galvanised steel sheet
STRESSING ANCHORAGE (LIVE ENDS)
BULB-TYPE DEAD-END ANCHORAGE SWAGE-TYPE DEAD-END ANCHORAGE
STRAND SIZE TENDON UNIT DIMENSIONS (mm) DIMENSIONS (mm)
A B C D E F
105 75 50 600 100 75 100
12.7mm 205 135 50 600 125 75 150
and 305 230 50 600 200 75 350
12.9mm 405 270 50 600 250 75 500
505 350 50 600 300 75 500
605 400 50 750 350 75 600
106 75 50 750 125 75 100
15.2mm 206 135 50 750 150 75 250
and 306 230 50 750 225 75 450
15.7mm 406 270 50 750 300 75 600
506 350 50 750 350 75 600
STRAND SIZE TENDON UNIT No. STRANDS
ANCHORAGE
CASTING
RECESS FORMER
FLAT DUCT SIZE
mm
A
mm
B
mm
C
mm
D
mm
E1
mm
E2
mm
F1
mm
F2
mm
12.7 mm
and
12.9 mm
205
305
505
605
2
3
4 or 5
6
155
150
215
270
135
150
220
265
67
75
79
79
100
100
100
100
150
180
265
265
150
180
315
315
100
100
80
80
100
100
100
100
43 x 19
43 x 19
70 x 19
90 x 19
15.2 mm
and
15.7 mm
206
406
506
2
3 or 4
5
155
215
270
135
220
265
67
79
79
100
100
100
150
265
265
150
315
315
100
80
80
100
100
100
43 x 19
70 x 19
90 x 19
grout tube
dead end plate
duct
Notes: • Tendon units 205, 605, and 206 are supplied with individual barrel anchorages in lieu of anchorage blocks.
• Grout tubes are 13mm ID or 19mm ID polyethylene pipe supplied to each end of tendon. Additional intermediate vents can also be supplied (designer to specify requirements).
• All sizes are nominal. Some dimensions have been rounded up for normal space, detailing and tolerance requirements.
wedge grips
grout tube
duct
anchorage casting
wedge
strand
barrel
1 9
SLAB POST-TENSIONING
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wedge grips
grout tube
anchorage
casting
coupling block
COUPLING ANCHORAGE - 505, 406 & 506
COUPLING ANCHORAGE - 405
COUPLING ANCHORAGES
COUPLING ANCHORAGES
STRAND SIZE COUPLING COUPLING ANCHORAGE DETAILS
UNIT DIMENSIONS (mm)
A B C D
12.7mm / 12.9mm 405 100 220 80 220
505 100 220 110 220
15.2mm / 15.7mm 506 100 240 120 265
swaged strand ends
Note: 3 and 4-strand units are coupled using the applicable 5-strand coupler, UNO.
Grout Pump
duct
2 0
PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
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ANCHORAGE REINFORCEMENT – SLAB SYSTEM
Notes: • Reinforcement size 10dia, grade 500MPa to AS/NZS 4671 or grade 460 to BS4449.
• f
cp
= min required air-cured concrete cylinder strength at anchorage at time of stressing.
• Details shown are generally satisfactory for most standard situations, however designers should satisfy themselves of the adequacy of local zone anchorage
reinforcement for specific situations.
SLAB POST-TENSIONING
SPIRAL TYPE
STRAND AT TENDON HIGH POINT STRAND AT TENDON LOW POINT
2X2 LIGATURE
2X1 LIGATURE SIMILAR
2X4 LIGATURE
SUGGESTED ALLOWANCES – STRAND OFFSETS FOR 19mm FLAT DUCT
STRAND SIZE A B e
12.7mm / 12.9mm 7mm 12mm 2.5mm
15.2mm / 15.7mm 8mm 11mm 1.5mm
TENDON
UNIT
No. OF
STRANDS
SPIRAL TYPE LIGATURE TYPE
f
cp
MPa
A
mm
B
mm
N
No.
C
mm
D
mm
N
No.
205
305
505
605
206
406
506
2
3
4 or 5
6
2
3 or 4
5
90
100
100
110
90
110
110
200
260
260
300
200
300
300
4
4
5
7
4
7
7
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
100
100
130
150
110
130
150
2 x 1
2 x 1
2 x 2
2 x 4
2 x 2
2 x 2
2 x 4
17
17
22
25
17
22
25
2 1
SLAB POST-TENSIONING
JACKING CLEARANCES
STRAND SIZE A B C D E
mm mm mm mm mm
12.7mm / 12.9mm 500 900 750 450 70
15.2mm / 15.7mm 600 900 850 450 70
www. s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e ms . c o m. a u
JACKING CLEARANCES
DOUBLE RAM JACK SINGLE RAM JACK
INTERNAL STRESSING POCKETS
Stressing Pocket
Notes: • Internal Stressing Pockets are used where standard edge stressng is impractical, subject to design check.
• Details shown provide typical pocket spacing requirements. Actual details may vary.
2 2
PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
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Post-tensioning provides many benefits to a wide range
of suspended structures. These benefits include:
• Reduced construction cost
• Faster construction
• Water resistant properties
• Early formwork stripping
• Floor to floor height reduction
• Reduced foundation load
• Improved deflection control
• Greater column free areas
Many types of suspended slab structures typically
realise the benefits of post tensioning, such as:
• Carparks
• Apartment buildings
• Commercial office space
• Retail centres
• Vertical load transfer structures
• Hospitals
• Storage facilities
• Public buildings such as stadiums, exhibition
centres, schools and institutional facilities
Different formwork systems are compatible with post-
tensioning, namely:
• Conventional plywood systems
• Permanent metal deck systems
• Ribbed slabs
• Precast systems
Structural Systems has many years of experience in the
design and installation of post-tensioned suspended
slabs and can bring measurable benefits to your
project.
SLAB POST-TENSIONING APPLICATIONS - SUSPENDED SLABS
Peppers Pier Resort - Queensland
Wollongong Links Project - NSW
2 3
SLAB POST-TENSIONING
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It is important that the design requirements are achieved
on site. Good engineering notation can greatly assist in
achieving this, with particular attention to the following;
• The System. State that the design is based on
the Structural Systems SLAB post-tensioning system.
This ensures that a fully tested and code compliant
system will be installed.
• Concrete. Nominate the 28 day characteristic
compressive strength and shrinkage characteristics
required. Some projects may have additional
requirements.
• Concrete Strength at Transfer f
cp
. This is the
minimum compressive strength that is required prior to
fully stressing the tendons. Concrete testing of site and
air cured specimens should be carried out to ensure this
strength has been achieved prior to application of the
final stressing.
• Tendons. Clearly indicate the type and location of
anchorages and number of strands in each tendon. Check
that stressing access is possible at live ends.
• Profiling. High and low points should be nominated.
Full tendon profiles can then be determined on installation
shop drawings. Profiles are usually parabolic.
• Stressing Procedure. A two stage stressing procedure
is usually specified. Initial or 25% load is applied at 24
hours after the slab pour, and final or 100% load is applied
when the concrete transfer strength is released.
• Grout. A water/cement ratio of not more than 0.45
is usually sufficient to ensure adequate grouting and
strength.
BANDED SLAB
FLAT SLAB FLAT PLATE
The design of post-tensioned suspended slabs requires
sound engineering consideration in order to maximize
the benefits for all stakeholders in a project.
Structural Systems can offer design input from initial
advice to fully detailed design for construction drawings.
Typical post-tensioned floor configuration and details are:
DESIGN OF POST-TENSIONED - SUSPENDED SLABS
DEFINITIONS
Lb = Band Span
Ls = Slab Span
L = Design Span (Greater of L1 & L2)
Note: For Slab End Spans,
Add 15-20% to Slab Thickness from charts
T = Internal Slab Thickness
D = Overall Band Depth
Bw = Suggested Band Width Approx. (suit formwork)
P = Overall Drop Panel Depth (1.8xT)
TYPICAL DESIGN LOADS
LL = 5kPa, ADL = 1kPa
LL = 4kPa, ADL = 1kPa
LL = 3kPa, ADL = 1kPa
LL = 2.5kPa, ADL = 0.5kPa
SPECIFYING POST-TENSIONING
2 4
PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
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Structural detailing is an art that engineers develop with
experience and it is an essential part of a cost effective
and reliable structure. Below are a selection of tried and
proven details that Structural Systems recommend for a
range of situations. A key factor in achieving a successful
Post-Tensioned Structure is a sound understanding of and
a considered allowance for normal concrete shrinkage
movements.
CONSTRUCTION
Structural Systems designers have worked closely over
many years with builders and construction personnel
resulting in a well understood system that enhances the
construction process. An appreciation of the construction
process will enable all parties involved in the on site
works to benefit from the system. The typical construction
sequence is as follows;
• Erect formwork
• Install bottom reinforcement
• Install post-tensioning
• Install top reinforcement
• Prepour inspection and pour concrete
• Strip edge forms
• Initial/Partial stressing of tendons
• Final/Full stressing of tendons
• Obtain engineers approval and cut
off excess tendon strand
• Grout the tendons
• Strip formwork and back prop
as required
DETAILING OF POST-TENSIONED - SUSPENDED SLABS
Cabrini Hospital - Melbourne
2 5
SLAB POST-TENSIONING
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The post-tensioning of slabs on ground is providing
many developers and builders with a cost effective
pavement solution. Benefits realised with post tensioned
slabs on ground include:
• Large joint free slab areas
• Reduced construction costs
• Less sub base preparation and/or
excavation
• Faster construction time
• Reduced on going maintenance costs
Facilities that have adopted a post-tensioned slab on
ground system include:
• Distribution warehouses
• Freezer stores
• Container terminal facilities
• Rail freight facilities
• Aircraft hangers
• Water retaining structures
• Sporting venues
• Raft slabs
DESIGN
The design of post-tensioned slabs on ground involves
the careful analysis of the loads applied to the slab,
the interaction between the slab and the ground that
supports it, restraint forces and temperature effects.
Structural Systems has refined the design process and
has achieved outstanding results on many projects.
Our design and construction expertise for preliminary
design advice through to final design and construction
activities is available to assist builders, engineers and
developers in achieving optimum solutions for slab on
ground applications.
SLAB POST-TENSIONING APPLICATIONS - SLAB ON GROUND
Container Pavement, Port Botany - NSW
Computer modelling and Analysis
2 6
PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
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Points to consider in the design process include:
Design Loads and Load Configurations
Thermal Effects
Daily ambient temperature variations give rise to
temperature gradient stresses through the slab depth
which need to be accounted for in the design. Typical
gradients of 0.02 ºC/mm and 0.04 ºC/mm are often
used for internal and external slabs respectively causing
bottom fibre tensile stresses that are additional to the
load stresses.
Sub-grade Friction
Normal elastic and shrinkage movements give rise to
frictional restraint stresses between the slab and the
prepared subgrade. The typical design friction coefficient
for concrete laid on a plastic membrane over clean sand
bedding is around 0.5 to 0.6.
Sub-base Parameters
A typical slab design will include the analysis of the
slab supported by the ground sub-base. Modelling of
the sub-base requires geotechnical data such as CBR,
and/or the modulus of sub-grade reaction.
DESIGN OF POST-TENSIONED SLAB ON GROUND
b) DESIGN WHEEL / AXLE DETAILS
a) TYPICAL DESIGN RACKING LAYOUT
DATA - Design Axle load “P”
- Wheel Spacing “W” (2 or 4 wheels etc.)
- Axle Load Repetitions
- Wheel Contact Stress
Warehouse floor construction using laser screeds Raft Foundation - The Moorings, Western Australia
Typical racking storage
2 7
SLAB POST-TENSIONING
Good detailing of post-tensioned slabs on ground is vital in
achieving a successful and relatively crack free slab.

