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Practice ACT Tests   • P R A C T I C E T E S
 

PRACTICE TEST 1 EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

Passage I

 

Question 1. The best answer is C because it ap pr opriate ly uses the re lative. pronoun who to introduce ·the clause that modifies students-"who join o ur sen io r class." Besides introd ucing that clause, the pronoun who a lso func ti ons as the subject of the clause.

The best answer is NOT:

 

A

because it creates a comma splice (two or more complete sentences separated only by a comm a ). The

phrase "those teenagel's" is tlie subject of the second complete sentence.

B

because it, too, produces a comma splice. In ad d ition, it creates gramma tica l disagreement between the

plural stlldellts and the singular he or she.

 

D

because it creates a run-on, or fused, SL:nten ce. Th ere is no punctuation or conjullct ion (connect ing word )

betweeh the tWo statements.

 

Question 2. The best answer is G because it provides the predicate was, w hi ch produces a

comp lete se ntence. R emember th at (a n incom pl ete sente nce).

a st atem ent that has no predicate verb. is a se ntence fragmen t

T he best answer is NOT:

F

because it uses the verb form beilIg, which is a participle. Beca use it is a verb fo rm, a participle is often

lllisraken for the main verb in a se ntence. Thi s state ment has no predicate, so it is a sentence fragmem.

 

.

.

H

bec.ause it has no predicate verb. Withom a predicate, the state ment is a sente nce fragment and does not

express a complete thought.

 

J

because

it lacks a

ver b and therefo re creates a noth er se ntence fragment.

Question 3.

The best answer is A beca use it cor rectl y uses the pronoun who to introduce

th e clau se that describes Lig ia Antolillez. In this se ntence, who is required because it re fers to a

person. The pronoun LlIho is a lso

appropr iate beca use it fu n ctio ns as th e su bject of t he cl ause.

The best answer is NO'f:

 

B

because

it

uses the

ob jec t pronoun

whom instead of th e subj ect pronoun who.

e because it uses the pronoun which w hen the persona l pronoun who is req uired. In general, who refers to people and which refers to objects, events, or anima ls.

D

because it inserts_ an unnecessa ry pronoun, she. Because who is the subjec t of the descriptive clause , the

pronoun she ha s no functio n in this sente nce.

 
descriptive clause , the pronoun she ha s no functio n in this sente nce.  

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Chapter 4

PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS Question 4. The best answer is F beca use
PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS
Question 4. The best answer is F beca use
this sho rt seme nce expresses a complete (houg ht
an d
an d
is clear, concise, a nd gram mat ica ll y
the se ntence that follows.
so und . It a lso log ica ll y fits betwee n the precedi ng sente nce
The best answer is NOT:
G
because it creates a statement that is not logical. T he con junct ion (connecting word) therefore suggests a
cause-effect relat ionship that makes no sense. T he fact that the narrator "was a junior then" was not the
cause of her not being in classes with Lig ia.
H
of
because it makes no sense. It illogically suggests that t he narrator was a jun ior because she "wasn't in any
Ligia's classes."
J beca use it creates the same error as H does by illogically suggesting tha t the narrator was a ju nior because
she "was n't in any of Ligia's classes,"
I
Question 5. T he best answer
is C beca use it add s a releva nt
detai l t hat fits w it h t he point
of th e rest of t he sentence. T he narr ator di d n' t know Li gia but knew of her. The na rrator "saw her
a t sc hool even ts a nd had read a story a bo ut he r." Cons idering
the
most
releva nt information about the na rrator's fami liarity with
the other choices, C prov ides
Lig ia.
The best answer is NOT:
A
because the phrase "which are somet imes supported financially by local business" is not relevant wi t h
regard to the narrator's knowledge of Ligia,
B
because the info rmatio n that the school paper "is w ritte n by students interested in journalism" is irrele-
vant to the writer's purpose here.
,
D
because information about th e narrator checki ng the paper "for local movie listings" is a de tail that dis-
t racts the reader from main poi nt of the se ntence,
Question 6. The best answer is G because the plura l possess ive form hosts ' is the correct
punctuation here. Th e ph rase " her hos ts' house" shows possessio n and requi res an apostrophe.
The best answer is NOT:
F because it fails to use the required apostro phe to show possession,
H
because aga in, it fails to use a n apostrophe after the s in hosts,
J because although it does use the required apostrophe after hosts, it fails, to use the requi red apost rophe to
show possession in Ligia's,
,

,

Practice ACT Tests

, Practice ACT Tests • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS Question 7 . "T h e b es t

EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

Question 7 . "T h e b es t an swer is C beca use it correctly inserts a comma after the word year.

No ti ce that th is co mm a is necessary to set off the no nessentia l cla use "w ho had vol u nteered to move." A nonessential cla use adds informatio n t hat is not necessary to the mai n idea. Nonessential

cla uses are set off w ith commas

T he best answer is NOT:

A because it inse rts a n un necessary and confusing co mma after move.

n because it fai ls to insert the required com ma afte r year. This comma is necessary to set off the nonessen -

on both ends.

tial clause that begins with "who had vol unteered

D

,"

because it inse rts an

unnecessary and confusing comma a fter ZJolunteered.

Q uestion 8. T he be st answer is F beca use it p rovides the bes t expla natio n of the host fam- ily's sit uat io n and w hy Ligia needed a place to stay. T h is choice provides releva nt informatio n to show that after the storm, the two brothers needed their upstai rs room back-the same room that Ligia had been using.

T he best a nswer is NOT :

G because it ad ds irrel evant information. The detail that t he upstairs room "had

freshly painted" d is-

tracts t he reader from the main po int o f the sentence, w h ich is to show w hy Ligia needed anot her

live.

H because the stateme nt in parentheses, " it was a two-s tory house," is a lso irreleva nt to the wri ter's purpose

place to

becn

here.

J because if th e sentence sim pl y en d ed with "had to be moved ," it would not clearly explain why Ligia need- ed a new pl ace to live.

Question 9. T he best ans wer is D bec a use, of t he fo ur choices, D makes the poi nt in [he clea res t , m os t concise w a y.

T he best an sw er is NOT:

A because it is red u ndant; that is, it repeats an idea that has already been stated . T he sentence states that the

n arrator was aware

obvious. It is better to end t he sentence with the word problem.

B because it, too, is un necessari ly wor dy. The wo rd problem al ready implies a dilemma.

C beca use it is incorrec t in the same way that A and B are. Th a t Ligia's prob lem "needed a so lution" over-

states the obvious and lacks conciseness.

"needed to be solved " is overstat ing t he

of " Ligia's

prob lem ." Add ing that t h is p ro blem

overstat ing t he of " Ligia's prob lem ." Add ing that t h is

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• PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

PRACTICE TEST 1 EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

 

Question 10. -The bt:st answt:r is J. You need to pay close anemion to the stated quest i o n .

It asks you for the c h oice that d oes

h ome . " In

ing Lig ia to

live in thei r

not show t h at th e n arrator's "fami ly felt confide n t abo u t other wor d s, t h e question tell s you t hafthe best a n swer

in vi t - is the

worst word choice w ith respect to the w r iter's purpose. T he verb supposed is the only choice that

does not show t hat "rhe fam ily

felt co n fident," so it is t he best a nswer to this question.

