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Fats

The digestion cycle of fats is a bit complicated because digestion tends to occur at
different locations. Very little digestive action occurs in the mouth. This is due to lingual lipase,
an enzyme that uses the catalytic triad of aspartate, histidine, and serine to hydrolyze long chain
triglycerides into partial glycrides and thus free fatty acids. Salivary lipase is secreted in the
mouth. In the stomach, gastric glands which are made up of three types of cells which are the
following: mucous cells, chief cells, and parietal cells are found. The crucial digestive enzyme in
the stomach is called gastric lipase and is secreted in small units. This enzyme is secreted by
chief cells. On the other hand, hydrochloric acid is secreted by the parietal cells. Gastric juices
are due to the combination of mucus, hydrochloric acid and the enzymes. Thus, the gastric juices
acquire relatively small amounts of gastric lipase. Gastric lipase digests triglycerides. Also
occurring in the stomach is the release of acid. This is penetrated by the hormone, soatostatin. As
chyme makes its way to the small intestine, it first deals with the liver. The liver is important in
the sense that the liver oxidizes fatty acids as well as synthesizes lipoproteins, phospholipids, and
cholesterol. The liver helps since it converts portions of carbohydrates, and proteins molecules
into fat molecules. However the crucial function of the liver is that it synthesizes bile, which
helps in digesting fats. Fat digestion and absorption mainly occurs once chyme arrives in the
small intestine. This is due to the presence of pancreatic lipase and bile salts. Triglycerides break
into monoglycerides and fatty acids. The bile salts are essential emulsifying agents for fat
because bile breaks the fat particles into smaller particles. Thus, the smaller particles have the
capacity to be absorbed by the lining of the small intestine. After the lipids are fully digested in
the small intestine, they travel to the large intestine where they are made into feces.
Proteins
Proteins digestion cycle begins in the stomach. However when the protein infused
food is being chewed, they are being moistened by salvia. Mucus is exuded to tie the
particles together. Once the food is chewed and swallowed, it arrives at the stomach where
protein structure is broken down by hydrochloric acid that results in the acid activating
pepsin. By activating pepsin, hydrolyzes protein become short polypeptides and amino acids.
Also, chief cells secrete gastric juices that contain pepsinogen. Thus, the chemical digestion
commences. During the digestive cycle, hormones play a key role. In the instance of proteins,
gastrin’s responsibility is to stimulate the secretion of gastric juices. Lastly in the stomach,
the food is converted to chyme. As the bolus travels to the small intestine, the acidic chyme
from the stomach is attacked by pancreatic proteases. This causes it to hydrolyze proteases
into single amino acids that can be absorbed by the mucosal cells. Thus, the amino acids
enter the bloodstream. Once, in the bloodstream, the amino acids can be apprehended by
cells. This occurs as the amino acids travel to the liver. Amino acids travel to the liver and
send to the cells as required. Therefore the liver is of mass importance. The liver practically
separates amino acids to form urea nitrogen. The liver also has the reasonability to synthesize
certain blood proteins and covert amino acids to another form of amino acids. In the small
intestine, proteases produced by pancreatic enzymes finish the digestion of proteins into
single amino acids. The goal for breaking down proteins into single amino acids is for them
to be absorbed. Trypsinogen intertwines with another enzyme, enterokinase; thereby,
secreting the enzyme by the mucosal cells that are in the small intestine. This action causes
trypsin to be activated. Trypsin also helps the duodenum and pancreas in the chemical
breakdown. Moreover, trypsin activates the then inactive procarboxypeptidase and
chymotrypinogen and they are to be converted to carboxypeptidase and chymotrypsin. The
mucosal cells exude peptidase, which is an enzyme. Peptidase function is to split peptide
bonds into amino acids to allow for full digestion. The protein digestion cycle ends in the
small intestine although smaller particles of amino acids are absorbed into the villi and blood
seemingly carries the amino acids away.
Carbohydrates
The initial digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. Salivary glands
exclude saliva, which has the job of moistening the consumed food. Salivary amylase is
released by the salivary glands as the food is chewed. This enzyme commences the
polysaccharides breakdown process. The food shoots down the esophagus after the food is
swallowed due to the food being in relatively smaller pieces and it being mixed with salivary
amylase and salivary juices. Digestion somewhat pauses at the stomach because the stomach
tends to stop the action put forth by the salivary amylase since the stomach produces acid that
destroys bacteria that the food carries. After chyme is done with the stomach, it enters the
small intestine or duodenum. The pancreas becomes aware that chyme has entered so it
releases an enzyme called pancreatic amylase. This enzyme breaks the polysaccharide down
into disaccharide, which consist of having a chain of only having two sugars linked together.
Thus, the duodenum produces enzymes that are responsible for disaccharides breaking down
into monosaccharides. These enzymes are called lactase, sucrose, and maltase. This
breakdown is important because monosaccharides consists of single sugars that small
intestine absorbs. Additionally, carbohydrates that managed to not be fully digested and
absorbed by the small intestine make their way to the colon. In the colon, the undigested and
unabsorbed carbohydrates are broken down by intestinal bacteria. The intestinal bacterium
excretes with feces the carbohydrates that cannot be digested, such as fiber.