The Discovery of the Philippines

September 20, 1519: Magellan departs from Spain with five ships and a complement of 264 crew. March 16, 1521: Ferdinand Magellan discovers the Philippines and claims it for Spain and names it Islas de San Lazaro. March 31, 1521: The first mass in the Philippines takes place. April 7, 1521: Magellan arrives at Cebu and befriends Rajah Humabon, ruler of Cebu. A significant number of Cebu natives are converted to Catholicism. April 27, 1521: Magellan is killed in battle on Mactan Island by Lapu-Lapu. Disputes over women cause deterioration of Spaniard-Cebuano relations and 27 Spaniards are killed. The remaining Spaniards depart. 1522: Of the five ships that departed Spain with Magellan, only one ship returns with a crew of 18. The voyage however, is a success and the ship's cargo makes a profit of 105%. 1525: Spain sends a second expedition to the Philippines under Juan Garcia Jofre de Loaysa. 1526: A third expedition under Juan Cabot is sent but never reaches the Philippines. Instead, the expedition spends three years in South America. 1527: From Mexico, a fourth expedition is sent under Alvaro de Saavedra and eventually reaches Mindanao. 1529: Saavedra dies during the journey of his expedition's return to Spain. 1536: The Loaysa expedition returns to Spain. The expedition is a failure with Loaysa and many of his crew having died in the Philippines. February 2, 1543: Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, leader of the fifth expedition arrives in the Philippines. He names it after the Spanish heir to the throne, Philip II. Villalobos remains in the Philippines for eight months before being forced to leave due to lack of food.

The Philippines as a Spanish Colony
Almost half a century after Magellan's death, the Spanish returned to the Philippines with the intention of establishing a colony. In the first half of their occupation (which is not as well documented as the second half), the Spanish managed to defend the Philippines from the Dutch and various Chinese warlords. In the second half of their occupation, much discontent grew as to how the Spanish ran the colony and treated its people. Revolution was the outcome. Rizal tried a more peaceful approach but for Bonifacio, armed revolution was the only option. As the revolution progressed, a revolutionary government was formed with Aguinaldo as president. After an agreement with Spain, Aguinaldo left in exile to Hong Kong but returned along with American forces in the Spanish-American War and proclaimed independence from Spain.

Early Spanish Rule
February 13, 1565: Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and his men arrive in the Philippines. February 15, 1565: King Philip II of Spain appoints Miguel Lopez de Legazpi as the first governor-general of the Philippines which is to be administered as a territory of Mexico (then referred to as New Spain).

May 8, 1565: The natives of Cebu submit to Spanish rule under Legazpi and Cebu becomes the capital of the Philippines. 1568: The Portuguese, who believe that under the Treaty of Tordesillas, the Philippines falls under Portuguese jurisdiction, attack Cebu and blockade the port. 1570: The Portuguese launch a second attack on the Philippines but are unsuccessful. May 1570: Legazpi sends an expedition to Manila which befriends the ruler of Manila, Rajah Soliman. May/June 1570: War breaks out between the Spanish and Rajah Soliman as a result of either a misunderstanding or due to an attempt to impose Spanish sovereignty on the Manila natives. Soliman's warriors are defeated and Maynilad (Manila) is burnt to the ground and occupied by the Spanish. June 24, 1571: Legazpi selects Manila as the capital of the colony because of the natural harbour and rich lands surrounding the city that could supply it with produce. November 1574: The Chinese pirate Limahong attacks Manila and attempts to invade the city but is unsuccessful. December 1574: Limahong launches a second attack on Manila but is again unsuccessful. Limahong leaves Manila for Pangasinan. Following Limahong's defeat, Rajah Soliman and Lakandula lead a short revolt against the Spanish in towns north of Manila after some of their lands are given away to Spanish officials. March 23, 1575: A Spanish-Filipino force leaves for Pangasinan where Limahong has established his own kingdom. In the following months, Limahong's Chinese fleet is destroyed by fire. His fort is attacked and damaged by fire but holds out giving Limahong time to build new boats and repair some of the breaches in his fort. August 4, 1575: Limahong sets sail for China and departs the fort via a secret channel that his men had dug. The Spanish are taken by surprise by this development and drive wooden stakes into the riverbed where they expect Limahong to pass through. As Limahong arrives at the stakes the Spanish subject his fleet to a blinding fire. Despite this, the Chinese remove enough stakes to allow Limahong to escape. 1580: Philip II of Spain becomes Philip I of Portugal (not officially recognised until 1581), ultimately ending the dispute between Spain and Portugal over the Philippines. In the same year, forced labour is imposed on Filipino males aged 16 to 60. 1585: In Pampanga, a revolt is planned against the Spanish who learn of the revolt before it even takes place. The leaders of the planned revolt are executed. 1589: A revolt breaks out in the Ilocos and Cagayan areas over abuses of tax collectors and unfair taxes. The Spanish forces pacify the rebels and grant them pardon. The tax system is overhauled. 1600: The galleon trade between Manila and Acapulco, Mexico begins. 1600 - 1617: The Dutch attempt to seize the Philippines but are defeated by the Spanish navy. 1603: The Chinese revolt against injustices under the Spanish who suppress the revolt brutally. 1621: A revolt breaks out in Bohol lead by Tamblot, a priest of the native religion. The revolt is followed by other revolts in Leyte, Panay and Samar against collection of tributes. January 1, 1622: The revolt in Bohol lead by Tamblot is crushed.

1639: The Chinese revolt against Spanish rule. The revolt is brutally suppressed. 1646: The Spanish navy repulses five separate Dutch attempts to enter and capture Manila throughout the year. June 1, 1649: A revolt breaks out in Samar lead by Juan Ponce Sumuroy in protest of native Warays being sent to the shipyards of Cavite under the imposed forced labour. June 1650: Sumuroy is defeated, captured and executed which ends the revolt in Samar. 1662: The Chinese revolt against Spanish rule. The revolt is brutally suppressed. 1686: The Chinese revolt against Spanish rule. The revolt is brutally suppressed. 1744 - 1829: Bohol remains outside of Spanish control following one of the most successful revolts against Spanish authority led by Francisco Dagohoy. None of the Spanish governorgenerals serving in office throughout the revolt are able to suppress it. Dagohoy dies two years before the end of the revolt and thousands of survivors are granted pardon after the revolt is over. 1745 - 1746: A revolt breaks out in Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite and Laguna after greedy Spanish friars seize land from the Filipino natives. In retaliation, churches are looted are burnt to the ground. The Spanish authorities investigate the case which even reaches the king of Spain who orders the friars to return the lands. The friars successfully appeal and no land is returned to the Filipino landowners.

British Occupation and the Seven Years War
1756: The Seven Years War begins although hostilities had already begun sometime before war was declared. September 24, 1762: British forces land off Manila and attack. October 6, 1762: The Spanish surrender Manila and the Philippines to the British but organise a resistance to retake the Philippines. The long persecuted Chinese merchant community support the British invasion. The Spanish establish a new capital in Bacolor. The British forces open the colony to international trade. December 14, 1762: Diego Silang starts a revolt against the Spanish and declares an independent and free state called Ilocandia with Vigan as its capital. Silang and the British join forces against the Spanish. May 28, 1763: Diego Silang is murdered by his friend who was paid by the Spanish for the murder. The revolt continues led by Diego's wife, Gabriela Silang. September 10, 1763: Gabriela Silang attacks Vigan but the Spanish are well prepared and supported by a Filipino force from surrounding regions. Many of Gabriela's men are killed but she escapes along with her uncle and several other men to Abra but captured several days later. September 29, 1763: Gabriela and her remaining followers are executed by hanging. Gabriela is the last to die and ultimately becomes the first female martyr of the Philippines. History will remember her as the Joan of Arc of Ilocandia. February 10, 1763: Under the Treaty of Paris, Britain returns the Philippines to Spain. July 23, 1763: News of the Treaty of Paris reaches the British governor of the Philippines. He attempts to negotiate a truce with the Spanish who do not trust the British and so hostilities continue. 1764: The Spanish learn of the treaty from Madrid. All fighting ceases.

May 31, 1764: The British withdraw from the Philippines but illegally retain a base in the Sulu islands. Several years later, they are forcefully evicted by Filipinos.

The Decline of Spanish Rule
November 9, 1774: Filipino natives are permitted to enter the Catholic priesthood. June 6, 1808: Joseph Bonaparte becomes the king of Spain after being installed by his brother, Napoleon Bonaparte, the emperor of France. September 16, 1810: Mexico declares independence from Spain and the war for independence begins. March 19, 1812: The Spanish Cortes adopts the 1812 Constitution (also known as the Cadiz Constitution as the Cortes was holding its session in the City of Cadiz). The constitution is liberal and all citizens of Spain, including all natives of colonies and overseas territories are given equal rights and representation in the Cortes. September 24, 1812: The first Philippine delegates to the Spanish Cortes take their oath of office in Madrid. October, 1813: Napoleon and the French are defeated in the Battle of Nations. Napoleonic forces are driven out of Spain. December 11, 1813: Ferdinand VII is recognised as the king of Spain. 1815: The galleon trade with Mexico comes to an end. May 24, 1816: A conservative Spanish Cortes rejects the Cadiz Constitution and repeals all liberties, equality and representation it gave to Filipinos. September 27, 1821: Spain officially recognises the independence of Mexico. The Philippines must now be governed directly from Madrid. September 6, 1834: Spain opens Philippine ports to international free trade. The commercialisation of Philippine agriculture begins and results in economic expansion. 1839: Apolinario de la Cruz (also known as Hermano Pule) is refused entry to a monastic order in Manila as he is a native Filipino. June, 1840: Apolinario de la Cruz forms the Cofradia de San Jose (Confraternity of St. Joseph), a Filipino-only Christian brotherhood. The Spanish authorities condemn the brotherhood as heresy and outlaw it. October 23, 1841: The Cofradia de San Jose is forced to confront Spanish forces on the grounds of religious freedom. November 1, 1841: The Cofradia de San Jose is crushed by Spanish forces. Apolinario de la Cruz escapes initially is but later captured. November 4, 1841: Apolinario de la Cruz is executed by firing squad. 1863: The Spanish government concedes to the increasing demand of educational reform. Originally, the religious orders excluded the teaching of foreign languages, scientific and technical subjects from their curricula. The wealthier Filipinos send their children to Spain for education. 1868: A liberal revolution breaks out in Spain and Queen Isabella II is deposed.

