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CHAPTER 19

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CHAPTER NINETEEN - ±EBRTHA±HATAR IHABA
PERSONAL INFORMATION - HHHHAR HH+OPMAHHR
In Chapter Nineteen you will learn how to do the following:
1. to talk about ages, weights and heights
2. to talk about people`s appearance
3. to talk about personality types
You will learn the following points of grammar:
1. expressions of approximation
2. the short forms of adjectives
3. nouns in apposition
4. the particle un
Activity One - Hepnoe sa(anne
Writing Look at the following pictures and write down the approximate age of the
people illustrated. Use the model below as a guide.
O·iie ·e1 µnaµna1i (reversed word order)
Olga is about twenty.
O·iie oxo·o µnaµna1n ·e1 (oxo·o ¹ gen)
Honnna Aµxaµnn Ceµe»a ¹nµn× Maxcnx
He1µonnn Hnanonna
Activity Two - B1opoe sa(anne
Reading Read the following dialogue in pairs and indicate with a tick in the table
after the dialogue the age of each person mentioned in the conversation. The first one is done
for you. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the next page to help you.
A - Kax 1i µyxaemi, cxo·ixo ·e1 Maµnn He1µonne'
I - × µyxan, n1o en ioµa 1µnµna1i 1µn.
A - × 1o»e 1ax µyxa·a, no neµanno × y:na·a, n1o en y»e :a coµox. Le ciny Came y»e
oxo·o n×1naµna1n ·e1.
I - Hey»e·n' Ona 1ax xoµomo nii·×µn1.
A - ,a, ona nii·×µn1 xo·o»e cnonx ·e1, a no1 ee cec1µa Cne1·ana nii·×µn1 c1aµme
cnoeiono:µac1a. Cxo·ixo ·e1 1i en µami'
I - × 6i µa·a en ·e1 µnaµna1i mec1i, no µa: 1i ionoµnmi, n1o ona nii·×µn1 c1aµme
cnonx ·e1, 1o, xo»e1 6i1i, en oxo·o µnaµna1n ne1iµex ·e1.
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A - He1, en 1o·ixo µnaµna1i ·e1.
I - A 1i :naemi, cxo·ixo ·e1 nx o1ny, Bnx1oµy Hnanonnny'
A - × 6i µa·a exy ·e1 mec1iµec×1 n×1i, no, ionoµ×1, n1o exy y»e cexiµec×1 c nex-1o.
I - ,a, exy neµanno ncno·nn·oci cexiµec×1 cexi ·e1. On nµexµacno nii·×µn1 µ·×
cnoeiono:µac1a.
name about 15 about 77 about over 40 about 24 20 about 65 over 70
26 33
Maria
Petrovna
Sasha
Svetlana
Victor
Ivanovich
Activity Three - Tpe1te sa(anne
Speaking Pairwork. Discuss with your partner the age of each person illustrated in
Activity One, using the dialogue from Activity Two as a guide. Reverse roles after each
picture.
Activity Four - He1nëp1oe sa(anne
Listening Listen to the recording in which six people describe their relatives. Eill in
the table below with the appropriate information. Some of the answers are given for you.
Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
¬nµn no:µac1 µoc1 ne c i¬a:a no¬oci
xy» Maµnni io·y6ie
cin O·iin 4.5 xn·o µycie
»ena Hnana :e·enie
o1en Tann 60 ceµie
xa1i Tann
µeµymxa Cne1i ·ncin
6a6ymxa Ioµn
y:nana1i (y:nan, to recognize no·oci hair nicoxnn tall, high
y:naemi) / y:na1i (I) xyµomanin / xyµon thin, lean xa6·yx heel
:a coµox over 40 6µnne1(xa) dark-haired person c 1µyµox with difficulty
nii·×µe1i (imp) (ni- to look xyµnocin snub-nosed (no-)c1aµe1i to grow old
i·×»y, nii·×µnmi) xaµax1eµ personality (c1aµen, -emi)
xo·o»e cnonx ·e1 younger than necn1i (II) (imp) to weigh ceµon grey (hair)
one´s years ... c no·onnnon ... and a half no·nin stout
no:µac1 age xaµnn brown (eyes) ·icin bald
× 6i µa·(a) (¹ dat) I would put ... at x×ixnn soft ioµ6n1ic× (II) to stoop
cexiµec×1 c nex-1o over 70 µycin light-brown (hair) no-nµe»nexy as before
exy ncno·nn·oci ... he`s just turned ... na cne1e in the world (no-)no·ne1i to grow stout
µ·× cnoeio no:µac1a for one´s age c1µonnin well-proportioned (no·nen, -emi)
µoc1 height cµeµneio no:µac1a (of) average height ceµin grey (eyes)
nec weight nµn6·n:n1e·ino approximately 1exnin dark
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Activity Five - Hn1oe sa(anne
Writing/Listening Look at the chart below and complete it by converting the
information into the metric system, using the table after the chart to help you. Then write the
information for each person in Russian. The first one is done for you. Einally, listen to the tape
to check your answers.
name height weight µoc1 nec
John 6 ft 3 ins 14 st 2 lbs ... x ... cx ... xi
Mary 5 ft 5 ins 9 st ... x ... cx ... xi
Mike 5 ft 8 ins 10 st 5 lbs ... x ... cx ... xi
Helen 5 ft 7 ins 9 st 7 lbs ... x ... cx ... xi
Karen 5 ft 4 ins 8 st 7 lbs ... x ... cx ... xi
Anna 4 ft11 ins 6 st 10 lbs ... x ... cx ... xi
Robert 5 ft 10 ins 12 st 7 lbs ... x ... cx ... xi
1 in ÷ 2.5 cm
12 ins ÷ 1 ft (30 cm)
1 lb ÷ 450 gm
2.2 lbs ÷ 1 kg
1 st ÷ 14 lbs (6.4 kg)
1. Poc1 ,»ona nµn6·n:n1e·ino 1 xe1µ 88 can1nxe1µon, on necn1 90
xn·oiµaxxon.
2. Poc1 Meµn ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
3. Poc1 Manxa ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
4. Poc1 Xe·en ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
5. Poc1 Anni ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
6. Poc1 Po6eµ1a ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
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Activity Six - mec1oe sa(anne
Reading/Speaking Read the Body Statistics Report completed for Anna at the Sports
Centre. Answer the questions after the report in Russian, using the vocabulary at the foot of
the following page to help you.