The following diagrams indicate key details typically
recommended by Structural Systems:
DESIGN OF POST-TENSIONED SLAB ON GROUND
CONSTRUCTION
Structural Systems design and construction experience
is based on being the leader in the field of post-
tensioned slabs on ground. The combination of innovative
design and expedient site practices ensures that the
construction phase is a seamless operation. The main
items to consider for the construction phase are;
Pour Size
A pour size of between 1500m
2
and 2000m
2
should
typically be considered and planned.
Pour Sequence
The sequence of slab pours and their respective stressing
requirements should be optimized to ensure the best
programme outcome.
Curing and Weather Protection
With large pours the slab is initially susceptible to
shrinkage effects hence it is important to cure and
protect the slab from extreme conditions such as heat,
high evaporation or extreme cold. The construction
of warehouse roofs prior to pouring slabs is a typical
technique adopted to provide some protection.
TYPICAL WAREHOUSE PLAN
Note: • As a guide, allow for total slab edge & M.J. movements of approximately 0.5mm per metre length of slab
(e.g for 60m long slab, each edge moves approx 15mm over the normal life of the slab),
Column blockout detail
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MULTI-WIRE POST-TENSIONING
The BBR SSL Multi-Wire System is more compact
than the multi-strand system and is often preferred for
coupled cables in incrementally launched bridges, and is
ideally suited where cables are to be prefabricated and
where restressing or destressing is required.
The multi-wire tendon is composed of a bundle of 7mm
dia. wires (plain or galvanised). Each individual wire is
fixed in the anchorage with a multi-wire button head,
which is cold-formed onto the wire by means of special
machines.
• Each wire is mechanically fixed in the anchor head
and reaches the full rupture load of the prestressing
steel without any slippage. Therefore the wire
bundle can sustain the maximum ultimate load.
• The prestressing force is transmitted to the concrete
under precisely known conditions without any risk
of slippage of the prestressing steel.
• Monitoring of the prestressing force and if
necessary restressing can be carried out reliably
and economically. If required, the tendon can also
be completely destressed.
• The anchorage resists with a high degree of safety
dynamic loads and also exceptional effects such as
shock loads.
Typical applications include:
• Coupled cables in incremtally launched bridges.
• Cable stay applications.
• Restressable tendons.
• Heavy lifting and lowering cables.
• Restressable ground anchors.
Centrepoint Tower - Sydney
Narrows Bridge Duplication - Western Australia
2 9
MULTI-WIRE POST-TENSIONING
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STRESSING JACK TYPE NP 60 NP 100 NP 150 NP 200 NP 250 NP 300 GP 500 GP 800
Maximum Jacking Force kN 620 1030 1545 2060 2575 3090 5150 8000
Jack Diameter mm 160 205 250 290 315 350 560 660
Stroke mm 100 100 100 100 100 100 400 400
Weight kg 28 50 83 117 147 196 1260 2000
Clearance Requirement ‘A’ mm 1700 1700 1700 2000 2000 2000 2500 2500
PRESTRESSING JACKS
Grouting of Ducts
SSL has developed grouting methods utilising special
colloidal mixers which result in an optimal grouting of the
tendon ducts.
Prestressing Equipment
The prestressing equipment consist of a hydraulic
jack, trestle and pull-rod, which is connected to the
stressing anchorage. For tendon elongations greater
than the stroke of the jack, the pull-rod is temporarily
anchored with a lock-nut and the jack is recycled.
The prestressing force can be measured with an accuracy
of 2% by using calibrated 150mm face bourdon type
pressure gauges.
Standard Tendons
The anchoring method allows the production of post-
tensioning tendons with any number of single wires and
therefore with any given magnitude of prestressing force.
The most commonly used wire diameter is 7 millimetres.
With the following range of STANDARD TENDONS, all
prestressing requirements occurring in the construction
of bridges, buildings and other structures can be met.
For special applications, eg; nuclear vessels, tendons up
to 15,000 kN ultimate capacity are available.
STANDARD SSL - BBR WIRE TENDONS
NUMBER OF WIRES, DIA. 7mm 8 19 31 42 55 61 85 109 121 143
Minimum Breaking Load (Rm = 1670 MPa) kN 514 1222 1993 2701 3537 3922 5466 7009 7780 9195
Stressing force at 0.8 x MBL kN 412 977 1595 2160 2829 3138 4372 5607 6224 7356
Stressing force at 0.75 x MBL kN 386 916 1495 2025 2652 2942 4099 5257 5835 6896
Tendon nominal cross sectional area mm
2
308 731 1194 1617 2118 2349 3273 4197 4659 5506
Weight of tendon wire kg/m 2.42 5.74 9.36 12.68 16.61 18.42 25.67 32.92 36.54 43.19
Duct I.D. mm 35 50 55 65 80 85 100 110 120 130
Notes: • Check jack size and availability with your local SSL office
Notes: • Rm = Characteristic Tensile Strength to AS 4672 and/or BS 5896
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MULTI-WIRE POST-TENSIONING
SPECIAL APPLICATION ANCHORAGES
Details of Anchorages for various special applications are also available on request .
STRESSING ANCHORAGE TYPE L
STRESSING ANCHORAGE TYPE A
FIXED ANCHORAGE TYPE S
FIXED COUPLING TYPE LK
MOVABLE COUPLING TYPE LK 1
NUMBER OF WIRES 8 12 19 31 42 55 61 85 109 121 143
dia. 7mm
Anchor e mm 25 27 36 43 49 56 67 78 85 140 145
Elongation, max f mm 200 200 200 200 200 250 250 350 350 400 400
Trumpet length g mm 170 185 200 280 310 335 360 390 420 450 500
Diameter h mm 37 49 59 76 87 97 105 120 135 145 160
Bearing plate i mm 140 170 200 235 270 300 330 380 430 480 500
Thickness i
t
mm 16 20 25 30 40 45 50 60 70 80 80
NUMBER OF WIRES 8 12 19 31 42 55 61 85 109 121 143
dia. 7mm
Fan length k mm 460 550 660 830 880 960 1010 1060 1180 1220 1260
Anchor plate, sq l mm 120 160 200 250 280 320 350 400 450 470 520
rectangular l mm 70 90 120 140 160 180 200 240 260 280 300
w mm 200 270 340 420 500 560 600 660 760 790 900
NUMBER OF WIRES 8 12 19 31 42 55 61 85 109 121 143
dia. 7mm
Anchor a mm 63 74 91 108 123 135 156 180 205 240 245
Trumpet Length b mm 250 250 250 280 300 300 300 340 360 400 500
Diameter c mm 70 88 102 123 138 153 171 193 219 240 252
Bearing Plate d mm 140 170 200 245 285 315 345 400 450 500 520
Thickness d
t
mm 14 16 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 70
NUMBER OF WIRES 8 12 19 31 42 55 61 85 109 121 143
dia. 7mm
Trumpet length q mm 230 260 290 350 410 430 470 570 630 680 730
Diameter r mm 70 88 102 123 138 153 171 193 219 250 260
NUMBER OF WIRES 8 12 19 31 42 55 61 85 109 121 143
dia. 7mm
Trumpet length min s mm 600 620 670 750 810 880 950 1080 1150 1220 1260
Diameter t mm 70 88 102 123 138 153 171 193 219 250 260
3 1
BAR POST-TENSIONING
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BAR POST-TENSIONING
Corrosion Protection
All bars and fittings must receive protection when
installed under permanent conditions. In normal concrete
construction the use of galvanised duct, injected with
grout, provides excellent protection. Anchorage recesses
must also be filled with cement mortar to protect
these end zones.
When bars are used in an exposed environment then
other corrosion protection systems are available for the
bar and fittings. These include:
• greased and sheathing bar
• denso wrapping
• epoxy painting
Temporary Bar Anchors
Anchors used in a temporary environment may be
used without protection apart from grout required to the
bond length.
Permanent Bar Anchors
These anchors require installation into corrugated
polyethylene sheathing or galvanised duct similar to
strand anchors to provide multiple levels of protection.
This is accomplished by the internal grout and sheathing
barrier.
Macalloy Bar Systems are ideal for the economic
application of post-tensioning forces on relatively short
tendons. Through the use of threaded connections and
anchorages they are simple to use and lend themselves to
many applications.
The robust coarse thread (CT) on the Macalloy bar
ensures rapid and reliable assembly. This is particularly
suitable for onsite use and reuse.
Typical Applications
Buildings
• Prestressed Beams and Columns
• Precast Connections
• Temporary Bracing
Bridges
• Stay Cables and Hangers
• Precast Segments
• Strengthening (Timber & Steel Bridges)
• Tension Piles and Caissons
Wharves & Jetties
• Stressed Deck Planks
• Tie Backs