1869: The new Spanish government promulgate the liberal constitution of 1869. General Carlos Maria de la Torre, a liberal governor is appointed to the Philippines. He abolishes censorship and extends to Filipinos the rights of free speech and assembly contained in the new Spanish constitution. April 4, 1871: Rafael de Izquierdo replaces de la Torre and promptly rescinds the liberal measures. January 20, 1872: In Cavite, 200 Filipino recruits revolt and murder their Spanish officers. The Spanish suppress the revolt brutally and use the opportunity to implicate the liberal critics of Spanish authority in an imaginary wider conspiracy. Many liberals are arrested or driven into exile. February 17, 1872: The reformist Fathers Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora are publicly executed as part of the crack-down against liberal critics of Spanish authority. The priests are made martyrs for the nationalist cause. March 3, 1882: Jose Rizal leaves Manila to continue his studies in medicine in Barcelona, Spain. June 2, 1882: Rizal begins writing Noli Me Tangere in Madrid. May 29, 1887: Noli Me Tangere is published in Spain. October, 1887: Rizal begins writing El Filibusterismo. December 13, 1888: Filipinos in Barcelona organise La Solidaridad which demands equality, freedom and representation for Filipinos. March 28, 1891: Rizal finishes El Filibusterismo. July 3, 1892: Back in Manila, Rizal organises La Liga Filipina which is a peaceful reformist movement. July 7, 1892: Rizal is arrested for forming La Liga Filipina. Andres Bonifacio establishes Kataastaasan Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng Mga Anak ng Bayan (Highest and Most Respected Association of the Sons of the Country), also known by it initials, KKK or Katipunan. The aim of the Katipunan is to overthrow Spanish rule in the Philippines. July 17, 1892: Rizal is exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao. August 6, 1896: Rizal returns to Manila after his services as a physician have been requested for the Spanish army in Cuba. Cuba is currently having its own revolution for independence from Spain. August 19, 1896: A talkative Katipunero, Teodor Patino tells his sister and a nun at an orphanage about the Katipunan and their aim to overthrow Spanish rule. The nun convinces him to confess everything to Father Mariano Gil, who in turn discloses the existence of the Katipunan to the Spanish authorities. The Spanish begin making hundreds of arrests. Many Katipuneros flee to Balintawak to escape arrest. August 22, 1896: Around 500 Katipuneros leave Balintawak and make their way to Pugadlawin.

The Revolution for Independence
August 25, 1896: Bonifacio issues the call to arms, the Cry of Balintawak.

August 29, 1896: Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto attack the Spanish garrison at San Juan with 800 Katipuneros. Insurrections also brake out in eight provinces surrounding Manila on Luzon and soon spread to other islands. August 31, 1896: In Cavite under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo, Katipuneros defeat the Civil Guard and colonial troops. December 26, 1896: After being arrested in transit to Cuba, Rizal had been sent back to Fort Santiago in Manila to stand trial for rebellion. He is tried and found guilty and sentenced to death. December 30, 1896: Dr. Jose Rizal is executed by firing squad. His death will make him both the national hero of the Philippines and fresh determination to the Katipunan. May 10, 1897: The Katipunan was divided between factions loyal to Bonifacio and Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo had been elected to replace Bonifacio who then begins to withdraw his supporters. The two factions begin to fight. Aguinaldo has Bonifacio arrested, tried and executed. July 1897: Aguinaldo's forces are driven from Cavite to Bulacan where Aguinaldo declares his constitution and establishes the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. Both Spain and Aguinaldo's new republic realise the situation had become a no-win for either side. Negotiations begin. December 27, 1897: Negotiations have concluded with the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. Aguinaldo and his government accept US$800,000 (only half of this was actually paid out) for voluntary retirement and exile to Hong Kong where Aguinaldo designs what is now the Philippine national flag. January 20, 1898: The Truce of Biak-na-Bato is violated as the Spanish continue arresting suspected members of the Katipunan. Most of those arrested are innocent. Hostilities between Spanish and Filipino forces are resumed by General Francisco Makabulos. April 25, 1898: The US declares war on Spain. Relations had deteriorated over the conduct of the war for Cuban independence. Commodore George Dewey is ordered to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines. Prior to this, Dewey had discussions with Aguinaldo's exiled government. An agreement had been reached to crush the Spanish forces. May 1, 1898: By noon, Commodore George Dewey has destroyed the Spanish fleet. May 19, 1898: Aguinaldo returns to the Philippines to lead his rebel forces against the Spanish. May 24, 1898: Aguinaldo establishes a dictatorial government. June 12, 1898: From the balcony of his house in Cavite, Aguinaldo declares independence and displays his new flag before the people. June 23, 1898: Aguinaldo changes his dictatorial government to a revolutionary government. July 15, 1898: Aguinaldo appoints a cabinet and the Malolos Congress is formed with 136 members.

The First Republic of the Philippines
After defeat in the Spanish-American War, Spain ceded its colonies to the US in exchange for US$20 million. Although Aguinaldo had proclaimed independence, it became obvious the US did not recognise Philippine independence. The outcome was the Philippine-American War in which Aguinaldo was finally captured and persuaded to swear allegiance to the US.

The Surrender of the Spanish to the Americans
July 17, 1898: Over 11,000 US troops and reinforcements arrive in the Philippines from the US. August 13, 1898: The Spanish governor, Fermin Jaudenes negotiates the surrender of Manila with an arranged show of resistance that preserved Spanish sensibilities of honour. However, this excludes Aguinaldo's Filipinos. August 14, 1898: The Americans establish a military government in the Philippines. September 1898: Aguinaldo moves his capital from Cavite to the more defensible Malalos in Bulacan, as it is now apparent the US does not recognise Philippine independence. The US and Spain begin peace negotiations in Paris. December 10, 1898: The Treaty of Paris is signed. Cuba gains independence while Spain cedes the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico to the US for US$20 million. The Treaty of Paris is not well received in the Philippines. December 21, 1898: The Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation is issued by US President McKinley extending US sovereignty over the Philippines even by use of force if need be. January 20, 1899: President McKinley appoints the first Philippine Commission (Schurman Commission).

The First Republic and the Revolution
January 21, 1899: The Malolos Constitution is promulgated by Aguinaldo. January 23, 1899: Under the Malolos Constitution, the government of the First Republic of the Philippines is inaugurated and Emilio Aguinaldo takes his oath as President. February 4, 1899: An American sentry by the name of Private Willie Grayson shoots and kills a Filipino soldier crossing the San Juan bridge. This starts the Philippine-American War. June 15, 1899: General Antonio Luna, the most brilliant military tactician during the PhilippineAmerican War is shot and killed by Aguinaldo's men. March 4, 1899: The Schurman Commission arrives in Manila. It proclaims US supremacy over the Philippines but promises autonomy. March 31, 1899: Aguinaldo and his government escape the capture of Malalos. January 31, 1900: The Schurman Commission departs for the US. March 16, 1900: President McKinley appoints the second Philippine Commission (Taft Commission). June 3, 1900: The Taft Commission arrives in Manila. December 2, 1900: General Gregorio del Pilar is killed while trying to hold off the Americans at the Battle of Pasong Tirad. December 23, 1900: The Partido Liberal is formed by Filipinos aiming to have the Philippines join the US. March 2, 1901: The US Senate passes an act which formally ends military rule in the Philippines as the US President governs the Philippines by authority of the US Congress and not as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. March 23, 1901: Aguinaldo is captured in Palanan, Isabela by the pursuing American forces.

April 1, 1901: In Manila, Aguinaldo is persuaded to swear allegiance to the US and calls on his soldiers to put down their arms. April 19, 1901: Aguinaldo issues a proclamation in which he believes freedom can be obtained through the US. July 4, 1901: Military rule comes to an end as a civil government is established with William Taft as the first US governor-general. However, some resistance continues until 1903.

Under American Rule and the Commonwealth of the Philippines
The US replaced Spanish rule with the institutions of a modern state. It was also the intention of the US to prepare Filipinos for self-governance. Manuel Quezon pushed for independence through politics rather than armed revolution. Through Quezon, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established. This granted the Philippines a large amount of autonomy but at the same time, the US retained some control over the country (as the case was with Philippine foreign affairs).

Under American Rule
September 1900 - August 1902: The Taft Commission replaces over three centuries of Spanish rule with the laws and institutions of a modern civil state. A code of law, a judicial system and elective municipal and provincial governments are established. The Philippine Organic Act of 1902 extends the protections of the United States Bill of Rights to Filipinos and establishes a national bi-cameral legislature. The lower house is the popularly elected Philippine Assembly and the upper house is the Philippine Commission appointed directly by the president of the US. July 18, 1901: The Philippine Constabulary is established. September 28, 1901: In Balanggiga, as a consequence of the inappropriate behaviour of US soldiers towards Filipinos, around 200 Warays armed with bolos attack the American garrison. The Americans are attacked during breakfast and are generally unarmed. Only 2 US soldiers escape unharmed while 22 are wounded and 48 killed. October 23, 1901: A unit of US marines arrive in Balanggiga after General Jacob "howling" Smith gives orders to turn the island of Samar into a "howling wilderness" and US soldiers are ordered to kill all Filipino natives over the age of 10 or 11 years. Around ten thousand Filipinos are slaughtered causing public outcry in the US. General Smith is eventually court marshalled and forced into retirement. November 4, 1901: The Philippine Commission enacts the Sedition Law. This means the death penalty or a long prison sentence for anyone who tries to establish the Philippines as independent or separate from the US. 1902: Macario Sakay, a captured member of the Katipunan, is released as a general amnesty. Sakay and a group of other Katipuneros form the Republika ng Katagalugan or Tagalog Republic in the mountains of Southern Luzon. Sakay becomes president and commander-in-chief of the Republika ng Katagalugan; a continuation of the Katipunan and a continuation of the struggle for independence from the US. March 30, 1902: The unit of US marines depart from Balanggiga.

July 1, 1902: The Cooper Act is passed in the US Senate. A bicameral legislature is established with the Philippine Assembly as the lower chamber and the Philippine Commission as the upper chamber. 1904: Following American practice, the Philippine Organic Act imposes the strict separation of church and state and eliminates the Roman Catholic Church as the official state religion. The administration pays the Vatican US$7.2 million for most of the lands held by the religious orders. The lands are later sold back to Filipinos. Some tenants are able to buy their land but it is mainly the established estate owners who can afford to buy the former church lands.

The Tagalog Republic
April 1904: Macario Sakay issues a manifesto stating that Filipinos had a right to fight for Philippine independence. US propaganda brands Sakay as a mere bandit. The Republika ng Katagalugan has an established government, a constitution and a flag which resembles the Katipunan flags. Although called Tagalog Republic, it includes all of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Late 1904: Macario Sakay and his revolutionaries take to the offensive. They succeed in seizing ammunition and firearms. In Philippine Constabulary uniforms, they capture a military garrison in Parañaque. Sakay uses guerrilla warfare at night to take American forces by surprise. Sakay and his Republika ng Katagalugan have the support of the common masses. Lower class Filipinos in the Batangas, Cavite, Laguna and Rizal provinces contribute food, money, other supplies and information. The American forces begins reconcentration in the towns Taal, Tanauan, Santo Tomas, and Nasugbu where Sakay's support is strongest. Many Filipinos die in the reconcentration as the result of disease and lack of food. This cruel tactic begins to weaken Sakay's republic. 1905: Governor-General Henry Ide sends Dominador Gomez to speak with Sakay. Sakay is presented with a letter from Ide that if he surrenders, he and his men will not be punished. Gomez assures Sakay that a Philippine Assembly comprising of Filipinos is to be formed. July 14, 1906: Macario Sakay and his men surrender and go to Manila and are followed by a brass band and hundreds of Filipino supporters from the local towns. July 17, 1906: Macario Sakay and his men are betrayed by the Americans. They are disarmed and imprisoned. Sakay is tried and convicted. Dominador Gomez does not attend the trial and the letter from Governor-General Henry Ide has vanished.

