Marketing Research

Overview Dr. Mary Wolfinbarger

Marketing Research Overview
Definition, AMA “The systematic ____________, recording, and ________ of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services.”

Another Definition
“Marketing Research is the function which links the ____________ and the ___________ to the organization through information -information is used to identify and define marketing problems; generate, refine and evaluate marketing ____________, and improve our understanding of marketing as a process.” -- Gilbert Churchill

The Role of Marketing Research
Environment Organization

Cultural Trends Marketing research is environmental surveillance; ___________ of the firm is often closely tied to effective marketing research.

The Role of Marketing Research
Price s Product s Promotion s Place s Personnel s Customers s Macro trends
s

Macroenvironmental trends
D______________ s Cultural trends s C__________ ________ s et cetera
s

The Marketing Research Process

Some ideas about Marketing Research:
Operating executives often _______ or ________ research findings s Value of research depends on skill with which project is designed and implemented s Organizations, particularly ________ ones, are heavy users of research s Research is often a _________ tool
s

Steps
Problem Definition s Research Design s Sampling s Data Collection and Analysis s Report Preparation
s

Step 1: Problem Definition
s

Define specific problem/problems What _________can/will be based on the research ____________ ____________

s

s

Step 1: Problem Definition
“Probably the most important thing a research supplier can do is to ______ _______ with a client to determine what research is needed and how it will be used; if this step is skipped the results may not address the problem.” --Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong

Step 1: Problem Definition
“In my experience it usually turns out that the _________ ________ has not carefully thought through his decision process and the meetings with the researcher often result in a ________ ________ of the decision situation, which results in major changes in the definition of the research problem and the information needs.”
--Imran Currim

Step 1: Problem Definition
Potential Traps: s Collecting “__________” information s “Piggybacking” to satisfy everyone s Problem not __________ to research s Client agendas

Step 1: Problem Definition
Example: Retailer “Primal Elements”

Step 1: Problem Definition
Example: Retailer “Primal Elements” s Interview client/decision makers -- to what questions do they want answers s Who are customers ______________? s How do people __________ us? s How can we advertise more effectively? s Why do we have fewer young customers than anticipated? s What new products should we carry?

Step 1: Problem Definition
Example: Retailer “Primal Elements” s Researchers and clients ________ _________ /possible answers to questions to guide research design s Example: PE may be perceived as too ________ to younger customers OR the interior is not __________ to younger customers…..

Step 2: Research Design
s

A detailed _________ specifying how the research will be carried out

Step 2: Research Design
“There is never a ______ _______ correct method of carrying out a piece of research. Do not wait until you find out THE proper approach, because there are many ways to tackle a problem -- some good, some bad, but probably _________ good ways...

Step 2: Research Design
“...A research _______ for a given problem is not like the solution to a problem in algebra. It is more like a recipe for beef stroganoff, there is no one best recipe.” -Julian Simon, Basic Research Methods in Social Science: The Act of Empirical Investigation

Step 2: Research Design
Three general types of designs: s Exploratory s Descriptive s Causal If you collect the data yourself, it is _______. If you use someone else’s, it’s _________.

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory
Especially necessary when don’t ________ the issue well, and s Use to __________ as many possible questions/answers/ideas as possible s Examples: faculty response to merit pay, employee responses to advertising
s

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory
_______ _______--most common exploratory technique A loosely structured __________ conducted by a trained moderator among a small number of informants simultaneously.
s

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Focus Group
6-12 ___________ in a group s 1- 1 1/2 hour session s 1-way mirror/client may sit behind s __________, “living room” environment s can be adapted to the Internet s Informants are _______
s

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Focus Group
Advantages of Focus Groups
® _______

and _________

® May

uncover ______________ ideas

® Gives

“flesh” and connectedness to real consumers

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Focus Group
Disadvantages of Focus Groups
® Results

__________ on skill of moderator ® Groupthink ® Small __________

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/In-depth Interview
® An

_____________ personal interview which uses extensive probing to get a respondent to talk freely and to express detailed __________ ® Purpose: to try to probe informants’ __________, feelings, beliefs

Examples: Skydiving, earthquake risk

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Projective Techniques
® An

________ form of ________ in which an environment is created to encourage informants to freely project beliefs/feelings into the situation ® Example: Roach Killer

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Projective Techniques
® Example:

_____ _________ ® What comes to mind when you think of BIC?

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Projective Techniques
® Are

these _________ consistent with the notion of BIC perfume? BIC pantyhose?