Soil and/or Rock Anchors
• Permanent and Temporary Anchors
• Uplift Anchors (Dam & Foundation)
• Tunnel Roof Bolting
• Soil Nails and Rock Bolts
• Slope Stabilisation
• Crane and Tower Bases
Specialist Engineering
• Heavy Lifting
• Formwork Ties and Hangers
• Frame Ties
• Pile Testing
• Architectural Ties and Stays
Characteristic Properties
Macalloy Bar Properties are listed in the following
tables.
Macalloy 1030 Bar Components
Bearing Plate
Nut
Bar
Washer
Coupler
3 2
PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
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BAR POST-TENSIONING
RANGE OF MACALLOY 1030 BAR
GRADE CHARACTERISTIC
ULTIMATE TENSILE
STRENGTH
MPa
MINIMUM 0.1% PROOF
STRESS
MPa
MINIMUM
ELONGATION
%
APPROXIMATE
MODULUS OF
ELASTICITY
GPa
Macalloy 1030
25-50mm
1030 835 6 170
Macalloy 1030
75mm
1030 835 6 205
*Macalloy S1030 1030 835 10 185
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MACALLOY 1030 BAR
NOMINAL DIAMETER
mm
CHARACTERISTIC BREAKING LOAD (MBL) MINIMUM 0.1% PROOF LOAD
MACALLOY 1030
kN
*MACALLOY S1030
kN
MACALLOY 1030
kN
*MACALLOY S1030
kN
20
25
26.5
32
36
40
50
75
-
506
569
828
1049
1295
2022
4311
323
506
-
828
-
1295
-
-
-
410
460
670
850
1050
1639
3495
262
410
-
670
-
1050
-
-
CHARACTERISTIC LOADS FOR MACALLOY 1030 BAR
* Macalloy S1030 is made from stainless steel
NOMINAL
DIAMETER
mm
NOMINAL CROSS
SECTION AREA
mm
2
MASS OF BAR
MAJOR DIAMETER
OF THREADS
mm
MIN. HOLE
DIAMETER IN
STEELWORK
mm
MACALLOY 1030
kg/m
*MACALLOY S1030
kg/m
20
25
26.5
32
36
40
50
75
315
491
552
804
1018
1257
1963
4185
-
4.09
4.58
6.63
8.35
10.30
15.72
33.00
2.53
4.09
-
6.63
-
10.30
-
-
22.0
28.9
30.4
36.2
40.2
45.3
54.8
77.2
24
31
33
40
44
49
59
82
3 3
BAR POST-TENSIONING
ITEM UNIT NOMINAL BAR DIAMETER - mm