Preparation for a Republic of the Philippines
June 30, 1907: The first elections to the Philippine Assembly are held. September 13, 1907: Macario Sakay is hanged. October 16, 1907: The first session of the Philippine Assembly is opened. The Nacionalista Party of Manuel Quezon and Sergio Osmeña win the election. June 18, 1908: The University of the Philippines is established. October 3, 1913: Free trade relations between the Philippines and the US are established. August 29, 1916: Under the Jones Act, an elected Philippine Senate replaces the appointed Philippine Commission as the upper chamber of the legislature and the Philippine Assembly is renamed the House of Representatives. As before, the governor-general who is responsible for the executive branch, is appointed by the president of the US.

January 11, 1917: The first cabinet comprised of Filipinos is organised. November 7, 1930: The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) is founded by Crisanto Evangelista. October 26, 1932: The Supreme Court with 5 out of 9 judges being American, declares the Communist Party of the Philippines to be illegal. December 7, 1933: The last American governor to the Philippines, Governor Frank Murphy, grants the Right of Suffrage to Filipino women.

The Commonwealth of the Philippines
March 24, 1934: The Tydings-McDuffie Act establishes the Commonwealth of the Philippines and sets July 4, 1946, as the date for full Philippine independence. July 10, 1934: 202 delegates are elected to the Constitutional Convention. July 30, 1934: The Constitutional Convention is inaugurated with Claro M. Recto as president. February 8, 1935: The Constitutional Convention approves the Constitution by a vote of 177 1. February 15, 1935: The Constitution is signed. March 23, 1935: The Constitution is approved by US President Franklin Roosevelt. May 2, 1935: The establishment of a commonwealth government is opposed by the Sakdalistas, a radical peasant group in Manila and nearby provinces. May 14, 1935: A plebiscite on the constitution for the new Republic is approved. September 17, 1935: The elections for Commonwealth president and vice-president are held. November 15, 1935: Manuel Quezon is inaugurated as president of the Commonwealth government while Sergio Osmeña is inaugurated as the vice-president. September 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland. World War II begins in Europe. July 26, 1941: General Douglas MacArthur brings together 12,000 Philippine Scouts and 16,000 American soldiers to create a defence force in preparation of war. However, the defence force is inadequate to prevent a Japanese invasion. November 11, 1941: Manuel Quezon and Sergio Osmeña are re-elected to their respective posts.

The Japanese Occupation and the Second Republic of the Philippines
The Commonwealth of the Philippines was interrupted by harsh Japanese occupation shortly after Japan entered World War II. With the American forces defeated, Japan was in full control. In an attempt to make their occupation more legitimate, the Japanese promised independence and so the Second Republic of the Philippines was established. However, independence was nothing but an empty promise.

The Fall of the Commonwealth to the Japanese

December 8, 1941: The attack on the Philippines begins only 10 hours after the attack on Pearl Harbour. American aircraft are entirely destroyed on the ground. Several cities in the Philippines are bombed. December 12, 1941: Without air cover, the American Asiatic Fleet in the Philippines is forced to withdraw to Java. December 22, 1941: Japanese troops land and advance across Central Luzon towards Manila. December 25, 1941: Under the advice of President Quezon, General MacArthur declares Manila an open city to spare it from Japanese bombings. The Japanese either do not respect or understand this. The Japanese bomb the city destroying a number of historical sites. The Commonwealth government relocates to Corregidor. President Quezon asks Jose P. Laurel to stay behind and assist the Japanese wartime administration in an attempt to reduce the severity of the occupation. December 31, 1941: On Corregidor, Manuel Quezon and Sergio Osmeña take oath for a second term in office. January 2, 1942: The Japanese arrive in Manila. MacArthur concentrates his troops on the Bataan peninsula. The Japanese penetrate Bataan's first line of defence. January 3, 1942: Japanese Military Commander Masaharu Homma proclaims an end to US occupation of the Philippines. Martial law is imposed. January 23, 1942: The Japanese military administration creates the Executive Commission of the Philippine Council of State to carry out and implement its policies. This committee is composed entirely of Filipinos. Febraury 17, 1942: The Japanese order the Philippines to adopt the Japanese educational system. Febraury 21, 1942: President Quezon and Vice-President Osmeña leave Corregidor by submarine to form a government in exile in the US. March 11, 1942: MacArthur leaves for Australia. March 29, 1942: The Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon (People's Anti-Japanese Army), or HUKBALAHAP, a guerilla movement, is founded by Luis Taruc. April 9, 1942: The 76,000 starving and sick American and Filipino defenders in Bataan surrender to the Japanese. They are led on a cruel and criminal death march on which 7,000 10,000 die or are murdered before arriving at the internment camps 10 days later. April 1942: A pro-US resistance is formed to provide intelligence to the US and to hinder the Japanese. May 6, 1942: The 13,000 survivors at Corregidor surrender to the Japanese. June 14, 1942: The Commonwealth of the Philippines becomes a member of the United Nations.

Occupation and the Second Republic
December 30, 1942: All existing political parties are dissolved. The Japanese fund and organise the Kalibapi. This organisation is the instrument of pro-Japanese propaganda for Filipinos. A junior wing is also created for Filipinos aged 7 - 18. June 20, 1943: The Japanese government nominates 20 Filipinos to the Preparatory Commission prior to Philippine independence.

September 4, 1943: The Preparatory Commission drafts the 1943 Constitution. September 20, 1943: The Preparatory Commission selects the delegates to a new unicameral national assembly as specified under the 1943 Constitution. September 25, 1943: The Japanese sponsored National Assembly takes place and elects Jose P. Laurel as president with Benigno Aquino Sr. and Ramon Avancena each as a vice-president. Laurel and his wartime government are despised. October 14, 1943: The Second Republic is officially inaugurated as officials take oath. The Philippines is declared an independent republic by Japan. November 1943: Under the harsh conditions of war including hyperinflation, the Philippine economy collapses. A critical rice shortage makes the situation even worse. May 1944: The Green Revolution Movement is established by the Second Republic. Intended to combat starvation, all persons of age 16 - 20 are required to plant on any available land. August 1, 1944: Osmeña becomes president of the exiled Commonwealth government as the result of Quezon's death. September 21, 1944: The US launches an air raid on Manila. This worsens the food situation and the Japanese pressurise Laurel into declaring war on the US. In response, President Laurel places the Philippines under martial law. September 22, 1944: President Laurel announces a state of war exists with the United States and Great Britain.

October 17, 1944: General MacArthur returns with a force of 700 vessels and 175,000 men. The Battle of Leyte Gulf begins. October 20, 1944: MacArthur and President Osmeña land at Palo with US forces. October 23, 1944: Tacloban City becomes the temporary seat of government for the Commonwealth government during liberation. December 8, 1944: The pro-Japanese Filipino generals organise a Philippine army called the Makapilis to fight for the Japanese. December, 1944: Leyte and Mindoro are cleared of the hostile Japanese forces. January 9, 1945: The Americans land on Luzon and head towards Manila. February 3, 1945: The battle for liberation of Manila begins as US troops arrive in the city. Japanese forces fight desperately, street by street, to hold the city. The Japanese massacre thousands of Filipino civilians. February 22, 1945: Luis Taruc and other Huks leaders are arrested and jailed for being communists by US forces. February 23, 1945: Manila has been mostly liberated. The Japanese have retreated into the old Spanish walled city of Intramuros. February 27, 1945: MacArthur hands over Malacañan Palace to Osmeña who issues an executive order restoring Commonwealth government departments to their pre-war state.

February 28, 1945: Intramuros is cleared of Japanese forces and the remains of around 600 Filipinos are discovered from Japanese atrocities. Only scattered pockets of resistance remain throughout Manila. March 4, 1945: Manila is officially liberated but the city has been reduced to ruins. March 22, 1945: President Laurel and other Second Republic officials depart for Japan.

The Commonwealth Resumes
June 9, 1945: The Congress elected in 1941 convenes for the first time. July 5, 1945: MacArthur officially announces the liberation of the Philippines. August 6, 1945: An atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. August 9, 1945: An atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. August 15, 1945: Japan unconditionally surrenders but fighting continues until formal surrender. August 17, 1945: In Naga, Japan, President Laurel officially dissolves the Second Republic. September 2, 1945: The remaining Japanese forces surrender, the same day Japan formally surrenders. The liberation of the Philippines has cost the lives of 60,628 Americans, an estimated 300,000 Japanese and an estimated over a million Filipinos. Investigations after the war show that 260,000 Filipinos had been actively engaged in guerrilla organisations and an even larger number operated covertly in the anti-Japanese underground. The largest such organisation is the Hukbalahap (or the Huks), founded by Luis Taruc. He has about 30,000 armed guerrillas who control most of Luzon. September 14, 1945: Laurel informs MacArthur of his whereabouts. September 15, 1945: Laurel is imprisoned in Japan but eventually moved to the Philippines. April 20, 1946: Manuel Roxas wins the last Commonwealth presidential election.

The Birth of the Third Republic of the Philippines
After the war, the Commonwealth was restored pending complete independence. With independence from the US came the establishment of the Third Republic of the Philippines. The government of the independent Republic was riddled with graft and corruption and lost the confidence of the people. The corruption within the government also resulted in the rise of the Left in the form of the HUKBALAHAP or the Huks. The Huks presented even more problems to the Republic.

July 2, 1946: The Commonwealth Congress ratifies the Bell Trade Act. This act means that the peso was pegged to the US dollar and US citizens and corporations had equal rights to exploit natural resources as Filipino citizens and corporations. It also prohibited the Philippines from

manufacturing or selling products that may come into competition with US products. The US Congress threatens to withhold post-war rebuilding funds unless the act is ratified. The Bell Trade Act is denounced and protested against in the Philippines. July 4, 1946: Under President Manuel Roxas, the Commonwealth comes to an end and an independent Republic of the Philippines begins. The government of the Republic is riddled with graft and corruption and there are many under the table deals. This causes great mistrust between the government and the people. August 5, 1946: The Treaty of General Relations is ratified between the Philippines and the US. The establishment of US bases is also included in this treaty. September 7, 1946: Roxas grants a general amnesty to all guerrillas who committed crimes during their anti-Japanese resistance. January 1, 1947: Introduction of the Parity Amendments granting American citizens and corporations equal rights to Filipinos to exploit natural resources and operate public utilities. January 31, 1947: The US army relinquishes administrative control of the Philippine army. March 6, 1947: The Huks are declared a subversive and illegal organisation as it is alleged they have committed acts of sedition and aim to overthrow the government by force. March 11, 1947: The Parity Amendment is ratified in a national plebiscite. March 14, 1947: The Treaty of General Relations is signed. January 28, 1948: President Roxas extends a general amnesty to all those arrested for collaboration with the Japanese. April 15, 1948: President Roxas dies of a heart attack.

