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ROLE & RATIONALE OF GANDHAKA

SHODHANA
BY
Dr. MALAVI SHAYAN
Under the guidance of
Dr. Shobha.G.Hiremath Dr.Srinivas Yadav
H.O.D & Proff. Lecturer
Department of Rasashastra--G.A.M.C,Bangalore
CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGIN
VYUTPATTI
VERNACULAR NAMES & SYNONYMS
REVIEW OF GANDHAKA ACC. TO VARIOUS TEXTS
GANDHAKA BHEDHA
GRAHYA GANDHAKA
SHUDDHA & ASHUDDHA GANDHAKA LAKSHANA
NEED FOR SHODHANA
DIFF. METHODS OF GANDHAKA SHODHANA
GANDHAKA RASAYANA
MODERN ASPECT OF SULPHUR
DISCUSSION ON DIFF. METHODS OF SHODHANA
CONCLUSION


INTRODUCTION

GANDHAKA is included under uparasas by all the rasa granthas.

Mercury & Sulphur finds maximum use in indian medicine. Gandhaka is the
principal material used for making the most imp. preparations like rasalinga,
rasabandha etc.

Gandhaka stands next to Parada in importance, it is also considered as an
essential substance for Murchana and Marana. The Rasadravyas are
classified as Sagandha Murchana and Nirgandha Murchana on the basis of
presence of Gandhaka.

In Ayurveda, more specially in Rasashastra, most of the things start from
construction of Rasalinga, the fundamental part of ayurvedic lab.

Since Gandhaka is the fixer of Parada in making the Rasa linga etc, it is
necessary to mention its utility as a primary substance.


MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGIN :
1. In ancient times Goddess Parvathi joyfully decorated with ornaments of Ratnas ,
was dancing along with Vidyadaris , Yoginis & Apsaras, accompanied with
various musical instruments at SHWETHA-DWEEPA, which is on the bank
of Ksheera Sagara. Meanwhile , got her menses which stained her garments with
red colour. Then, she went to Kailasa Parvatha leaving the garments after
bathing on the bank of KsheeraSagara. The clothes were taken to the middle of
KsheeraSagara by the waves. At the time of churning of the Sagara by Suras &
Asuras as it came to the surface of the water which was emitting some sort of
smell, where the Suras & Asuras named it as GANDHAKA.
( Dharmananda sastry- Rasa Vignaneeya)

2. Gandhaka, considered to be originated from the Goddess Parvathi as Gouri beeja.
(Rasa. Manjari)

3.During Samudra Manthana of Ksheera Sagara, there evolved a substance with
smell and called as Gandhaka. (Ayu.Pra.32/3-6)

4.During Samudra Manthana, churning with Vasuki Sarpa, it produced flame from
its mouth, because of its hotness Vasa of Lord Bali melted in to the Samudra and
that had smell was called as Gandhaka. (Ayu. Pra. 2/7-9)

5. A Daitya by name Lelihan was a Mahabahu grown up to 33 Yojanas. The Vishnu
chakra cut him and the Vasa fell on the earth from his body is called as Lelitaka.

urimi
Fa ak Axrxii ! (z.M.S.)
The drug which exhibits severe smell

akq MUi r xW akM ! (p.U.z.)
That which produces smell

Acc. to M.Williams (Sans-Eng Dic1979)
The word Gandhaka would mean a lump or a ball.

Etymologically the word gandhaka is derived from three words:

alkM Axr Axj x alkM ||
The substance which has got smell.

zpl alkM Axr Axj ||
Here, shobhanaha has got two meanings i.e best & a sort of yellow pigment.
Therefore, it is the substance which has got yellow colour & also smell.

AqS szr alk ||
that substance which contains gandha & gives happiness.


VERNACULAR NAMES
INDIAN NAMES FOREIGN NAMES
KANNADA GANDHAKA BURMAN KAU
SANSKRIT PERSIAN GOWRID
GUJRATHI GERMAN SCHWELFEL
HINDI DUTCH ZWAVEL
MARATHI FRENCH SOUFRE
BENGALI GANDRAK SPANISH AZUFRE
ASSMEES KIBURIT LATIN SULPHUR
MALAYALAM GENDAGUM ENGLISH BRIMSTONE
TELUGU GANDHAKAM
alkM alk mwh alkzq alkqSl |
mialk Ai alk xalkuxij ||
xalk Sur alk Ux alkM |
MU MOalk MO zUpqi || ( U. l.)
alkM alkmwh alk c UxalkM |
xalkM alkM alk xalkMxij ||
mialk Aialk mqU MOlvl |
ososuxZr MU vUpqe ||
vsoU luli SirlS alkqSl |
MObl Ualk x Lu mUMii ||
(U.i.8/1-3)
A) Related To Mythology:

Gouribeeja, Balivasa
Vasaraka, Daityendra, Bali
Vasavat, Vatasougandhika

B) Related To Its Occurance:
Shara bhumija

C) Related to personality:
Lelitaka, Leli

D) Related to colour:
Peeta gandha, Gandha peetaka



E) Related To Odouric Nature:
Gandha, Gandhaka, Atigandha
Kruragandha, Gandhapashana ,Sugandha,
Gandhapitaka, Gandhashma, Gandhika,
Rasagandha,Vigandha.