 

The best answer is NOT:

 

F

because it does ind icate t he family's confidence. Because the family

agreed to host Li gia, they "fe[t co nfi-

dent about inviting Ligia to live in their home."

G beca use it, too, d oes indicate the family's confidence.

H

because the wo rd knew is app ropriate in this context and, like F and G, does indicate confid ence.

 

Question 11. The best answer is B because it cor rectly uses the correlative conjunctions not

only and but. Correlative conjunct io ns

con nect si m ilar ideas an d are a lways used in pairs. In this

sentence, t he pai r is "not only di d we have a roo m

, but

t he ho use had seemed too

quiet."

T

h e conjunctions not only an d but logica ll y

con n ect the two

reasons that t h e fami ly agreed to host

Ligia.

The best answer is NOT:

 

A

because "not only

and" does not logica[[y connect the two reasons, and it is not idiomatic (it docs not

conform to stan d ard wri rren English).

 

C

because it is incorrect in the same way that A is. It creates a state ment that is not logical.

 

o because it is incorrect in the same way that A a nd C are. It also fails to use pro per correlative co njunctions.

Question 12. The best answer is J because it is the clea r est a n d most logica l, and it is t h e

most structu rally sound. T h e two cla uses in this sente n ce are para ll el and logica ll y fo llow o n e

another. The second clause) "she started teaching me d uced Ligia to m y favorite ml;ls ic."

dance steps," logically fo ll ows "I intro-

The best answer is NOT:

F

because using the passive voice ("I sta rted being taugh t by Ligia") makes the sentence con fusing. It is dif-

ficu[t for the reader to tell what the subject and object of this sentence arc. The arrangement of the sentence elements is also confusing and garbled.

G

because it has an incorrect modi fier. When a mod ifying phrase con tain ing a verba[ .comes at th e beginn ing

of

a se ntence, the phrase is followed by a comma. The word t ha t th e phrase modifies should immediately

follow the comma. In this case, the mod ifying phrase " Introduci ng Ligia to my favor ite music, at top vol- ume," is fo[[owed by the pronoun she, instead of the pronoun' (to re fer ro the na rrator).

H

because the modifying wo rd after the introductory phrase is correct, bur the rest of the sente nce is weak

beca use it relics on the passive voice ("was introduced by me"). In addition, the phrase at the end of the sen-

tence, "at top volume," is misplaced.

 

Pract ice ACT Test s

EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

Pract ice ACT Test s • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS he re. Question 13. The best" answer is

he re.

Question 13. The best" answer is B because it uses t he correct verb form. The entire essay

is in t he past te nse, so

t he past tvnse took is r eq u ired

The best answer is NOT:

A because

ple, had).

C because

D beca use it uses an incorrect ve r b form -

it lIses an inco rrect verb form he re-t he pas t partic iple taken without an auxiliary verb (fO f exam-

had took is an incorrect verb form .

the past part iciple begun without a n auxili a ry (helping) verb.

Question 14. The best answer is H beca use it appropriately uses the past tense verb form (went) to show that the event (Ligia's going home) occurred at a specific past time.

, T he best answer is NOT:

F because it inappropriately uses the pa st perfect te nse. The perfect tenses are mai nly used to show that one

event happened before another event, which is nor the case here.

G

because it use s a future tense (in this case, the f ut ure perfec t ) to refe r to a pas t event. Yo u can tell that th is

is

a past event by rea\:ling the sentence that foHows.

J because it uses the present tense goes to refer to a n eve nt that happened in the pas t.

Question 15. The best answer is C because it concludes the essay by referring back ro top- ics that were previo usly mentioned : tha t Ligia spoke Spanish and that she taugh t the narrator Colombian dance steps. In addit io n, it logically follows the preceding sentence by explai ning how the na rraror continues to make p la ns fo r a visit to Ligia .

The best answer is NOT:

A beca use it does somewhat follow the preceding sentence, bur it docs lIot refer back to a ny of the ideas

mentioned ill the essay. It is the refore a poor co nclusion w hen co mpared wi th C.

B

work force.

weak conclusion because

it is a vague generalization. In additio n, it does not logica lly follow the statement that the narrator is " try-

D because alt hough the essay does re fer earlier to "senior activit ies," this is also a

because this is a poor conclus ion for the essay beca use it introduces an entirely new topic: joining the '

ing to save enough to go see my new sister next year."

--

\

Chapter 4

Question 18.

\ Chapter 4 Question 18. • • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS Passage II Question 16. The best answer

EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

Passage II

Question 16. The best answer is H because it uses a comma after attend to appropriately set off the introductory phrase from the main clause. Without this comma) the reader might be confused and think that the narrator attended the laundromat.

The best answer is NOT:

F because it add s an unnecessa ry and confusing comma between coflege and I.

G because it) too, adds a n unnecessary and confusing comma between college and I. In addition, it fails to

add the a~ pr opri a ce comma after attel/d .

J because, like G, it omits the comma after attend, producing a potentially confusing stateme nt for rea ders.

,

Question 17. The best answer is B beca use it app ropriately uses th e present te nse to describe an event t hat. is happen ing in the prese nt time. Not ice that the writer begins the essay in the present tense ("the Save~U Laun dro mat is alway s open").

The best answer is NOT:

A because it makes a confusing te nse shift from prese nt (is) to past (was) .

e because it makes another confusing tense shift-this time from the present tense to th~ pas t perfect tense.

D because, like A, it makes a confusing tense shift from present to pa st.

The best answer is J because no p unctuatio n is n eeded h er e. The abse n ce of

the cl ea rest and most understa ndable sente nce.

punctuation creates

The best answer is NOT: .

F because it places a semicolon betwee n two descriptive phrases, which is a misuse of the semicolon.

G because it inserts an unnecessary and confus ing comm a between a preposition and its objec t.

H because it places an unnecessary comma between the two desc riptive phra ses. Th ere is no pause or sepa ra - ti on between the phrases "across the street" and "fro m a drugstore." They belong together as one description.

Question 19. The best answer is B because it is g rammatically correct. In thi s sentenc e, cool

is lIsed as an adjective to modify the noun magnificence.

The best answer is NOT:

A because coo ffy is an adverb, and an adverb cannOt be used to modify a noun. (Adver bs gene rally modi fy

verbs or adjectives.)

C because it uses an adjective phrase-"magnificenr!y cool"-where a noun is required. T he comp lete phrase "The magnificent ly coo l of the shade trees" is both ungrammatical and confusing.

is calleJ for. Tht: phl"<lSI.: " th e coul

D because il uses an <l(ljecl ive p h rase-"coollll,lgllificl.:lll"-when: a I.lUUII

magnificent of th e shade trees" is ungrammatical.

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I.lUUII magnificent of th e shade trees" is ungrammatical. 216 The ONLY Official Prep Guide from

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Practice ACT Tests

Practice ACT Tests • PRACTICE TeST 1 • Question 20. The best answer is J because
Practice ACT Tests • PRACTICE TeST 1 • Question 20. The best answer is J because

PRACTICE TeST 1

Question 20. The best answer is J because it states th e idea most clearly and concisely. Ir does not repeat the same id ea twice, an d it does not ad d unnecessary words to th e sentence.