The Huk Insurgency
April 17, 1948: Vice-President Elpidio Quirino assumes the presidency. June 21, 1948: President Quirino negotiates with Huk leader Luis Taruc and grants amnesty to the Huks on the condition that they surrender with their arms and ammunitions to the authorities. August 15, 1948: The Huks change their name to Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan (Liberation Army Movement). April 19, 1949: Quirino's political enemies unsuccessfully attempt to impeach him for graft and corruption. April 28, 1949: Most of the Huks are now nothing more than common robbers and bandits. They finally lose the sympathy and respect of the people with the ambush and murder of Aurora Quezon, the late President Quezon's widow, and her family. November 8, 1949: Elpidio Quirino becomes president (elected) in his own right. May 17, 1954: Under President Ramon Magsaysay, Luis Taruc surrenders to the government, after four months of negotiations with Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. of the Daily Mirror. Taruc is sentenced to 12 years imprisonment.

The Second Richest Nation of Asia
March 17, 1957: President Ramon Magsaysay is killed in a plane crash.

March 18, 1957: Vice-President Carlos Garcia assumes the presidency. He is elected president in his own right later in the year. December 30, 1961: Diosdado Macapagal is elected as president. May 12, 1962: President Macapagal changes Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. June 12, 1962: Independence Day celebrations are held. General Emilio Aguinaldo is the guest of honour.

The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos made history by becoming the first president of the independent Republic to be re-elected. Very popular in his first term and decreasingly so in his second term. The imposition of martial law marked the beginning of the Marcos dictatorship. As a congressman, Marcos had built himself a small fortune through corruption. As president, corruption escalated to new heights never before seen. Although martial law initially had a stabilising effect on the economy, the rampant graft and corruption and the rise of crony capitalism would eventually bleed the Philippine economy dry. Shortly after Marcos proclaimed the end of martial law, he announced the establishment of a New Republic (the Fourth Republic) of the Philippines. The assassination of Senator Ninoy Aquino and the fraudulent elections of 1986 were the final straw. Civilian protesting and a military defect resulted in the EDSA Revolution or People Power Revolution. In an historical moment, Ferdinand Marcos was forced to flee the country.

The Demise of the Third Republic
December 30, 1965: Ferdinand Marcos is elected president for the first time. He maintains popularity during his first term with a spending program on public works, which includes building roads, bridges, health centres, schools and beautification projects. August 8, 1967: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is created after a summit held in Manila. December 26, 1968: The New Communist Party of the Philippines is founded by Jose Ma. Sison. The original Communist Party of the Philippines was subdued by President Magsaysay. December 30, 1969: Ferdinand Marcos is re-elected for a second term. Later into his term, his popularity begins to decline. Criticism begins to grow from the dishonesty of his 1969 campaign and his lack of response concerning the issue of bribery and corruption within the government, human rights violations, high student tuition fees, militarisation, abuses of the military, the presence of the US military bases and the subservience of the Marcos administration to US interests and policies. Poverty and violence increase as the population grows faster than the economy. The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) take advantage of the growing discontent with the Marcos administration to increase number and strength. The CPP also forms the New People's Army (NPA), a communist guerrilla army. Fighting erupts in Muslim Mindanao with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). Labour strikes and student protests follow. January 1970: The most violent student protest takes place as thousands of students try to storm the gates of Malacañan Palace (Battle of Mendiola). June 1, 1971: The 1971 Constitutional Convention is held to review and rewrite the 1935 Constitution with Carlos Garcia elected as president.

June 14, 1971: Carlos Garcia dies from a heart attack. Diosdado Macapagal replaces Garcia as president of the Constitutional Convention. The convention is tarnished by a number of scandals. The 1935 Constitution stated that the president may not serve more than eight consecutive years in office. Some delegates are bribed into voting against this in the new constitution, meaning Marcos could continue in power after his second term ended. Delegate Eduardo Quintero was harassed by the government for exposing the bribery attempt. August 21, 1971: A Liberal Party rally being held at the Plaza Miranda is bombed. Marcos blames the communists.

Martial Law Period
September 21, 1972: Marcos issues Proclamation No. 1081 which places the entire country under martial law. September 22, 1972: Marcos justifies the need for martial law after a staged assassination of Juan Ponce Enrile, the Secretary of Defence. Proclamation No. 1081 is signed into effect. September 23, 1972: Marcos addresses to the nation concerning the need for martial law. He imposes curfew, bans public assemblies, outlaws protest movements and takes control of the media. Senator Ninoy Aquino of the Liberal Party had become increasingly popular with the people, and an increasing political threat to Marcos. He is amongst the first of the 30,000 people to be arrested which also includes political opposition, journalists, critics, activists, communists and other such forces that contribute to deterioration of the law to be detained under martial law. While the 1935 Constitution stated the president may not serve more than eight consecutive years in office, it was not very specific about how long martial law should last, leaving it to the president's own judgement. January 17, 1973: Marcos brings in a new constitution, which replaces Congress with a National Assembly (the semi-parliament, Batasang Pambansa), and extends the presidential term from four years to six with no limit on the number of terms. With pay rises and selective promotions, Marcos uses the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) under General Fabian Ver, his means of maintaining power. With his wife, family and friends, he establishes monopolies in the agricultural, construction, manufacturing and financial sectors (this would eventually lead to the extraction of billions from the Philippine economy). Political parties are suspended. The only time political parties are permitted to resurface was for elections for either the National Assembly or elections held for local offices (such as mayor and governor offices). Throughout the second term: To encourage economic growth, Marcos implements a number of economic programs. Farmers are given technical and financial aid and other incentives. By 1976, the Philippines is self-sufficient in rise and begins exporting. To attract foreign capital, investors are offered incentives, such as tax exemption and bringing out profits in foreign currencies. The number of tourists increases from 200,000 per year to 1,000,000 in 1980. The economic growth rate averages 6% - 7% during 1970 - 1980 compared with 5% in the previous decade. The GNP of the Philippines increases from P55 billion in 1972 to P193 billion in 1980. However, the economic boom is largely debt driven with the Philippines becoming increasingly dependent upon loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank with heavy borrowing from other banks and organisations. Debt rises from US$2.3 billion in 1970 to US$24.4 billion in 1983. Corruption within the government remains high and an estimated 10% of the GNP is being pocketed. June 9, 1975: Relations with China are established. Marcos announces to the people his policies of establishing relations with communist and socialist countries.

June 2, 1976: Relations with the USSR are established. November 25, 1977: A military court finds Ninoy Aquino guilty of subversion. He is sentenced to death. However, the sentence is not put into effect. January 30, 1980: The United National Democratic Organisation (UNIDO) is founded by Salvador Laurel who turns away from President Marcos. May 1980: After developing heart disease in prison, Ninoy Aquino is released and exiled to the US for treatment. January 17, 1981: Marcos issues Proclamation No. 2045, lifting martial law. However, all the orders and decrees issued under martial law are still in effect. Martial law is lifted to show Filipinos and the world that the situation in the Philippines is back to normal and to show the 1973 Constitution and the government are working smoothly. However, Marcos maintains his vast powers and authoritarian rule. Communist guerrillas also contribute to the lifting of martial law by a campaign of bomb attacks in Metro Manila in an attempt to end martial law.

The Fourth Republic
June 16, 1981: In the first election since martial law, Marcos is declared the winner with 88% of the vote. Very few actually vote in the election. June 30, 1981: Marcos takes his oath of office for a six-year term. He announces the establishment of a New Republic of the Philippines. August 21, 1983: Ninoy Aquino arrives at Manila International Airport after returning from the US. As he prepares to descend the steps from the plane to ground level, he is shot in the back of the head by the military escort. The business community loses confidence by the assassination and capital begins to leave the country at about US$12 million a day. August 31, 1983: Nearly two million people join Ninoy Aquino's funeral procession. October 1983: The Central Bank of the Philippines is forced to notify its creditors that it is unable to meet the obligations on its US$24.4 billion debt. The Peso suffers a 21% devaluation. The country is bankrupt. October 1984: The Agrava Commission, which Marcos had appointed to investigate the assassination of Ninoy Aquino, releases a report. The commission's findings reveal a military conspiracy and lists 26 names including General Fabian Ver. Originally, Marcos appointed Chief Justice Fernando to investigate the Aquino assassination. The Archbishop of Manila, Cardinal Jaime Sin was asked to sit on the Fernando Commission. Soon after he publicly expressed his doubts in the military's version of events and refused to join, the commission collapsed. During 1984, the economy suffers a 6.8% contraction. February 22, 1985: A trial begins based on the findings of the Agrava Commission and the 26 named. However, the prosecution proceedings are based on the military's story. Increasing numbers of protests call for Marcos to resign. During 1985, the economy contracts again by 3.8%. November 3, 1985: Marcos realises his deteriorating credibility as president both home and abroad. During a live interview on American television, he announces a snap election. It is an attempt to restore his own legitimacy as president. December 2, 1985: General Ver and the other 25 named are acquitted of any alleged involvement in Aquino's assassination. The communists are blamed for the assassination.

December 3, 1985: Ninoy Aquino's widow, Corzaon Aquino, declares her candidacy for president while Salvado Laurel is to run for vice-president. The Aquino and Laurel families are fierce rivals in Philippine politics, but through the efforts of Cardinal Sin, they work together to in an attempt to defeat Marcos. Cory Aquino lacks political experience as she was only a simple housewife before her husband's assassination. Salvador Laurel, an accomplished politician, leads the United National Democratic Organisation, a coalition of opposition groups in the National Assembly. January 23, 1986: The New York Times reports Marcos' war medals as fraudulent. Marcos dismisses this as a smear campaign. February 7, 1986: The snap elections are held. The election is officially organised and conducted by the government's Commission on Elections (COMELEC). The National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) is an organisation of 300,000 volunteers determined to protect the electoral process from fraud and abuse. NAMFREL has close connections to the Roman Catholic Church and most of the volunteer work is done at local parishes by priests and nuns. The campaign is a travesty of vote buying, violence and intimidation. In many electoral districts 10% - 40% of the voters names are struck from the registration lists. In the count, COMELEC reports Marcos in the lead, while NAMFREL reports an Aquino-Laurel majority. February 8, 1986: The Roman Catholic Church declares the election a fraud. February 9, 1986: The computer workers at COMELEC notice discrepancies. They walk out of the computer centre in protest of the election fraud. The election count drags on for several days with both sides claiming victory. February 15, 1986: Marcos refers to the National Assembly, which he controls, for a decision on the election result. The National Assembly declares Marcos the winner.

