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P. 1

Empirical Formula|Views: 5|Likes: 0

Published by Princess Kim

chemistry

chemistry

Published by: Princess Kim on Jul 20, 2014

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/234585475/Empirical-Formula

07/20/2014

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**From percentage to formula
**

The Empirical Formula

• The lowest whole number ratio of elements

in a compound.

• The molecular formula the actual ratio of

elements in a compound

• The two can be the same.

• CH

2

empirical formula

• C

2

H

4

molecular formula

• C

3

H

6

molecular formula

• H

2

O both

Calculating Empirical

• Just find the lowest whole number ratio

• C

6

H

12

O

6

• CH

4

N

• It is not just the ratio of atoms, it is also the

ratio of moles of atoms

• In 1 mole of CO

2

there is 1 mole of carbon

and 2 moles of oxygen

• In one molecule of CO

2

there is 1 atom of

C and 2 atoms of O

Calculating Empirical

• Pretend that you have a 100 gram sample of

the compound.

• That is, change the % to grams.

• Convert the grams to mols for each element.

• Write the number of mols as a subscript in a

chemical formula.

• Divide each number by the least number.

• Multiply the result to get rid of any fractions.

Example

• Calculate the empirical formula of a

compound composed of 38.67 % C, 16.22

% H, and 45.11 %N.

• Assume 100 g so

• 38.67 g C x 1mol C = 3.220 mole C

12.01 gC

• 16.22 g H x 1mol H = 16.09 mole H

1.01 gH

• 45.11 g N x 1mol N = 3.219 mole N

14.01 gN

• 3.220 mole C

• 16.09 mole H

• 3.219 mole N

•C

3.22

H

16.09

N

3.219

If we divide all of these by the smallest

one It will give us the empirical formula

Example

• The ratio is 3.220 mol C = 1 mol C

3.219 molN 1 mol N

• The ratio is 16.09 mol H = 5 mol H

3.219 molN 1 mol N

• C

1

H

5

N

1

is the empirical formula

• A compound is 43.64 % P and 56.36 % O.

What is the empirical formula?

• 43.6 g P x 1mol P = 1.4 mole P

30.97 gP

• 56.36 g O x 1mol O = 3.5 mole O

16 gO

P

1.4

O

3.5

Divide both by the lowest one

• The ratio is 3.52 mol O = 2.5 mol O

1.42 mol P 1 mol P

P

1.4

O

3.5

P

1

O

2.5

• Multiply the result to get rid of any fractions.

P

1

O

2.5

2 X = P

2

O

5

• Caffeine is 49.48% C, 5.15% H, 28.87% N

and 16.49% O. What is its empirical

formula?

• 49.48 C

• 5.15 H

• 28.87 N

• 16.49 O

g

mol

12

1

g

mol

1

1

g

mol

14

1

g

mol

16

1

= 4.1mol

= 5.2mol

= 2.2mol

= 1.0mol

Since they are

close to whole

numbers we will

use this formula

We divide by

lowest (1mol O)

and ratio

doesn’t change

C

4.12

H

5.15

N

2.1

O

1

empirical mass = 97g

OR C

4

H

5

N

2

O

1

Empirical to molecular

• Since the empirical formula is the lowest

ratio the actual molecule would weigh

more.

• By a whole number multiple.

• Divide the actual molar mass by the mass

of one mole of the empirical formula.

• Caffeine has a molar mass of 194 g. what

is its molecular formula?

• Find x if

mass formula empirical

mass molar

x

•194 g

•97 g

= 2

C

4

H

5

N

2

O

1

C

8

H

10

N

4

O

2

.

2 X

Example

• A compound is known to be composed of

71.65 % Cl, 24.27% C and 4.07% H. Its

molar mass is known (from gas density) is

known to be 98.96 g. What is its molecular

formula?

Example

• 71.65 Cl

24.27C

4.07 H.

g

mol

5 . 35

1

g

mol

12

1

g

mol

1

1

= 2.0mol

= 2.0mol

= 4.0mol

• Cl

2

C

2

H

4

Its molar mass is known (from gas density)

is known to be 98.96 g. What is its molecular

formula?

We divide by

lowest (2mol )

•Cl

1

C

1

H

2

would give an empirical wt of 48.5g/mol

Its molar mass is known (from gas density)

is known to be 98.96 g. What is its molecular

formula?

•

would give an empirical wt of 48.5g/mol

mass formula empirical

mass molar

x

g

g

5 . 48

96 . 98

= 2 =

2 X Cl

1

C

1

H

2

= Cl

2

C

2

H

4

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