Bodystat
HPAB,A O COCTABL BABLIO TL¹A
OT¹LT
Hun: Anna Ieµnnxona
Cnop1nen1p: «Ioµµoc1i», Mocxna
Bospac1: 25 Poc1: 1x 75cx ±a1a: 12.10.02
Pesyut1a1m:
±annme 1ec1a Pexouen(yeume (annme
»nµ = 17.5% 21 - 27%
nec »nµa = 10.5 xi 14 - 18 xi
nec xoc1en n ximn = 49.5 xi 47 - 51 xi
o6mnn nec 1e·a = 60 xi 63 - 68 xi
noµa = 59.5% 50 - 60%
o6rex noµi n 1e·e = 35.7 · (÷·n1µon) 30 - 36 ·
yµoneni ]n:nnecxon ax1nnnoc1n: nnsknn, nn:xnn/cµeµnnn,
cµeµnnn, cpe(nnn/nmcoxnn,
ouent ntcoknn
Koxxen1aµnn xoncy·i1an1a: ni naxoµn1eci n xoµomen ]n:nnecxon ]oµxe, no nam nec
nexnoio nn»e noµxi, nax 6o·ime ne c·eµye1 1eµ×1i nec, noµµeµ»nnan1e eio na i1ox
yµonne n·n nonµani1eci na 3 xi.
1. Iµe n xoiµa nµoxoµn·a 1ec1 Anna Ieµnnxona'
2. Cxo·ixo en ·e1'
3. Kaxon y nee µoc1'
4. Cxo·ixo ona necn1'
5. Cxo·ixo nec×1 ee xoc1n n ximni'
6. Cxo·ixo nµonen1on o1 ee o6meio neca coc1an·×e1 »nµ'
7. Coo1ne1c1nye1 ·n i1o noµxe'
8. Mnoio ·n ona :annxae1c× cnoµ1ox'
9. ¹1o en ne c·eµye1 6o·ime µe·a1i'
10. Kaxne µna cone1a µae1 en xoncy·i1an1'
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Activity Seven - Ce(tuoe sa(anne
Listening Look at the picture and then listen to the tape. You are going to hear one
of the people in the picture speaking. Try to identify who is speaking after the first listening.
Listen again and identify the other people, filling in the appropriate information in English in
the table below the picture.
name age height eyes hair looks like
mother/father
Inna
Andrei
Katya
Nikita
coc1an composition (¹ dat) ne c·eµye1 one ought not (to)
1e·o body (no-)1eµ×1i (I) to lose
o1ne1 report noµµeµ»nna1i (I) / noµµeµ»a1i (II) to maintain
6oµµoc1i (f) good spirits nonµan·×1ic× (I) / nonµann1ic× (II) to put on weight
µannie data coornercrnonart (III) (imp) (¹ dat) to correspond (to)
µexoxenµyexin recommended nµoxoµn1i (II) (imp) to take place
»nµ fat coc1an·×1i (I) / coc1ann1i (II) to comprise
xoc1i (f) bone no·nie iy6i full lips
ximna muscle y:xne iy6i thin lips
o6mnn general ôµoni (f) / 6µonn eyebrow(s)
o6rex volume µecnnna / µecnnni eyelash(es)
yµoneni (m) level ynac·eµona1i (III) (pf) to inherit
nn:xnn low, short naµeni (m) boy(friend)
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Activity Eight - Boctuoe sa(anne
Speaking/Listening/Writing Answer the questions in Russian using the information
from the table in Activity Seven. Then listen to the tape again and complete the sentences
which follow the questions. You should provide two pieces of information missing from the
table about each person in the picture.
1. Cxo·ixo ·e1 Hnne n Anµµen'
2. Cxo·ixo ·e1 nx cec1µe Ka1e'
3. Kaxoio onn µoc1a'
4. Kaxoio nne1a i·a:a Hnxn1i'
5. Kaxoio on µoc1a'
6. Ha xoio on noxo»'
7. Ha xoio noxo»a Ka1×'
8. Kaxne neµ1i ona ynac·eµona·a o1 µoµn1e·en'
9. Kaxne no·oci y Hnni'
10. Ha xoio ona noxo»a'
11. Cxo·ixo ·e1 Hnxn1e'
12. ¹1o on ·n6n1 nocn1i'
Missing Information
1. V Hnni a) ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
b) ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
2. V Anµµe× a) ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
b) ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
3. V Ka1n a) ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
b) ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
4. V Hnxn1i a) ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
b) ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
Activity Nine - ,enn1oe sa(anne
Reading Read the following story and answer the questions in Russian.
,eµ, 6a6a n A¬ema (I. Kona¬i)
Cnoµ×1 µeµ µa* 6a6a, na xoio noxo» nx nnyx. Ia6a ionoµn1:
- A·ema na xen× noxo». Taxon »e yxnin n 1µyµo·n6nnin.
A·ema ionoµn1:
- Beµno, neµno, × neci n 6a6y.
,eµ ionoµn1:
- A no-xoexy, A·ema na xen× noxo». V neio 1axne »e i·a:a - xµacnnie, io·y6ie.
H 6oµoµa 6o·ima× niµac1e1, xoiµa A·ema n cax niµac1e1.
A·eme :axo1e·oci, n1o6i y neio niµoc·a 1axa× »e 6oµoµa, n on ionoµn1:
* µa= n
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- Beµno, neµno, × 6o·ime na µeµa noxo».
Ia6a ionoµn1:
- Kaxa× 6oµoµa niµac1e1, eme nen:nec1no. Ho A·ema na xen× noxo». On 1ax »e,
xax n ×, ·n6n1 nan c xeµox. A no1 n nan io1on. Cennac nocxo1µnx, na xoio 6o·ime
noxo» A·ema.
A·ema noµyxa· nexnoio n ionoµn1:
- Beµno, neµno, × neci n 6a6y.
A µeµ ionoµn1:
- ¹an c xeµox - +1o eme ne nce. Bo1 A·ema ·n6n1, xax ×, no ·ecy iy·×1i.