20
1
25
1
26.5 32 36 40 50 75
Bars Sectional area
Mass per metre
Metre run of bar per tonne
Characteristic failing load
Prestress at 70% characteristic
Minimum centres for anchorage
mm
2
kg
m
kN
kN
mm
314.2
2.466
405
314
220
100
490.9
4.069
246
506
354
100
551.5
4.560
219
569
398
110
804.3
6.661
150
828
580
125
1017.9
8.451
118
1049
734
140
1256.6
10.410
96
1295
907
150
1963.5
16.020
62
2022
1415
175
4185.4
33.200
30
4311
3018
250
*Flat Nuts Nut reference
Length
Width across flats (DIA for 75mm bar)
Weight
-
mm
mm
kg
FSSN20
25
42
-
FN25
33
46
-
FN26.5
37
50
0.46
FN32
41
56
0.56
FN36
46
62
0.74
FN40
51
65
0.86
FN50
71
90
2.55
FN75
100
135
7.70
*Flat
Washers
Washer reference
Outside diameter
Thickness
-
mm
mm
FSSW20
50
5
FSW25
60
5
FSW26.5
65
5
FSW32
70
5
FSW36
75
5
FSW40
80
5
FSW50
105
5
-
-
-
Couplers Coupler reference
Outside diameter
Length - standard
Length - stainless
Weight
-
mm
mm
mm
kg
FSSC20
35
-
65
-
FC25
42.5
85
80
-
FC26.5
42.5
90
-
0.54
FC32
50
115
95
0.94
FC36
57.5
130
-
1.50
FC40
62.5
140
120
1.78
FC50
76
170
-
3.10
FC75
110
230
-
9.00
End Plates Plate reference
Length
Width
Thickness - standard
Hole diameter
Thickness - threaded
-
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
FSSP20
100
100
25
26
-
FP25
100
100
40
35
40
FP26.5
110
110
40
36
40
FP32
125
125
50
41
50
FP36
140
140
50
45
50
FP40
150
150
60
52
60
FP50
200
175
60
61
70
FP75
300
250
75
82
110
Ducts Sheathing i/d
Coupler-sheathing i/d recommended
Coupler-sheathing minimum
mm
mm
mm
41
50
45
41
59
52.5
41
59
52.5
50
66
60
50
71
65
61
75
70
71
91
90
91
125
125
Grouting
flange
Flange reference
Length /o/dia
Height
-
mm
mm
-
-
-
GF25
125
40
GF25
125
40
GF32
140
40
GF36
140
40
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Threads Pitch mm 2.5 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 8.0 8.0 8.0
Standard
thread
lengths
(see fig on
p30)
Length - Jacking end (standard) S1
- Dead end (standard) S2
- Coupler (standard)
X1 (min)
X2 (min)
X3 (min)
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
250
100
40
75
42
12
250
100
45
82
49
12
250
100
50
91
53
12
250
100
60
105
57
12
250
100
65
115
62
12
250
100
75
130
71
16
250
100
85
165
91
16
360
160
150
235
116
16
MACALLOY 1030 COMPONENT PARAMETERS
* Spherical nuts and washers are available if required for rotation.