F) Related To Appearance:
Navaneetaka

G) On Simile:
Shuka Tunda, Shukha Piccha

H) On Marana Property:
Dhatuha, Shulbari

I) On Pharmaco-Therapeutic Activity:
Keetaghna, Kusthari, Pamari

J) Anya:
Vikruntaka, Lekhi


Various Synonyms of Gandhaka designate its Physical,
Chemical, Therapeutic as well as its Mythological Origin as:

Atigandha: With Pungent Smell.
Bali: Balya in nature, King Bali had used it.
Balivasa: Originated from fat of king Bali
Daityendra: King Bali
Gandhamadana: Characteristic Sharp odour.
Gandhaka: That which produces smell.
Gandha Pashana: Hard like stone with distinct odour
Gouri Pushpa: Originated from Deity Parvathi
Kitaghna: Anti microbial / Bactericidal
Kruragandha: That which is having intolerable smell.
Leleetaka: Originated from fat of Leleehan.
Navaneeta: Smooth and soft like Butter.
Pamari: Enemy of Pama.
Puti Gandha: That which is having Putrid smell.
Rasagandha: That Uparasa, which is having smell.
Shulbari: Enemy of Tamra
Sugandha: Having Good Smell.
Sougandhika: That Produces Good smell.
Shara bhumija: Originated from Shara Bhumi (Jangala)

Sl.No. Synonyms A.P-2/10 R.J.N-2/2 R.R.S-1/124 R.T-8/1-3
1
Gandhapashana
+ - + +
2
Sougandhika
+ + + +
3
Balivasa
+ - - +
4
Gandhashma
- + - -
5
Gandhi
- + - -
6
Sugandhika
- + + +
7
Pamaghna
- - - -
8
Gandhamadana
- + - +
9
Shulbari
- + + +
10
Putigandha
- + - +
11
Kushtari
- + - +
12
Divya
- + - -
Sl.No. Synonyms A.P-2/10 R.J.N-2/2 R.R.S--1/124 R.T-8/1-3
13 Bali + + - +
14 Kitaghna - + - +
15 Navaneeta - + + +
16 Sharabhumija - + - +
17 Gourirajha - + - +
18 Manohara - + - -
19 Shukapiccha - - + -
20 Pamari - - + +
21 Atigandha - - - +
22 Kruragandha - - - +
23 Rasagandhaka - - - +
24 Daityendra - - - +
REVIEW OF GANDHAKA ACC. TO VARIOUS RASA TEXTS :

The origin of Gandhaka is explained 1
st
in Shrimad Bhagwathgeeta.

In Ch.Chi.7:- In Kusthadhikara use of Gandhaka with amalakarasa
and madhu

In Su.Chi.9:- In Kushtha chikitsa Gandhaka is one of the ingredient of
Maha vajrataila

In Ah.Hri:- Lepa yoga prepared out of Chakrataila along with guggulu,
gandhaka etc is to be applied over affected part & exposed to sunlight

In Ras. Mangala:- 1
st
book to mention about Kajjali & parpati kalpana
with gandhaka as main ingredient

In R.R.S:- Explanation of gandhaka shodhana, its maatra and different
yoga is mentioned

In R.Pra.Su:- Among bheda of gandhaka, raktavarna gandhaka
is said to be laksharasanibham and mentions that krishnavarna
gandhaka makes body as vajra.

In R.Hri.T:- Use of gandhaka as rasayana with the combination
of abhraka

In Ayu.Pra:- Among gandhaka yoga mentioned, 7
th
yoga is said
as sarvottam

In Ras.Ta:- Ashtam taranga is dedicated to gandhaka vigyana

In Ras.Yog.Sag:- 8 types of gandhaka rasayana yoga are
mentioned
GANDHAKA BHEDHA
x cm uk Su ! vMcclp uU |
qkrq miuh xri vYsuhkq xqi ||
cik alkM r uh iSp Zs |
i ZOM m sml sWqUh ||
ij cqsxU xrkr puimiuhul |
vMmcN x Lu xri UxUxrl ||
U vMihQZr kiuSuk uU |
Ssp Mwhuh x eUqirlvl ||
(U.U.x 3/12-15)

As per Rasarnava
Shukacanchuka / Raktavarna -- Shrestha
Pita Varna -- Madhyama
Shweta Varana -- Adhama

As per Ayurveda Prakasha
Rakta Varna -Uttama-Used for dhatu vada
Peeta Varna -- Madhyama Used for Rasa,Rasayana.
Shukla Varna -- Adhama- UsedforExternalApplication
Krishna Varna -- Durlabha Jaramrityu Nashana.