A·ema noµyxa·-noµyxa· n ionoµn1:
- Bo1 yµnnn1e·ino! × no·µn× na 6a6y noxo», a no·µn× - na 1e6×. Bo1 cennac nan
nonin n cµa:y »e na 1e6× noxo» 6yµy.
1. Honexy xa·innx xone1 6i1i noxo»nx 1o na 6a6ymxy, 1o na µeµymxy'
2. ¹1o µaccxa:a· o ce6e µeµymxa'
3. ¹1o µaccxa:a·a o ce6e 6a6ymxa'
4. Kaxne neµ1i A·ema ynac·eµona· o1 µeµymxn'
5. Kaxne neµ1i A·ema ynac·eµona· o1 6a6ymxn'
Activity Ten - ±ecn1oe sa(anne
Speaking Pairwork. Ask your partner about any resemblances in his/her family, then
swap roles. Use the questions in the box below as a guide.
Note: Russians often ask from whom various physical and mental characteristics might have been
inherited. The following are some of the most common questions:
Ha xoio 1i noxo»(a)' - Who do you take after?
Ha xoio noxo»a 1no× cec1µa, - Does your sister take after your mother or
na xaxy n·n na nany' your father?
V 1e6× i·a:a xax y xaxi n·n xax y nani' - Do you have your mother`s or father`s eyes?
A na xoio noxo» 1non o1en, na µeµymxy - Does your father take after your grandfather
n·n na 6a6ymxy' or grandmother?
B xoio y 1e6× 1axon nicoxnn µoc1' - Erom whom do your get your height?
Ha xoio 1i noxo»(a) xaµax1eµox' - Erom whom does your personality come?
B xoio 1i 1axon xy:ixa·inin' - Erom whom do you get your musical ability?
Ti concex ne noxo»(a) na cnonx - You don`t look like your parents at all; do
µoµn1e·en, 1i, naneµnoe n µeµymxy you take after your grandparents?
c 6a6ymxon'
yxnin clever, bright (¹ dat) :axo1e·oci ... wanted
1µyµo·n6nnin hard-working nen:nec1no it is uncertain
neµno that`s right on 1ax »e, xax n ×, ... he, like me, ...
× neci n 6a6y I am like my granny (on) noµyxa·(-noµyxa·) (he) thought a little
6oµoµa beard yµnnn1e·ino it is amazing
(ni-)µac1n (µac1y, µac1emi) to grow (up) neµ1a feature
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Activity Eleven - O(nnna(na1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing You are going on a business trip to Russia. Write to a person you
don`t know, asking him/her to meet you at the airport. Give a description of yourself in the
letter. Read the letter below as a guide.
I-ny Hnanony ¹onµon
Mocxna 30 xaµ1a 2003 i.
Caµonoe xo·ino, 12
Vna»aexin iocnoµnn Hnanon!
Coo6man Bax, n1o × nµn6inan n Mocxny 5-io anµe·×. Mon caxo·e1 nµn·e1ae1 n
a+µonoµ1 Beµexe1ieno - 2 µencox SU524 n 12.05. Hocxo·ixy +1o xon neµnin nn:n1
n Mocxny, × 6i·a 6i oneni nµn:na1e·ina, ec·n 6i Bi cxoi·n xen× nc1µe1n1i.
K co»a·ennn, y xen× ne1 noµxoµ×men ]o1oiµa]nn, no Bi cxo»e1e y:na1i xen×
no c·eµynmexy onncannn: xne 29 ·e1, × cµeµneio µoc1a, y xen× xoµo1xne 1exnie
no·oci n io·y6ie i·a:a. × 6yµy oµe1a n neµnin xoc1nx c io·y6on 6·y:xon n
ceµin n·am.
3aµanee Bax 6·aioµaµna, µo cxoµon nc1µenn.
C yna»ennex,
Meµn Cxn1
Activity Twelve - ,nenaµna1oe :aµanne
Speaking/Reading Pairwork. Look at your partner and ask him or her questions
about your appearance. Then reverse the roles. Use the following dialogue as a guide.
A - Kax 1i µyxaemi, cxo·ixo xne ·e1'
I - Ho-xoexy, 1e6e ·e1 20.
A - ,a, xne 20 ·e1, a xaxon y xen× µoc1'
I - Ti µono·ino nicoxoio µoc1a.
A - Kaxoio nne1a xon i·a:a'
I - V 1e6× ceµie i·a:a.
A - A xaxne y xen× no·oci'
I - Ti 6·onµnnxa c µ·nnnixn nµ×xixn no·ocaxn.
A - Bo n1o × oµe1a'
I - Ti oµe1a n io·y6ie µ»nnci n ceµin cnn1eµ.
A - A no n1o × o6y1a'
I - Ti o6y1a n neµnie 1y]·n.
yna»aexin dear c·eµynmnn following
coo6ma1i (I) / coo6mn1i (II) to inform onncanne description
nµn6ina1i (I) (imp) n (¹ acc) to arrive (in) × 6yµy oµe1(a) n (¹ acc) I will be wearing
nocxo·ixy as 6·y:xa blouse
nn:n1 visit n·am raincoat
× 6i·a 6i nµn:na1e·ina, I would be grateful :aµanee nax 6·aioµaµna thank you in advance
ec·n 6i ni cxoi·n if you could µo cxoµon nc1µenn see you soon
noµxoµ×mnn suitable × o6y1(a) n (¹ acc) I am wearing (on my feet)
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Activity Thirteen - Tpnna(na1oe sa(anne
Speaking Pairwork. Look at the pictures. The four people are: a singer, a painter,
an actress and a politician. Discuss who is who. Use the dialogues below as a guide.
I. A - × µyxan, n1o ne·onex na neµnon xaµ1nnxe - no·n1nx.
I - × c 1o6on ne coi·acen/ne coi·acna. On 6o·ime noxo» na xyµo»nnxa.
II. A - Mne xa»e1c×, n1o »enmnna na n1oµon xaµ1nnxe - ax1µnca.
I - × 1o»e 1ax µyxan, ona nii·×µn1 xax ax1µnca.
