You are on page 1of 163

AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.

1

AL plus
ALC plus
PDH radio
Instructor : Monthien Satantoranin
SIAE Microelettronica South East Asia & Pacific
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
2
Training items
1. AL plus
2. SCT
3. LCT
4. AL Plus Ethernet
5. ALC Plus
6. ALC Plus Ethernet
7. AL Troubleshooting: alarms and loops
8. Propagation: one easy example of hop calculation


AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
3
PDH AL plus: hardware and
circuitry
1
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
4
Line Interface Module: Up to 32xE1, 4x10/100 BaseT + 24E1
Main Controller (Service channels, LCT connection, Alarms IN/OUT)
Radio Interface Module 1 and 2 (Cable Interface + Power Supply)
IDU AL plus
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
5
IDU AL plus 1RU
AL Plus 1+1 32xE1
Equipment Controller
LIM
RIM 1A
RIM 2A
AL Plus 24E1 +4xEth
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
6
IDU AL plus 2RU
AL Plus 1+1 53xE1
AL Plus 2x(1+1) Matrix Stm1
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
7
ALC Plus
ALC Plus Ethernet
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
8
ODU
Unprotected ODU
1+1 ODU
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
9
ODU with separated antenna
1+0 pole mounting
waveguide
flange
antenna
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
10
ODU with separated antenna
1+1 wall mounting
waveguide
flange
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
11
1+1 hot stand-by
= F
HIGH

= F
LOW

= Stand-by
= Active
Both radios, working at the same frequency, are active in Rx but only
one is active in Tx:
1 antenna Branching losses are inserted in link budget
2 antennas Link is in space diversity (and without branching losses)
Best performance for d=150l (d=distance between antennas)
ODU ODU
ODU
ODU
IDU IDU
1 1
2
2
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
12
1+1 frequency diversity
ODU ODU
ODU
ODU
IDU IDU
1 1
2
2
All radios, working at different frequencies, are active in Rx and Tx
1 antenna Branching losses are inserted in link budget
2 antennas Link is in space diversity (and without branching losses)

= F1
HIGH

= F1
LOW

= F2
HIGH

= F2
LOW

AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
13
Software Keys
Following functionalities are enabled through a
software key:

Capacity changing

Modulation changing

Way side traffic

OSPF Option

Fade Margin Test Option
Ethernet

AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
14
AL plus : main facilities
Nodal version
PRBS generator
ATPC
Adaptive modulation
Base 5 hierarchy
Fade margin
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
15
Available version
New pdh AL is available in many versions
Configuration can be set via software :
Modulation: 4QAM, 16QAM, 32 QAM
Capacity:
2, 4, 8,16,32xE1, 5, 10, 21xE1 (1RU)
42xE1, 53xE1 (2RU)
4xLAN+24xE1
Configuration: 1+0, 1+1 h.s.by or eterofreq.
IDU is frequency, capacity and modulation independent
ODU depends by frequency only

AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
16
Modulation
User Interfaces
Capacity
[Mbit/s]
4 QAM 16 QAM 32 QAM
- 2xE1/4xE1/16xE1
- 10/100BaseT + NxE1
4
10
16
20
32
42






- 32xE1
- 10/100BaseT + NxE1
64
84




-10/100BaseT + NxE1
-53xE1

100
106






User interfaces



AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
17
Equipment structure
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
18
Controller
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
19
LIM Tx direction
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
20
LIM Rx direction
FEC *
(block code)

errors
*FEC = Forward Error Corrector
Example: Without BER=10
-6

With BER=10
-13
(+2.5 dB)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
21
RIM
140 MHz
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
22
ODU
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
23
ATPC (Automatic Tx Power Control)
40 dB
ATPC range
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
24
Characteristics : examples(1)
Tx power (4QAM/16QAM/32QAM) in dBm :
4 GHz +29 / +24 / +22
7 GHz +27 / +22 / +20
15 GHz +25 / +20 / +20
18 GHz +20 / +15 / +15
23 GHz +20 / +15 / +15
Tx/Rx spacing in MHz:
4 GHz 100
7 GHz 154/161/168/196/245
15 GHz 315/322/420/490/728
18 GHz 1010
23 GHz 1008/1200/1232/
Power consumption in W (for frequencies > 15GHz):
1+0 < 32
1+1 < 55
4x(1+0) < 106
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
25
Characteristics :examples (2)
Rx 10
-6
thresholds (4QAM/16QAM) guaranteed, dBm:
- in 21x2
4 GHz -81.5 / -77.5
7 GHz -80.5 / -76.5
15 GHz -80 / -76
18 GHz -79.5 / -75.5
23 GHz -79.5 / -75.5
- in 4x2
4 GHz -89 / -85
7 GHz -88 / -84
15 GHz -87.5 / -83.5
18 GHz -87 / -83
23 GHz -87 / -83
Max Rx power - 20 dBm
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
26
Setup with SCT/LCT
1. Set modulation and capacity
2. Dynamic/adapt. Modulation disabled
3. Tx Switch on remote alarm disabled
4. Set the same Link Id on local and remote
5. Enable the same tributaries on local and remote
6. Select the same RF Channel on local and remote
7. Set Tx power at Max value, Tx power control manual
8. Check antenna aiming on local and on remote

AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
27
Setup with SCT/LCT (2)
1. Set Lan IP Ethernet port address and netmask
2. Set the Agent (copy Ethernet port address)
3. Set all the other ports as Unnumbered, press:




4. Do the same on remote side
5. Into Subnetwork configuration wizard add station and
local and remote Agents, select Send

Set values
Store
Restart
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
28
IDU AL plus
IDU-ODU
cable connector :
SMA type
E1 way side
(only for 16E1
and 32E1)
Service channels
connectors :
RJ 45 type
Alarms LEDs :
IDU
ODU
REM
TEST
Processor FAIL
alarm LED
75/120 ohm E1
connectors: SCSI type
LAN Connectors: RJ 45 type
Duplex and Activity on LAN
interfaces
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
29
ODU installation (1)
REF.
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
30
ODU installation (2)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
31
ODU installation (3)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
32
Frequency signals:
Tx IF 330 MHz
Rx IF 140 MHz
Telemetry IDUODU 17.5 MHz
Telemetry ODU IDU 5.2 MHz

Max length (1/4 inch cable)
Maximum distance between IDU-ODU 370 m
Required Cable Return Loss: Better than 22 dB
from 100 MHz to 400 MHz
Interconnection cable
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
33
Switch modes
Auto
Preferential: operator can select which branch must be
operative without alarms.
Wait Time = time before coming back to the preferential
branch when alarms disappear. In this way the controller
doesnt switch continuously in case of fleeting alarms.
Reset = Wait Time is not respected
Full auto: both branches have same priority

Manual forcing
Operator can select which branch must be operative
despite alarms
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
34
Tx switch criteria
1. RIM PSU alarm
2. Manual forcing
3. Cable short/ Cable open alarm
Modulator failure
ODU unit failure alarm
VCO failure alarm
IF unit alarm
ODU PSU alarm
Tx power low alarm
4. Rx failure on both remote radios
5. Revertive Tx

Highest priority







lowest priority
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
35
Rx switch criteria
1. RIM PSU alarm
2. Manual forcing
3. Cable short/open alarm
Base band unit failure alarm
Demodulator failure
ODU unit failure alarm
VCO failure alarm
IF unit alarm
ODU PSU alarm
High BER alarm (selectable: BER>10
-3,-4,-5
)
4. Low BER alarm (selectable: BER >10
-6,-7,-8
)
5. Early warning alarm (selectable: BER >10
-9,-10,-11,-12
)
6. RF input low (selectable from -40dBm to -99dBm)
7. CRC pulse
8. Revertive Rx
Highest priority







lowest priority
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
36
Management LAN into a Station
Very easy Cabling of Local Station LAN :
Integrated miniswitch on equipment
No need of an HUB (difficult to power supply)
2 LAN ports functionally equivalent
No need of crossed cables (auto detect)

AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
37
EQUIPMENT FEATURE
MANAGEMENT
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
38
Configuration upload/download
Upload (from equipment)
From Tool menu, open the proper Template
Select Upload operation and the equipment you want to
upload information from
Save them in a file (*.cfg)
Download (to equipment)
From Tool menu, open the proper file (*.cfg)
Select Download operation and the equipment you want
to download information to

Uploaded parameters and *.cfg file are editable using
Equipment Configuration Wizard.
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
39
Configuration Template

Configuration template: it is relevant to equipment
radio parameters as frequency, attenuation, capacity,
thresholds,
Address configuration template: it is relevant to
management parameters as port IP addresses, routing
tables, remote elements tables, OSPF.

Both configurations are necessary during first
installation or when Controller module is substituted
with a spare one: you can use a file to download or set
every parameter manually.
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
40
Full backup
The whole amount of parameters (equipment
parameters, address parameters and remote element
table) can be uploaded from equipment, saved in a
file (*.bku), downloaded to equipment.

