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Title: Caloric Content of Food

Objective(s): To measure the energy content of different food samples and to become familiar with
energy units such as calories and joules.

Procedure: Step 1: 100 mL beaker was weighed and filled half way with water then weighed again.
Then subtracted to get the net weight of the water. The burner was set up on aluminum foil then the
water in the beaker was placed on the burner. The initial temperature of the water was recorded. This
step was repeated for each of the food samples below.
Marshmallow: The marshmallow and an empty fork were both weighed. The marshmallow was placed
on a fork and lighted. Once lit and burning, it was placed under the beaker while the thermometer was
used to stir the water. The fork with the remnants of the burnt marshmallow was then weighed again,
the weight of the empty fork was subtracted to get the weight of the marshmallow remnant. The
temperature of the water was recorded as the final temperature.
Peanut: Step 1 was repeated. The weight of the peanut was recorded then lit and allowed to burn.
Once burning, it was placed under the beaker of water. Once the peanut was almost completely
burned, it was removed and the final temperature of the water was recorded. The weight of the peanut
residue was determined and recorded.
Potato Chip: Step 1 was repeated. The weight of the potato chip was recorded then lit and allowed to
burn. Once burning, it was placed under the beaker of water. Once the potato chip was almost
completely burned, it was removed and the final temperature of the water was recorded. The weight of
the potato chip residue was determined and recorded.

Observations: The phenolphthalein was used as an indicator for the titration of the acid. The
solution mixed with the sodium hydroxide turned it pink.

Data Table: Food Item Observations


Food Item Description:

Marshmallow

Peanut

Potato Chip
Mass of Food & Holder Initial
43.1g 26.3g 21.9g
Mass of Food & Holder Final
39.3g 22.2g 20g
Mass of Food Burnt
3.8g 4.1g 1.9g
Mass of Beaker
51.5g 51.5g 51.5g
Mass of Beaker & Water
102.3g 106.7g 104.5g
Mass of Water
50.8g 55.2g 53.0g
Water Temperature - Initial
25
0
C 19
0
C 19
0
C
Water Temperature Final
47
0
C 67
0
C 46
0
C
Delta T (
0
C Change)
22
0
C 48
0
C 27
0
C

Marshmallow:
Q = 22 * 50.8 * 4.184 = 4676.04 J/g 3.8 = 1230.54 Calories 1000 = 1.23 Cal/g

Peanut:
Q = 48 * 55.2 * 4.184 = 11085.93 J/g 4.1 = 2703.88 Calories 1000 = 2.70 Cal/g

Potato Chip:
Q = 27 * 53 * 4.184 = 5987.30 J/g 1.9 g = 3151.21 Calories 1000 = 3.15 Cal/g

Questions:
A. Which of the foods tested contains the most energy per gram? Potato Chip
B. How do your experimental results compare to published values? Pretty well. They are within
the range for marshmallow and peanut but nothing was published for potato chip.
C. What type of reaction is used in calorimetry? Combustion Reaction
D. What are the products of the reactions? Carbon Dioxide and water
E. Where did the products go? Into the air and released smells from the burning
F. A student performing an experiment to determine the caloric content of a cashew nut
collected the following data:
Mass of cashew nut before burning: 0.55 g
After burning: 0.05 g
Temp. increase of 200 g of water: 7.0 oC
1. Calculate the total energy released by the combustion of the cashew nut by using the
water temp. increase, the mass of the water and specific heat capacity of water.
Q = 7 * 200 * 4.184 = 5857.6 J/g
2. Calculate the energy released per gram of cashew nut consumed in the reaction.
5857.6 J/g 0.50 g = 11715.2 Calories 1000 = 11.72 Cal/g
3. Using the following standards (carbohydrates (4 Cal/g), protein (4 Cal/g), and fats 9 Cal/g),
determine the caloric content of a bag of your favorite snack food.
Special K Chips
Carb = 92
Protein= 8
Fats = 22.5

Conclusion:
The objective of this experiment was done. Interesting to know that my favorite food is pretty high in
caloric content based on the standards given. Would have preferred to not burn things indoors but it
was a fun learning experience.