Activity Fourteen - He1mpna(na1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing/Listening Read the description of two sisters` personalities and fill
in the gaps using the appropriate words from the box below. Listen to the tape to check your
answers. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
neµc1nin cnoxonnin :axxny1in +neµinnnin o1xµi1in o1:innnnin ceµie:nin
(hard) (calm) (reserved) (energetic) (open) (ready to help) (serious)
Hamn xapax1epm
Mi c cec1µon oneni noxo»n nnemne, no y nac coneµmenno µa:nie xaµax1eµi.
× oneni ______________ ne·onex, xo»no µa»e cxa:a1i ]·eixa1nnnin, a cec1µa
- ______________ ne·onex, ona nceiµa n1o-1o µe·ae1, ne nocnµn1 cnoxonno nn
xnny1i. × oneni ______________ ne·onex, ne ·n6·n noxa:ina1i cnon nync1na
µµyinx, a y cec1µi ______________ xaµax1eµ, xax ionoµn1c×, n1o n µyme, 1o n
na ·nne. Ona oneni ______________ ne·onex, nceiµa ncex noxoiae1, × »e ne
·n6·n nxemnna1ic× n ny»ne µe·a, naneµnoe, no+1oxy xen× cnn1an1
______________ ne·onexox. Ho n oµnox xi c cec1µon oneni noxo»n: xi
______________ n o1ne1c1nennie ·nµn, nceiµa µonoµnx nana1oe µe·o µo xonna.
xi nnemne noxo»n we look alike n1o n µyme, 1o n what one feels inside is also
coneµmenno completely na ·nne (written) on one´s face
µa:nin different nxemnna1ic× (I) / to interfere in
]·eixa1nnnin phlegmatic nxema1ic× (I) n (¹ acc)
nocnµe1i (pf) (nocn»y, to sit (for a while) ny»ne µe·a other people`s business
nocnµnmi) o1ne1c1nennin responsible
nn xnny1i not for a minute µonoµn1i (II) / µonec1n to complete something that
xax ionoµn1c× as the saying goes (µoneµy, µoneµemi) has been started, see some-
nync1no feeling nana1oe µe·o µo xonna thing through to the end
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Activity Fifteen - Hn1na(na1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing/Listening Look at the adjectives in the box below. Do you know
with which sign of the zodiac any of them are associated? Write them in the table as
illustrated in the example. Then listen to the tape to check your answers and complete the
table.* Add to the table any other adjectives which are associated with the signs but not
included in the box. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
* Some of the adjectives on the tape are used in the short form; e.g. ncni·innn (hot-tempered). To produce
the masculine short form, simply remove the masculine ending from the long form. To produce the feminine,
neuter and plural short forms, remove the final vowel from the ending.
Gender Long form Short form
Masculine ncni·innn - in ncni·innn
Feminine ncni·innn - a× ncni·innn - a
Neuter ncni·innn - oe ncni·innn - o
Plural ncni·innn - ie ncni·innn - i
3nax 3oµnaxa ¹eµ1i xaµax1eµa
Onen (21 xaµ1a - 20 anµe·×) ncni·innnin,
Te¬en (21 anµe·× - 21 xa×)
I¬n:neni (22 xa× - 21 nnn×)
Pax (22 nnn× - 22 nn·×)
¹en (23 nn·× - 23 aniyc1a)
,ena (24 aniyc1a - 23 cen1×6µ×)
Beci (24 cen1×6µ× - 3 ox1×6µ×)
Cxoµnnon (24 ox1×6µ× - 22 no×6µ×)
C1µe¬en (23 no×6µ× - 21 µexa6µ×)
Ko:eµoi (22 µexa6µ× - 20 ×nnaµ×)
Boµo¬en (21 ×nnaµ× - 19 ]enµa·×)
Pi6i (20 ]enµa·× - 20 xaµ1a)
Onen Aries ne:anncnxin independent
Te·en Taurus naxoµnnnin resourceful
I·n:neni Gemini o6mn1e·inin sociable
Pax Cancer neycnµnnnin restless
¹en Leo µoxonn1in thrifty
,ena Virgo yna»n1e·inin respectful
Beci Libra n:icxa1e·inin perfectionist
Cxoµnnon Scorpio xy:ixa·inin musical
C1µe·en Sagittarius aµ1nc1nnnin artistic
Ko:eµoi Capricorn no·enon strong-willed
Boµo·en Aquarius :nanmnn learned
Pi6i Pisces 6ecnoxonnin turbulent
1nnnnnin typical oµiann:onannin (well) organized
ne1eµne·nnin impatient ncc·eµona1e·icxa× µa6o1a research work
nync1nn1e·inin sensitive ·n6×mnn loving
cx·onnin x (¹ dat) inclined to
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·n6o:na1e·inin (curious), 1µyµo·n6nnin (hardworking), ncni·innnin (fiery), c1µac1nin
(passionate), nec1o·n6nnin (ambitious), 1eµnnxin (tolerant), ne·eyc1µex·ennin (purposeful),
:a6o1·nnin (caring), µnn·oxa1nnnin (diplomatic), yneµennin (confident), yµannonemennin
(well balanced), nµonnna1e·inin (perceptive), ne1eµne·nnin (impatient)
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Activity Sixteen - mec1na(na1oe sa(anne
Speaking Work in small groups. Eind out your partners` star signs and whether
their personalities conform to their star signs. Use the following model as a guide.
- Koiµa 1i µoµn·c×/µoµn·aci'
- × µoµn·c×/µoµn·aci µnaµna1i n×1oio nnn×.
- 3nann1 1non :nax 3oµnaxa - Pax'
- ,a, Pax.
- Kax 1i µyxaemi, 1non xaµax1eµ 1nnnnen µ·× Paxon'
- H µa, n ne1. Hanµnxeµ, × cnn1an, n1o × :a6o1·nnin n nync1nn1e·inin ne·onex.
(31n neµ1i xaµax1eµni µ·× xoeio :naxa, no × ne oneni µe·onn1(a).)
- A xaxne neµ1i cnoeio xaµax1eµa 1i cnn1aemi ne1nnnnnixn µ·× 1noeio :naxa
3oµnaxa'
- × oneni neycnµnnn(a), a +1a neµ1a µo·»na 6i1i 1nnnnna µ·× I·n:nenon, a ne µ·×
Paxon.