The best answer is N OT:

F because it is redundant (repeats t he sam e idea) and wordy (adds unnecessary words). Th e descriptive

the use of

phrase "who wrongfully enter th e prope rty " is really a repetition of th e same idea expressed by t he word trespassers . In other words, the descriptive phra se restates the obvious.

G because it has the same probl em that F docs. The phrase "who trespass by walking on private property"

adds wordiness and red undancy.

to state the obvious. It is alrea dy clear to readers that peop le

H becau se it, too, is wordy. It is not necessary

"w ho ignore the signs and walk on the grass" are trespassers.

Question 21. The best answer is D because placing Se nre nce 5 after Sentence 3 mak es the

paragraph logica l and coherenr. If you read Sentences 3, 4, and 5 ca refu ll y, yO ll will not ice that Sentence 4 does not logically fo ll ow Senrence 3 . Th e opening clause in Sentence 4, " But no one is ever around to enforce the threats," has no antecedent to connect it back to Sentence 3. The threats

posted all over the lawn " that are referre d to in Se nte nce 5 .

:rherefore, Senrence 4 makes the best se nse when it fo ll o w s Sente nce 5 rather t han prece de s it.

The best answer is ·NOT:

A because leaving Sentence 5 where it

B because Sentence 5 would be a poor and illogical intr oduction to this paragraph because the reader would

not know to wh at lawn the w riter was referring. In addi ti on, the par agra ph would make no se nse if Se ntence

in Semence 4 refer t o t he "signs

is now is not logica l for the

reaso ns expl ain ed a bove.

1

fo llowed Sente nce 5.

C

because th is arrangement of the sentences is al~o illogical an d would co nfu sc the reader. Pl acing Sentcnce

5

aft er the description of the laundro mat in Sentence 1 makes no sense because th e signs on the lawn are on

the grounds of a school and are not part of the laundromat.

Question 22. The best answer is F bec au se t he si ngu lar verb has agrees with the singula r noun paneling. Rem emb er that the verb mu st ag ree in numb er with its s ubject (in t his case, pan- eling) and not the .object of the prepos ition (in this case, the plural noun walls).

The best answer is NOT:

G because the plural verb have does not agree in number with th e singu lar noun panelillg.

H because, like G, it has an agreemen t problem. The plural verb were does not agree in number with the

singu lar noun paneling.

J because, like G and H , it has an ag reement probl em. The plu ral verb (Ire does not agree in number with

th e singu lar noun paneling.

'

The plu ral verb (Ire does not agree in number with th e singu lar noun

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Chapter 4

• PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS Question 23. The be~t'answer is A becaise, it
• PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS
Question 23. The be~t'answer is A becaise, it provides the added detail asked fur in the
question. Pay cl ose a ttention to the sta ted question. It asks fo r the sentence that wou ld best acco m-
plish the writer's wish to "further descr ibe the laundrom at's paneling." A is the only choice that
accomplishes this goal. It further describes the "artificial wood grain finish" by showing that it
was intended to resemble wood grain but doesn't.
The best answer is NOT:
B
because it does 110t provide a detail that further describes the paneling. Although B mentions the panel-
ing, it does not offer a furtl}er description of it. Rather, if adds a detail that is irrelevant to the paragraph .
.
,
C
because it, too, fails
to further desc ribe
paneling.
.
the pane lin g. In stead, 'it offers an opinion about th e colo r of th e
.
o because it is incorrect in the same way that C is. It offe rs an opinion about the person who "chose tha t
color sc heme," but it does not furthe r th e description of the paneling.
Question 24.
The best answer is H
because it effec tively links th e new pa r ag r aph to the
question im p li ed by t he preced ing paragraph: Why does the neon sig n promise friendly serv ice? H
a lso provides the most effective introduction t o t he informatio n in t he new
The best answer is NOT:
F
because it does not link the theme o f fr iendl y ser vice that is questioned in the preceding paragraph to the
description of the machines in thi s new parag raph. In addition, it shifts to a more formal to ne.
G
because it makes no sense. Being ':across the stree t from a park" has not hing to do with friendly service.
Besi d es, in the first paragcaph, the writer states that "t he park isn't rea ll y a park at all."
J because it misleads the reader into think ing that the top ic of the new pa ragraph will be "washi ng
machines."
Question 25. The best answer is ·C because it provides the correct adjectives (many, few)
to descr ibe the quarters. The ph rase "too many o r
number.
too few quarters" describes a relationship of
The best answer is NOT:
A
be
because it is ungrammatical. It incorrectly uses an adject ive of q uantity (much) when an adjective of num-
r (many) is requ ired.
B
because it incorrectly adds the modifier too to the comparative adjective fewer.
o because it is incorrect in the same way that A is. It incorrectly uses an adjective of q uantity (much) when
an adjective of number (many) is required.

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(much) when an adjective of number (many) is required. 218 The ONLY Official Prep Guide from

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Practice ACT Tests

Practice ACT Tests Question 26. T he b~st answer is F because th e phrase "

Question 26. T he b~st answer is F because th e phrase " mo stly old er peop le from around the neighborhood" specific a lly describes rh e group of "regular c usto mers" mentioned in the first pa rt of the sen tence. If the phrase were del eted, spec ific descriptive ma ter ia l would be lost.

,

The best answer is N OT:

G becallse the p hrase is not a detail that ·p rov ides a logical tra nsition because the sen ten ce that fo llows

describes a different group of customers. H because the phrase does no t foreshadow the conclusion. The writer does not conclude the essay with "olde r people from around the neighborhood"; rat her, th e essay ends w ith a ll the people who frequent the laundro;nat.

J because this inform at ion is not understated. Also ,' it is not "importa nt information"--essential to the essay-but, rather, an interest ing and relevan t side note.

Question 27. The best answer is D because it resu lts in a comp let e se ntence. Th e comp lete

is " a crow d of th irtee n ~year-o ld kids." Th e predicate is immediately follows .

subjec t of th e se n tence this subj ec t.

The best answer is NOT:

A because it creates an incomplete se nte nce . It improperly inserts the pronoun that between the subject and

predicate, which results in a se ntence fragment.

B because it is incorrect in the same way that A is. It inserts t he relative pronou n who oetween the subj ec t

and the predicate and creates an incomplete sentence.

C because th e usc of th e comma and the conjunction and genera lly indicate s that the sentence contai ns two independent clau ses, but in thi s case, there is only one independent clause. "Usually a crowd of thirteen-year-

old kids" is a phrase, not a clause, because it ha s no verb. Meanwhile, in th e main clause, the predicate i s JS

di sagreei ng in number with the subject they.

Question 28. The best answer is J beca use it is clear, co nci se, and st ru ctura lly sou nd. It clearly expresses the idea that it is the writer who is imag ining.

The best answer is NOT:

F because it has an ineffective se ntence structure that results in a dangling modi fier. When a modifYlIlg

phrase conta ining a verbal comes at the beginning o f a sentence, the phrase is followed by a com ma (" Ima gi n ing all these people,"). Followi ng the comma is the word that this phr ase modifies. Notice in thi s

sentence that the pronoun it incorrectly follows the introductory phrase. The modifying word should be the pronoun I.