20mm bar available in stainless steel grade only.
1
Bar range available on request
Sydney Hockey Centre, Homebush - NSW
www. s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e ms . c o m. a u
3 4
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MACALLOY 1030 SUGGESTED MILD STEEL END BLOCK REINFORCEMENT
NB: Helix and links must be used together with minimum 35 MPa concrete - see figure above
Notes: • A longitudinal length of rod may be used to attach the links but it is not required as part of the reinforcement
• A more detailed explanation of the Macalloy Post Tensioning System is available in the Macalloy Design Data Handbook
• There are many permutations possible to achieve satisfactory construction details, and advice is readily available from Structural Systems
OTHER MACALLOY BAR SYSTEMS ALSO AVAILABLE
• Macalloy 460 carbon steel tendons
• Macalloy S460 stainless steel tendons
• Macalloy Guy Linking stainless steel bar tendons
• Macalloy Guy Linking stainless steel cable tendons
• Macalloy 17MHS Sheet piling ties
• Macalloy 500 Reinforcing bars
• Macalloy 500 Tie bars
• Macalloy 650 Stainless Tie bars
• Macalloy-Tensoteci Galvanised cable tendons
MACALLOY 1030 TYPICAL END BLOCK ARRANGEMENT
MACALLOY 1030 BAR END THREAD DIMENSIONS
X1 = live end
X2 = dead end
X3 = length of bar past nut or thru’ threaded plate
S1 = live end thread
S2 = dead end thread
L = length over plates
MACALLOY
DIAMETER
mm
HELIX LINKS
ROD DIAM.
mm
I/D
mm
PITCH
mm
TURNS
No.
ROD DIAM.
mm
SPACING
mm
NUMBER
25
26.5
32
36
40
50
75
12
12
12
12
12
16
20
130
130
165
195
220
250
350
40
40
40
40
40
50
75
5
5
6
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
10
16
70
70
80
80
80
100
100
3
3
3
4
4
4
6
3 5
GROUND ANCHOR SYSTEMS
www. s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e ms . c o m. a u
GROUND ANCHOR SYSTEMS
Structural Systems Ground Anchors have been utilised
world wide in conjunction with our construction
partners the BBR group of Switzerland. Ground
Anchors comprised of wires, strands or bars can be
installed into rock or soil and secured by injecting
with cement grout.
Standard Structural Systems Ground Anchors can
provide an ultimate load of between 368kN and
23,750kN depending on the configuration.
SSL BBR Anchors have been the largest and longest
installed anywhere around the world and our technical
expertise in this field is internationally recognised.
Typical applications of Structural Systems Ground
Anchors include:
• retaining structure tie backs
• resistance of uplift forces
• slope stabilization
• underground structures
• dam stabilization
• tension foundations
• soil nailing (bar type anchors)
Transporting ground anchors Transporting world’s longest ground anchors - Canning Dam - Western Australia
Anchor Fabrication - Canning Dam - Western Australia
Anchor installation
Ross River Dam - Queensland
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GROUND ANCHOR SYSTEMS
STRAND TYPE ANCHORS
3 7
GROUND ANCHOR SYSTEMS
www. s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e ms . c o m. a u
TYPICAL GROUND ANCHOR TENDON CONFIGURATIONS
Notes: • Strand tendons are based on MBL = 184kN (12.7mm strand) and MBL = 250kN (15.2mm strand) (Higher strand / anchor capacities available on request)
• Details listed apply to typical applications and may vary to suit actual applications
• Macalloy Bar tendons are more commonly used for short anchor lengths
• Macalloy Bar anchor details exclude allowance for coupling of bars - refer SSL for details if required
TENDON STRAND
/ BAR SIZE
mm
MAXIMUM
STRANDS
PER UNIT
No.
MINIMUM
BREAKING
LOAD
kN
BORE HOLE DIAMETER PERMANENT ANCHOR
SHEATH SIZE ID / OD
BEARING PLATE
SIZE
TYPICAL
mm
TEMPORARY
ANCHORS
mm
PERMANENT
ANCHORS
mm
CORRUGATED
mm
SMOOTH
mm
STRAND
15.2mm
or
15.7mm
2
4
7
12
19
22
27
31
42
55
65
91
500
1000
1750
3000
4750
5500
6750
7750
10500
13750
16250
22750
76
89
102
114
165
165
178
178
229
241
254
311
102
127
152
178
216
216
216
216
311
311
311
356
50 / 65
65 / 85
80 / 100
100 / 120
125 / 165
125 / 165
125 / 165
125 / 165
210 / 230
210 / 230
210 / 230
250 / 270
55 / 63
67 / 75
82 / 90
102 / 110
150 / 160
150 / 160
150 / 160
150 / 160
225 / 235
225 / 235
225 / 235
257 / 270
200 x 200 x 32
200 x 200 x 36
300 x 300 x 50
350 x 350 x 60
400 x 400 x 70
450 x 450 x 80
500 x 500 x 80
500 x 500 x 90
600 x 600 x 100
700 x 700 x 120
700 x 700 x 140
900 x 900 x 160
91+ under development - refer SSL
STRAND
12.7mm
or
12.9mm
2
4
7
368
736
1288
76
89
102
102
127
152
50 / 65
65 / 80
80 / 100
55 / 63
67 / 75
82 / 90
200 x 200 x 32
200 x 200 x 36
250 x 250 x 40
larger sizes on request - refer SSL
MACALLOY BAR
26.5
32
40
50
75
1
1
1
1
1
569
828
1295
2022
4311
76
102
102
127
152
127
152
152
175
203
65 / 80
80 / 100
80 / 100
100 / 127
130 / 150
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
200 x 200 x 40
250 x 250 x 50
300 x 300 x 60
300 x 300 x 60
400 x 400 x 90
External prestressing was first used in the late 1920’s
and has recently undergone a resurgence being
used in bridges, both for new construction as well as
strengthening of existing structures.
Features of External Prestressing
External prestressing is characterised by the following
features:
• The prestressing tendons are placed on the outside
of the physical cross section (mostly in concrete)
of the structure.
• The forces exerted by the prestressing tendons
are only transferred to the structure at the
anchorages and at deflectors.
• No bond is present between the tendon and
the structure, except at anchorage and deflector
locations.
Advantages of External Prestressing
Compared to internal bonded post-tensioning the external
prestressing has the following distinct advantages:
a) The application of external prestressing can be
combined with a broad range of construction
materials such as steel, timber, concrete,
composite structures and plastic materials. This
can considerably widen the scope of the post-
tensioning applications.
b) Due to the location and accessibility of the
tendons, monitoring and maintenance can be
readily carried out compared to internal, bonded
prestressing.
c) Due to the absence of bond, it is possible to
restress, destress and exchange any external
prestressing cable, provided that the structural
detailing allows for these actions.
d) Improves the concrete placing due to the absence
of tendons in the webs.
e) Improvement of conditions for tendon installation
which can take place independently from the
concrete works.
f) Reduction of friction losses, because the
unintentional angular changes, known as wobble,
are practically eliminated. Furthermore with
the use of a polyethylene sheathing the friction
coefficient is drastically reduced compared to
internal bonded prestressing using corrugated
metal ducts.
g) External prestressing tendons can easily and
without major cost implication be designed to be
replaceable, de-stressable and re-stressable.
h) Generally the webs can be made thinner, resulting
in an overall lighter structure.
i) Strengthening capabilities.
As an overall result, better concrete quality can be obtained
leading to a more durable structure.
External post-tensioning - Navia, Spain
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EXTERNAL
PRESTRESSING
Typical Applications for External
Prestressing
Typical applications where external tendons are feasible,
practical and economical, are:
- Repair work and strengthening of all kinds of
structures
- Precast segmental construction
- Simple and continuous spans
- Underslung structures
- Incremental launching procedure, in particular
concentric prestressing
Basic Type
The basic SSL BAR CONA External tendon is practically
identical to the SSL Multi-Strand System for internal
applications:
- The tendon is formed from standard 15.2mm/
15.7mm diameter strands with minimum breaking
load of 250 kN or 279 kN.
- The duct is from high density polyethylene and
continuous from one anchorage to the other.
The tendon sheathing passes freely through
intermediate diaphragms and through deflectors
with a metal or HDPE sleeve providing the required
penetration.
- A standard CONA Compact anchorage assembly
consisting of anchor head, wedges, anchorage
casting and polyethylene trumpet safely
transfers the prestressing forces to the structure
(see Fig. 1).
- Alternatively a fabricated steel bearing plate
anchorage can be used in lieu of the cast
anchorage.
- The tendon is filled with cement grout after it has
been tensioned. Depending on requirements,
the anchor heads may be protected by a cap, or
alternatively the anchorage recess is filled with non-
shrink concrete.
3 9
EXTERNAL POST-TENSIONING
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Fig. 2. SSL-CONA External with anchorage casting
ANCHORAGE CASTING
NUMBER OF
STRANDS
15.2mm / 15.7mm
TYPE
DIMENSIONS (mm)
A1 x A1 ØB C D E1 ØF G AD/ID ad/id
7
12
19
31
42
706
1206
1906
3106
4206
215
265
335
395
500
150
180
230
290
340
52
65
80
97
116
105
115
130
150
155
355
425
511
650
950
109
138
178
222
283
75
80
90
100
160
75 / 66.4
90 / 79.8
110 / 97.4
140 / 124
210 / 200
90 / 79.8
110 / 97.4
140 / 114.4
180 / 147.2
243 / 225
SSL CONA EXTERNAL TENDONS
Main Dimensions
Fig. 1. Standard Cona Compact Anchorage Assembly
Structural Systems can provide strand (BBR HiAm
Cona
TM
) stay cables, wire (Dina
TM
/ HiAm
TM
) stay cables,
and Carbon stay cables for a wide variety of structures,
drawing on both local and global expertise and resources
of the BBR Network. For suspension bridges, BBR
Technology can also be used for the main suspension
cables as well as for the hangers.
Stay cables may be plain strand / wire unsheathed for
temporary applications.
For permanent stay cable applications, galvanised,
waxed and individually sheathed strands, enclosed in
an external sheath are adopted; or wires enclosed in
a sheath and the voids filled with a flexible corrosion
protection compound.
In recent years a fatigue stress range of 200 N/mm
2