As per Rasendra Chudamani




VARNA AKARA KARMA
SWETA KHATIKAAKARA DHATU MARANA
PEETA SHUKA PICCHA NIBHA RASAYANA
RAKTA SHUKA TUNDA NIBHA DHATUVADA
KRISHNA DURLABHA JARA MRUTYU NASHA
As per Nighantu Ratnakara 6 types
Above 4 types + other shr & AqsxU

alkM uk m shr cqsxUMq |
rar u cqsxUq W Uxqa ahsmMq || (l.U.)
Loneeya & amlasara gandhaka.

USES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF GANDHAKA:-
GANDHAKA BHEDHA USE
SWETHA LEPANARTHA & MARANARTHA
PEETA RASA RAYANAS
RAKTA DHATUVADA
KRISHNA DURLABHA
GRAHYA GANDHAKA / SHODHANA YOGYA GANDHAKA :-

zMmcNxqcNr lulixqmp |
qxh MPl xlak alkM Ecri || { A. m-2/20}
Shuka Piccha nibha
Mrudu
Navaneeta
Masruna
Kathina
Snigdha
Turmeric yellow colour

lqsxi Uelxqmp Smiq luliMqs |
Mii W AqsxU xM alkM UxUxrl uU||
(U.i.8/4)
Amlasara Gandhaka is accepted for medicinal and rasayana use that which is
clean, processed with colour of turmeric, should have a glow, bright shinning,
on touch it should be like butter.







SHUDDHA GANDHAKA GUNAS :-

zkS alk WUSal MqireUSMl |
AalMU qWlw urukS MUi c || {A.m-2/17}
Shuddha Gandhaka cures kushta, mrutyu, jara. It is deepaka &
does veerya vruddhi.

ASHUDDHA GANDHAKA DOSHAS

AzkSalk Mi c M im pq mie iju |
m xZ uros lWli ixqzkS ulrelr || ( A.m-
2/18)
Ashuddha gandhaka causes kushta, tapa, bhrama & pittaja
vyadhi.
It decreases the dehakanti, sukha, veerya & bala.


NEED FOR SHODHANA-

alk qsr S vsch uw ij |
vkiurxii rSpl rjuk ||
(Ux eslk)
To remove physical impurities like shila, churna (stony
particles or clay)
To remove chemical or toxic impurities

IN GENERAL SHODHANA HELPS IN-

1.removal of unwanted ailments.
2.removal of visible and invisible impurities.
3.detoxificate the drug.
4.It converts heterogeneous properties to homogenous form.
5. Eradicates adulterants present in the drug.
6. Makes hard matters brittle, which helps in incineration.
7. Enhances the therapeutic value of dravyas.




RASAPANCHAKA OF GANDHAKA-
RASA KATU, TIKTA, KASHAYA
GUNA USHNA, SARA, SNIGDHA
VEERYA USHNA
VIPAKA MADHURA(R.Chu.), KATU(A.P)
PRABHAVA RASAYANA
KARMA Deepana, pachana, vishahara, jantughna, krimihara,
amapachana, rasashoshana, rasayana, vedhi,
sootamurchana, deergha-ayushyakara.
DOSHA
PRABHAVA
PITTALA, KAPHAVATAHARA
VYADHI
PRABHAVA
Kandu, kushta, visarpa, dadru, twakroga, aama dosha,
aamajeerna,visha, bhutadosha, krimi, pleeha roga,
kshaya roga, jara roga, netraroga, jwara, mrutyu, kasa,
mandagni, balakshaya, urdhwanga sakalaroga.
DIFFERENT METHODS OF GANDHAKA
SHODHANA

Swedana Method Rasa. Tar./ R.R.S

Dhalana & Vastra Galana Method R.R.S

Kurma Puta Method
Ras. Chud/ R.R.S/ Ayu. Pra/ R.T/ Rase.Sar.Sang

Bhavana Method R.T

Taila Pachana and Nikshepana Vidhi R.T

Damaru Yantra Vidhi R.T/ R.R.S

GANDHANASHANA VIDHI - R.T


SWEDANA METHOD


mr xu bOq uUki W alkM: |
aureruSi uxsi zqcNi ||
Lu xzki x Ar mwhloU irei |
bi uw iwMU xur mhQiuqu c ||
Ci z W alkzq lmjjuMi uei |
AmjjSlrj Wlrimi WsWs rj ||

R R S -3/21-23
Acc to R.R.S :- Swedana kriya is done for 1 hour
mentioned as powdered gandhaka is taken in a clothmake
pottali suspend it in a dolayantra containing milk & ghee.
By this the impurities will get mixed up in ghee & milk ,
gandhaka gets collected in pinda rupa and ghee starts
floating .
Dhalana & Vastra Galana Method

mr xu bOq uUki W alkM |
aureruSi uxsi vqcNi ||
Lu xvki xr mwhqoU irei |
bi uw iwMU xur mhQiuqi c ||
Ci v W alkvq lmjruMi uei| (U.U.x 3/20-21)
alkM Sui paUx miu uvkri |
iSx xmik xu alkM mUvkri || (U.U.x 3/23)
Take a mrita patra fill of the vessel with milk cover the
mouth by a cloth & tie it, then ghee is applied on the cloth then
some gandhaka is taken in a ghee smeared spoon and melt it on
heat and pour over the cloth into earthen pot melted gandhaka
get soldified in milktake out and wash it in warm water and
dry for further purity repeat this for 3-7 times .