These parameters cannot be editated.
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
41
LCT:

AL
plus
3
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
42
Configurator AL plus
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
43
LCT: AL plus nodal
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
44
AL plus nodal: Configurator
A button to show the other two radios
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
45
Line-up: Radio parameters
These parameters can be set locally only
all changes must be performed first on
remote and after on the local equipment
Radio parameters to have the traffic working are:
1. RF channel
2. Modulation
3. Capacity
4. Link ID
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
46
Modulation/Capacity
Capacities for selected
modulation
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
47
Configuration parameters
Link ID 0 not used
Link ID 0 enable
LinkID
LOC
LinkID
REM
(always)
After Controller unit replacement, the
configuration mismatch (Application
alarm on) can be solved in the following
way:
1) download the old configuration file: old
setup is downloaded on the controller
2) push Apply Configuration button: old
setup is downloaded on the equipment
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
48
Adaptive modulation
During bad propagation periods the system changes modulation to
increase system gain keeping constant the transmitted bandwidth and
reducing transmitted capacity, increasing system availability (for
priviledged traffic)
Modulation has been varied and
capacity has been reduced
Below this P
Rx
threshold, remote P
Tx
increases (as ATPC
feedback) when in reduced modulation. This offset is
the number of dB from P
Rx
@10
-9
. Default 2dB
Tx power increase of 3db if 16QAM.
Enable only if permitted by rules in your country.
P
Tx
power increase , amount of
additional output power with reduced
modulation. Default 5dB
ATPC hysteresis in dB for 16QAM recovery. Default 0dB
Seconds of stable PRx before recover to 16QAM. Default 10sec
Changes can be done only with Adap. Mod disabled
Adaptive mod. Enabling
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
49
Adaptive modulation
When happens?
Request of modulation change from 32/16QAM to 4QAM if, at worst
receiver (B):
1. P
Tx(AtoB)
= P
Tx | MAX
(ATPC on, and Tx at max value)
2. PRx(B) is lower than ATPC Low Thresholds (Remote needs more
power)
3. BER at (B) receiver lower than 10
-9
Recovery of modulation from 4QAM to 16/32QAM if, at both ends:
1. P
Tx
at 4QAM = MAX possible for 16/32QAM
2. ATPC not requiring remote TX power increase
3. BER no errors in the last seconds (default 10 sec)

AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
50
Adaptive modulation
If P
Tx Max|4QAM
=20dBm and P
Tx Max|16QAM
=15dBm, difference is 5 dB
so P
Tx
boost can be 05dB
If ATPC value are not correct Dyn/adaptive modulation is not activated
Adap. Mod now active and with reduced
Mod
Warning : No configuration change must be
done with SCT/LCT when Dyn/Adaptive
Modulation is activated ! If you need a
loop or any other change please first
deactivate Dyn./A.M.
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
51
Adaptive modulation: half traffic is preserved
16/32QAM capacity 4QAM capacity
- 4x2 @16QAM, 5x2 @16QAM no adaptive mod.
- 8x2 @16QAM 4x2 @4QAM
- 10x2 @16QAM 5x2 @4QAM
- 16x2 @16QAM 8x2 @4QAM
- 21x2 @16QAM 10x2 @4QAM
- 32x2 @16QAM 16x2 @4QAM
- 42x2 @16QAM 21x2 @4QAM
- 53x2 @32QAM 21x2 @4QAM
Capacity decrease is pointed out by Reduce Capacity Alarm
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
52
What IDU PLUS offers:
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
53
Differences between AL and AL
plus
Out of standard capacities
Nodal configuration
Dynamic/Adaptive modulation
STM-1 input (see next slides)
Two Q3 ports
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
54
General preset:
thresholds
HBer,LBer, EWL
thresholds
Rx Power Low thresholds
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
55
General preset:
Rx switches
1+1
1+0
In case of Hber, Lber, EWL, first CRC correction
In case of no Rx
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
56
General preset:
Tx switch
If both remote radios dont receive,
on local side Tx switch is performed
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
57
General preset:
Miscellaneous
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
58
Radio branch: Frequencies
RF channel must be set.
Tx frequency is in RED
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
59
ATPC threshold 10-15 dB higher
than BER 10-3 threshold
Radio branch:
ATPC
or
Manual Ptx setting
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
60
Radio branch:
Settings
Traffic ok with:
Carrier only = Off , Tx Transmitter = On, Rt PSU = On
On no modulator (no traffic)
Off traffic ok
On traffic ok
Off Radio receives only
On Radio works (48Vdc in the cable)
Off Cable can be disconnetted (no 48Vdc)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
61
PRBS (Pseudo Random Bit Sequence)
Alarm on Checked signal line
Measure results and duration
Tributary selection if
checked is Signal 2MBit
P.R.B.S replaces the traffic on selected channel
P.R.B.S. test is pointed out as Manual Operation (subject to timeout)