for 2x10
6
load cycles in combination with angular
rotations at the anchorages has been adapted and is
now specified by most codes and recommendations.
BBR Stay Cable Technology has fulfilled such fatigue
testing.
Sydney Athletics Centre - New South Waies
Eleanor Schonell Bridge - Queensland
CABLE STAY
SYSTEMS
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CABLE STAY SYSTEMS
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Strand Stay Cables
BBR HiAm Cona
TM
Parallel Strand Stay Cables Installation
is typically performed on site using the strand-by-strand
method. Each strand is tensioned immediately after
installation, using the BBR isostress tensioning method,
ensuring an equal force distribution among the strands
of an individual cable. Alternatively, fully or partially
prefabricated cables can be installed and tensioned.
Strands are generally 15.7mm diameter, low relaxation
grade, minimum guaranteed ultimate tensile stress of
1770 N/mm
2
or 1860 N/mm
2
and subject to fatigue
testing by the manufacturer. Strands are galvanized,
waxed and individually sheathed with a continuous and
wear resistant HDPE coating, providing each strand with
an individual multilayer protection system. Alternatives
may also be available upon request. A ring nut screwed
on anchor heads transfers the cable loads by contact
pressure to the supporting bearing plates, and allows
adjustment of stay force. All anchorage components are
designed for a stress range greater than 300 N/mm
2
and
to withstand the ultimate breaking load of the strand
bundle with adequate safety.
Supplemental internal or alternatively external damping
devices protect the stay cable from vibrations.
Another effective countermeasure against wind and
rain-induced vibrations is the use of a helical rib on
the outside of the HDPE, architecturally coloured
co-extruded stay pipe.
Final stay cable force may also be adjusted using a
specially designed multi-strand jack acting on the entire
stay cable. Individual strands can be re-stressed at any
time during or after the installation, allowing not only
for a re-stressing but also for the selective removal,
inspection and replacement of individual strands or the
entire stay cable.
Standard Anchorage Components
TYPE FORCES STRUCTURE ANCHORAGE STAY PIPE WEIGHT
H
i
A
m