Step 2: Research Design/ Descriptive Research
® Research

that simply __________, but does not directly link outcomes to particular causes ® Example: _______ _____

Step 2: Research Design/ Descriptive Research
Types of methods that tend to be descriptive:
® Observation

® Surveys

Step 2: Research Design/
Descriptive Research/Observation
What are the __________ of observation?
® Doesn’t

reveal consumer motivations ® Marketers see what they do, but usually not why they do it

Step 2: Research Design/
Descriptive Research/Observation
® Example

1: Fisher Price Toy Design 2: Pantry Meter

® Example

Step 2: Research Design/
Descriptive Research/Surveys
Types:
® _______ ® ___________ ® Personal ® Internet

Step 2: Research Design/
Descriptive Research/Surveys
® Like

a ruler or weight scales, a survey is a _____________ instrument ® If instrument is flawed, so are ________

Step 2: Research Design/
Descriptive Research/Surveys
Common problems:
® Demanding

_________ ® __________questions ® Choice preferred by respondent is not included ® Degree of agreement questions constructed as yes/no (or vice-versa) ® Questionnaires are _______ ______

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
® Seeks

to _______ specific outcomes to variables that caused them

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
Three ___________ are necessary
® Condition

1: One variable must precede the other in time

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
® Example

1: Job ___________ of service employees = Service Quality is it the other way around?

® Or,

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
® Condition

2: Alternative __________ for findings should be ruled out

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
® Example

: Consume oatmeal = ______________ rates does it?

lower

® Or

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
® Condition

3: Nomic _________ -- Look for the “__________ link” criterion can be simplified: Does the relationship make sense? Letter name begins with and credit worthiness

® This

® Example:

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
“Golly gee-whiz” relationships -- many are simply statistical ___________

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
_____________ does not prove causality!

Step 2: Research Design/
Causal Research: Methodologies
® Surveys

(especially longitudinal ones) ® Experimentation (the _____ standard)

“the systematic _____________ of selected stimuli into a controlled environment” Example: varying price levels and seeing impact on sales

Step 2: Research Design/
Causal Research: Methodologies
___________ Design must be careful to make strong causal inferences
® Need

________ or ___________ groups ® Extraneous factors must either be controlled or measured ® Example: Colon Cancer PSAs ® Example: Taking Latin Higher Verbal SATs

Step 2: Research Design/
Causal Research: Methodologies
® Example:

_____ vs. slow music = time /money spent in grocery store ® Restaurant, too

Research Design: Secondary Vs. Primary

® Primary

Data: data collected by researcher for his/her ________ purpose data: already ________, collected by someone else

® Secondary

Step 2: Research Design/ Secondary Data
® Saves

______ and money ® May not _______ your specific problem

General types:
® Data

collected elsewhere in the company, e.g. sales and cost data ® __________ Data ® Non-commercial data

Step 2: Research Design/ Secondary Data
Evaluating Secondary Data
® _______

collected it? ® _____ was it collected? ® How was the data collected? ® What data were collected? ® When was the data collected? ® Do ________ sources indicate the same conclusions?

Step 3: Sampling
Who is our __________ of interest? s How will we identify them? s What sampling _________ will be used? Basic Types: probability vs. non-probabililty s How many will be sampled?
s

Step 3: Sampling
Sampling is important as it affects generalizability of results. Generalizability: do findings apply to your population of interest?

Step 4:Data Analysis
Extracting meaningful information from the data s Exploratory methods: review and “code” transcripts for recurring themes

Step 4:Data Analysis
Descriptive and _______ methods s Statistical analyses

Step 5: Report Preparation
__________ _________ s Body -- findings of study s ___________ of the Research s Conclusions and Recommendations s Appendix
s

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