Activity Seventeen - Ceuna(na1oee sa(anne
Reading Read the text below and fill in the quiz (nonµocnnx) on the next page.
Use the vocabulary list following Activity Eighteen.
E(nnc1nennmn npannutnmn snax 3o(naxa
Hoxo»e, n1o namn ac1µo·oinnecxne :naxn n:xenn·nci. Hn oµnn conµexennin Cxoµnnon
n·n ¹en ne µoµn·c× 1oiµa, xoiµa co·nne naxoµn·oci n :one :naxa Cxoµnnona n·n ¹ina.
Kax y1neµ»µan1 ac1µonoxi, µe·o n 1ox, n1o co·nne n namn µnn y»acno ona:µinae1, a
+1o :nann1, n1o xi µoµn·nci noµ µµyinx :naxox. Onn µa»e niµe·×n1 nonin :nax,
O]nnxyc (Hecymnn :xn×)*, xo1oµin ×n·×e1c× :naxox 1noµnec1na n nn1eµeca x µyxonnon
»n:nn. Oµnaxo, nonie :ne:µi ne :axen×n1 co6on c1aµie. Hamn nonie :naxn ·nmi
yxa:inan1 na caxie 1noµnecxne neµ1i nameio xaµax1eµa n o1nenan1 ne na nonµoc
«K1o ×'», a na nonµoc «K nexy × c1µex·nci'». Ho µannon nn»e 1a6·nne ni cxo»e1e
nan1n cnon nonin :nax 3oµnaxa. A nonµocnnx noxo»e1 nax onµeµe·n1i, nacxo·ixo
cn·ino n·n×nne nameio nonoio :naxa.
* Commas are used to mark off words and phrases which stand in apposition to the noun which is the subject or object
of the sentence; e.g. Onn µa»e niµe·×n1 nonin :nax, Cqnak¸. {1..¸nnn ·:nx). Here the noun O]nnxyc
is in apposition to :nax and adds further information about it. Eor more details see the Grammar section.
3nax 3oµnaxa ,eni µo»µenn×
Onen 19 anµe·× - 13 xa×
Te·en 14 xa× - 22 nnn×
I·n:neni 23 nnn× - 21 nn·×
Pax 22 nn·× - 10 aniyc1a
¹en 11 aniyc1a - 16 cen1×6µ×
,ena 17 cen1×6µ× - 31 ox1×6µ×
Beci 1 no×6µ× - 23 no×6µ×
Cxoµnnon 24 no×6µ× - 29 no×6µ×
O]nnxyc 30 no×6µ× - 17 µexa6µ×
C1µe·en 18 µexa6µ× - 19 ×nnaµ×
Ko:eµoi 20 ×nnaµ× - 17 ]enµa·×
Boµo·en 18 ]enµa·× - 12 xaµ1a
Pi6i 13 xaµ1a - 18 anµe·×
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Bonµocnnx - B¬n×e1 ¬n na Bac nonin :nax '
¹1o ni cxo1µn1e no TB' ¹1o ni cnn1ae1e nan6o¬ee
:axna1inanmnx :an×1nex'
A Mi·inie oneµi A Hµi»xn n noµy c 6o·imon nico1i
I dn·ixi o nµnµoµe I Hone·yn ·n6nxoio ne·onexa
B ,ncxyccnn B Vnac1ne n an1oionxe
I ¹a1-moy I Iµocanne noxnµoµon n no·n1nxon
, Ia·e1 , Vnac1ne n µexonc1µannn
Kaxon nam nµea¬inin µox' Kaxona nama :ane1na× ne¬i'
A H·anynnn µox n·n an1onµnnen A Bec1n nn1eµecnin o6µa: »n:nn
I Knaµ1nµa n nen1µe ioµoµa I Hxe1i ycnemnyn xaµieµy
B Xn·xoxynna c µµy:i×xn B 3annxa1ic× nex-1o no·e:nix
I C1aµin µoxnx n 1nxon µeµenne I Bce nµex× ynn1ic× nexy-1o nonoxy
, ,ox neo6innon aµxn1ex1yµi , Hxe1i 6o·imyn n·ac1i
Kaxyn n: c¬eµynmnx nµo]ecnnn ni O1 neio n »n:nn ni 6i xoi¬n nµn
6i ni6µa¬n' neo6xoµnxoc1n o1xa:a1ic×'
A In:nec xeneµ»eµ A ,µy:i×
I Meµcec1µa/xeµ6µa1 I Pa6o1a
B ¹n1eµa1yµnin xµn1nx B My:ixa
I ,nµex1oµ xaµ1nnnon ia·eµen I Pe·nin×
, Cxy·in1oµ , Texnnnecxne cµeµc1na
Kaxoe xanec1no nan6o¬ee na»no µ¬× ¹1o 6i µacceµµn¬o nac 6o¬ime
nac' nceio n naµ1neµe'
A O6a×nne A Henino·nennoe o6emanne µµyia
I Hoµµeµ»xa I Vno·inenne c µa6o1i
B Cnµaneµ·nnoc1i B Henino·nennie o6emann× no·n1nxon
I Hn1e··ex1ya·inie cnoco6noc1n I Io·e:ni µµyia
, Hµnn·exa1e·ina× nnemnoc1i , K1o-1o, nn1anmnn namn nncixa
6e: cnµoca
Hoµcne1 onxon (Total points) - B¬n×nne O]nnxyca na nac (The influence of Ophiucus on you)
1. A=2 I=1 B=0 I=1 ,=1 2. A=1 I=2 B=1 I=0 ,=1 3. A=2 I=0 B=0 I=2 ,=1
4. A=0 I=2 B=2 I=1 ,=1 5. A=0 I=1 B=1 I=2 ,=1 6. A=2 I=0 B=1 I=0 ,=1
7. A=0 I=2 B=1 I=2 ,=1 8. A=1 I=0 B=2 I=2 ,=1
1..n sz nu0¡u.n u: ú ,u ú u4kus.
Bi nµnnaµ·e»n1e x c1aµon cnc1exe 3oµnaxa. Bi ne ·n6n1e µncxona1i n nµeµnonn1ae1e nµ1n no
»n:nn :naxoxon µoµoion. Honin :nax ne oxa:inae1 na nac cymec1nennoio n·n×nn×.