C
O
N
A
AXIAL CABLE FORCE
BEARING PLATE / STEEL GUIDE
PIPE
BBR HIAM ANCHORAGE SYSTEM
HDPE
CABLE
ULTIMATE WORKING
SHORT
TERM
FATIGUE
STEEL 355 MPa YIELD STRESS
STRUCTURAL GRADE
SDR32
MBL F
wl
F
ext
F
fat
PLATE GUIDE PIPE
Diam.
G
A
H
A
I
A
Diam.
S
CABLE
Diam. C
BP
Diam. D
GP
100% 45% 55% 200 MPa OD / e STRESSING FIXED OD / e
kN kN kN kN mm mm / mm mm mm mm mm mm / mm kg/m
1 06 279 126 153 30 57 70.0 / 5.0 75 390 190 1000 / 1.3
3 06 837 377 460 90 85 101.6 / 5.0 110 400 200 1500 63 / 4.0 4.7
7 06 1953 879 1074 210 133 152.4 / 4.5 165 410 210 2000 90 / 4.0 10.3
12 06 3348 1507 1841 360 170 193.7 / 5.6 210 420 220 2125 110 / 4.0 17.1
19 06 5301 2385 2916 570 210 244.5 / 6.3 260 435 235 2250 125 / 4.0 26.4
22 06 6138 2762 3376 660 225 244.5 / 6.3 275 435 235 2375 140 / 4.4 30.7
27 05 7533 3390 4143 810 248 273.0 / 6.3 305 450 250 2500 160 / 5.0 37.8
31 06 8649 3892 4757 930 264 298.5 / 7.1 325 445 245 2625 160 / 5.0 43.1
37 06 10323 4645 5678 1110 288 323.9 / 7.1 355 465 265 2750 180 / 5.7 51.6
42 06 11718 5273 6445 1260 305 323.9 / 7.1 375 465 265 2850 180 / 5.7 58.2
48 06 13392 6026 7366 1440 327 356.6 / 8.0 400 480 280 2950 200 / 6.3 66.8
55 06 15345 6905 8440 1650 349 368.0 / 8.0 425 480 280 3050 200 / 6.3 75.9
61 06 17019 7659 9360 1830 367 406.4 / 8.0 450 495 295 3150 225 / 7.1 84.8
69 06 19251 8663 10588 2070 389 406.4 / 8.0 475 500 300 3250 225 / 7.1 95.3
73 06 20367 9165 11202 2190 400 419.0 / 8.0 490 490 290 3350 250 / 7.9 1101.7
75 06 20925 9416 11509 2250 405 457.0 / 10.0 495 510 310 3450 250 / 7.9 104.3
85 06 23715 10672 13043 2550 430 457.0 / 10.0 525 515 315 3550 280 / 8.8 119.0
91 06 25389 11425 13964 2730 445 508.0 / 11.0 545 525 325 3650 280 / 8.8 126.8
97 06 27063 12178 14885 2910 458 508.0 / 11.0 560 525 325 3750 280 / 8.8 134.7
109 06 30411 13685 16726 3270 485 508.0 / 11.0 595 525 325 3850 315 / 9.9 152.4
121 06 33759 15192 18567 3630 510 559.0 / 12.5 625 545 345 3950 315 / 9.9 168.1
127 06 35433 15945 19488 3810 522 559.0 / 12.5 640 555 355 4050 315 / 9.9 176.0
STRAND DIAMETER: 15.7mm TO prEN 10138-3 (REFER DESIGN DATA)
Notes: • e = nominal wall thickness
BBR HIAM STAY CABLES
4 2
PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
www. s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e ms . c o m. a u
CABLE STAY SYSTEMS
CABLE SIZE (WIRES PER CABLE) n Ø 7 No. 56 91 121 163 196 223 262 301 334 367 394 421
CABLE Breaking Load Fu
nom
kn 3600 5850 7775 10475 12595 14330 16840 19345 21465 23585 25320 27055
Max. Working Load F
max
kn 1620 2635 3500 4715 5670 6450 7580 8705 9660 10615 11395 12175
Steel Weight kg/m 16.9 27.5 36.6 29.2 59.2 67.4 79.2 91 100.9 111 119 127.2
Cable Weight kg/m 23.8 33.2 43.8 58.0 71.2 78.4 93.8 104 118.7 128 138.3 145.5
HDPE STAY PIPE Ø pe mm 110 110 125 140.0 160 160.0 180 180 200 200 210 210
WALL THICKNESS mm 10.0 10.0 11.4 12.8 14.6 14.6 16.4 16.4 18.2 18.2 19.1 19.1
HDPE TELESCOPE PIPE Ø pe t mm 140 140 160 180.0 200 200.0 225 225 250 250 250 250
WALL THICKNESS mm 12.8 12.8 14.6 16.4 18.2 18.2 20.5 20.5 22.8 22.8 18.0 18.0
STEEL GUIDE PIPE Ø T mm 229.0 / 267.0 / 298.5 / 343.0 / 355.6 / 368.0 / 406.4 / 445.0 / 445.0 / 470.0 / 495.0 / 495.0 /
(outer/inner diameter) mm 211.4 251 282.5 311.0 330.6 352.0 378.0 405.0 416.6 435.0 455.0 470.0
BEARING PLATE B mm 365 430 480 545.0 590 625.0 675 730 755 795 830 850
THICKNESS t mm 45 55 60 70 75 75 85 95 95 100 110 105
CENTRE HOLE Ø Z mm 211 251 282 311.0 330 352.0 378 405 417 435 455 470
SOCKET Outer Diameter Ø a mm 195 235 265 295 315 335 360 385 400 420 435 450
Length Stressing Anchorage lhM mm 355 425 480 550 605 635 665 710 755 790 815 845
Length Fixed Anchorage lhF mm 320 370 415 465 505 525 540 575 605 635 650 675
LOCK NUT Ø M mm 245 290 330 365 390 420 450 480 500 520 540 560
hM mm 75 90 105 120 125 135 150 160 165 170 180 185
PROTECTION CAP Ø S mm 219 259 289 319 339 359 389 409 429 449 459 479
lSm mm 283 338 378 433 483 503 518 553 593 623 638 663
lS
f
mm 178 203 213 228 253 253 253 268 283 288 293 303
WEIGHT OF ANCHORAGE
(excl. Anchor Plate and Guide Pipe)
stress. kg 93 157 226 314 391 465 567 668 787 898 998 1110
fixed kg 86 142 203 281 347 412 495 600 682 779 861 957
4 3
CABLE STAY SYSTEMS
www. s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e ms . c o m. a u
BBR DINA STAY CABLES
CaBle Size (wireS per CaBle) n Ø 7 no. 13 22 31 37 55 70 91 103 121 145 157 181 199
CaBle Breaking load Fu
nom
kn 835 1415 1990 2380 3535 4500 5850 6620 7775 9320 10090 11635 12790
Max. working load F
max
kn 375 635 895 1070 1590 2025 2635 2980 3500 4195 4540 5235 5755
Steel weight kg/m 3.9 6.6 9.4 11.2 16.6 21.1 27.5 31.1 36.6 43.8 47.4 54.7 60.1
Cable weight kg/m 6.4 8.8 12.4 15.8 20.7 27.6 33.2 39.0 43.8 53.1 56.4 67.2 72.0
hdpe Stay pipe Ø pe mm 63 63 75 90 90 110 110 125 125 140 140 160 160
wall thiCKneSS mm 5.8 5.8 6.9 8.2 8.2 10.0 10.0 11.4 11.4 12.8 12.8 14.6 14.6
hdpe teleSCope pipe Ø pe mm 75 75 90 110 110 140 140 160 160 180 180 200 200
wall thiCKneSS mm 4.3 4.3 5.1 6.3 6.3 12.8 12.8 14.6 14.6 16.4 16.4 18.2 18.2
Steel guide pipe Stressing anchorage Ø T
m
mm 139.7 / 146.0 / 168.3 / 177.8 / 203.0 / 229.0 / 254.0 / 267.0 / 292.0 / 305.0 / 318.0 / 330.0 / 355.6 /
(inner / outer diameter) mm 125.5 136.0 155.7 165.2 190.4 211.4 238.0 245.0 267.0 285.0 298.0 310.0 327.2
Fixed anchorage Ø T
f
mm 139.7 / 146.0 / 168.3 / 177.8 / 203.0 / 229.0 / 254.0 / 267.0 / 292.0 / 305.0 / 318.0 / 330.0 / 355.6 /
(inner / outer diameter) mm 125.5 136.0 155.7 165.2 190.4 211.4 238.0 245.0 267.0 285.0 298.0 310.0 327.2
Bearing plate Stressing plate B
m
mm 230 260 285 305 350 380 420 435 470 510 525 560 590
thickness t
m
mm 30 35 35 40 45 50 55 60 60 65 65 70 75
Centre hole Ø Z
m
mm 125 136 155 165 190 211 238 245 267 285 298 310 327
Fixed plate B
f
mm 180 210 240 270 305 405 430 415 440 480 495 530 555
thickness t
f
mm 25 35 35 45 45 70 80 60 65 75 75 80 90
Centre hole Ø Z
f
mm 110 110 125 145 145 175 175 195 195 215 215 235 235
StreSSing SleeVe outer diameter Ø Zh mm 100 120 140 150 175 195 220 230 250 270 280 295 310
length lZh mm 90 105 115 130 160 190 205 225 245 255 270 290 305
length Fixed anchorage lhF mm 45 55 60 60 75 75 90 90 100 105 110 115 125
loCK nut Stressing anchorage Ø M
f
mm 140 160 180 195 225 250 280 290 315 340 355 370 390
hM
f
mm 30 35 40 45 55 60 70 70 75 80 85 90 95
Fixed anchorage Ø M
r
mm 130 135 155 175 185 220 230 250 255 280 285 310 315
hM
r
mm 30 40 45 50 55 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
proteCtion Cap Stressing anchorage Ø S
m
mm 129 149 169 179 199 219 249 259 279 299 309 319 339
lS
m
mm 98 108 113 128 153 178 188 203 218 223 238 253 265
Fixed anchorage Ø S
f
mm 125 130 150 170 180 215 225 245 250 275 280 305 310
lS
f
mm 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34
weight oF anChorage
(excl. anchor plate and guide pipe)
stress. kg 15 19 26 34 48 69 86 102 125 150 169 199 230
fixed kg 11 12 16 22 24 35 40 49 52 65 69 85 90
4 4
PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
www. s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e ms . c o m. a u
INCREMENTAL
LAUNCHING
SYSTEMS
The Incremental Launching method combines the
advantages of pre-cast segmental construction with
those of segmental cast insitu methods.
Bridges are cast in segments behind an abutment under
controlled conditions, as a result, high concrete quality
and precise dimensions are assured. Reinforcement
crosses each joint in addition to the bonded pre-
stressing tendons as each new segment is cast directly
against the already hardened one in front. The concentric
pre-stress required during launching guarantees an
excellent, relatively maintenance free performance of the
bridge during its whole lifetime.
By avoiding costly and time-consuming false work and
by concentrating all construction activities in the small
fabrication area, considerable saving in cost and time
against conventional bridge construction are achieved.
The main characteristics of the incremental launching method are:
• Production of a continuous, site cast concrete superstructure.
• Casting in long sections in a stationary, multiple use form behind an
abutment.
• After longitudinal shifting (launching) of a completed section along the
bridge axis, the next section is cast against the previous one and stressed
together.
• In this sequence the overall superstructure grows by adding new sections,
step-by-step as the progressively completed girder is launched.
• Temporary sliding bearings and guides at each pier facilitate the steady
travel of the structure.
• A steel launching nose at the front sliding bearings, and a casting bay
behind the abutment.
Some preferred requirements are:
• The girders should have a constant curvature in horizontal and vertical
alignment.
• The section should be continuous over the whole bridge with preferably a
constant depth.
• Span should be limited to 50-60 metres.
• Span/depth ratios should be in the range of 14 to 18.
These are not exclusive but provide a guide to the standard range of
applications.
Incremental Launching Girder
Mt Henry Bridge - Western Australia
Tonkin Hwy Bridge over Albany
Hwy - Western Australia
4 5
HEAVY LIFTING SYSTEMS
In many instances, it is advantageous for extremely
large and heavy components to be prefabricated
away from their final location. In most cases they
must be lowered, jacked horizontally or lifted into
their final position. When their weight or size exceeds
the capacity of available cranage other heavy lifting
facilities must be considered.
Structural Systems has developed specialised lifting
equipment for this application. The combination of
the proven BBR Buttonhead Prestress Cable together
with electrically operated hydraulic jacking units allows
virtually unlimited loads to be moved quickly and safely
over any distance. The lifting or lowering operation can
be accurately controlled through the hydraulic system
which allows simultaneous or individual operation of
each lifting unit.
HEAVY LIFTING SYSTEMS
Perth Convention Exhibition Centre - Before Roof Lift
12 outlet isoflow pump and control panel
Perth Convention Exhibition Centre - After Roof Lift
4 3 www. s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e ms . c o m. a u
4 6
PRESTRESSING TECHNOLOGY
www. s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e ms . c o m. a u
LOAD HANDLING SYSTEMS
Construction procedures involving load handling
systems often result in considerable savings as
compared to conventional building methods using
traditional scaffolds for casting concrete or installing
steel structural elements in place.
The application of load handling systems requires
full consideration at the structural design stage, well
in advance of detailing or construction planning, as
selecting or designing the necessary temporary works
and choosing the related equipment must be performed
as early as possible.
Structural Systems has extensive experience in the
field of load handling and can provide all required
services for design as well as supply and operation of
equipment.
Raising roof segment - Docklands Stadium
Lifting, Lowering and Shifting of Heavy Loads
Heavy, fragile or awkward structural elements can be
either fabricated on or off site, then manoeuvred into
position by using jacking systems and tendons from
bar, strand or wire. Examples include roof structures,
bridge spans, precast concrete elements, and heavy
industrial components. It is often preferred to assemble
a large module adjacent to its final location then shift it
into position, on the basis of safety, ease of assembly
or time constraints. In some instances bridge pier
headstocks are constructed parallel to traffic, then
rotated to minimise traffic disruption. Some of SSL’s
systems incorporate special hydraulic and monitoring
systems to allow for high accuracy movement regardless
of any differential loadings.
Specialist Formwork & Access
Occasionally access systems or working platforms may
be located in areas which cannot be serviced using
conventional cranage. In these instances where standard
options fail, the compact yet powerful systems SSL offer
allow for an effective solution to be developed. Examples
of this application may be underbridge platforms, fitting
of chimney liners and lift shaft installations. Additionally
we have developed specialist platforms for use on high
rise buildings, bridges, tanks and silo structures to
permit necessary works such as post-tensioning and
repair or inspection. SSL also have free spanning access
walkways up to 40m. The use of our specialist hardware
such as cable stays can allow formwork solutions to
be developed where the formwork and false work is
supported from above rather than below. This may be
essential in some locations where it is not possible due
to access, and cost or time.
Tendon Installation & Transport
As part of our diverse operations, we have developed
systems for use on cable stay bridges or large dam
projects where tendons up to 150m and weights greater
than 17 tonnes need translation and fitting to the structure.
A further example is the stay cables incorporated in
Centrepoint tower, were fabricated in Melbourne prior to
shipment and installation in Sydney.
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
Ringwood Rail Bridge Sliding Operations - Victoria
www. s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e ms . c o m. a u
LOAD HANDLING SYSTEMS
FLAT JACKS
Flat jacks are used for a variety of applications where structures are
required to be lifted or preloaded and installation heights are to be kept
to a minimum.
Structural Systems can provide 2 types of flat jacks:
• Pan Type
Contstructed of two moulded steel sections welded together
used with a top and bottom plate. These can be inflated with oil
or grout and are generally used only once (see Table A).
• Safety Lock Nut Type
Solid ram, low height hydraulic jacks with safety lock nut for
mechanical load handling, used mainly for bearing replacement
work (see Table B). For heavy loads multiples of the jacks are
used linked through a manifold system.
Pan Type
Safety Lock Nut Type
Notes: [1] flat jack thickness may vary slightly
TABLE A - PAN TYPE
TYPE OUTSIDE DIAMETER
mm
MAXIMUM FORCE
AT 10,000 PSI
kN
THICKNESS
mm
MAXIMUM TRAVEL
mm
INSTALLATION GAP
mm
60T
100T
150T
200T
250T
300T
138
188
205
240
300
305
600
1000
1500
2000
3000
3000
110
162
192
155
150
170
28
50
50
50
50
50
125
180
210
170
165
185
TABLE B - SAFETY LOCK NUT TYPE
Notes: • Jacks come complete with spherical testing
TYPE D OUTSIDE
DIAMETER
mm
MAXIMUM FORCE
AT 13.5 MPa
kN
EFFECTIVE AREA AT
ZERO EXTENSION
103mm
2
T
THICKNESS
1