Gandhaka can also be purified with Bhringaraja swarasa

KURMA PUTA METHOD -

xjsr Sak ulmr qZ ux lokr c |
alkM i lmr chi xMiMiq ||
NSri mjSbh ZmUhu alkMq |
eusri ZmUxrku ulcNhxijms ||
Sak lmii alk asi mUvkri |
viuU i cu lalk eri kuq ||
(U.U.x 3/24-25)

A pot is filled with milk & its mouth is covered with a cloth &
gandhaka choorna is spread over it & covered with an inverted
sarava. Upalas are spread over the sarava & ignited. Gandhaka
melts & penetrates through the cloth & gets collected at the
bottom of the pot. Repeating this for 100 times, gandhaka
becomes nirgandha.

BHAVANA METHOD -
Acc to R.J.N-
Bhavana kriya is mentioned as 1 part of gandhaka & 1/4
th
part of tankana are
done Mardana with Matulunga swarasa and thereafter Eranda taila bhavana is given


TAILA PACHANA & NIKSHEPA VIDHI -
Acc to R.T :-
Taila pachana & Nikshepa vidhi is mentioned as a vessel is taken with Tila/
Kusubhma/ Sarshapa taila warm it on mandagni and add powdered gandhaka
to it continue till it melts and pour into milk wash with warm water and dry it.

DAMRU YANTRA VIDHI/ URDHWAPATANA OF GANDHAKA

Damru yantra vidhi / Urdhwapatana of gandhaka is also mentioned as fine
powder of gandhaka is taken around 4 palas in a damru yantra urdhwapatana
kriya is done to get shuddha gandhaka this is said to be the purest form of
gandhaka.
GANDHANASHANA VIDHI
xalkM uchi mci Sakqkraq |
rS bliuqmlrS iS xucsUxq ||
mSj ml mccNl zlpwauU |
es TsMpSu ulmi ii ok ||
xualkq alkM eWirzwi Siq |
cUzljqSz os lrerpSwM || ( U-i 8/ 33-35)
Powdered gandhaka should be mixed with milk cooked on
mrudu agni, & when gandhaka gets swollen, then
sugandhika swarasa should be added & again boiled on
mandagni . Then , gandhaka should be dipped in triphala
qwatha & cooled.
By this gandhaka looses its swabhavika gandha & becomes
shuddha & came used for chirakala.



REFERENCE METHOD DRAVA DRAVYA
R.R.S-3/20, R.S.S 1/127/128, R.Man,
R.T-8/7-12
DHALANA GODUGDHA
R.R.S-3/23, R.T.-8/21-22, R.J.N-Vol II, R.Chu
DHALANA BHRINGARAJA SWARASA
RASAYANA SARA
DHALANA TAKRA / PALANDU RASA
R.J.N
BHAVANA MATULUNGA RASA &
ERANDA TAILA
R.R.S-3/24
BHAVANA BHRINGARAJA RASA
R.T- 8/23-25
URDHWAPATANA DAMARU YANTRA
R.Man-3/10, R.Chu-11/8-10,R.R.S-3/21-23
SWEDANA GODUGDHA+GHRUTHA
R.T-8/18-20
TAILA PACHANA
& NIKSHEPA
VIDHI
TILA TAILA , KUSUMBHA
TAILA
DRAVA DRAVYAS USED IN
GANDHAKA SHODHANA
Gandhaka Rasayana Acc. to different Authors


Acc to Rasa.Yoga.Sagar:-

1 pala triphala churna- pala shuddha gandhaka-1 karsha loha bhasmaall these
powders are mixed together licked in ardha karsha pramana along with madhu sarpi

1 part amramajja-1 part amrutha-1 part trivrita-1 part shuddha gandhakaall
these are given bhavana with kumari swarasa and take in 2 masha pramana with
aajya.

Gandhaka is purified in bhanda method, then bhavana is given with ajaksheera
and give 10 bhavanas with each drugs like ikshurasa, amruta, madhuka, gokshura,
varahi, kushta, bhringrajato this add churnas of pippali, pippalimula, lavanaga,
nagkesara, triphala, padmabeeja in equal quantity-this has to be consumed in masha
pramana with madhu/sharkara



Acc to Anand.Kanda.13/27-28:-

1 nishka of triphala churna churna- 1 nishka of guggulu-1 gunja of shudha
gandhaka licked in eranda tailatake this 1 gunja till 16.