Checked signal selection
Measure status
Pattern type
Sync Los events during test
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
62
Fade Margin
Fade margin:
Problems for
executing the test
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
63
Fade margin
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
64
1) Fade margin : Remote link
Remote terminal must be
declared as Remote link
In equipment 2 we want
to perform Fade margin
measurement
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
65
2) Fade margin : summary
Input data : Expected F.M. (calculated by the customer directly,
basing on nominal output power and nominal LBER threshold)
External Atten. : all the losses between radio and antenna
(excluding Branching)
Curr. Step : four step (Tx
L1
Rx
L1
, Tx
L2
Rx
L2
, Tx
L2
Rx
L1
,
Tx
L1
Rx
L2
)


Real F.M. : value based on expected F.M. adjusted with real
output power, real LBER threshold (and External Atten.)
measured at Final Test Departiment in SIAE and stored in ODU
Real F.M.v. : value calculated decreasing Local Output power
(1 dB step) until Remote LBER alarm activation. This value
should be compared with declared one (Input data)


AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
66
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
67
R S T mode : RSOH
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
68
A1, A2, J0
If A1 and A2 are recognised by aligner and if J0 is the
correct one, RSOH bytes are extracted from SOH.

In case of:
- no input (alarm is LOS)
- failed recognition of A1,A2 (alarm is LOF)
- J0 not correct (alarm is Path Trace Mismatch)
then:
1. MS AIS signal is inserted on MSOH and on Payload
2. Local restart is enabled
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
69
B1, D1, D2, D3, E1,
B1:Byte Interleaved parity: carries link quality
info (relevant to G.826)
D1, D2, D3: DCC data communication channel
for supervision and management (192 Kbit/s);
DCC loss is reported by QECC alarm
E1 and 3X: bytes for EOW and low speed data
channel

AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
70
Nodal IDU AL plus
High Speed (311 Mbps) Nodal
Interconn. (up to 3 IDUs Full
cross connection capability)
Single IDU:
4x(1+0)
2x(1+1)
1+0/1+1 Mixed configuration
Multiple IDUs (up to 3)
12x(1+0)
6x(1+1)
1+0/1+1 Mixed configuration
A
B
C
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
71
16E1 Add/Drop
Site A
IDU NETWORK APPLICATIONS:
STM-1 Line interface Typical Application
53E1
53E1 Add/Drop
Site B
STM-1
SDH network
Directly from E1 one side to STM1 on the other side
without the need of an additional ADM and cabling
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
72
IDU NETWORK APPLICATIONS:
STM-1 Line interface and Nodal Interfaces Typical Application

53E1
16E1 Add/Drop
Site A
Site B
Site C
53E1
SDH network
STM-1
Directly from E1 one side to STM1 on the other side
without the need of an additional ADM and cabling
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
73
Nodal IDUs example
53E1
53E1
53E1
53E1
53E1
53E1
53E1
53E1
53E1
53E1
53E1
53E1
3xSTM-1 (1+1 MSP) + 48E1
Up to 12 radio direction (53x2 each)
Up to 3xSTM-1 interfaces
Up to 48E1 physical interfaces
For a total of 873E1 crossconnected into the
node (unblocking)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
74
Nodal IDU
Node configuration:
now the node is
made of 3 x 2RU =
3Elems
Node A
Only D/I
Drop Insert
& Nodal
- - - Terminal
Nbus ring
protection
on E1s
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
75
Syncronization: SETS
Synchronization
Sources
Equipment
clock
Source priority:
1Max
2min
4min ..
disabled
Selected: available synch. with
higher priority.
Available: present and not
degraded
Synch.
status
White: not forced
Blue: forced
White: no alarms
Red: alarmed (drift and/or LTI)
2MHz output clock
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
76
Syncronization: SETS
Enabled selected: sync source
used, with shown priority
Enabled unselected: sync
source disabled , not used
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
77
Nodal IDU VC4 Settings
Must be defined in case
of configuration change
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
78
Nodal IDU VC12 Settings
Must be defined in case
of configuration change
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
79
Nodal IDU Cross connection
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
80
Nodal IDU Cross connection 1
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
81
Nodal IDU Cross connection 2
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
82
Nodal IDU Cross connection 3
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
83
Nodal IDU Cross connection 4
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
84
Nodal IDU Cross connection 5
Nodal configured as
RadioA=RadioB= 2x(1+0)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
85
Tributaries
Line loop
Internal (radio) loop
Line enabled
53E1= 32+21
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
86
ALCplus WEB LCT
ALC plus can be configured using a WEB Browser
in three different ways:
1) Starting from SCT
2) From the WEB browser via LAN
3) From WEBLCT console via USB
WEBLCT is very similar to standard LCT
integrated with SCT Equipment menu
In order to have the whole link in one page only,
local equipment is declared managed by SCT,
remote one is declared remote link


AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
87 ALCplus WEB LCT
This is the software to manage a
single ALC plus.
All the commands are the
usualswith a different style
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
88
Equipment menu:
a mix of SCT equipment menu and
LCT command list
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
89
WEBLCT
Traffic parameters (without RF channel)
Link alarms (RF input and quality)
Rx switch
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
90
E1 settings
Tributary setting: a line can work only if enabled
(local and remote side)
Line loop
Internal loop
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
91
Traffic parameters:
Tx power and RF channel
RF channel (and freq. in MHz)
Manual operation
Tx power
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
92
Ethernet port settings 1
Interface parameters
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
93
Ethernet port settings 2
802.1q VLAN parameters
802.1p priority parameters
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
94
AL Ethernet : 16E1 +3xEth
AL Plus Ethernet 24E1+ 4xEth
ALC Plus Ethernet* : 32E1+3xEth
___________________________________
*ALC plus: Ethernet traffic works with not hierarchical capacity only
Ethernet IDUs: available interfaces
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
95
Ethernet
switch*
MAC Address Table
size
Emptying algorithm
of queues:
8421 WFQ
or
strictly priority
Life of info in
MAC Addr. table
Packet size
Queue assignement
depending 802.1p:
depending on input
priority, the packet is
sent to the selected
queue of a port
(level 2)
Queue assignement (level 3)
depending on PTOS or DSCP
VLAN management
Setting of waiting time before Link
Loss Forwarding (010 sec.)
*only on Ethernet LIM !
(512/1024/2048)
(1522/1536)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
96
Queue
selection
Depending on priority TOS
the queue is selected.
View filter
PTOS values
(64 = 2
6
)
DifferentialServiceCodePoint values 14 = 1 + 4x3 + 1
AF=Assured Forwording (4 classes and 3 values)
Precedence
Routine
Priority
Immediate
Flash
Flash override
Critic/ECP
Internet Ctrl
Network Ctrl
Delay
Normal
Low
Throughput
Normal
High
Reliability
Normal
High
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
97
VLAN map (level 2)
Port 1 Port 2 Port 3
RadioPort
VLAN 760 doesnt
transit through port 2
760
VLAN 760 exits through
port 2 untagged
VLAN 760 exits through
port 2 with tag 760
VLAN 760 exits through
port 2, with the same tag it
has at input (unmodified)
VLAN tag given to
untagged packet
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
98
VLAN management
Example of VLAN list: VLAN tag of input
packet is not included, see Virtual LAN card in
LAN-x [x = 1, 2, 3]
Not assigned
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
99
LAN settings: Interface
Cable:
straight or
crossed
Port status
LAN Speed
Flow control
LLF status LAN status
In ALCplus the
bitrate of each port
can be set
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
100
LAN settings: Virtual LAN
Untagged frame in output:
Unmodified, Tagged, Untagged
Output ports of packets in input at LAN1
Tag added to
untagged frame if
output is tagged
Disable 802.1q: no Tag
filter, LAN per port rules
Fallback: if input is tagged,
Virtual LAN map rules
will be followed; if input tag
is not present in the map or
input is untagged, Lan per
port rules will be followed
Secure: if input is tagged,
Virtual LAN map rules
will be followed; if input tag
is not present in the map or
input is untagged, packets
will be dropped
1
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
101
LAN settings: Priority
How to manage input priority:
-Disable (No check): forcing of
default values
- 802.1p (level 2)
- IpToS (level 3)
- First 802.1p then IpToS
- First IpToS then 802.1p
default Queue and default Priority
added to output if input is without
priority
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
102
Local LAN1 Remote LAN1
4 settings:
1) LAN1Internal LOCAL
2) Internal LAN 1 LOCAL
3) Internal LAN1 REMOTE
4) LAN1 Internal REMOTE
ANY
ENABLED
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
103
Local LAN1 Remote LAN1
Local LAN2 Remote LAN2
Local LAN3 Remote LAN3
SEGREGATED!
LAN1, LAN2, LAN3, Internal : Enabled
LAN per Port : LAN1Internal, LAN2 Internal, LAN3 Internal, InternalLAN1/2/3
Default Vid(local/remote): LAN1=1/6, LAN2=2/7, LAN3=3/8, Internal=4/5
Ingress Filtering Check: FallBack
Untagged frame Egress mode: LAN1/2/3=Untagged, Internal Port=Tagged
Virtual lan map