mm
E
MAXIMUM TRAVEL
mm
INSTALLATION
GAP
mm
9T
16T
39T
52T
60T
78T
108T
160T
217T
347T
540T
738T
898T
1364T
120
150
220
250
270
300
350
420
480
600
750
870
920
1150
85
155
390
525
605
780
1080
1605
2170
3470
5400
7385
8975
13635
6.4
11.5
29
39
45
58
80
119
161
257
400
547
665
1010
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
45
45
45
50
4 7
Structural Systems operate throughout Australia, South East Asia, the Middle East and the United Kingdom.
For more information on Structural Systems and the many services we provide,
visit: www.structuralsystems.com.au
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
112 Munro Street, South Melbourne
VIC 3205 Australia
T. +61 3 9296 8100
F. +61 3 9646 7133
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
20 Hilly Street, Mortlake
NSW 2137 Australia
T. +61 2 8767 6200
F. +61 2 8767 6299
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
Unit 2, 16 Maiella Street, Stapylton
QLD 4207 Australia
T. +61 7 3442 3500
F. +61 7 3442 3555
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
24 Hines Road, O’Connor
WA 6163 Australia
T. +61 8 9267 5400
F. +61 8 9331 4511
NASA STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC
Head Office
Suite 302 Sara Building, Garhoud
PO Box 28987
DUBAI United Arab Emirates
T. +97 14 2828 595
F. +97 14 2828 386
www.bbrstructuralsystems.com
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
12 Collett Way
Great Western Industrial Park
Southall, Middlesex UB2 4SE
T. +44 208 843 6500
F. +44 208 843 6509
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
Unit 13, Block G
Maynooth Business Campus, Maynooth
Co. Kildare, Ireland
T. +353 1628 9124
F. +353 1628 9124
STRUCTURAL DESIGN SERVICES sp.z o.o.
Twarda 30
00-831 Warszawa
Poland
T. +48 226 979 246
+48 226 979 247
F. +48 226 979 248
VICTORIA



NEW SOUTH WALES



QUEENSLAND



WESTERN AUSTRALIA



MIDDLE EAST REGION
Bahrain, Oman, Qatar,
U.A.E.




UNITED KINGDOM




IRELAND




POLAND

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