Acc to Sahsra Yoga:-

Gudapaka is prepared by using following ingridients Shudha gandhaka,
lohabhasma, trikatu, trijata, vidanga, rasna, bhringraja, bakuchi,
erandabeeja, ghrita, madhu, guda ---it is given in karsha matra.

Acc to Ayu. Pra.2/46-48:-

z osamrx uU iiieiaQcMSp !
mjrkrwkpalUpuruU mjaSMh !
xk xi rer isrpa Uxrl akMxgi xri !
kir qWahalqkr zs ij MwPai Ual !
MlrjSzUaxkuUriru c UeUaq !
Mwlqi xui Li qir ur c m osqalSmiq !

Bhavana
dravya
Rasa Guna Virya Dosha karma Karma
1. Ksheera Madhura Guru Sheeta Vatapittaghna Bhrimaniya,
Rasayana, Vrishya,
Jeevaniya
2. Twaka Katu-
tikta-
madhura
Laghu-
ruksha
Ushna Vatakaphaghna Aampachaka,
Shukral, Rasayana,
Varnya
3. Patra Kinchita
madhura
Laghu-
pichhila-
teekshna
Ushna Vatakaphaghna Hrlaasa, Aruchi,
Peenasa
4. Ela Katu-
madhura
Laghu-
ruksha
Sheeta Tridoshaghna Shwasa, Kaasa,
Arsha, Mutrakriccha
5.Nagkesara Kashaya-
tikta
Laghu-
ruksha
Ishada
ushna
Kaphapittaghna Ampachana, Kustha,
Trishna, Jwara,
Visarpa
6. Guduchi Tikta-
kashaya
Laghu-
snigdha
Ushna Tridoshaghna Rasayana, Balya,
Agnidipana,
Sangrahi, Kasa,
Kustha, Vatarakta
7. Haritaki Kashaya
pradhana-
lavana varjita
Laghu-
ruksha
Ushna Tridoshaghna Rasayana,
Yogvahini,
Rechana
8. Vibhitaki Kashaya Laghu-
ruksha
Ushna Tridoshaghna Bhedana,
Madakaraka,
Kriminashana
9. Amalaki Amla
pradhana-
lavana varjita
Guru,
ruksha,
sheeta
Atisheeta Tridoshaghna Rasayana,
ruchikara,
Vibandha
10. Bhringraja Katu-tikta Laghu-
ruksha
Ushna Kaphavataghn
a
Rasayana, Balya,
Kasa, Vishghna,
Kustha
11. Sunthi Katu Laghu-
snigdha
Ushna Kaphavataghn
a
Vrishya, Pachana,
Vibandha
12. Ardraka Katu Guru-
ruksha-
teekshna
Ushna Vatakaphaghn
a
Deepana
13. Sita Madhura Guru-
snigdha
Sheeta Vatapittaghna Bhrimniya,
Vrishya,Trishnahar
a, Jwaradahahara
Drugs Ayu. Pra R.T/R.R.S Bha.Ra/Sha I.M.M
1. Shuddha Gandhaka 1 Nishka 2-8 Ratti/1
Shaan
1 Gunja-
1Masha
-----------
2. Gandhaka Rasayana 1 Karsha ----------------- ------------- -----------
3. Gandhaka Rasayana ------------- ---------------- ------------- 10-15 gms in
Acute leprosy

Rasamritam Bha. Ra/ Sha I.M.M
Gandhaka
Rasayana
Jala, Goksheera,
Madhu, Manjistha
kwatha, Mahatikta
ghrita
Ksheera Madhu--in
Advanced Leprosy
Ushnajala--in Acute
Leprosy
MATRA
ANUPANA
SULPHUR
I NTRODUCTI ON

A Chemical element that has the atomic no.16.
Denoted by symbol S.
It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal.
In native form , is a yellow crystalline solid.
In nature, found as pure element - as sulphide &
sulphate minerals.
It is an essential element for life & is found in 2
amino acids, cysteine & methionine.
OCCURANCE
Sulphur may be formed in various ways.

It is frequently the result of volcanic activity & at times being deposited
as a direct sublimation product.

It is formed by the incomplete oxidation by the oxygen of the air & of
hydrogen-sulphide gas derived from volcanic sources.

Further, it is formed by the decomposition of the hydrogen sulphide that
frequently occurs in thermal spring waters. This may come from
volcanic sources by the action of acid-water on metallic sulphides or by
reduction of sulphates especially gypsum. This last process is aided by
the action of certain micro-organisms.

Also, the biological process of the sulphur bacteria results in the
separation of sulphur.

The decomposition of metallic sulphides may produce sulphur , often in
small crystals.
OCCURANCE CONT..