The EDSA Revolution
February 16, 1986: Cory Aquino and almost a million of her supporters attend a rally in Rizal Park, Manila. She calls for a national campaign of civil disobedience and a general strike to commence February 25 in protest. Marcos intends to bring back martial law and he makes plans for the arrest of Aquino and 10,000 of her followers in an attempt to deal with her campaign of disobedience and general strikes. Marcos issues warnings against the strike movement, which he threatens to crush using his vast powers. Marcos makes plans to send out some of his most loyal soldiers in civilian clothing. They would pretend to be Aquino supporters and would go onto the streets of Metro Manila spreading terror and violence. Marcos could then use this to justify imposing martial law again, and have Aquino and her supporters arrested. February 19, 1986: The US Senate passes a resolution condemning the election. February 22, 1986: A group of young officers in the military begin making their own plans to overthrow President Marcos. The officers involved want reform within the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). Their previous pleas for reform had been ignored by Marcos and General Ver. Secretary of Defence Enrile and vice-chief of staff, Lieutenant General Ramos sympathise with the officers that want reform. However, Marcos finds out about the coup attempt by the military rebels. Those who escape being arrested make their way to the Ministry of Defence at Camp Aguinaldo. Directly across from Camp Aguinaldo is Camp Crame. In between there is the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), which is the main means of access to both camps. EDSA is one of the main and most important highways for traffic flow in Metro Manila. Enrile and Ramos appeal to the military to join them in the revolt against Marcos. They have only a few

hundred soldiers to defend them. At 7pm, they hold a press conference calling for Marcos to resign. At 11pm, Agapito Aquino, Ninoy's brother, asks people to defend the rebels through the church-operated station, Radio Veritas. A few hours later Cardinal Sin repeats Agapito's call for support. Throughout the night, somewhere in the region of a million people come out to defend the military rebels. The EDSA Revolution or People Power Revolution begins. February 23, 1986: EDSA and access to the military camps is now completely jammed. A column of tanks roll down EDSA to remove the rebels. However, the tanks stop when they reach the crowds of people who stand their ground. The soldiers do not expect this kind of resistance, and are not prepared to kill many unarmed civilians in order to reach the military rebels. Radio Veritas is the only station broadcasting news of the revolt. At 6pm, the station's transmitters are blown up. At 11:45pm, Radio Bandido broadcasts news of the revolt. February 24, 1986: At 6am, a formation of helicopter gun ships approach Camp Crame. The crowds below can do nothing to stop an airborne attack. After several minutes of hovering, the gun ships land at Camp Crame and the crews join the revolt. At 9am, the government's main broadcasting complex in Quezon City is taken over by rebels. The air force refuses orders from General Ver to bomb Camp Crame. At 11am, a single helicopter approaches the presidential residence and fires six rockets at Malacañan Palace. The naval base at Cavite reports to the rebels that warships were on station at the mouth of the Pasig River and are standing by for orders to shell Malacañan Palace. The US ambassador in the Philippines personally forwards a message from the US to Marcos that if he does not step down, civil war will be the outcome. Later, Marcos receives a message from President Reagan that he, his family and close associates would be welcome to live in the US. February 25, 1986: Most of the military have deserted Marcos in support of Aquino. At 10:30pm, Aquino and Laurel are sworn in as president and vice-president respectively, in a suburban Manila nightclub, Club Filipino, by Associate Justice Teehankee. President Aquino immediately restores the basic civil liberties of free speech, freedom of assembly and a free press. President Aquino issues Proclamation No. 3, the adoption of a temporary constitution and a transitional government. This is known as the Freedom Constitution. Only two hours after Aquino has been sworn in as president, Marcos also tries to take office in a separate ceremony in Malacañan Palace. Only the Soviet Union ambassador attends. The broadcast of the ceremony is cut off just after it begins. Angry crowds gather outside Malacañan Palace in the afternoon. Marcos telephones Enrile to ask for American protection while leaving Malacañan Palace. At 9:05pm, American helicopters evacuate Marcos and 120 others to Clark Air Base. February 27, 1986: Although Marcos wants to recoup at Laoag, his political base in Northern Luzon, he and his party leave at dawn for Guam and then Hawaii at the insistence of President Aquino. Marcos has left the Philippines in a bankrupt state with a debt of about US$28 billion.

The Fifth Republic of the Philippines
Corazon Aquino inherited a bankrupt country suffering from Muslim and communist insurgencies. She restored democracy to the Philippines but failed to solve the economic problems. It was President Ramos who started reviving the economy. During his term, the Philippine economy experienced dramatic growth, which was only slightly affected by the Asian financial crisis. Ramos was succeeded by Joseph Estrada who, not even half way through his term, was exposed for corruption and his association in illegal activities. Impeachment proceedings began but Estrada was eventually acquitted. Protestors took to the streets, the result

being another People Power Revolution or EDSA II. Vice-President Arroyo was sworn in as the new president after Estrada stepped down. President Arroyo was re-elected to a term of her own in 2004 but the result of the election is now in question after a wiretap recording emerged that Arroyo spoke to a COMELEC official during the election. Arroyo is accused of cheating in the election and protests have begun calling for her resignation. A state of emergency was proclaimed in 2006 after a crushed coup attempt. During the crisis, the opposition, media and critics condemned the state of emergency comparing it to martial law under Ferdinand Marcos. There was criticism of apparently warrantless arrests and oppression of freedom of speech and the freedom of the press. The state of emergency was lifted one week later. Despite a presidency marred by coups and scandal, Arroyo insists on pushing through with amending the 1987 Constitution to switch to a more effective federal-parliamentary style government.

The Aquino Government
March 25, 1986: The Freedom Constitution takes effect. This temporary constitution grants almost absolute powers to the president and abolished some positions of the 1973 Constitution, such as the position of prime minister. With this constitution, provincial governors, municipality and city mayors loyal to Marcos are dismissed and replaced. Most of the general staff of the armed forces are retired and 500 political prisoners are released. April 1986: President Aquino issues Proclamation No. 9, creating a Constitutional Commission to draft a new constitution as provided for in the Freedom Constitution. March 26, 1986: Members of the Constitutional Commission are appointed by President Aquino. They represent all sectors of Philippine society such as education, labour, agriculture, business and industry, youth, military women, mass media, cause-oriented groups, cultural minorities and the religious sector. June 2, 1986: The Constitution Commission begins session at Quezon City. Some heated arguments take place concerning the US military bases, land reform and foreign investment. Some commissioners stage a walkout in protest of the approval of some economic provisions. June 13, 1986: The Constitutional Commission completes its task. July 6, 1986: Arturo Tolentino, vice-president candidate and running mate of Ferdinand Marcos in the 1986 snap elections, followed by some Marcos supporters and a hundred or so soldiers barricade themselves into the Manila Hotel. Tolentino claims that he is the constitutional acting president while Marcos is in exile. Tolentino expects large support for his newly established rebel government. July 8, 1986 After only a few thousand Marcos supporters arrive, Tolentino agrees to disperse his civilian and military supporters ending the failed coup. October 12, 1986: The draft of the new constitution is approved by a vote of 45 - 2 by the commissioners. October 15, 1986: The draft of the new constitution is signed by the commissioners and submitted to President Aquino. February 2, 1987: The draft of the new 1987 Constitution is submitted to the people for approval. It is approved by a majority of about 86% of voters. February 11, 1987: President Aquino issues Proclamation No. 58 declaring the 1987 Constitution is in effect. The Fifth Republic is established.

1987: Aquino enters negotiations with the NPA and MNLF. In Hawaii, Ferdinand Marcos may be making plans to invade the Philippines. The US authorities learn of this and prohibit Marcos to leave the island. 1987 - 1989: Six attempts to overthrow the Aquino government occur. This is related to the failure of the Aquino government to address the economic and social problems of the country. September 28, 1989: Ferdinand Marcos dies in Hawaii. 1991: Mount Pinatubo erupts. Clark Air Base is extensively damaged and abandoned. The Philippine Senate refuses to renew the lease to the US for Subic Naval Base. May 11, 1992: Presidential elections are held.

The Ramos Government
June 30, 1992: Fidel Ramos, Corazon Aquino's personal candidate, takes office as the new president. Throughout his term, President Ramos works to restore the economy, improve energy, communications and transportation infrastructure. November 1992: With the closure of Subic Naval Base, the US withdraws all remaining military presence. 1994 - 1995: The Philippine economy experiences dramatic growth. September 1996: The government and the Moro National Liberation Front sign a peace agreement. Some oppose the agreement and as a result the militant Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) rises up in protest. 1997: Despite economic slow down and a series of currency devaluations, the Philippines mostly escapes the Asian financial crisis. June 30, 1998: The presidential term of President Ramos ends. Ramos is complimented on a solid and competent performance. There are several leaders, including the Prime Minister of Canada who suggest Ramos should amend the 1987 Constitution in order to allow the possibility of a second term. After much consideration and opposition against such an amendment, Ramos decides it is still to soon to amend the constitution. May 11, 1998: Presidential elections are held.

The Estrada Government and its Demise
June 30, 1998: Joseph Estrada is elected to the presidency. Throughout his short presidential term, Estrada is criticised for failing to address to issues of the country and the economy eventually starts to suffer as a result. April 2000: The Abu Sayyaf, an extremist Muslim separatist group in Mindanao, begin a series of kidnappings in Malaysia at a tourist resort. September 2000: In response to the activities of the Abu Sayyaf, the military is despatched to Mindanao in an attempt to bring the situation under control. War breaks out in the area. October 9, 2000: Governor Luis "Chavit" Singson, a long-time friend of Joseph Estrada, reveals that he has been collecting vast sums of money from illegal gambling activities for Joseph Estrada. October 12, 2000: Vice-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo resigns from Estrada's cabinet amidst the bribery allegations.

October 18, 2000: Opposition groups attempt to start impeachment proceedings against Estrada through Congress. Thousands of protestors demand Estrada resign. November 2, 2000: A number of government officials resign from their posts, abandon, or turn away from Estrada. A number of Estrada's friends eventually turn away from him. December 7, 2000: Impeachment proceedings begin. It is believed Estrada used a number of bank accounts in the name of Jose Velarde (an alias for Estrada) to conceal his ill-gotten wealth. December 11, 2000: An aide to Singson testifies she delivered money from illegal gambling activities to Estrada's secretary. December 20, 2000: Witnesses testify over one of the bank accounts in the name of Jose Velarde. December 22, 2000: Senior Vice-President Clarissa Ocampo of the Equitable PCI Bank testifies she witnessed Estrada withdraw money from one of the accounts in question. She claims she saw Estrada sign documents in the name of Jose Velarde. December 30, 2000: Metro Manila suffers five bomb attacks. The Estrada administration tries to blame the bombs on the Muslims and communists. Some believe the bombs attacks were done by pro-Estrada supporters trying to divert public attention away from Estrada's impeachment hearings. Vice-President Arroyo claims the bomb attacks do not justify martial law. December 31, 2000: The Philippines debts reach a total of P2 trillion and the Philippine stock market finishes at bottom place against all the other stock markets in the Southeast Asia region with an overall loss of about 30%. January 16, 2001: Senators vote against using secret documents in the impeachment trial. The documents would prove Estrada amassed US$63.5 million in illegal activities. Senate President Aquilino Pimentel resigns in protest.

The EDSA II Revolution
January 17, 2001: The prosecution team in the Estrada impeachment trial resign. The trial collapses. Thousands of people begin street protests and demand Estrada resign. EDSA II begins. January 18, 2001: The Philippine Peso suffers severe devaluation. People continue protesting on the streets at EDSA. January 19, 2001: A number of officials from the government, military and police join the antiEstrada protestors. Joseph Estrada decides to temporarily step down from as president to avoid bloodshed. January 20, 2001: Chief Justice Hilario Davide Jr. declares the presidency vacant. VicePresident Arroyo is sworn in as the new president.