G because it creates a confusing and unclear staCemeAt. In the clause " It being that I ima gi ne all th ese

people," the reader does not know to what the pronoun It refers.

H because it has a dangling modifier. It has a problem that is simi lar to the one in F. Th e prono un I should

follow the

in troductory clause, not the pl'Onoun they.

,

-

~,
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Chapter 4

Chapter 4   • PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS   Question 29. The best answer
 

PRACTICE TEST 1 EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

 

Question 29. The best answer is B beca use it is grammatically ,cofn::cL, and the ve l' bs ill the

se

ntence are para llel (m aint ain t he sa me ver b tense), The ap prop ri ate ve r bs he re are " nod and

sm il e" because t hey c orrectl y follow the a uxili a ry (hel p in g)

verb would:

"someo ne would lo ok up

 

and [would} nod an d smile at me." Although the helping verb would is not repeated before

"nod and smile," it is implied.

 

.

The best answer is NOT:

 

A

beca usc is ungrammatical. It incorrcctly uses the third -pcrson singular ve rb form ("nods and smi les") after

the impli cd hclping vcrb would.

 

e because the use of th e present particip lc ("nodding and sm iling") afte r thc help ing vcrb Illoullis ungra m-

matical. No te also that t ha t scntence la cks parallelism : ~'someonc would lo ok up

and nodd in g and sm il -

ing at mc." Thcrc is an ill og ical tcnse sh ift from the prescnt tense ("would look") to thc present partici ple

("nodd ing

and smi ling,").

D

because

it makes t he same mistake ,as A.

In

addi tion, it results in an illogical statement .

Question 30. The best answer is J beca use it is the only c hoi ce that is a co mpl et e sentence

with appropria t e se nten ce str uct ure. Noti ce that this se ntence ha s a comp o und

s u bject ("the Save-

U

La undroma t" and " its people"). T his construction makes the subject of the sentence cleat.

The best answer is NOT :

 

F

because it inserts in corrcct punct uation (a period) that resu lts in two sentence fragments (incomp lete sen-

tences).

 

. G because it also inserts Inc orrect punctuat ion. The clause aftc r t he per iod does create a com plete sentence, but the opening phrase " It is comfo rting to know (hat the Savc- U Laundromat" is 1I0t a complete sentence; the relativc cl a use does no r co nta in a predicatc.

H

because ir has a confusing and ineffcctive sentence structure. Inse rt ing the relative pronoun that bctwcen

the conjunct ion and a nd the pronoun its results in a sente nce with fault y parallelism. Th c fi rst of thcse two

relat ive clau ses ("that t he Save-U Laundromat ") is incom plete .

 

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• Practice ACT Tests • P R A C T I C E T E S
• Practice ACT Tests • P R A C T I C E T E S

PRACTICE TEST 1 EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

Passage III

Question 31 . The best answer is B becau se it correctly uses t he rel ative prono un whose to

introduce the clause that describes the compan y that the narrator admi res. The pronoun whose indicates possession and is appropriate here.

T he best answer is NOT:

A because it uses a cont raction (who's) in stea d of the req uired prono un (whose), The co ntraction W ll0'S

means "who is" and does not indicate possession.

C because it

ha s a problem chat is s im ila r to th e one in A. It inc orrec tl y uses th e co ntra ct ion that's , which

.

means " that is."

D

because it is create s an unclea r stateme nt, and it fai ls to use the prope r relati ve p ronou n whose

to indi o

cate possession.

Question 32. The best answer is J beca u se it provides th e best punctuation to set

off the

appositive " Bill W ill iams." An appositive is a noun or pronoun t hat id ent ifies and follows anoth~

er noun o r pro nou n . In t hi s se nten ce, " Bi ll

founder." Appos itives are se t off by comma s (except w hen t he appos it io n is res tr ict ive , suc h as

th e phrase

The best

Wi lli ams" identifies "G lo ry Food s' preside nt a nd

in

" my sister Sue" "wh en I have t hre e sisters).

answer is NOT :

F because it inserts an unnecessary and confusing co m ma berween presiden t an d and. In addition , it fai ls to

set off the appos itive w ith a necessa ry com ma be tween fOllnder and 8i1f.

G because, like F, it

H because it fa ils to set off the a pposi tive by adding the necessa ry com ma berween fOllllder and 8i1f.

in se rts an unnecessary a nd confusi ng com ma berween presidellt and a"d.

[hi rd~per so n p lu ra l p r onou n they clea rl y

refe rs back to the p lur a l noun foo ds.

The best answer is NOT:

A because the singu lar p ronoun it has

a pronoun refers. In t his sentence, the a ntecedent foods is plural and requires a plu ra l p ronou n (they).

B. because it has the sa me problem d esc ribed in A.

D because it creates fa ulty coord ination and a confusi ng statement. The phrase "a nd that they" does not

no logical anteced ent. An antecedent is th e word or p hrase to wh ich

Question 33 . The best answer

is C

bec a u s e the

effec tively coo rdinate w ith "that while he knows."

l

a u s e the effec tively coo rdinate w ith "that while he knows." l

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221

Chapter 4

• Chapter 4 • Question 34. The besl answer is F because it provides the clearest,
• Chapter 4 • Question 34. The besl answer is F because it provides the clearest,

Question 34. The besl answer is F because it provides the clearest, most c.:um:ist! s tatc.-:mcnl, and it uses modifiers correctly. Note that the pronoun he directly follows and correctly modifies the ~ dj ective phrase "as a you ng adult."

The best answer is NOT:

G because ie creaces a dangl ing modifier. The phrase "as a young ad ult " does no t logically refer to or mo d -

ify the noun phrase it precedes ("h is cooking skills"). This ar ran geme nt of sentence clements results in a con-

fu sing stateme nt.

H

because a lthough th e wording is so mew hat different. the probl em here, a dangling modifier, is the sa me

as

thar in

G.

He re, " hi

s s ki ll " is not "a young

ad u lt. "

 

"

"

J because the probl em is ' much like that in both G and H. In this stateme nr, "the refinement of his cooking skills" is not "a you ng adu lt."

,

Question 35. The best answer is D because it is the clearest and m ost co n cise statement . T he writer logically describes the Culinary Institute of Ametica as "prestigious."

The best answer "is NOT:

A because it is redundant. That is, it repeats the same idea twice: prestigiolls and acclaimed mean the same

thing.

B because it, too, is redundant. It repeats th e same idea three tim es: famed, renowned, and notable a ll ha ve

similar mea ni ngs.

C because the adjective IJ/scious makes no se nse in this context. Food might be "luscious," but an institute

wou ld nOt be.

\

Question 36. The best answer is G because the se ntence parts are arranged in a logi cal order

so t hat they modify the appropriate elements. This results in the clearest word order for this sentence.

The best answer is NOT:

F because the cla uses are put together in a way that confuses the reader. The noun phrase " a line of

Southern -inspired cuisi ne" doesn't connect logica lly wit h the no un and the clau se that immediately follows it-"a time when there were no conven ience foods designed for African American consumers."

H because it is ambiguo us. It is uncl ear what is meant by the ope ning clause " He ' came up in 1989. "

,

J because, like P, it stri ngs clauses together in a confusing way.