The free world production of sulphur is in the form of BRIM-STONE,
comes esentially from North-America.

In the form of PYRITES, it is eesentially from western europe.

In the form of iron-pyrites it occurs in BIHAR & mined at Amjhor &
other nearby places.

In CHITRADURGA , massive pyrites occurs in Imgaladahalu area.

Associated with thermal springs, it is found in various parts of the
country.

Native sulphur is also reported from the Puga Valley of Ladakh area.

Recently deposits of native sulphur are reported from Barren Island
in the Andaman group of Islands.

FORMS OF SULPHUR



CRYSTALLINE
Rhombic/orthorhombic/ sulphur
Monoclinic/prismatic/ sulphur
AMORPHOUS
Plastic/ / sulphur
Milk of sulphur
ORES OF SULPHUR

SULPHIDES SULPHATES
Iron pyrites FeS2 Gypsum/ Calcium sulphate CaSO4.2H20
Copper pyrites Cu2SFe3S3 Heavy spar BaSO4
Galena PbS Selestone SrSO4
Zinc Blend ZnS Kiestite MgSO4.2H2O
Realger As2S3 Ferrous sulphate FeSO4.7H2O
Cinnabar HgS Copper sulphate CuSo4.5H2O
Hydrogen sulphide H2S Glober salt Na2SO4.10H2O
SULPHI DES - in the form of sulphide , Sulphur occurs in numerous
minerals & metals.

MINERALS- Realgar, Orpiment, Tetradynite, Molybdenite, Stibnite,
Bismuthinite etc.

METALS Galena group, Calceocite group, Sphalerite group, Cinnabar,
Pyrite group, Marcasite group, Millerite group etc.



SULPHO-SALTS - SULPHUR also occurs as an essential substance of
sulpharsimides, sulpha-antimonides & sulpha-bismuthides.
PHYSI CAL PROPERTI ES
ATOMIC NO 16

ATOMIC WEIGHT 32.065g mol -1

GROUP, PERIOD, BLOCK 16, 3, p

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.9 2.1

HARDNESS 1.5-2.5

MELTING POINT -115.21C

BOILING POINT 444.6 C

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE - ORTHORHOMBIC
CHEMI CAL PROPERTI ES
Insoluble in water & acid, but dissolves in carbon disulphide, benzene &
turpentine.

It is a bad conductor of heat & electricity. By friction negatively electrified.

On heating, sulphur melts into a red blood liquid.

Sulphur is a very reactive element. At 250C , it ignites with air. As it burns, it
combines with oxygen to form sulphur dioxide, a colourless gas.

When burned it emits a blue flame giving sulphur dioxide & a little trioxide as
well.
S + O 2 SO2
Sulphur forms explosive mixtures with oxidizing agents.
Eg. Potassium chlorate & Potassium nitrate

Sulphur dissolves in alkalies on heating to give sulphides& thiosulphates &
ultimately sodium pentasulphide.
4S + 6Naoh 2NaS +Na2S2O3+ 3H2O

It reduces hot conc. Sulphuric & nitric acid
2H2SO4 + S4 3SO2 + 2H2O
S + 6HNO3 H2SO4 + 6NO2 + 2H2O

MI NEROLOGY OF SULPHUR

Sulphur crystallizes in orthorhombic system. Crystals of sulphur are
commonly acute pyramidal, sometimes thick, tubular, rarely turned.

CLEAVAGE imperfect cleavage

FRACTURE conchoidal to uneven. Rather brittle to imperfectly sectile.

LUSTURE resinous

COLOUR sulphur-yellow, straw & honey-yellow, yellowish-brown,
greenish red to yellowish gray or white.


COMPOSI TI ON
Pure sulphur is often contaminated with clay , bitumen & other impurities.
SULPHUR I N HUMAN BODY
sulphur is an essential element for all life & is widely used in bio-chemical
processes.

It is the third most abundant element in human body by weight, being about as
common as potassium & a little more common than sodium or chlorine. A 70kg
human body contains about 140gms of sulphur.

Sulphur is the sixth most abundant macro mineral in breast milk.

In metabolic reactions, sulphur compounds serve as both fuels & respiratory
(oxygen-alternative) materials for simple organisms.

Sulphur in organic form is present the vitamins biotin & thiamine.

Sulphur is an important part of many enzymes & in antioxidant molecules like
glutathione & thioredoxin.

Organically bonded sulphur is a component of all proteins, as the amino acids
cysteine & methionine.
Any diet that provides protein is also providing some sulfur.
Disulphide bonds are largely responsible for the mechanical strength & insolubility
of the protein keratin, found in outer skin , hair, & feathers & the element
contributes to their pungent odour when burned.


THERAPEUTIC UTILITY OF SULPHUR
Sulpha drugs are used in the treatment of various infections.
Precipitated sulphur, Milk of Sulphur is a topical scabicide, ant
parasitic, antibacterial, antifungal, and keratolytic.