1..n sz nu0¡u.n u: ? ,u TT u4kus.
Bi naxoµn1eci na neµexµec1xe c1aµoio n nonoio. Honin :nax oxa:inae1 na nac cµannn1e·ino
cn·inoe n·n×nne, n µe:y·i1a1e neio ni c1aµae1eci nµnxnµn1i µa:nie neµ1i cnoeio xaµax1eµa.
1..n sz nu0¡u.n u: T2 ,u Tú u4kus.
Honin :nax oxa:inae1 na nac oneni cn·inoe n·n×nne. Mnoine neµ1i nameio c1aµoio :naxa
1eneµi yµnn·×n1 nac. Bi c1µexn1eci x nonix no:xo»noc1×x n x nonoxy 6yµymexy, nnoiµa µncxy×
cnoen 6e:onacnoc1in.
:ku.zku ¸ su. u:s.:us ,"
Bicoxoe nnc·o o1ne1on , yxa:ine1 na cn·inoe n·n×nne O]nnxyca. ¹ex nn»e +1o nnc·o, 1ex
xenime eio n·n×nne.
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Activity Eighteen - Boceuna(na1oe sa(anne
Speaking/Writing Groupwork. Interview people in your group and fill in the table
below as in the example.
Hx×/µeni C1aµin :nax/neµ1i Honin :nax/neµ1i
µo»µenn× xaµax1eµa xaµax1eµa
Anna/12 xa× Te·en - Onen - ncni·innnin,
ne·eyc1µex·ennin, ne1eµne·nnin,
naxoµnnnin, ne:anncnxin
nµonnna1e·inin
µe·onn1in efficient none·yn kiss
neycnµnnnin not persevering an1oionxa car race
noxo»e, n1o it seems that 6µocanne throwing
xax y1neµ»µan1 as the astronomers :ane1na× ne·i (f) outstanding ambition
ac1µonoxi claim n·ac1i (f) power
niµe·×1i (I) / niµe·n1i (II) to assign nµn neo6xoµnxoc1n in case of necessity
necymnn :xn× serpent -bearer oxa:ina1ic× (I) / to turn out to be
(Biblical) oxa:a1ic× (oxa»yci,
1noµnec1no creativity oxa»emic×)
µyxonna× »n:ni spiritual life 1exnnnecxne cµeµc1na technology
:ne:µa / :ne:µi star(s) nenino·nennin unfulfilled
:axen×1i (I) / :axenn1i (II) to replace o6emanne promise
(co6on) (oneself) yno·inenne c µa6o1i dismissal from work,
yxa:ina1i (I) / yxa:a1i to indicate redundancy
(yxa»y, yxa»emi) 6e: cnµoca without permission
c1µexn1ic× (imp) (c1µex·nci / to strive for, na6nµa1i (I) / na6µa1i to pick up points
c1µexnmic×) x (¹ dat) aim for (na6eµy, na6eµemi) onxn
no µannon nn»e 1a6·nne according to the nµnnaµ·e»a1i (nµnnaµ·e»y, to belong to
table below nµnnaµ·e»nmi) (imp only)
onµeµe·×1i (I) / onµeµe·n1i to determine x (¹ dat)
(II) oxa:ina1i (I) oxa:a1i to exert an influence on
nacxo·ixo cn·ino how strong (oxa»y, oxa»emi) n·n×nne
n·anynnn µox houseboat na (¹ acc)
(»n·on) an1onµnnen caravan µncxona1i (III) (imp) (¹ instr) to risk (s.th.)
»n·xoxxyna commune cymec1nennin vital, important
ni6nµa1i (I) / ni6µa1i to choose neµexµec1ox crossroads
(ni6eµy, ni6eµemi) cµannn1e·ino comparatively
o6a×nne charm (no-)c1aµa1ic× (I) to try
noµµeµ»xa support(iveness) nµnxnµ×1i (I) / to reconcile
cnµaneµ·nnoc1i (f) fairness nµnxnµn1i (II)
nn1e··ex1ya·inin intellectual yµnn·×1i (I) / yµnnn1i to surprise
cnoco6noc1n abilities (yµnn·n, yµnnnmi)
nµnn·exa1e·inin attractive 6e:onacnoc1i (f) safety
nnemnoc1i (f) appearance nex nn»e ..., 1ex the lower ., the
:axna1inanmnn exciting xenime ... less .
c 6o·imon nico1i from a great height
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Activity Nineteen - ±enn1na(na1oe sa(anne
Speaking Pairwork. Eind out your partner `s opinion of the results of the analysis
of his/her personality from the interview in Activity Eighteen, using the model below.
- Anna, 1i coi·acna co cnoen xaµax1eµnc1nxon no nonoxy :naxy'
- H µa, n ne1. × cnn1an, n1o 1o·ixo oµna neµ1a xaµax1eµa no nonoxy :naxy
1nnnnna µ·× xen×.
- H xaxa× i1o neµ1a'
- Ho-xoexy, × oneni ne:anncnxa, no, xne xa»e1c×, n1o × 1eµne·nna n cnoxonna.
- A n1o 1i µyxaemi o cnoen xaµax1eµnc1nxe no c1aµoxy :naxy'
- × no·noc1in c nen coi·acna.
GRAMMAR
THE SHORT FORM OF AD1ECTIVES
Most qualitative adjectives have long and short forms. However, relative adjectives which denote
inherent characteristics have long forms only; e.g. µeµen×nnin (denotes material), neµe·inin
(denotes time), :aµy6e»nin (denotes place) etc. The masculine short form is produced by
removing the whole of the masculine ending from the long form. The feminine, neuter and plural
short forms are produced by removing the final vowel of the endings:
Gender Long form Short form
Masculine cnoxonn - in cnoxoen*
Feminine cnoxonn - a× cnoxonn - a
Neuture cnoxonn - oe cnoxonn - o
Plural cnoxonn - ie cnoxonn - i
* The fill vowels -e- or -o- may occasionally appear in the stem of a masculine short-form adjective. Their
function is to break up the consonant cluster left after the removal of the full-form masculine ending; e.g.