J

222

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PRACTICE TEST 1 EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

Question 37. The best a nswer is B beca use it c rea tes the clea rest, mos t lo gical, an d mo st co ncise state men t. This is another case (ljke q uestion 35) where t he least wordy choice is best.

The best answer is NOT:

 

A

because it is redundant. It ~repeats the same idea twice. Th e introdu ctory word Initially is redundant

because the sentence later states that "Glory Foods were first offered for sa le in Ohio in 1992."

C because it is redundant. In this case, the words originally and first mean the same th ing.

D because it is both wordy and redundant . Th e ph rases" At the outset" an d "the earliest" both imply the same thing.

Question 38. The best answer is G because it most effectively concludes t his paragraph by

co ntinuing the th eme of G lor y Foods'

business success. That Glory Foo ds "were being di strib uted in

twen ty- two sta tes" logically follows t he informatioil that "sa les were twice the origi nal projec tio ns."

The best answer is NOT:

 

F beca use it ch"lOges the topic by discussing reci pes instead of the co mpany's success.

H because it shifts to an entirely new topic, that of "severa l other companies."

J because the use of the word however makes this statement illogical. As it is used here, however indicates that this sentence is going to contradict the statement in the preceding sentence, but this sentence does not do tha t.

Question 39. The best answer is A because

no puncflIation is needed here. The a bs ence o f

commas makes t hi s the clea rest sente nce.

The best answer is NOT:

 

B

because it adds unnecessary com lllas and incorrectly treats "professional, advisors, and subcontractors"

as

if they were items in a ser ies, bqt,lJrofessiona{ funct ions as an adjective mod ifying the noun advisors.

C

because the unnecessary com ma between the two parts of the compound d irect object "advisors and su b-

contractors" adds confusion to the sentence.

 

D

because it inserts an inappropriate and confusing semicolon between advisors and aI/d.

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Chapter 4

• PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS Question 40. The best answer is F becau
PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS
Question 40. The best answer is F becau se without the qua lifying phrases the sentence
wou ld give the impression that all the subcontractors and farmers we re African Americans. These
phrases da rify the writer's poin t that Glory Foods emp loys African Americans "whenever possible."
The best answer is NOT:
G
because eve n wi th out th e phrases, Paragraph 4 clea rl y expla ins G lory Food s' attempt to employ African
American contracto rs.
, H because th e phrases " whenever possible" and "m uch of" are nOt example s of wordiness ; rather, they
clearly inform the reader.
J beca use the p h rases d o not descri be the subcontractors or farmers yet they are essential to the mea ni ng of
th e sentence.
Question 41. The best answer
is A because
it correctl y uses th e infinitive form of th e verb
{to'evoke) after the verb of intention (is meant).
The best answer is NOT:
B
because the verb phr ase "is meant at ,evoking " is not
an idiom of standard wri tte n
English and confuses
the reader.
C
because it is incorreCt in a way that is similar to the problem in B. The ve r b phrase " is meant in evoking
of" is not idioma ti c Englis h an d resu lts in an unclear statement.
o because om itting the infinitive to evoke also results in a p hrase that is not stan d ard writren Englis h. The
verb is meant needs to be followed by an infinitive verb form-in this case to evoke.
Question 42. The best answer' is J because it is the
clearest, most
logical statement. T he
pr epos itional ph rase "during the Civil War" clearly modifies "a black regi ment." Modifyi ng
p h rases should be p la ced as n ear as po ssib le t o the words t h ey modify, which i~ why "during the
Civ il War" is best
placed
at the end
of this se ntence.
The best answer is NOT:
F because th e phrase "duri ng the Civil War " appears to modify "the movie." Th is placement w rongly sug-
gests th a t the movie was film ed a nd shown during the Civil War. In addition, th e phrase "of the sa me
appears to modify " th e Civil War" instead of "the movie."
name "
G because
the
phrase
"during
the
Civi l War"
a ppea rs to modify " th e same name," wh ich makes no
sense.
H because
the
phrase
"during
the
Civ il War"
a ppea rs to modify "of
a black regiment." Again, the result ing
statement "w hich tells the sto ry durin g the Civil War of a black reg iment " reads as though the movie was
shown during the war.

Practice ACT Tests

Practice ACT Tests " EXPLANATORY ANSWERS Question 43. The best answer is C beca use it

" EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

Question 43. The best answer is C beca use it clearly explains why the w r ite r shou ld not add the in formation about th e accor w ho starred in th e film Glory. Thi s information is not in keep- ing with t he main point o f the paragrap h, which is to exp la in how the compan y got its na me. Adding information about an actor distracts the reader from the focus of the paragraph and the essay as a whole.

T he best answer is NOT:

A because it suggests that t he sentence belongs in the pa ragraph whe n it clearly does not. Information about

the actor who starred in Glory is not relevant at th is point in the essay.

B

because

it, too, wro ngly suggests that the

sentence belo ngs

in the paragraph.

D

beca use

even though it does indicate that

the

wri ter should

not ad d the sentence, th e reason given for not

making this a ddi tion makes no se nse. Including add itional information saying that Bill Williams had mer the

actor Denze l Washington ~ould also be irrelevant to the essay.

Question 44. The best answer is J beca u se it maintains th e present t ense (are). Notice t hat p r esent tense is use d t hroughout the essay. A tense shift her e would be illogical.

The best answer is NOT:

F because it makes an illogical and confusing shift from present tense to pas t tense.

G because it makcs an illogical an d co nfusing shift from present ten se to past perfect tensc.

H beca use it makes an illogical and confusing shift from the present tense to the past conditional.

e ffectiv e intro d uctory para-

graph. Thi s is the bes t opening for the essay because it introduces the main topic, w hi c h is Bill

Wi ll iam s a nd his co mpa ny, Glory Foods.

The best answer is NOT:

B because Pa ragraph 2 wou ld be an ineffective and con fusing opening for th is essay. Look at its first sen-

tence: "Even as a child, Williams loved to prepare food." The c!lIe tha t

is that most essays would not begin thi s abruptly. The reader would not know who th is Williams person

wa s.

C because it has the sa me prob lem that B does. Placing Paragraph 1 after Parag raph 3 makes Paragraph 2

t he opening paragraph, bu t t ha t parag raph

D because it is incorrect for the same. basic

th is is not a good ope nin g sentence

Question

45. The best answer is A because it provides th e most

,

beg in s

too ab ruptly to provide

a n effect ive·in troductio n.

reason that Band Care.

a n effect ive·in troductio n. reason that Band Care. -,,) The ONLY Official Prep Guide

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PRACTICE TEST 1 EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

 

Passage IV

 

Question 46. The best answer is J because the. paragraph is more focused when the under· lined portion is omitted. Mentioning the writer's trip to the movies diverts the reader's attent ion from the focus of the paragraph, which is a description of the ga me arcade.

The best answer is NOT:

 

F

because addi ng information about the writer's trip to th e movies is irrelevant to this paragraph and should

be

om itted. If you read the entire paragraph, you will see that this informa ti on does not belong.

G

because it is incorrect in the same way that F is. It adds information that distracts the reader from the

main focus of this introductory paragraph.

 

H

because it is incorrect in the sam e way that F and G are. Even though this informat ion is set off by pa·ren-

theses, it sti ll distracts the rea der and is irrelevant.

