A food chain is a linear sequence of links in a food web starting from a species that are called
producers in the web and ends at a species that is called decomposers species in the web. A food
chain also shows how the organisms are related with each other by the food they eat. A food
chain differs from a food web, because the complex polyphagous network of feeding relations
are aggregated into trophic species and the chain only follows linear monophagous pathways. A
common metric used to quantify food web trophic structure is food chain length. In its simplest
form, the length of a chain is the number of links between a trophic consumer and the base of the
web and the mean chain length of an entire web is the arithmetic average of the lengths of all
chains in a food web.
Food chains were first introduced by the African-Arab scientist and philosopher Al-Jahiz in the
9th century and later popularized in a book published in 1927 by Charles Elton, which also
introduced the food web concept.
The Suez Canal (Arabic: Qanāt al-Sūwais) is an artificial sea-level waterway in
Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10
years of construction, it allows ships to travel between Europe and eastern Asia without
navigating around Africa. The northern terminus is Port Said; the southern terminus is Port
Tawfiq at the city of Suez. Ismailia is on its west bank, 3 km (1.9 mi) from the half-way point.
When built, the canal was 164 km (102 mi) long and 8 m (26 ft) deep. After several
enlargements, it is 193.30 km (120.11 mi) long, 24 m (79 ft) deep and 205 metres (673 ft)
It consists of the northern access channel of 22 km (14 mi), the canal itself of 162.25 km
(100.82 mi) and the southern access channel of 9 km (5.6 mi).
The canal is single lane with passing places in the "Ballah By-Pass" and the Great Bitter Lake.