6o¬in - on (6o·en), nn1eµecn - mn (nn1eµecen), xoµo1x - nn (xoµo1ox). The fill vowel -e- usually
replaces a soft sign or n, whereas the fill vowel -o- splits the consonant clusters ending in r, x.
There are a small number of adjectives with the fill vowel e:
oc1µin sharp oc1eµ (oc1µa, oc1µo, oc1µi)
cn·inin strong cn·en (cn·ina, cn·ino, cn·ini)
yxnin clever yxen (yxna, yxno, yxni)
xn1µin cunning xn1eµ (xn1µa, xn1µo, xn1µi)
Some adjectives with a consonant cluster do not have a fill vowel in the masculine short form:
6oµµin cheerful 6oµµ
µo6µin kind µo6µ
ioµµin proud ioµµ
xeµ1nin dead xeµ1n
nec1µin multi-coloured nec1µ
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Special short forms
1. In the following adjectives the stem of the short form is completely different from that of
the full form:
6o·imon big ne¬nx, ne¬nxa, ne¬nxo, ne¬nxn`
xa·enixnn small xa¬, xa¬a, xa¬o, xa¬i`
* The adjectives ne·nxnn / 6o·imon and xa·enixnn / xa·in are not distinguished in the short forms.
2. In the following adjectives the stem of the masculine short form is slightly different from
that of the full form:
µoc1onnin worthy µoc1onn, µoc1onna, µoc1onno, µoc1onni
ncxµennin sincere ncxµenen, ncxµenna, ncxµenno, ncxµenni
3. Paµ (-a, -o, -i) (glad), coi¬acen, coi¬acna, (-o, -i) (agreeable), µo¬»en,
µo¬»na, (-o, -i) (obliged) have no long form.
4. Kaxon (-a, -o, -i) is used in the meaning what kind of / what`  and 1axon (-a, -o, -i)
in the meaning such`. However, xax and 1ax are used to modify short adjectives:
xaxono 1noe xnenne no i1oxy nonµocy' what is your opinion on this issue?
1axono name xnenne such is our opinion
xax nµexµacen i1o1 xnµ! how wonderful this world is!
on 1ax yxen he is so clever
USE OF THE SHORT FORM OF AD1ECTIVES
Attributive use of the short-form adjective is considered archaic. It occurs in folk songs, poetry,
epics etc. (e.g. ne nc1µenae1 eio xo¬oµa »ena - his young wife does not meet him; xµacno
co·nimxo - beautiful sun). It is also used in certain set expressions, some of which are found
in colloquial Russian:
na 6ocy noiy on one`s bare feet
o1 xa¬a µo ne¬nxa great and small
no 6e¬y cne1y into the wide world
1. In modern Russian the short form of adjectives is used predicatively (i.e. after a link-verb
such as 6i1i, 6ina1i, xa:a1ic×, oxa:a1ic×, c1a1i etc.). The link-verb is used
in the past and future tenses (e.g. on 6i¬ yxen - he was clever; cxoµo on 6yµe1
io·oµen - soon he will be hungry); in the imperative mood (e.g. 6yµi cnac1¬nna - be
happy); in the conditional-subjunctive mood (e.g. xi 6i¬n 6i µaµi, ec·n 6i ni
nµnexa·n x nax - we would be glad if you visited us). In the present tense the link-verb
is omitted (e.g. on yxen - he is clever; on io¬oµen - he is hungry). The short-form
adjective normally follows the noun or pronoun but may precede it for greater emphasis
(e.g. cnac1¬nn ne·onex, xo1oµin 1onno :nae1, neio on xone1 - a person who
knows exactly what he wants is a happy person).
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2. While the long form usually denotes permanent characteristics, the short form is generally
used to indicate a temporary state or condition.
Compare, for example, the following:
i1a xoxna1a xa¬enixa× the full-form adjective xa¬enixa× simply
means that the room is small
i1a xoxna1a xa¬a the short-form adjective xa¬a implies that it is
too small for somebody or for some particular
purpose or occasion
Note that an adjective should always be used in its short form when it is accompanied by words
or phrases identifying restrictions:
a) when followed by a noun, pronoun or prepositional phrase
i1a xoxna1a xa·a (un uenn this room is too small for me
i1o1 ]n·ix nenn1eµecen o1ny this film is not interesting for my father
b) when followed by a subordinate clause
× cnac1·nna, u1o 1m npnmeu I am happy you came
c) when followed by an infinitive with or without n1o6i
ona µoc1a1onno coc1o×1e·ina, she is sufficiently well off not to worry about
u1oõm ne nepeanna1t o µeniiax money
1i ne cnoco6en non×1i i1o you are incapable of understanding it
Activity Twenty - ±na(na1oe sa(anne
Writing Put the adjectives into their appropriate short forms in the following
Russian sayings and proverbs. Then match up the phrases with the literal translations
given in the right-hand side of the box. Can you think of any English equivalents?
1. ¹n6nn nce no:µac1i (noxoµnie). As is the priest, so is the flock.
2. Koiµa × ex, × (i·yxon) n (nexon). Love is blind, you can fall in love even
with a goat.
3. Kyn »e·e:o, noxa (ioµ×nee). When I am eating I am deaf and dumb.
4. (Kaxon) non, (1axon) n nµnxoµ. Hammer the iron while it is hot.
5. ¹n6oni (c·ena×), no·n6nmi n xo:·a. All ages are submissive to love.
Activity Twenty-One - ±na(na1t nepnoe sa(anne
Reading/Writing Read the following astrological forecast from the Russian
magazine «Ona» (January, 2001) for Capricornians. Underline all the short-form
adjectives that you can find and analyse their use.
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Ko:eµoi
22 µexa6µ× - 20 ×nnaµ×
×nnaµi - xec×n Ko:eµoia.
V nac nannnae1c× nonin ioµnnnin nnx· »n:nn. Bi ineµinnni, on1nxnc1nnni
n yneµeni n cnonx cn·ax. Te, x1o nµe»µe ne o6µama· na nac nnnxann×, cennac ne
nµoc1o :axe1×1, no n nµn:nan1 ·nµeµox. B i1o1 :nxnnn xec×n ni ·eixo
na·a»nnae1e xon1ax1i, c 6·ecxox µemae1e ·n6ie :aµann xax ·nnnoio, 1ax n
µe·onoio xaµax1eµa. Oco6enno yµanno µe·a cx·aµinan1c× n neµnon µexaµe
×nnaµ×. Bax nµeµc1on1 xnoio µa:·nnnoio µoµa µa:ionoµon n xoµo1xnx noe:µox.