 

Question 47. The best answer is B because the past tense (was) is consistent with the rest o f the parag raph . In add ition. the singu la r verb was is in agreement wit h the singula r subj ect one.

The best answer is NOT:

 

A

because the subject and ve rb do not agree in number. The subject one is si ngular and therefore requi res a

singu la r verb . The verb were

is plural.

 

C

beca use, again, the subject

and verb

do not agree. The su bjec t one is singul a r, and the verb were is plural

and therefore incorrect.

 

D

because the pa st conditional tense (would have been) is in appropr ia te

and co nfusi ng.

In addition , adding

the adjective actual would make the sentence unnecessarily wordy.

 

Question 48. The best answer is H because it p~ovides the

predicate are,

whic h produ ces a

comp lete se ntence. A state men t tha t has no pred icate is a sentence fragment (an incomplete sentence).

The best answer is NOT:

 

because placing the relative pronoun which between the sub jec t ("Video screens") and predicate {"have been popu la ted"} creates a sentence fragment.

F

G

because it is. incorrect in the same way that F is. In this case, rhe re lari ve pronoun that is placed between

rhe subject and predicate.

 

J

b eca u se it fail s t o provide a predicate , wh i c h creates anothe r incomplete sen t <; nce.

 

Practice ACT Tests

Practice ACT Tests   • P R A C T I C E T E S
 

PRACTICE TEST 1 EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

 

Question 49. The best answer is A because it pro v ides th e most logic al seq u ence of sen-

tences for rh is paragrap h . Se nte nce 4 provides a necessaty link between the descr ip ti on of

th e video

games in Sentences 1 throug h 3 and the de scription 'Of the pinba ll mac hin es in Sente n ce 5. In Sentence 4, the phrase "on the other hand " signals that this sentence is goi ng to provide a con- tra sting point of v iew. In this case, the writer contrasts video games and pinb a ll m ach in es.

The best answer is NOT:

 

B

because

if Sentence 4 were placed right

after Senten ce 1, the parag raph would be incoherent, illogical, and

confusing. Placing Sentence 4 here would interrupt the description of the video games with a commenr about

pinball machines.

 

.

C because placing Sentence 4 afte r Sentence 5 woul d confuse readers. Th ey would not understand (hat the

ph

rase "Some machines" in Sentence 5 actually refers to pinball machines. Also, the t ransi tion al phra se "on

the other hand" in Sente nce 4 does not logically fo llow the informarion in Sentence 5.

 

o because omitt ing Se ntence 4 would confuse readers, The transition that Sente nce 4 provides is a necessary link between the description of the video games in Se ntences 1. through 3 and th e d escription of the pinball machines in Sentence 5.

Question 50. The best answer is

J b eca u se informa ti on about th e durability of v ideo

games

is

not relevant to the w riter's argument in this paragraph. The ma in point of the paragraph is that

video games are more predictable than pinball machines. Adding information abour l)ow' video

games a re "bu ilt to last" or are "constructed durably" distracts

the reader.

 

The best answer is NOT:

 

F because, as stated above, information a bout how the machines have been "b uilt to last" diverts the read-

er from the main focus of the paragraph.

 

G

because it is incor r ect i~ the sa m e way that

F

is. Adding th e irrelevallt information that th e machine "is

constructe? durably" is dis tracting to the

rcader.

H

because it is incorrect in the same way that G and F arc .

 

Question 51.

The

best

answer is C because it maintains t h e second~person ( You) pe r spec-

rive th a t is used throughout this paragrap h. It is imponanr to note that the writer is usi ng the secon d-person po int of view in th is par agrap h to speak di rect ly to and draw in the reader. Consi d er the semence preceding this onc: "As you guide your character through the ga me's challenges, yOIl

come to know how t he machin e will res po nd to your every move."

 

The best answer is NOT:

 

A

becau se it fai ls to maintain a consiste nt viewpoim. It makes an illogical shift

from the second person (You)

to the third person singular (He or she).

 

B

because it makes a n illog ica l shift from [h e second person ( You) to the first

person plur al (\Ve).

 

o because it nor only shifts from second person (YOIt) to third person (Peo ple), but it al so illo'g ically shifts from present tense ({earn) to past tense (/e~rned).

from present tense ({earn) to past tense (/e~rned). \ ~ - - , , / from

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4   • PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS Question 52. The best answer is
 

PRACTICE TEST 1 EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

Question 52. The best answer is F. Notice t h a t th is question asks for the least acceptable

answer: In other words, t he best answer is t he weakest

choice. If you rea d th e paragraph careful-

ly, you will see t hat the id ea prese nted in thi s sente nce (pinb a ll is unpredictable) is mea n t to con-

trast with the idea in the p receding sentence (video games are pr ed ictab le). llsing the transitional word therefore at this po int is illogical and con fus ing.

Give n t hi s contex t ,

The best answer is NOT:

 

G oecallse it is an acceptable a lternative to though, providing the same logical transi ti on.

H because it also provides an acceptable altentative to though.

 

J

because, alo ng with G and H, it provides an acceptable alternative ·to

though.

Question 53. The best answer is B because the absence o f a comma here creates the clear- est and most understandable sentence.

The best answer is NOT:

 

A

because

it places an unn ecessary

and distract ing comma between the su bj ect clause ("a ball you thought bounce").

was lost") an d the predicate ("w ill

C

because it sets off the auxiliary (helping) verb will for )10 logical reason.

 

o because it places an unnecessary and distracting comma be tween the auxil iary verb will from the main verb bounce.

Question 54. The best answer is F because It most ef fec tL vely links th e ra pLC of Paragraph 3

(pinba ll is less pcedic t able than vi deo games) and the rap ic

of Pa r agra ph , 4 (t he

e1eme nr of

c hance makes pi n ball more interesting than vi deo games).

The best answer is NOT:

 

,

G

because it fails to provide an effect ive link between th e topics of the twO paragraphs, as described above.

This choice undermines the writer's argument by saying that pi n ball ga mes a re similar to video games.

H

because it, too, fails to pr,ovide an effective transition frorn Paragrap h 3 to Parag raph 4. H also contra-

dicts t he writer's previollsly stated point that pinball is cha lleng in g.

 

J because, like G and H, it provides an ineffective transition between the ideas presented in the two para- graphs. In addition, if yOll inse rted this sentence at the beginning of Paragraph 4, the next sentence would not logically follow.

Question 55. The best answer is D because it results in the clearest a nd most co ncise respons~. In other words, it avoids redundancy (repeating the same idea) a nd wordi ness.

The best answer is NOT:

 

A becausc it is redundant. At this point in the sentence, it is already clear that the writer is referring to "these video games."

B because it is incorrect for the same reason th at A is.

 

C

because it is incorrect in the same way that A and B arc.

228

th at A is.   C because it is incorrect in the same way that A

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PRACTICE TEST 1

Question 56. T he best answer is F because it mai nta in s the seco nd -person (you), present

tense "perspective that is used in t he sur round ing tex t. Not ice that the second- person point of view: "Once you have mastere d a

es

the precedi ng game." (T his

se ntence esta blish-

question

is sim ilar

to

questio n 5 1. )

The best answer is NOT:

 

G

beca use it makes a con fusing tense shift in thi s se ntence from t he present perfect tense ("you ha ve mas-

tered") to t he past tense ("yo u the n loo ked") .