Sulphur is one of the oldest medications in use to treat acne.

Purified Sulphur Heals Radiation Damage- Purified sulphur has been
used as a therapeutic agent to reduce a reaction to combined
radiotherapy called autosensitisation, a type of autoimmunity associated
with radiation therapy. Thirty-four women with diagnoses of cervical
cancer (stages I and II) were given 0.5-1.0 g of purified sulphur mixed
with 0.25 g of glucose orally in the morning every 2-3 hours before
irradiation. A significant decrease in the reaction to therapeutic
irradiation was noted in the sulphur group and no side effects were
observed. Because radiation causes damage to DNA through free-radical
intermediates, this with a net-positive charge may protect against
radiation poisoning because they concentrate in the microenvironment
of DNA and scavenge free radicals.

ACTI ON OF SULPHUR

Sulphur, when taken internally in small doses, becomes
absorbed & may be detected in sweat , milk & urine.
It is a stimulant to the secreting organs such as the skin &
the bronchial mucous membranes.
It has a specific action on the rectum & increases the
haemorrhoidal secretions.
The sulphurous & mineral waters as they contain earthy
& alkaline sulphates act as laxative & diuretic, while the
sulphurous acid disengaged from them acts as a
diaphoretic.
In large dose it acts as a purgative.
OTHER USES
In manufacture of sulphuric acid
In manufacture of sulphur dioxide& sodium sulphite- used for bleaching straw &
wood fibers & for removing lignin from wood pulp for paper industry
In manufacture of organic chemicals which contain sulphur
Used in matches, insectisides & fungicides
USES
DI SCUSSI ON
ON
RATI ONALI TY OF
SHODHANA
Changes during Shodhana Kriya:-

Properties Before Shodhana After Shodhana

Colour Bright Yellow Light Yellow

Luster Shiny Not shiny

Odour Sulphur Sulphur with milk

Form Crystalline Granules

On touch Hard Easily powdered

SWEDANA METHOD OF GANDHAKA SHODHANA

PURPOSE OF DOING SWEDANA

To make rasoushadhis absolutely non-toxic
To enhance their therapeutic efficacy
To bring Laghutva
To make them palatable
To make their therapeutic actions broad based
Purification not only physically and but also chemically
Attributing the properties of Swedana dravya to Swedya dravya
Swedana is not only the shodhana samskara but also poorva karma for marana.

The chemical reactions that take place during Swedana process may be due
to:

Diffusion
Osmosis
Diffusion refers to the process by which molecules intermingle as a result
of their kinetic energy of random motion.

Osmosis may also be used to describe a physical process in which any
solvent moves, without input of energy, across a semipermeable membrane
(permeable to the solvent, but not the solute) separating two solutions of
different concentrations. Although osmosis does not require input of
energy, it does use kinetic energy and can be made to do.


Osmosis is a selective diffusion process driven by the internal energy of the
solvent molecules.



PROBABLE REASON FOR TI ME SPECI FI CI TY FOR SWEDANA


Ficks law of diffusion says,
The flux of an atom of a substance travels from one concentration to other
concentration in a fixed period of time.

The diffusion of the materials from Swedana dravya to the Swedya dravya
depends on the nature of the substance. Based on this factor exact time duration
might have been calculated by our Acharyas.
Swedana is one such process which makes the drug BIOCOMPATABLE by converting it
into organometallic complex.

HENCE IN SWEDANA

Reduction in hardness : By continuous heating in a liquid media the hard material becomes
soft in consistency.

Chemical reaction : During Swedana minute particles of the material come in contact with
the liquid media, so there may be every possibility of occurrence of chemical reaction
between the material and media.

Swedana serves as a purificatory process.

Biological changes :
Organic components of the liquid media are transferred to the material to make it organo-
metallic or organo-mineral compounds, which are favourable to the body.

Liquid media also serves as source of trace elements. Induction of trace elements helps in
fulfilling the body requirement of trace elements and also acts in many physiological
processes


BHAVANA METHOD OF GANDHAKA SHODHANA

CONCEPT OF BHAVANA ACC. TO DIFF. ACHARYAS

Acc. Cha. Sam:- The word Karana is mentioned in the context of Ashtaviddha Aahara
Viddhi Visheshayatana, which means the procedures to change the innate quality of the
drug. For this purpose, Bhavana is also a procedure employed which comes under
Samskaras which inturns make the drug to take the properties in them.

Acc to R.T:- Bhavana means any powdered drug added with suitable dravadravya and
grinded well to dry it.

Acc to Chakrapani:- Bhavana includes the use of swarasadi dravadravya which
increases the gunas of the drug.

Acc to Sushruta:- urmjq Sulp qiq uqSiq i.e. drug should be
completely mixed with drava & then it has to be done Mardana till the liquid absorbed
by the drug and the particles become dry.