The Arroyo Government
April 25, 2001: Estrada is arrested and is stripped of immunity from prosecution and barred from leaving the country. A number of charges are made against Estrada, including economic plunder which is punishable by death. He is detained while the courts begin investigations into the charges. Estrada claims the allegations are nothing but fabrications and calls for protests. May 1, 2001: A number of pro-Estrada protestors unsuccessfully attempt to storm Malacañan Palace in what has become known as EDSA III. In response to the protestors, Metro Manila is temporarily placed under a state of rebellion.

May 26, 2001: The Abu Sayyaf resumes kidnapping activities at a tourist resort near Puerto Princesa City in Palawan. August 7, 2001: The Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) signs a ceasefire agreement. December 16, 2002: A bill proposing constitutional change to a parliamentary federal system is filed in the House of Representatives. December 30, 2002: President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo announces she will not run in the 2004 elections. July 27, 2003: A group of soldiers from the military take over the Glorietta complex in Makati City starting the Oakwood mutiny. They accuse the president of corruption and demand her resignation. The soldiers rig the area with explosives but later surrender without conflict bringing the mutiny to a peaceful end. November 8, 2003: Two armed men, and possibly a third, seized the control tower at NAIA. They were later killed by elite police teams in a gun battle. One of the armed men was the nation's former head of the Air Transport Office. Their motives are thought to be corrupt politics. May 10, 2004: Synchronised elections for every seat on every level of government (except for some seats in the Senate due to staggered terms) are held. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and Fernando Poe Jr. are the main candidates. Accusations are made that Arroyo has used funds from some government departments to fund her election campaign. In a small number of towns, Arroyo manages to obtain a highly dubious 100% of the vote. June 24, 2004: Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is declared the winner in the presidential election. June 30, 2004: Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is inaugurated as president. June 5, 2005: The presidential spokesman announces the political opposition are to release an audio tape recording of a wiretap conversation between President Arroyo and an official from the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) during the 2005 election. June 6, 2005: A press conference is held at Malacañan Palace over the tape recording, which is branded as an illegal wiretap. June 9, 2005: President Arroyo denies cheating and claims the tapes are an attempt to unseat her. June 10, 2005: A former deputy director of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) claims to be the source of the tape and that the wiretap was provided to him from the military. June 11, 2005: Mass protests form around the country over the tape recordings and the accusations that President Arroyo cheated in the 2005 election. Allegedly, the police use force against the protestors. June 12, 2005: The media is warned that it must not air the contents of the tape due to antiwiretapping law. The media argue the right to freedom of speach. June 14, 2005: Foreign experts confirm the voices on the tape are indeed President Arroyo and a COMELEC official. June 17, 2005: The Arroyo administration is condemned for trying to suppress and intimidate the media over the tape recordings. June 18, 2005: It is announced the tape recordings can be aired to the general public until it is proved to be an illegal wiretap.

June 27, 2005: President Arroyo address the country by a television broadcast and admits that it is her voice on the tape recordings. She describes her actions as a lapse in judgement and apologises to the nation. July 1, 2005: Fresh protests being over the tape recordings and Arroyo's resignation is demanded by the protestors. July 7, 2005: President Arroyo asks for the resignation of her entire cabinet. July 8, 2005: Ten officials (including seven from the cabinet) resign and advise Arroyo to do the same. Corazon Aquino is just one of the many who call upon Arroyo to resign. July 25, 2005: The main political opposition file for Arroyo's impeachment. Arroyo gives her State of the Nation Address and her intention to push ahead for charter change. The main reason for amending the 1987 Constitution is to switch to a more effective federal-parliamentary style government. September 5 - 6, 2005: After a session lasting almost 24 hours, members of the House of Representatives (the majority of members are Arroyo supporters) vote against proceeding with impeachment against Arroyo. February 24, 2006: On the 20th anniversary of the original EDSA revolution, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo issues Proclamation No. 1017 placing the country under a state of emergency. Arroyo explains her decision as the result of a crushed coup attempt formed by an alliance of the communists and right extremists elements within the Armed Forces of the Philippines. It is thought the renegade members of the AFP are trying to gain public support. Anti-Arroyo and EDSA Shrine protestors are dispersed by riot police. Elsewhere, Proclamation No. 1017 is condemned by the press, lawyers, senators and various other groups. It is compared to the proclamation of martial law under President Marcos in 1972. Government regulators warn TV networks and radio stations that under the state of emergency, they may be taken over by or shut down by the President, especially if the media outlets are thought to be releasing news that could incite rebellion. Certain high ranking officers of the AFP thought to be involved in the coup are stripped of command. February 25, 2006: Junior army officers recruited as part of the coup plot surrender. Police raid the printing and editorial offices of The Daily Tribune newspaper without any search warrant. This is considered an attack on freedom of speech and the freedom of the press. Arrests begin ranging from protestors, retired military and police officials and even a left-wing congress representative. The arrest of five other left-wing representatives is issued. February 26, 2006: Arroyo critics continue to speak out against Proclamation No. 1017, making a comparison of it against martial law. It is thought Arroyo is using the opportunity to silence opposition to her regime. The freedom of speech and freedom of the media, democracy, and what is believed to warrantless arrests are the major issues. A stand off takes place at Fort Bonifacio between a group of marines and the AFP after the commander of the marines is either relieved of command or requests to be relieved of command. Former President Aquino and a number of representatives, senators and opposition figures arrive at Fort Bonifacio. By the evening, the stand off is over and resolved. February 27, 2006: The House of Representatives debate over the issue of emergency rule which in turn has already been submitted to the Supreme Court through a number of petitions. February 28, 2006: The five left-wing representatives turn up in the House and are eventually put into House custody so as to protect them from arrest.

March 3, 2006: The state of emergency is lifted by Proclamation No. 1021. However, investigations and arrests continue for those who are though to be involved in the coup plot, including those who financed it. The Supreme Court is told it must still make a decision over Proclamation No. 1017 even though it is no longer in effect.

Politics and Government
Over the centuries, the Philippine political and government system has changed several times. During the Spanish colonial period, the Philippines was ruled by an appointed Spanish governorgeneral who served a three-year term. On June 12, 1898, the General Emilio Aguinaldo, revolutionary government president, proclaimed independence from Spain and in 1899, the Malolos Constitution was adopted. This was short-lived as the US chose to ignore Philippine independence and decided to keep hold of the archipelago. War was inevitable and the US eventually won. The Philippines was ruled initially by a military government but later by a civil government as hostilities ceased and Filipinos were subjugated. In the years to come, the Philippines was governed by the Philippine Commission (1900 - 1916), Philippine Assembly (1907 - 1916) and Philippine Legislature (1916 - 1935). Finally, in 1935, self-government and self-rule was mostly achieved with the establishment of the Commonwealth. The framework for the Commonwealth government was the 1935 Constitution which was very much based on the US Constitution (democratic unitary republic). The Commonwealth was interrupted by the Japanese occupation in WWII. During this time, the Philippines was mostly under the control of the Japanese military although Japan proclaimed the Philippines an independent republic (with independence being very little if there was any at all) in 1943. With the end of WWII, the Philippines was granted independence by the US in 1946. In 1972, Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law. Congress was abolished and Marcos assumed legislative powers. The 1973 Constitution provided for a parliamentary system with the separation of head of state and head of government in the form of a president and prime minister. With the downfall of Marcos in 1986, the new government reverted back to the old presidential system. Currently, the government is in the process of trying to amend the current 1987 Constitution to establish a federal republic. A brief summary is given below of each political period including type of government, the capital / seat of government including any places that served briefly or temporarily as seat of government. The nature of the executive and those who held office and the type of legislative is also given.

Spanish Administration (1565 - 1898)

System of Government

Colony of Spain  Administered from Mexico  February 15, 1565 - September 27, 1821  Administered from Spain  September 27, 1821 - December 10, 1898

Capital / Seat of Government ○ Cebu City (San Miguel / Villa del Santissimo Nombre de Jesus)  April 28, 1565 - 1571

○ Panay (Bamban)  1571 ○ City of Manila (Intramuros / Tondo / Manila)  June 24, 1571 - October 6, 1762 ○ Bacolor (during the British occupation)  October 6, 1762 - 1764 ○ City of Manila (Intramuros / Tondo / Manila)  1764 - August 13, 1898 ○ Iloilo City (in oppostion to the US at Iloilo)  August 13, 1898 - December 10, 1898

Executive ○ Governor-General  Miguel López de Legazpi y Gurruchategui  1565 - 1572  Guido de Cabezares (Acting)  1572 - 1575  Francisco de Sande Picón  1575 - 1580  Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa  1580 - 1583  Diego Ronquillo (Acting)  1583 - 1584  Santiago de Vera  1584 - 1590  Gómez Pérez das Mariñas  1590 - 1593  Luis Pérez das Mariñas (Acting)  1593 - 1596  Francisco Tello de Guzmán  1596 - 1602  Pedro Bravo de Acuña  1602 - 1606  Cristóbal Téllez de de Almazán  1606 - 1608  Rodrigo de Vivero u Aberrucia Lasso de la Vega y Velasco (Acting)

 1608 - 1609  Juan de Silva  1609 - 1616  Gregorio de Silva  1617 - 1618  Alfonso Fajardo de Tenza  1618 - 1624  Jerónimo de Silva (Acting)  1624 - 1626  Juan Niño de Tavora  1626 - 1632  Lorenzo de Olaso (Acting)  1632 - 1633  Juan Cerezo de Salamanca (Acting)  1633 - 1635  Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera y Gaviría  1635 - 1644  Diego Fajardo Chacón  1644 - 1653  Sabiniano Manrique de Lara  1653 - 1663  Diego de Salcedo  1663 - 1668  Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz  1668 - 1669  Manuel de León y Saravia  1669 - 1677  (Audiencia de Manila)  1677 - 1678  Juan de Vargas y Hurtado  1678 - 1684  Gabriel de Curucealegui y Arriola  1684 - 1689  Alfonso Fuertes Abella (Acting)  1689 - 1690

 Fausto Cruzat y Góngora  July 25, 1690 - September 8, 1701  Domingo de Zabalburu de Echeverri  September 8, 1701 - August 25, 1709  Martín de Ursúa y Arizmendi, conde de Lizárraga  August 25, 1709 - February 4, 1715  José de Torralba (Acting)  February 4, 1715 - August 9, 1717  Fernando Manuel de Bustamante y Bustillo Rued  August 9, 1717 - October 11, 1719  Fray Francisco de la Cuesta (Acting)  October 11, 1719 - August 6, 1721  Toribio José Miguel de Cosio y Campo, marqués de Torre Campo  August 6, 1721 - August 14, 1729  Fernando de Valdés Tamón  August 14, 1729 - July 1739  Gaspar de la Torre Ayala  July 1739 - September 21, 1745  Fray Juan de Arechederra (Acting)  September 21, 1745 - July 20, 1750  Francisco José de Obando y Solís, marqués de Obando  July 20, 1750 - July 26, 1754  Pedro Manuel de Arandía Santisteban  July 26, 1754 - May 31, 1759  Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta (Acting)  June 1759 - July 1761  Manuel Antonio Rojo del Río y Viera  July 1761 - October 1762  Simón de Anda y Salazar (1st Term)  October 1762 - March 17, 1764  Francisco Javier de la Torre (Acting)  March 17, 1764 - July 6, 1765  José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez  July 6, 1765 - July 1770  Simón de Anda y Salazar (2nd Term)