 

H because it makes an illogical shift from the second-person plural (you) to the third person (one).

 

1 because it, too; makes a n illog ica l shift from th e second-person plural (you) to the thir d pe rson (o ne).

Question 57. The best answer is B because the com ma between

th ese two noun ph rases

("so metim es you r enemy" and "so metimes your

all y") pr ovi des clarity fo r t hi s sentence.

 

The best answer is NOT:

 

A

because without the comma there, the statement becomes ambiguous and confusing. It's hard to tell

whether the second

sometimes is modifying your enemy o r your ally.

 

C

because it improperly uses a semico lon between these two no un phrases. By the way, those phrases are

called " pr.edicate nouns" because they (ollow the linking

verb is.

D

because even though the conju nct ion and cou ld be used be tween these two sente nce elements, se rrin g off

the conjunction with co mm as is inappropriate a nd confus in g.

 

Question 58. The best answer is G beca use it provides the mo st conc ise way to make t he wr iter's point.

The best answer is NOT:

 

F beca use it is vague and unnecessarily word y. In add ition, it c reates a cl ause that lacks subject-verb agree- ment. ~he subj ect times is plural and requ ires a p lural verb, no t· the singu la r ver b is.

H

because it is red und an t (it repeats the same ide a). In this sentence, each, single, an d unique a ll mean the

sa

me thing.

J

because the

p hrases "e ve r y single t ime" and "eac h " make t hi s sentence wordy and re petit ive.

 

Question

59. The best answer is C b eca

use it p rovides an adj ect ive

(cont inu a l ) for the

noun

that it precedes (cha llenge).

 

The best answer is NOT:

A

because t he adverb continually lacks a neighbo ring se ntence element that it can mod ify (a ve rb or an

adjective ).

B

because the adverb·continuously faces the same problem of lacking someth ing to modify.

 

o because th e verb form continue is simply out of place here between the ar ticle a and the noun challenge.

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C h apter 4:

C h apter 4: • • PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS Question 60. The best

PRACTICE TEST 1 EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

Question 60. The best answer is J bl;!i,:ausc thruughout the t:ssay, the writer suggests that "pi n ba ll is superior" by making t he argument t hat p in ball re q uires more skill and is olO"re cha l- lenging than video games . It is reasonable to conclude, then, that this essay fulfilled the w riter's

goal.

The best answer is NOT:

F beca use the writer does suggest in this essay that video games "mig ht seem more att ractive than pinball,"

bur th is has nothing to d o with the writer's goat of wri ting an essay chat shows pinball as being su pe rior to

video games.

G because t h is choice can be ruled out for two reasons: first, the essay does fulf ill the writer's goal, and sec-

ond, the w ri te r d oes not say that video games challe nge the skills of t he player. H because this answe r states t hat the essay does ful fill the w rite r's goal, but the reason give n is no t accurate. The writer never states that pinball games "arc mo re visually attractive than video games.»

Passage V

Question 61. The best answer is D beca u se t he abse nce of commas he re est and most understandable sentence.

The best answer is NOT:

A because it inse rts an unnecessary and confus ing comma between the noun letters and the preposition in. The

crea t es th e cl ea r-

phrase "in front of you" mod ifies letters, and these elements should not be separated by any punctuation.

B because it inappropriately and confusingly inserts a comma between the verb tumbles and the preposition to.

C because it inse rts an unnecessa ry and confusi ng com ma between the comple te subject phrase ("each of the

letters in front of you") an d t he ve rb tumbles.

,

'

Question 62. The best answer IS H because it effect ive ly an d logica ll y ing conjunction (li nking word) alld to connect the two independent cla uses in

The best answer is NOT:

F because the use of the conjunction unless here creates an illogical statement. It makes no sense to say, "The

uses th e coordina t - this sentence.

.

computer is probably sick, unless

G because the usc of the conjunction except also creates an illogical sta tement. A co mp ute r wit h a virus is

not an exception to a computer be ing sic k.

J because the use of the conjunction as if creates a confusing and amb iguous sentence .'

[it} has a virus."

230

.

4

as if creates a confusing and amb iguous sentence .' [it} has a virus." 230 .

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• Practice ACT Tests • PRACTICe TeST 1 • Question 63. The best answer is D
• Practice ACT Tests • PRACTICe TeST 1 • Question 63. The best answer is D

PRACTICe TeST 1

Question 63. The best answer is D because it appropriately set s off the conjunctive a d verb however with co mmas. When a co njunctive adverb or transitional expression interrupts a cla use, as however does in this sentence, it should usua lly be set off with commas.

The best answer is NOT:

A because it places a comma after however but omits the corresponding comma before the word.

B because it

C because it is incorrect because it places a comma befo re however but omits the cor respond ing comma after

the word.

inappropriately uses a se micolon instead of a co mma before the adverb however.

. f

Question 64. The best answer is G beca use it provides the most effect iv e inrroduccory sen-

tence for Paragraph 3. T he top ic of the paragraph is th e serious compute r viruses known as

"b omb s. " Notice that these "bombs. "

and furt her defines

the .second se nte nc e in this parag raph logica ll y fo ll ows

The best answer is NOT:

F because th e information is too broad. T he topic of the paragraph is not all computer viruses; rather, it is

the much narrower topic of viruses ca lled "hombs ." In addition, if this se ntence opened the paragraph, the reader would not unde rstand, later in the paragraph, what "these bombs" referred to.

H because it introduces a topic other than th e "bom bs. " If you read the paragraph with th is se ntence as the

introduction, the paragraph makes no sense. J because it, too, strays from the main topic of the paragraph, which is the comp uter viruses referred to as "bom bs."

Question 65. The best answer is A

being made in this sen tence.

The 'best answer is NOT:

B because the phrase "devastative disaster" is redundan t (repeating informati on). In this case, the use of the

beca use it mo st clearly and

conc isely expresses th e .

point

ad

jective devastative is redundant beca use the noun disaster expresses the sam e thought.

C

beca use th is phrasi ng is confusing if no t nonsensicaL H ow can somethin g be "devastation to the operat-

ing of a com puter"?

D because it is redun d ant and u nclear. The redundancy occurs in the phrase "can be possi bl y." Also, the

phrase "operating o f a co mputer" is not idiomatic English ; that is, it 's not the way English speakers would normally say or write the phrase.

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 • PRACTICE TEST 1 •   Question 66. The best answer is F because
Chapter 4 • PRACTICE TEST 1 •   Question 66. The best answer is F because

PRACTICE TEST 1

 

Question 66. The best answer is F because it is the clearest and most concise of the four choices given.

The best answer is NOT:

G

hecause the p h rase "that detect computer viruses" is redundant. The phrase is not necessary because the

. reader already knows that de tection programs, by definition, "detect comp.uter viruses." In addition, the phrase "computer viruses" appears a second time at the end of the sentence.

H because it is a lso unnecessarily wordy and redundant. The phrase "computer vir uses" appears tw ice in '

this short sentence.

J because it, too, unnecessarily repeats the phrase "computer vi ru ses."