Iyµi1e 6µn1e·ini: n µoµoie ni nno·ne xo»e1e nc1µe1n1i cnon ·n6oni!
NOUNS IN APPOSITION
Words are said to be in apposition when they refer to the same person or thing and are placed
one after the other without being joined by a conjunction.
You should try to remember the following:
1. Commas are normally used to mark off words and phrases standing in apposition to the noun
or pronoun which is the subject/object of the sentence; e.g. Maµn×, n:nec1na× nennna, ne
nµnnix·a x 1axoxy o6µamennn - Maria, a famous singer, was not used to such treatment.
2. Single nouns in apposition (usually geographical proper nouns) are hyphenated when they
precede the noun they describe. The hyphen is omitted when the order is reversed; e.g. Mocxna-
µexa (but µexa Mocxna), H·ixeni-o:eµo (but o:eµo H·ixeni).
3. When two or more nouns, pronouns or modifiers refer to the same person or object they are
used in the same case; e.g. Maµnn, n:nec1nyn nennny, on :na· c µe1c1na - he knew
Maria, a famous singer, from childhood.
Activity Twenty-Two - ±na(na1t n1opoe sa(anne
Writing Put the words in brackets in their correct form in the sentences below.
1. × y»e 6i·a na ·exnnn Hnana Ioµnconnna ]eµµnna,
(n:nec1nin nµo]eccoµ xa1exa1nxn).
ioµnnnin nnx· year-long cycle c 6·ecxox brilliantly
yneµennin n (¹ prep) confident µema1i (I) (imp) to solve (s.th.)
cn·a strength ·n6on any
1e, x1o (those) people who :aµana task
nµe»µe previously µe·onon business
o6µama1i (I) nnnxanne na (¹ acc) to pay attention to yµanno successful(ly)
:axena1i (I) / :axe1n1i (:axeny, to notice cx·aµina1ic× (I) / c·o»n1ic× (II) to turn out
:axe1nmi) µa:·nnnoio µoµa of various sorts
nµn:nana1i (nµn:nan, to recognize nax nµeµc1on1 you are in for
nµn:naemi) / nµn:na1i (I) 6µn1e·inin alert, watchful
na·a»nna1i (I) (imp) xon1ax1i to set up contacts nno·ne entirely, fully
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2. Mi noxoi·n no·ynn1i nn:y namexy nonoxy c1yµen1y, __________________
___________________ (xo·oµon ani·nnannn n: Iµan1ona).
3. Ceioµn× xi naxonen nc1µe1n·nci c Maµnen He1µonnon, _________________
___________________ (nama nona× coceµxa).
4. Onn »nny1 n Bamnni1one, __________________ (c1o·nna) CBA.
5. × ne ·n6·n cnoµn1i co cnoen cec1µon, ________________________________
___________________ (ncni·innna× n ne1eµne·nna× µenymxa).
6. Bneµa × nnµe· cnoeio µµyia, ________________ (Ioµnc), __________________
___________________ (naxoµnnnin naµeni c nxoµox).
7. 3an1µa xi nonµex n ioc1n x namnx µµy:i×x, __________________________
___________________ (oneni nn1eµecnie n yxnie ·nµn).
8. B ia:e1ax nac1o nnmy1 o nonix µyccxnx _______________________________
___________________ (6oia1ie, no ne nceiµa xoµomo o6µa:onannie ·nµn).
9. B nµom·ox ioµy xi xynn·n nonin an1onµnnen, ________________________
___________________ (yµo6nin, xo1i n ne6o·imon).
10. Mon o1en µoµn·c× n O6maµonxe, _____________________________________
___________________ (ne6o·ima× µeµenn× na Bo·ie).
THE PARTICLE HH
Particles are words which are used with other words and phrases to express uncertainty and
subjective attitudes and emotions.
The particle ¬n has the following functions:
i) It corresponds to if` or whether` in English
× ne :nan, µoxa ·n ona - I don`t know if / whether she is at home
ona ne yneµena, coi·acn1c× ·n on - she is not sure if / whether he will agree
on cnµocn·, ionoµn1 ·n ona no-µyccxn - he asked if / whether she spoke Russian
The particle ¬n follows the operative word (usually a verb) in the subordinate clause.
Note: do not use ec¬n in similar constructions. Although if` can be used in English, ec¬n is only
used in Russian in conditional sentences; e.g. ec·n noioµa 6yµe1 xoµoma×, × nonµy iy·×1i - if
the weather is nice I will go for a walk.
Remember the following rule: if you can replace if` by whether` in English, use ¬n; otherwise, use
ec¬n.
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ii) It is also used in questions
µanno ·n ni nµnexa·n n: Mocxni' - is it long since you returned from Moscow?
ne xo1n1e ·n ni non1n n 1ea1µ' - would you like to go to the theatre?
In questions, ¬n always follows the word which bears the logical stress, and it is not normally
translated.
Note: the word order in questions with the particle ¬n is inverted. If ¬n is omitted from the question,
there is no inversion. Compare the following:
µanno ¬n ni nµnexa·n n: Mocxni' = ni µanno nµnexa·n n: Mocxni'
The following phrases containing ¬n might be useful: nµ×µ ¬n (hardly likely), eµna ¬n (hardly)
× nµ×µ ·n nµnµy ceioµn× x 1e6e - I am hardly likely to come to see you today
nµ×µ ·n xo»no c naxn coi·acn1ic× - one can hardly agree with you
Activity Twenty-Three - ±na(na1t 1pe1te sa(anne
Writing Translate the following into Russian. Use ¬n where appropriate.
1. I don`t remember if I have read this book.
2. Is it long since you saw your brother?
3. Aren`t you going with us?
4. She asked whether I wanted to buy a new computer.
5. Do they work?
6. He is not sure if he is able to go on holiday next year.
7. She is hardly likely to do it.
8. We don`t know if they are learning Russian or some other language.
9. One can hardly argue with it.
10. He asked whether she had passed the exam.

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