Local
Remote
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
104
Normal operating condition
Rx level on both ODU match values given by
hop calculation.
Rx level accuracy:
-40 dBm -75 dBm range 3dB
-30 dBm -40 dBm range 4dB
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
105
Faulty condition: alarm notification
A faulty condition is pointed out by
IDU front panel LEDs:
- FAIL: controller self test failed
- IDU: alarms from LIM and/or RIM
- ODU: alarms from radio transceiver
- REM: any alarm from other end
- TEST: manual operation active
SCT window:
- Log history area (with alarm correlation)
- Equipment view current alarms (with alarms grouping)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
106
Alarms grouping : Current Alarms
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
107
ALARMS
There are two directions of alarms: Tx and Rx
Tx This line starts in LIM and arrives to output flange: when a situation of
more alarms is occurring, the most significative alarm of them is at the
beginning of Tx chain, all the others after are due to this
Rx This line starts in output flange and arrives to LIM: when a situation of
more alarms is occurring, the most significative alarm of them is at the
beginning of Rx chain, all the others after should be caused by this

Most Significant alarm
Rx
Tx
RIM
LIM
ODU
LIM
RIM
ODU
4
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
108
Synthesis, Local/Remote group
Alarms are divided in groups: the name of the group is
the name of the module where alarms come from, or
the name of a specific characteristic of these alarms
A Synthesis alarm, with the name of relevant
group, is the OR of alarms of that group (AL only).
If an alarm occurs, also relevant LOCAL synthesis
occurs (while REMOTE synthesis occurs in remote
equipment)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
109
Alarms grouping : COMMON
Alarms not related to a specific part of the equipment but
relevant to the link.
Example:
EOC radio alarm (relevant SCT management)
Link telemetry fail (relevant traffic, ATPC info, man op)

If both alarms are ON, the link is interrupted.
Investigation must be made on a possible condition of bad
propagation, or equipment failure

AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
110
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
111
No link between Local and Remote station. Traffic is cut.
Link telemetry is inserted in main radio frame in Bit Insertion
circuit inside LIM, and contains commands for the remote
station: switch off the radios on remote side in case of local RF
loop, Link ID, ATPC info.
Telemetry link is a connection between local and remote IDUs.
TEST - if this alarm occurs, a double IDU loop (both branches)
can be done: if this alarm disappears, local IDU is OK and the
problem is after (propagation, local radios, remote equipment).
Link telemetry fail
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
112
Communication Radio EOC Data link
No link between Local and Remote station or wrong
port address configuration.
EOC is the channel involved in management
communication.
If EOC radio link is active:
- Traffic is OK
- Management is cut (no remote)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
113
Communication 2Mb EOC Data link
No EOC channel is present on selected tributary in selected timeslot : wrong
port address configuration or no tributary input (LOS).EOC is the channel
involved in management communication.
If EOC 2Mb link is active:
- Management is cut (no remote)
- If relative LOS is active,
traffic on that tributary is out
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
114
PRBS Fail
When PRBS is working and no signal is received on checked
signal, in PRBS window the field Sync Los Alarm is active
together with PRBS Fail in Current alarms window
Every ON-OFF transition
increases the field
PRBS Fail Alarm Counter
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
115
Revertive
When a branch is declared preferential,
the switch on opposite branch gives
Revertive alarm.
The return to preferential branch, when
available again, happens after Wait Time
period.
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
116
2Mb/s G.704 (Trib.x)
Radio Fail/AIS and/or Line Fail/AIS
When management messages come via tributary
timeslot, further checks are performed on both
directions of used tributary
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
117
Tx Fail
When on remote side both radios dont receive, on local
side a Tx switch command is performed and Tx fail alarm
is enabled.
When this alarm is on,
check local ODU in stand by
This functionality is enabled
in LCT General Preset
The alarm remains active
until Reset is given
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
118
Link ID
Alarm is on if Link ID check is enabled (Link ID 0)
and remote Link ID is different from the local one.
Traffic is cut but signal is received and measured.
Output = AIS
This alarm
causes:


AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
119
Alarms grouping : LIM
These alarms come from
External fault: tributary LOS
LIM failure:
-Multiplexer/demultiplexer failure
-Modulator/demodulator failure
Warning: modulator/demodulator
circuitry is spread into LIM and RIM
modules.
RIM or ODU alarms propagation
(seen in LIM as Baseband RX alarm)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
120
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
121
Tributary-1 Signal loss
Loss Of Signal alarm is active when a situation opposite to that
foreseen by configuration is performed on tributary interface:
No input or
or
cable disconnected
Tributary
connected
TRIB. STATUS
Tx
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
122
Multiplexer fail
The alarm is given during multiplexing of input tributaries by
Overflow stuffing memories
Overflow is due to bad clock of one tributary (too fast: >+50ppm)
or hardware failure
In case of Multiplexer Fail the signal forwarded to the radio is
N x AIS (from all the N tributaries)
Tx
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
123
Branch-x Modulator Fail
This alarm is active when at cable interface Tx IF
modulated signal (330 MHz) is missing or is under a
certain value; this is due to:
Modulator faulty
Cable IDU-ODU open (that produces high VSWR
value)
Traffic is cut
Tx
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
124
Branch-x ODU-IDU
Communication fail
This alarm occurs when on carrier used to receive
information from ODU, or remote commands from other side,
are detected:
CRC errors
Loss of frame