Question 67. The best answer is D beca use both verbs in t he subordinate) or d epen dent,

clause of th is sentence agree

in number with the subject programs, w hi ch the cla use mo d ifies. The

sub jec t programs is

plu ral, so t he verbs search a nd destroy must a lso be plural.

The best answer is NOT:

A

because the singular verb forms (searches, destroys) do not agree with their plural subject, programs.

B because it is incorrect in the same way that A is; the sing ular verb forms do not agree with their plura l

subject.

(

C because it is ungramma tical. Although the verb search is plural and agrees wi th the sub ject programs, the verb destroys is singular and does not agree.

Question

68. The best answer is G because

it pr ovides a p redicate verb (is found) fo r ' t he

ma in cl ause of th is sentence . ("Ev ide nce

is fo u nd in

rhe names o f t heir p rograms.")

T he best answe{ is NOT:

F

because it creates an incomplete sentence, <1 fragment. The part iciple beillg foultd cannot function as the

predicate ve rb of the mai n clause of this sente nce.

H

because, like F, it creates a fragment because the participle having been foulld C<lnnot functio n as a pred-

icate verb,

J because, i n this C<l se, the verb form found reads as if it were a past participle, not a predicate verb. This roo is a sente nce fragment beca use it lacks a predicate for the sentence's main dause.

Question 69. The best answer is A because it appropriately uses a cajon to introduce the list of names of the programs. In tro duc ing a lis t is one function of the colo n.

 

The best answer is NOT:

B

because it improperfy uses the semicolon, which is genecall~ used to separate two independen t cl a uses .

. C because it omits the necessary punctuation. The colon is needed here to signal to readers that a list of "the

!).ame~ of their progr<lms" will

follow.

o because the comma is not a "strong" enough p unc tuation mark here. Is thi s comma the S<lmc as or part

of

the series o f commas that follow in this sentence?

232

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Practice ACT Tests

 
• PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

PRACTICE TEST 1 EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

 
 

Question 70. The best answer is F beca use it is the clearest a nd most logical of the fou r

choi ces . It a lso provides a p roper idiom of standa rd written

English. Th e ph rase" As w ith a ll dis-

eases" indi cates that th e best cure for compute r viru ses is t hat sa me as t hat for all di sea ses: pre-

vention.

 

The best answer is NOT:

G

because it results in an amb iguo us and illogica l stat ement. It sta tes that "t he best cure" is "s im ilarl y

to all

diseases," wh~ch is ill ogical

and ungrammati cal.

 

H

because it is unclear. The use of the phrase " In the sam e way as" suggests that t he wr ite r is t rying to co m-

pare app les ("all diseases") and oranges ("the best cure").

 

J

beca use "Accord in g with"

is not an id iom of sta ndard written Engli sh . Even if the sentence began

"Accordin!} to all d iseases," which is

idioma tic, th e se ntence sti ll would n 't make sense.

 

Question 71. The best answer is C b ecause th e question sta t es t h at the wr iter's imentio n is to recom mend "ways to protect computer data against viruses." C provides a recommendation by a d visi n g the reader to u se antiv iru s pro gr am s fr equ e ntl y.

The best answer is NOT:

 

A because stati ng that many "v iruses are q u ite soph is.t icated" d oes not prov"i de a recomm en dation and , th us, does not accomplish the writer's s tated intentio n.

B

because it does provide a recommendation of so n s, but nN the recommendation stated in the quest iq n.

Ad

d ing software th at c heck s spe ll ing d oes not " pro tect co mputer data agains t viruses."

 

D

because a lthough this choice ma kes a broad recommen d at ion (" be

aware of the variOllS ways to prevent

viruses"), it does not recommend "specific ways to protec t to protect co mputer data," wh ich is the wri te r's stated intention.

Question 72. The best answer is H because placing the wor d better int o t he phrasi n g "yo u had better hope" p rovides the clearest statemem a nd best clarifies t he meaning of the sentence.

T he best answer is NOT:

 
 

,

F because he re, better.inappropriately modifies responds, which confuses the mean in g of th e sentence. Also, the resu ltant phra se "you had hope" so unds wrong in this se ntence along w ith its two p resent tense verbs (is and responds).

G

because in th is arrangemel1[. better modifies sys tem and implies a co mparison that does not exist. "If there

is

a virus ·in

you r better syste m " wrongly sugges ts that th ere a re two syste ms.

 

J because it is incorrect fo r the same reason that F is.

 

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Chapter 4 •   • PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS ntence is af ter Paragraph
Chapter 4 •   • PRACTICE TEST 1 • EXPLANATORY ANSWERS ntence is af ter Paragraph
 

PRACTICE TEST 1 EXPLANATORY ANSWERS

ntence is af ter Paragraph 4. The last sentence of this paragraph lis ts the names of the virus detec-

 

s uggest that the problem is seri o us." Th e names id ent ified 10

because Para graph 2 provides a description of what a co mpu ter viru s can do an d does not refer to an y

because the main topic of Par agrap h 3 is com purer "bombs ." As with A, t here is no reference to particu-

because it, too, would be an illog ical placement. Al th oug h there a re "names" in the last se nt ence of

because, althou gh shifting to the third-person pronouns one a nd one's may change the ton e of the essay,

because changing the pronoun s in the essay from seco nd to th ird person wou ld not suggest that the writer

"speaking to a broader an d mo re inclusive aud ience."

 

" to descr ibing com-

hi cs o f tampering wit h a c omput er syste m, so it would not meet t h e wr ~ter's g o a l a s describe d in

because

th e

I'csu lti ng

because

the

vir uses is not exp lained in

from compute r ,viruses. de tai l.

Question 73. The best answer is C because t he most logical and effective placement for th is

se

ti on programs; rh e new sente nce, w h ich r efers to tho se names, logically follows. Also, this new se n-

tence states that the "N am es

Paragraph 4 (Vaccine, Checkup, Antitoxin, and Disinfectant) do impl y a level of seriousness.

The best answer is NOT:

A

"names" of viruses. Adding the sentence here makes no sense.

B

lar "names."

D

Para grap h 5 (Intemet an d World Wide Web) , these n ames ao not suggest a serious problem in the way that . the "~ames" in Paragraph 4 do.

Question 74 . The best answer is H beca use the seco nd -p e rso n pronouns (you, your) d o directly address the read er. R ev ising the 1!ssay so that it used t he third -perso n pron ouns one and one's would sacrifice that sense of addressing and advising th e reader.

The best answer is NOT:

F

a pol ite and fo rm al tone is clearly nO,t a ppr opr iate to t he purpose of th is piece,

G

is

J because, in this essay, the setting is not a prominent element, and a sh ift in pronouns from second to third person would not change the se nse of that se tting.

Question 75. The best answer is DI beca use th e essay does limit itself

puter viruses and the basic precautions to be taken agai nst them." The essay does not discuss the

et

this question.

The best answer is NOT:

A essay does not ex pl a in any moral or ethi cal conse que nces

B process o f ridding a computer system of

C becau se a reader would not necessarily ha ve to know how a virus is programmed in orde r to make a judg -

ment about die moral ity or et hic s of pro gramm ing a virus.

ment about die moral ity or et hic s of pro gramm ing a virus. 234

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