Acc to Sharangdhara:- Drava should be added to powdered drug in that much quantity
which makes it Plavita or completely wet.

Acc. to Bhais. Rat:-If Bhavana time is not mentioned then it has to be done for 7 days.
The drug has to be grinded under sunlight in daytime, which has kept soaked in
dravadravya whole night.





Importance of Bhavana -

It extracts special gunas by doing samskara

Mardana procedure employed in bhavana is responsible for guna vardhana and
which inturn enhances the medicinal properties

Even if given in alpa matra bala of drug is increased in the medicine.

Alpa karma and Alpa veerya of drug is changed to mahakarma and mahaveerya.

SHODHANA OF GANDHAKA USING GOGHRUTHA & GODUGDHA- A
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS- BY BHANDHARI SRINIVASALU

GOVT. AYURVEDIC COLLEGE VIJAYAWADA, ANDHRA PRADESH

500mg GANDHAKA, 2lts milk , 150ml of goghrutha was taken & shodhana done by
kurmaputa bhudhara yantra method acc to RASA TARANGINI.

OBSERVATIONS the shodhita gandhaka was shining yellow colour with a greenish
tinge. It is found in the form of granules like jowar seeds.
By shodhana, ghee absorbs toxic materials & separation of stones & other physical
impurities through filtering cloth.
By shodhana impurities of sulphur are eliminted in 3ways:
-the fat soluble impurities are dissolved in ghee & removed with it.
-the water & milk soluble impurities are removed with milk.
- the foreign particles (sand/stone), mixed with sulphur, insoluble in ghee are held up
in the cloth during filtering.





Thus, by shodhana, % of sulphur increased by 8% .

KURMA PUTA METHOD OF GANDHAKA SHODHANA
SAMPLE CHEMICAL ASSAY
IMPURE GANDHAKA 89.38%
PURE GANDHAKA 97.14 %
TAILA PACHANA & NIKSHEPA METHOD

Fat soluble & milk soluble impurities are removed by this.



URDHWAPATANA OF GANDHAKA





Purification by sublimation is achieved by conversion of solid sulphur into a
gas and condensing the gas to produce only sublimed crystals or flowers of
sulphur (rather similar to the distillation process to purify liquids)

The purification of sulphur by " sublimation," with formation of flowers of
sulphur, can be carried out easily as the triple point pressure
(the temperature and pressure at which a substance can co-exist in
equilibrium in the liquid, solid, and gaseous states) of sulphur is low.

Flowers of sulphur is the purest form of sulphur and is recommended for
products intended for internal use.


USES OF SUBLIMED SULPHUR

Powdered form of sulphur produced by sublimation; may contain
up to 30% of the amorphous allotrope; used in rubber
vulcanization, agricultural dusts, pharmaceutical products, stock
feeds.

Sublimed sulfur, aka Flower of Sulfur is a topical scabicide and
antiparasitic ointment.

Its color is light yellow (lime). It smells like a lemon.

It is helps the skin heal, and people usually mix it with a cold
cream.

It is used to treat just about any skin problems like acne, sores,
insect bites, rashes, bacterial infections, bed sores, dermatitis,
eczema, fungus/yeast infections, psoriasis type problems, ring
worm, wounds that wont heal and more.
CONCLUSION


Among the various methods mentioned for gandhaka shodhana,
the best method acc. To R. T is by Urdhwapatana method.

Method & media should be chosen as per the need by our
YUKTI, as the indications to each shodhana procedure is not
mentioned.

Thus, it can be concluded that, shodhana mentioned in
Rasashastra texts is to remove the impurities & to improve the
quality of material . So that it does not produce any harmful
effects by internal / external administration.


INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT SULFUR

Sulfur makes up almost 3% of the earths mass. If you think thats not much, next time you
look to the sky and see the moon, think of this: the earth contains enough sulfur to make not
just one new moon, but two!

When Shakespeares Othello asks for punishment, one possibility he mentions is: roast
me in sulphur!

Sulfur burns with a very satisfying blue flame its old name is brimstone, which means
burn stone or stone that burns.

Pure sulfur has no smell, but many of its compounds stink! For example sulfur compounds
called mercaptans give skunks their awful smell. Rotten eggs (and most stink bombs) get
their distinctive aroma courtesy of hydrogen sulfide, H
2
S.

Cave bacteria, which digest hydrogen sulfide, produce snottites (think of slimy stalactites) in
caves. These snottites drip sulfuric acid with a pH as low as zero thats enough to burn
holes in your clothes if you stand underneath them. Snottite bacteria thrive in areas where
there are sulfur deposits or sulfur-containing minerals or hydrocarbons. The sulfuric acid
they excrete carves out new cave systems underground by dissolving rocks.

Theres a much higher proportion of sulfur in the earths core than in its crust
approximately 100 times more.

Penicillin is a natural, sulfur-based antibiotic.