This carrier is separated from carrier used for opposite
direction (IDUODU) and from TX or RX carriers
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
125
Branch-x Demodulator Fail
Traffic is cut
This alarm is active when average deviation of symbol
recognition is higher of a certain level.
Every problem in constellation gives Demodulator alarm:
Problem of digital conversion of received signal from RIM
I or Q signal missing
High level of interference (bad quality but good Rx level)
No Rx IF modulated signal (140 MHz) from ODU (no Rx, ODU
faulty, IDU/ODU cable open)
Demodulator alarm causes:
Rx quality alarms (HBER, LBER, EWL)
Rx signal alarms (BaseBand Rx)
Rx
Branch Rx quality alarm
(software settable)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
126
Branch-x BaseBand Rx
This alarm is active when
Bit Extraction does not work (in LIM)
Demodulator does not work (in LIM)
Demodulator does not receive from RIM or ODU
BaseBand Rx causes:
Demultiplexer Fail
Traffic is cut
Rx
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
127
Demultiplexer Fail
The alarm is given during demultiplexing by:
Frame Alignment Word not recognised (LOF - loss of frame)
Overflow destuffing memories
Overflow memories of hitless Rx switch
BaseBand Rx alarm

In case of Demultiplexer Fail, output is AIS (from all the
tributaries)
Rx
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
128
Alarms grouping : NODE
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
129
Node (1 or 2) Signal Loss Alarm
NBUS cable, connecting different Nodal IDU of the same node, is
missing
IF IDU is a no Nodal unit, alarm is disabled
NBUS cable F03471*, despite RJ45 connector, is not an Ethernet
cable
*Siae code
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
130
Node (1 or 2) Signal Lof Alarm
The FAW, Frame Alignement Word in the signal on NBUS
connection, has not been recognized
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
131
Node (1 or 2) MsAIS Alarm
The payload in the frames of the signal in NBUS connection
does not contain the 126 E1 streams but AIS signal: a LOS
or LOF alarm is present in another NBUS connection.
(Not active at the moment)

AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
132
Node (1 or 2) Check Alarm
The Nodal IDUs connected through NBUS cable dont have the
same Identifier. Identifier is not modifieble by the user






Correct node setup
1 2
2
2 2
2 1
1
1 1
2 units node
3 units node
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
133
Alarms grouping : SETS
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
134
BaseBand Sets STM1 (T0) Drift Alarm
Drift: clock frequency is out of range
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
135
BaseBand Sets STM1 (T0) LTI Alarm
LTI: Loss of Timing Input
The input the clock
is extracted from, is
missing
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
136
BaseBand Sets T4 Fail alarm
BaseBand Sets T0 Fail alarm
Sync input: no synchronismous source (in input)
is available or without problem
Sync output: T4 synchronismous generation is
not available
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
137
Alarms grouping : SNTP
(Not active at the moment)
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
138
Alarms grouping : STM1
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
139
What to do with a STM1 line side alarm:
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
140
Alarms grouping : RIM
These alarms come from
External fault: demodulator fail alarm and
ODU alarm are generated when ODU
becomes faulty
RIM failure: PSU alarm with cable
open/short alarm or modulator/demodulator
alarms are active
Warning: modulator/demodulator circuitry is
spread into LIM and RIM modules.
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
141
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
142
Branch-1 Power Supply
This alarm is active when the PSU (Power Supply Unit) of one
RIM is switched off or is in failure condition
If the PSU is off, all the alarms of that RIM are activated:
this alarm causes all
Rx Branch-1 alarms
except those relevant
Radio1 (is OFF)
Analysis order is:



PSU
All alarmed
from now on
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
143
Branch-1 Cable open/short
This alarm is active when the following situations occur:
- Cable open alarm no current through cable interface: ODU is not
supplied so situation looks like PSU alarm (Rx alarms) with cable alarm
instead PSU alarm
- Cable short alarm overcurrent/low voltage through cable interface
Caused by high VSWR
value of damaged cable
Cable open
situation
If both alarms are
active, 48 V source
has no enough current
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
144
Alarms grouping : RT
These alarms come from
External fault: Rx power low alarm is
generated because of bad propagation
or by remote terminal faulty
ODU failure: PSU fail alarm or RF VCO
alarm or RF IF alarm is activated
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
145
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
146
Branch-x IDU-ODU
Communication fail
This alarm occurs in ODU when on carrier used to receive
command from IDU, are detected:
CRC errors
Loss of frame

