LYNCH AND CULLEN

URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN

CULLEN

LYNCH AND

EMPIRCISM
 Idealistic assumptions  Present and past for inspiration   “How the world should function

and how people should behave rather than how it actually does and they do.”

NEO-EMPIRICISM
 Direct

descendent of the garden city movement.  Arouses in response to the limitations of garden city.  Traditional forms have much to be admired and replicated.  Traffic and industries were major catalysts.

KEVIN ANDREW LYNCH (1918 - 1984)
visual elements cognitive concepts of the urban environment.  innovative way of conceiving of the urban environment was presented with a deep design knowledge that changed the attitudes of both professionals and scholars.  urban form that
 

BIOGRAPHY
consultant to the state of Rhode Island, New England Medical Center, Boston Redevelopment Authority, Puerto Rico I.D.C,M.I.T. Planning Office.

Born

in 1918

he produced seven books. His most famous work, Image of the City (1960)

educated at Yale University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

At MIT, he went on to gain Professorship in 1963, and eventually earned professor emeritus status

BOOKS BY LYNCH
 Wrote 7 books:  The image of the city.   City sense and city design.   Good city form.

 Site

planning

LYNCH ’ S GOAL?

Combating Modernism’s unified, monolithic depersonalized city through reasserting the human role in the interpretation of the city.

Kevin Lynch
 

 

Interviewed urbanites in Boston Jersey City, and Los Angeles Most established a “generalized mental picture of the external physical world” The mental picture was very similar Their images emerged in a two way process:
▪ They made distinctions among the various physical parts of the city ▪ They organized these parts in a personally meaningful way

IDEAS OF LYNCH

 

He was concerned by the look of the cities and whether this look is of any importance , or whether this look can be changed. he introduced the theory of urban form. An urban environment is a complex system of interactions between people (users) and various surrounding objects Lynch described two things important for a subsequent explanation of the whole theory: first, physical elements of the city and second, the psychological, mental image of the city.

PHYSICAL ELEMENTS OF THE CITY
 IMAGE

OF THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE CITY

 ELEMENTS

 DIMENSION 

OF PERFORMANCE

IMAGE OF THE ENVIRONMENT
 Legibility

Apparent clarity 2 –way process Long familiarity Identity Striking features Structureobject New meaning Well formed Distinct Remarkable Invite eye and ear

 Building

the and

image

 Structure

identity

 Imageability 

STRENGTHEN IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
 Symbolic devices.   Install machines.   Reshaping ones surrounding.   Retraining the perceiver. 

ELEMENTS OF THE CITY
 PATHS   EDGES   DISTRICT   NODES   LANDMMARK

PATHS

occasionally

potentially

customarily

PATHS
           

Customary travel Special use or activity Spatial qualities Façade characteristics Identity continuity Direction Path destination and origin points Scale Alignment Abrupt directional shift crossings

DESIGNING THE CITY PATHS
 Singular quality  Continuity  Hierarchy  Direction  Gradient  Kinesthetic  Identity  Simplicity
 

EDGES
 Boundaries   Barriers

  Breaks    seam 

DESIGNING THE CITY EDGES
 Continuity  Strength  Gradient  Definite termini  Accessibility

DISTRICTS

DISTRICTS
 Theme  Building types  Topography  Noise  Population  Lettering of signs  Boundaries  Communities  Introvert  Extrovert

DESIGNING THE CITY DISTRICTS
 Continuity  Definiteness  Closure  Structured within itself  Connection with other district

NODES

NODES
 Junction  Break in transportation  Subway stations  Railroad station  Airports  Street intersection  Shopping areas 

DESIGNING THE CITY NODES
 Identity  Boundary  theme  Break in transportation  closure

LANDMARKS

LANDMARKS
 Singularity  Uniqueness  Contrast

(small/big, new/old, dirty/clean)  Navigation  Symbolic  Size  Prominence of spatial location  Familiarity breeds landmarks

DESIGNING THE CITY LANDMARKS
 Singular  Contrast with context  Size  Location  Spatial quality

  

DIMENSION OF PERFORMANCE
 Vitality  Sense  Fit  Access  Control  Efficiency  justice

GOOD CITY FORM
 VISIBLE

 COHERENT

 CLEAR   SENSE

OF WHOLE

METROPOLITAN FORM
 Entire

region may be composed as a static hierarchy.  Use one or two very large dominant elements to which many smaller things

ANALYSIS

THOMAS GORDON CULLEN (1914-1994)
Influential English architect and urban designer  key motivator in the Townscape movement.  he wrote and published Townscape.  He was a key figure and activist in the development of British theories of urban design in

BIOGRAPHY
Cullen became a freelance writer and consultant in 1956 , he advised the cities of Liverpool and Peterborough on their reconstruction and redevelopment plans.

B o rn i ca l rl , n ve e p u d se y , 9 A u g 1914

His most famous work, Townscape

He studied architecture at the polytechnic of central London

Between 1944 and 1946 he worked in the planning office of the Development and Welfare Department in Barbados.

BOOKS BY CULLEN

 Townscape

 Concise

townscape

 Visions

of urban design design and townscape


 Urban

  THE IDEAS OF CULLEN
qGordon Cullen is one of the authors who had incorporated the idea of an observer in movement as basic element for the perception of the constructed space, and in the workmanship Urban Landscape considers the notion of serial vision for the first time as a conceptual instrument for an urban reading.

36

THE CONCEPT OF SERIAL VISION

Drawings of Cullen Serial Vision

defining

Sequence of images of Westminster: the emotion and the sensation of the discovery
37

THE CONCEPT OF PLACE

Sense of being in a particular place conjure different visual images and feelings w.r.t place characteristics.  Occupied territory  Possession in movement  Enclaves  Enclosures  Focal point  Precincts

THE CONCEPT OF PLACE
 Block house  insubstantial space  Defining space  Here and there  Truncation  change of level  Silhouette  

THE CONCEPT OF PLACE
 Grandiose vista  Screened vista  Deflection  Projection and recession  Punctuation  Narrows  infinity

THE CONCEPT OF CONTENT

Categories of environment its mood and which enliven the space by creating drama.  Juxtaposition  Immediacy  Seeing in detail  Intricacy  Propriety  Bluntness and vigor

THE CONCEPT OF CONTENT
 Exposure  Illusion  Geometry  Foils  Relationship  Scale  Distortion  Calligraphy  publicity

THE FUNCTIONAL TRADITION

Intrinsic quality of things which creates the environment.  Structure  Railing  Fences  Steps  Texture  Lettering

SQUARES FOR ALL TASTE
 The

private square: enclosed  The private square: open  The popular square  The square as quadrangle: municipal  The square as quadrangle:

CROSS AS FOCAL POINT
 Anchorage

for

humans  Immovable  Security from traffic

CLOSURE
 The

subdivision(hu man scale)  The provision of incident  The sense of unrolling and revealing  identification

LEGS AND WHEELS
 Variety

and character to ground surface  Pedestrians only  Pedestrian priority

HAZARDS
 Boundaries  Railings  Planting  Concealed

hazards  Change of level

THE FLOOR
 Adventure  Functional

pattern  Standardizing the code  Materials  articulation

PRAIRIE PLANNING

STREET LIGHTING
 Code of practice  Kinetic unity  Propriety  Towards flexibility 

THE WALL
 Seeing in detail  Catching the eye  Exploiting the

surface  Making the most of it

TREES INCORPORATED
 Shadow  Screen  Line  Geometry  Mobile  sculpture

ANALYSIS

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