 July 1770 - October 30, 1776  Pedro de Sarrio (1st Term, Acting)  October 30, 1776 - July 1778  José Basco y Vargas  July 1778 - September 22, 1787  Pedro de Sarrio (2nd Term, Acting)  September 22, 1787 - July 1, 1788  Félix Berenguer de Marquina  July 1, 1788 - September 1, 1793  Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de León  September 1, 1793 - August 7, 1806  Mariano Fernández de Folgueras (1st Term, Acting)  August 7, 1806 - March 4, 1810  Manuel González Aguilar  March 4, 1810 - September 4, 1813  José de Gardoqui Jaraveita  September 4, 1813 - December 10, 1816  Mariano Fernández de Folgueras (2nd Term)  December 10, 1816 - October 30, 1822  Juan Antonio Martínez  October 30, 1822 - October 14, 1825  Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca  October 14, 1825 - December 23, 1830  Pascual Enrile y Alcedo  December 23, 1830 - March 1, 1835  Gabriel de Torres y Velasco  March 1, 1835 - April 23, 1835  Joaquín de Crámer (Acting)  April 23, 1835 - September 9, 1835  Pedro Antonio de Salazar Castillo y Varona (Acting)  September 9, 1835 - August 27, 1837  Andrés García Camba (Acting)  August 27, 1837 - December 29, 1838  Luis Lardizábal y Montojo  December 29, 1838 - February 14, 1841

 Marcelino de Oraá y Lecumberri  February 14, 1841 - June 17, 1843  Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la Torre  June 17, 1843 - July 16, 1844  Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa  July 16, 1844 - December 26, 1849  Antonio Maria Blanco (Acting)  December 26, 1849 - July 29, 1850  Antonio de Urbiztondo y Eguía  July 29, 1850 - December 20, 1853  Ramón Montero y Blandino (1st Term, Acting)  December 20, 1853 - February 2, 1854  Manuel Pavia y Lacy, marqués de Novaliches  February 2, 1854 - October 28, 1854  Ramón Montero y Blandino (2nd Term, Acting)  October 28, 1854 - November 20, 1854  Manuel Crespo y Cebrián  November 20, 1854 - December 5, 1856  Ramón Montero y Blandino (3rd Term, Acting)  December 5, 1856 - March 9, 1857  Fernando de Norzagaray y Escudero  March 9, 1857 - January 12, 1860  Ramón María Solano y Llanderal (Acting)  January 12, 1860 - August 29, 1860  Juan Herrera Dávila (Acting)  August 29, 1860 - February 2, 1861  José Lemery e Ibarrola Ney y Gonzáles  February 2, 1861 - July 7, 1862  Salvador Valdés (Acting)  July 7, 1862 - July 9, 1862  Rafael Echagüe y Bermingham  July 9, 1862 - March 24, 1865  Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez (1st Term, Acting)  March 24, 1865 - April 25, 1865  Juan de Lara e Irigoyen

 April 25, 1865 - July 13, 1866  José Laureano Saenz y Posse (Acting)  July 13, 1866 - September 21, 1866  Juan Antonio Osorio (Acting)  September 21, 1866 - September 27, 1866  Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez (2nd Term, Acting)  September 27, 1866 - October 26, 1866  José de la Gándara y Navarro  October 26, 1866 - June 7, 1869  Manuel Maldonado (Acting)  June 7, 1869 - June 23, 1869  Carlos María de la Torre y Nava Cerrada  June 23, 1869 - April 4, 1871  Rafael Izquierdo y Gutiérrez  April 4, 1871 - January 8, 1873  Manuel MacCrohon (Acting)  January 8, 1873 - January 24, 1873  Juan Alaminos y de Vivar  January 24, 1873 - March 17, 1874  Manuel Blanco Valdemarra (Acting)  March 17, 1874 - June 18, 1874  José Malcampo y Monje, marqués de San Rafael, conde de Jolo, vizconde de Mindanao  June 18, 1874 - February 28, 1877  Domingo Moriones y Murillo Zabaleta y Sanz, marqués de Oroquieta  February 28, 1877 - March 20, 1880  Rafael Rodríguez Arias (Acting)  March 20, 1880 - April 15, 1880  Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte (1st Term)  April 15, 1880 - March 10, 1883  Emilio Molins (1st Term, Acting)  March 10, 1883 - April 7, 1883  Joaquín Jovellar y Soler  April 7, 1883 - April 1, 1885  Emilio Molins (2nd Term, Acting)

 April 1, 1885 - April 4, 1885  Emilio Terrero y Parenat  April 4, 1885 - 1888  Antonio Molto (Acting)  1888  Federico Lobaton (Acting)  1888  Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau, marqués de Tenerife  1888 - 1891  Eulogio Despujol y Dusay, conde de Caspe  1891 - 1893  Federico Ochando (Acting)  1893  Ramón Blanco y Erenas, marqués de Peña Plata  1893 - December 13, 1896  Camilo García de Polavieja y del Castillo  December 13, 1896 - April 15, 1897  José de Lachambre y Domínguez (Acting)  April 15, 1897 - April 23, 1897  Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte (2nd Term)  April 23, 1897 - April 11, 1898  Basilio Agustín y Dávila  April 11, 1898 - July 1898  Fermín Jáudenes y Álvarez (Acting)  July 24, 1898 - August 13, 1898  Francisco Rizzo (Acting, in oppostion to the US at Malolos)  1898  Diego de los Ríos (Acting, in oppostion to the US at Iloilo)  August 13, 1898 - December 10, 1898


Legislative powers shared between:  Governor-General (Chief Legislator)  Royal Audencia (Spanish Supreme Court)  Spanish Crown

British Administration (1762 - 1764)

• • •

System of Government

Military Occupation

Capital / Seat of Government ○ City of Manila Executive ○ Governor  Dawsonne Drake  November 2, 1762 - February 10, 1763

Real de Kakarong de Sili Republic (1896)
• •

System of Government ○ Revolutionary Government (Katipunan insurgency against Spain) Capital / Seat of Government ○ Pandi  December 1896

Executive ○ Supremo  Canuto Villanueva  December 1896

The Revolutionary Government (1897)
• •

System of Government

Revolutionary Government (insurgency against Spain)

Capital / Seat of Government ○ Naic  1897 ○ Maragondon  1897 ○ Talisay  1897

Executive ○ President

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy  March 22, 1897 - November 2, 1897

Biak-na-Bato Republic (1897)

System of Government

○ •

Revolutionary Government (insurgency against Spain)

Capital / Seat of Government ○ Biak-na-Bato, San Miguel  May 1897 - December 25, 1897

• •


1897 Biak-na-Bato Constitution

Executive ○ President

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy  November 2, 1897 - December 16, 1897

Dictatorship (1898)
• • • •

System of Government

Transitional Government (between Spanish rule and the First Republic)

Capital / Seat of Government ○ Kawit (Cavite el Viejo) Legal Basis

Act of Declaration of Independence

Executive ○ Dictator

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy  May 24, 1898 - June 23, 1898

The Revolutionary Government (1898 - 1899)
• •

System of Government

Transitional Government (between Spanish rule and the First Republic)

Capital / Seat of Government ○ Kawit (Cavite el Viejo)  June 1898 - September 1898 ○ Malolos  September 1898 - March 31, 1899

Executive ○ President

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy  June 23, 1898 - January 21, 1899

First Republic (1899 - 1901)

• •

System of Government

Unitary Semi-Presidential Republic

Capital / Seat of Government ○ Malolos  September 1898 - March 31, 1899 ○ San Isidro  March 31, 1899 - May, 9 1899 ○ Cabanatuan  May 9, 1899 - June 6, 1899 ○ Bamban  June 6 1899 - June 1899 ○ City of Tarlac  June 1899 - November 10, 1899 ○ Bayambang  November 10, 1899 - November 13, 1899 ○ Palanan  September 1900 - March 23, 1901

• •

○ ○

1899 Malolos Constitution President (Head of State and Commander-in-Chief)

Executive Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy  January 21, 1899 - April 1, 1901

President of the Council of Government (Head of Government, equivalent to a Prime Minister)  Apolinario Mabini  January 21, 1899 - May 7, 1899  Pedro Paterno  May 7, 1899 - November 13, 1899

○ Leader of the Revolutionary Forces (after Aguinaldo's capture)  Miguel Malvar  March 23, 1901 - April 16, 1902

Legislatures, Terms and Statutes ○ [Unicameral] Assembly of Representatives  Malolos Congress

 1898 - 1899

Republika ng Katagalugan (Tagalog Republic) (1902 - 1906)
• •

System of Government

Revolutionary Government (insurgency against the US)

Executive ○ President  Macario Sakay  1902 - July 14, 1906

American Administration (1898 - 1935)

System of Government

Colony of the US  Military Government  August 13, 1898 - July 4, 1901  Civil Government  July 4, 1901 - November 15, 1935

• •

Capital / Seat of Government ○ City of Manila Legal Basis
○ ○ ○

Treaty of Paris Philippine Organic Act (Philippine Bill of 1902) Philippine Autonomy Act (Jones Act)

Executive ○ Military Governor  Wesley Merritt  August 13, 1898 - August 29, 1898  Elwell Otis  August 29, 1898 - May 5, 1900  Arthur McArthur  May 5, 1900 - July 4, 1901 ○ Governor  William Taft  July 4, 1901 - February 1, 1904  Luke Wright  February 1, 1904 - November 3, 1905

○ Governor-General  Luke Wright  November 3, 1905 - April 2, 1906  Henry Ide  April 2, 1906 - September 1906  James Smith  September 1906 - November 11, 1907  Newton Gilbert  November 11, 1907 - July 1908  William Forbes (1st Term, Acting)  July 1908 - November 11, 1909  William Forbes (2nd Term)  November 11, 1909 - October 1913  Francis Harrison  October 1913 - March 5, 1921  Charles Yeater (Acting)  March 5, 1921 - October 14, 1921  Leonard Wood  October 14, 1921 - August 7, 1927  Eugene Gilmore (1st Term, Acting)  August 7, 1927 - December 27, 1927  Henry Stimson  December 27, 1927 - March 1929  Eugene Gilmore (2nd Term, Acting)  March 1929 - May 1930  Dwight Davis  May 1930 - 1932  Theodore Roosevelt Jr  1932 - July 15, 1933  Frank Murphy  July 15, 1933 - November 15, 1935

Legislatures, Terms and Statutes ○ [Unicameral] Philippine Commission  1st Philippine Commission (Schurman Commission)  1899 - 1900