This carrier is separated from carrier used for opposite
direction (ODUIDU) and from TX or RX carriers
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
147
Branch-1 RT Radio Power Supply
This alarm is active when the Power Supply
section of the radio doesnt work properly or is in
failure condition (voltage in input out of range).
Depending voltage value, radio can work.
When the under/over voltage is too high, radio is
off and other alarms (cable open) cover this.
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
148
Branch 1 RT VCO fail
This alarm occurs when VCO in RF unit is not able
to lock any frequencies.
Every problem in VCO causes alarms in both
directions: RF unit is not able to convert IF Tx in RF
Tx (Tx Power Low alarm) and RF Rx in IF Rx .
In this situation the alarm is active together with Tx
Power Low and all Rx alarms because RF channel
is not locked.


Tx & Rx
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
149
Branch 1 RT If fail
This alarm occurs when is not present IF signal
inside ODU. There are two different IF signals but
one alarm only.
IF Tx: the alarm is on with Tx Power Low
IF Rx: the alarm is on with all Rx alarms

When VCO is faulty, RF unit gives a IF
RX
signal
made up of noise: this is enough to mantain IF fail
alarm off.

AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
150
Branch 1 RT Tx Power Low
This alarm occurs when Tx power is 3 dB under
standard output of ODU-RF unit.
ATPC or manual attenuation do not affect this alarm
that is given by internal failure of the radio.
This alarm can be activated by a manual operation
also: Tx Transmitter off in Radio Branch - Settings
If both Rx Power Low and Tx Power Low are
active, RF unit inside ODU is faulty
Tx
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
151
Branch 1 RT Rx Power Low
This alarm occurs when Rx power is under a
defined threshold
Threshold value can be set for both branches in
range - 40 dBm- 99 dBm in LCT - General preset
The alarm Rx Power Low is a branch alarm and it is
used to drive Rx switch
Rx
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
152
Alarms grouping : UNIT
This group generates alarms when one of the
units, the equipment consists of, is faulty
or does not respond to controller polling:
Unit fail
Unit is not responding
Unit is missing
Unit hardware mismatch
Unit software mismatch
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
153
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
154
OTHER
ALARMS
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
155
Performance alarms
Every performance measure can drive the relevant alarm if threshold
is exceeded.
Threshold in sec. relevant 15 minutes alarm
Threshold in sec. relevant 24 hours alarm
Threshold in dB of Rx alarm
alarm counter reset
15 minutes
alarms severity
If 0, alarm
is disabled
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
156
Performance monitoring
15 min.
alarms
24 hours
alarms
P
RX
< -70 dBm
R = 15 minutes
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
157
Performance monitoring
15 min.
alarms
24 hours
alarms
Unavailable seconds
for 16QAM
Practically seconds
at 4QAM
R = 15 minutes
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
158
Recorder : Prx
date time dBm
LCT
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
159
Measures
Performances is a group of measures, 15 minutes by 15
minutes, day by day, recorded by the equipment itself and
downloaded on the PC.
These measures remain active also with SCT (and PC)
disconnected.
Recorder Prx is the recording of Rx power on a log file
inside the PC: every time a new value is measured a new
record is written inside the log file with info of when (day, hour,
minutes and seconds) and how much (dBm measured).
This recording remains active until SCT is connected to the
equipment.
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
160
M
U
X
-
D
E
M
U
X
RF

E1 LOOP
BASEBAND
LOOP
IDU
LOOP
RF
LOOP
LIM
RIM 1 ODU 1
AL : available loops

datadirection:
- towards theequipment that has enabled theloop (baseband, IDU, RF)
- selectable for E1loop
- only local loops

MOD-DEMOD
LOOPS
M U X - D E M U XRF E1 LOOP BASEBAND LOOP IDU LOOP RF LOOP LIM RIM 1 ODU 1 AL : available loops data direction: - towards the equipment that has enabled the loop (baseband, IDU, RF) - selectable for E1 loop - only local loops MOD- DEMOD
Line side
Radio side
Branch
1
BASEBAND
LOOP
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
161
loop:
external PRBS
E1 loop line side : loop works with line
enabled or not
E1 loop radio side : loop works with line
enabled on local side and on remote side
Base Band, IDU, RF loop : loop works if line
used is enabled local side and on remote
side
Line side Radio side
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
162
loop:
internal PRBS
E1 loop line side : is before PRBS checking point
E1 loop radio side :loop works with line enabled on
remote side, indifferent* on local side.
Base Band, IDU, RF loop : loop works any status of
local* and remote line
__________________________
* PRBS enables automatically the local side of used line
Alarm OFF: signal is back!
AL plus and ALC plus Copyright Siae Microelettronica S.p.a.
163
Loop timeout