 2nd Philippine Commission (Taft Commission)  1900 - 1901  Philippine Commission  1901 - 1907 ○ [Bicameral] Philippine Legislature (Philippine Assembly, Philippine Commission)  1st Philippine Legislature  1907 - 1909  Act No. 1801 - 1970 (170 Acts)  2nd Philippine Legislature  1909 - 1912  Act No. 1971 - 2191 (221 Acts)  3rd Philippine Legislature  1912 - 1916  Act No. 2192 - 2664 (473 Acts)  4th Philippine Legislature  1916 - 1919  Act No. 2665 - 2868 (204 Acts)  5th Philippine Legislature  1919 - 1922  6th Philippine Legislature  1922 - 1925  7th Philippine Legislature  1925 - 1928  8th Philippine Legislature  1928 - 1931  9th Philippine Legislature  1931 - 1934  10th Philippine Legislature  1934 - 1935  (last act) Act No. 4275

Commonwealth Under the US (1935 - 1946)
• •

System of Government

Unitary Presidential Commonwealth

Capital / Seat of Government

○ City of Manila  Until December 25, 1941 ○ Corregidor (during Japanese invasion)  December 25, 1941 - February 21, 1942 ○ Washington DC, US (Commonwealth in exile)  March 13, 1942 - October 1944 ○ Tacloban City (during liberation)  October 23, 1944 - February 1945 ○ City of Manila  From February 1945
• •

Legal Basis
○ ○

Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act) 1935 Constitution (amended in 1939, 1940 and 1947)
 

Constitution Commonwealth Act No. 600 (1940) Commonwealth Act No. 671 (1941)


President (Head of State, Head of Government, and Commander-in-Chief)
 

Manuel L. Quezon (1st Term)  November 15, 1935 - December 31, 1941 Manuel L. Quezon (2nd Term)
 

December 31, 1941 - December 30, 1943 (constitutional end of 2nd Term due to 8 year limit) December 30, 1943 - August 1, 1944 (2nd term extended by US Congress due to WWII)

 

Sergio Osmeña  August 1, 1944 - May 28, 1946 Manuel Roxas  May 28, 1946 - July 4, 1946

○ High Commissioner  Frank Murphy  November 15, 1935 - 1937  Paul McNutt (1st Term)  1937 - 1939  Francis Sayers

 1939 - September 7, 1942  Paul McNutt (2nd Term)  September 7, 1942 - July 4, 1946

Legislatures, Terms and Statutes ○ [Unicameral] Nationl Assembly  1st National Assembly  1935 - 1938  Commonwealth Act No. 1 - 415 (415 Commonwealth Acts)  2nd National Assembly  1938 - 1941  Commonwealth Act No. 416 - 671 (256 Commonwealth Acts) ○ [Bicameral] Congress (House of Representatives, Senate)  1st Commonwealth Congress  1945  Commonwealth Act No. 672 - 720 (49 Commonwealth Acts)  2nd Commonwealth Congress (became the 1st Congress)  1946 - 1949  Commonwealth Act No. 721 - 733 (13 Commonwealth Acts)

Japanese Administration (1942 - 1945)
• • •

System of Government

Military Occupation

Capital / Seat of Government ○ City of Manila Executive ○ Japanese Military  Military Commander  Masaharu Homma  January 3, 1942 - June 8, 1942  Military Governor  Shizuichi Tanaka  1942 - May 1943  Shigenori Kuroda

 May 28, 1943 - September 26, 1944  Director-General of the Military Administration  Yoshihide Hayashi  1943 - 1944  Takazi Wachi  1944 - August 17, 1945 ○ Executive Commission of the Philippine Council of State  President  Jorge Vargas  January 23, 1943 - October 14, 1943

Second Republic (1943 - 1945)
• •

System of Government

Unitary Presidential Republic (under military occupation)

Capital / Seat of Government ○ City of Manila  Until 1945 ○ Baguio City (during liberation)  1945 ○ Nara, Japan (Second Republic officials, prior to Japan's surrender)  1945


1943 Constitution
 

Proclamation No. 29 (1944) Proclamation No. 30 (1944)


President (Head of State, Head of Government, and Commander-in-Chief)

Jose P. Laurel  October 14, 1943 - August 17, 1945

Legislatures, Terms and Statutes ○ [Unicameral] National Assembly  1943 - 1944  Act No. 1 - 66 (66 Acts)

Third Republic (1946 - 1972)

System of Government

○ •

Unitary Presidential Republic

Capital / Seat of Government ○ City of Manila  Until July 17, 1948 ○ Quezon City  From July 17, 1948

• •

○ ○

1935 Constitution (amended in 1939, 1940 and 1947) President (Head of State, Head of Government, and Commander-in-Chief)
        

Executive Manuel Roxas  July 4, 1946 - April 15, 1948 Elpidio Quirino (1st Term)  April 18, 1948 - December 30, 1949 Elpidio Quirino (2nd Term)  December 30, 1949 - December 30, 1953 Ramon Magsaysay  December 30, 1953 - March 17, 1957 Carlos P. Garcia (1st Term)  March 23, 1957 - December 30, 1957 Carlos P. Garcia (2nd Term)  December 30, 1957 - December 30, 1961 Diosdado Macapagal  December 30, 1961 - December 30, 1965 Ferdinand E. Marcos (1st Term)  December 30, 1965 - December 30, 1969 Ferdinand E. Marcos (2nd Term)

December 30, 1969 - December 30, 1973 (constitutional end of 2nd Term)

Legislatures, Terms and Statutes ○ [Bicameral] Congress (House of Representatives, Senate)  1st Congress (originally the 2nd Commonwealth Congress)  1946 - 1949  Republic Act No. 1 - 421 (421 Republic Acts)  2nd Congress

 1949 - 1953  Republic Act No. 422 - 972 (551 Republic Acts)  3rd Congress  1954 - 1957  Republic Act No. 973 - 2049 (1,077 Republic Acts)  4th Congress  1958 - 1961  Republic Act No. 2050 - 3450 (1,401 Republic Acts)  5th Congress  1962 - 1965  Republic Act No. 3451 - 4642 (1,192 Republic Acts)  6th Congress  1966 - 1969  Republic Act No. 4643 - 6123 (1,481 Republic Acts)  7th Congress  1970 - 1972  Republic Act No. 6124 - 6635 (512 Republic Acts)

Martial Law Period (1972 - 1981)

System of Government
○ ○ ○

Unitary Presidential Republic  Until January 17, 1973 Unitary Parliamentary Republic [operating as a Presidential Republic]  January 17, 1973 - May 7, 1979 Unitary Parliamentary Republic [operating as a Presidential Republic] with two autonomous regions  May 7, 1979 - April 7, 1981 Unitary Semi-Presidential Republic with two autonomous regions  From April 7, 1981

○ •

Capital / Seat of Government ○ Quezon City  Until June 24, 1976 ○ City of Manila  From June 24, 1976


1935 Constitution

  ○ • ○

Proclamation No. 1081 (1972) General Order No. 1 (1972)

1973 Constitution (amended in 1976, 1980, 1981 and 1984) Presidential System (1935 Constitution)

Executive President (Head of State, Head of Government, and Commander-in-Chief)
 ○

Ferdinand E. Marcos (2nd Term, de facto)  December 30, 1969 - June 30, 1981

Parliamentary System (1973 Constitution)

President (Head of State)

Ferdinand E. Marcos (2nd Term, de facto)  December 30, 1969 - June 30, 1981

Prime Minister (Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief)

Ferdinand E. Marcos  June 12, 1978 - June 30, 1981

Legislatures, Terms and Statutes

President (Ferdinand E. Marcos)  1972 - 1986  (2,034 Presidential Decrees)

○ [Unicameral] Interim Batasang Pambansa  1978 - 1984  Batas Pambansa Bilang 1 - 702 (702 laws)

Fourth Republic (1981 - 1987)

System of Government

Unitary Parliamentary Republic [operating as a Presidential Republic] with two autonomous regions  Until April 7, 1981 Unitary Semi-Presidential Republic with two autonomous regions  April 7, 1981 - March 25, 1986 Unitary Republic in transition from the parliamentary to the presidential system  From March 25, 1986

○ ○ • •

Capital / Seat of Government ○ City of Manila Constitution

Semi-Presidential System

 ○ • 

1973 Constitution (amended in 1976, 1980, 1981 and 1984) Proclamation No. 3 (1986)

Transitional Period


Semi-Presidential System

President (Head of State, Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief)
  

Ferdinand E. Marcos (3rd Term)  June 30, 1981 - February 25, 1986 Ferdinand E. Marcos (4th Term)  February 25, 1986 Corazon C. Aquino  February 25, 1986 - June 30, 1992

 Prime Minister  Cesar Virata  June 30, 1981 - February 25, 1986  Salvador Laurel  February 25, 1986 - March 25, 1986

Transitional Period

President (Head of State, Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief)

Corazon C. Aquino  February 25, 1986 - June 30, 1992

Legislatures, Terms and Statutes

Semi-Presidential System

President (Ferdinand E. Marcos)  1972 - 1986  (2,034 Presidential Decrees)

 [Unicameral] Interim Batasang Pambansa  1978 - 1984  Batas Pambansa Bilang 1 - 702 (702 laws)  [Unicameral] Regular Batasang Pambansa  1984 - 1986  Batas Pambansa Bilang 703 - 889 (187 laws)

Transitional Period

President (Corazon C. Aquino)  1986 - 1987

Fifth Republic (1987 - Present)

System of Government
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Unitary Presidential Republic  Until August 1, 1989 Unitary Presidential Republic with one autonomous region  From August 1, 1989

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Capital / Seat of Government ○ City of Manila Constitution
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1987 Constitution President (Head of State, Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief)
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Executive Corazon C. Aquino  February 25, 1986 - June 30, 1992 Fidel V. Ramos  June 30, 1992 - June 30, 1998 Joseph Ejercito Estrada  June 30, 1998 - January 20, 2001 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (1st Term)  January 20, 2001 - June 30, 2004 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2nd Term)  June 30, 2004 - June 30, 2010

Legislatures, Terms and Statutes ○ [Bicameral] Congress (House of Representatives, Senate)  8th Congress  1987 - 1992  Republic Act No. 6636 - 7635 (1,000 Republic Acts)  9th Congress  1992 - 1995  Republic Act No. 7636 - 8171 (536 Republic Acts)  10th Congress  1995 - 1998  Republic Act No. 8172 - 8744 (573 Republic Acts)  11th Congress  1998 - 2001

 Republic Act No. 8745 - 9159 (415 Republic Acts)  12th Congress  2001 - 2004  Republic Act No. 9160 - 9332 (173 Republic Acts)  13th Congress  2004 - 2007  Republic Act No. 9333 - 9495 (163 Republic Acts)  14th Congress  2007 - 2010

Proposed Federal System

System of Government

Shelved plans during the 13th Congress  Federal Parliamentary Republic  10 or 11 Federal States

Proposals from the Senate of the 14th Congress  Federal Presidential Republic  10 Federal States and 1 Federal Administrative Region


Shelved plans during the 13th Congress
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President (Head of State and Commander-in-Chief) Prime Minister (Head of Government) President (Head of State, Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief)

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Proposals from the Senate of the 14th Congress

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Shelved plans during the 13th Congress  [Unicameral] Parliament Proposals from the Senate of the 14th Congress  [Bicameral] Congress (House of Representatives, Senate)

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