1

Mrpupau;fSf;fhd Nkyjpf thrpg;G E}y;



f. ngh. j (cau; juk;)




jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gk;




khfhz Mrpupau; gapw;rp epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lk;

































jfty; njhopEl;gg; gpup
Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;
kfufk
!"#$
i

%d;&'u

Mrpupau; gapw;rpfhd khfhz epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpd; f(o; jahupf;fg;gl;l )t; t*E}yhd+
fy;tpg; ngh+j; juhjug; gj;jpu cau;ju t,g;gpy; jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg;
ghlj;'jf; fw;gpf;,k; Mrpupau;fSf;fhd -. Nkyjpf thrpg;G E}yh,k;.

)jpy; c*;*lf;fg;gl;l tpla/;f*; jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;g Nr'tf;fhy
Mrpupa MNyhrfu;fSf;,k;; kw;Wk; fy;tpg; ngh+j; juhjug; gj;jpu cau;ju t,g;Gf;f*py; jfty;
kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg; ghlj;'jf; fw;gpf;,k; Mrpupau;fSf;,k; 0tu;f*+ njhopy;rhu;
nrad;%'wfSf;, kp,e;j ga&'lajha; 0'kt+ld;1 cau; juj; jpy; jfty; kw;Wk;
njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg; ghlnewp'ag; gap2k; khztu; f*pd; 3afw;w2f;,k; 4w;G'lajh,k;.

0e;j t'fapy; )e;E}ypy; juj;j* %fh'kj;+t %'w'k njhlu;ghd tpla/;f*;
ghlf;,wpg;G t5tpy; jahupf;fg;gl;6*;*+ld;1 0't ghlf;,wpg;gpd; ng.k;ghyhd 0k;r/;f'*f;
nfhz;l'ke;+*;*d. Mdh2k; 0tw;'w -. %7'kahd ghlf;,wpg;ghff; nfh*;*%5ah+
8d;g'jf; Mrpupau;f*; f.j;jpy; nfh*;* Ntz;6k;. Mrpupau;f*; jk+ ghlf;,wpg;'gj; jahupf;,k;
Ngh+ ghle;njhlu;ghd 4'da t*/;fSf;, Nkyjpfkhf )e;E}ypd; tpla/;f'* -.
t*khfk; topfhl;5ahfk;; ghtpf;fyhk;.

fy;tpg; ngh+j; juhjug; gj;jpu cau;ju jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg;
ghlj;jpw;,upa ghlj;jpl;lk; kw;Wk; Mrpupau; 'fe;E}y; 8d;gtw;'w Njrpa fy;tp epWtf )'zaj;;
j*j;jpyp.e;+ (www.nie.lk) gjptpwf;fk; nra;+nfh*;*yhk;.

Nk2k; Mrpupau; 'fe;E}ypy; 4yNt c*;*lf;fg;gl;6*;* tpla/;f*; )e;E}ypy;
c*;*lf;fg;gltpy;'y 8d;g'j ftdj;jpy; nfh*;*k;.

)r;re;ju;g;gj;jpy;1 )e;E}y; jahupg;G njhlu;gpy; ngWkjpahd 0wp'uf'*9k;
topfhl;ly;f'*9k; to/;fpa+ld; Nj'tahd t*/;f'*9k; ey;fp9jtpa'kf;fhf Njrpa fy;tp
epWtf gzpg;gh*u; ehafk; Nguhrpupau; 0Ngul;d gz;lhu1 tp:;:hd kw;Wk; njhopy;El;gg; g(l
gpujpg; gzpg;gh*u; ehafk; jp.. rpl;dp ;atu;j;jd MfpNah.f;,k;; Njrpa fy;tp epWtfj;jpd;
jfty; njhopy;El;gg; gpup gzpg;gh*u; jp.. S. N. kh+tNf 0tu;fSf;,k; 8d+ kdkhu;e;j
ed;wpf'*j; njuptpj;+f; nfh*;fpd;Nwd;.

0NjNt'*1 )e;E}y; jahupg;gpd;Ngh+ ghlj;+'wrhu; tpNrl epGzj;+t g/;f*pg;gp'd
to/;fpa'kf;fhf nfh7k;Gg; gy;f'yf;fof fzpdp tp:;:hdj;+'w rpNu<;l tpup'uah*u;
fyhepjp jkpj;j D f.zhul;d1 kw;Wk; f*dpg; gy;f'yf;fof rpNu<;l tpup'uah*u; fyhepjp
fhkpdp tp;atu;j;jd kw;Wk; nkhwl;6t gy;f'yf;fofj;jpd; jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg;
g(l rpNu<;l tpup'uah*u; fyhepjp 3gh gu;dhe;+ MfpNah.f;,k; 8d+ ed;wpf'*j;
njuptpg;gjpy; kfpo;r;rpa'lfpd;Nwd;.

Nk2k;1 )e;E}y; 87j;jhf;fj;jpy; g/;f*pg;'g ey;fpa jp.. W. M. A. S. tpN;Nrfu1 jp..
H. P. U. S. I. K. ngNuuh1 jp.. A. t=(u; , jp.. H. M. D. S. B. N>uj;, jp.. S. K. N. ?upa Muhr;rp,
kw;Wk; jp.. S. gu3uhk; MfpNah.f;,k; 8d+ ed;wpf'*j;; njuptpj;+f; nfh*;fpd;Nwd;.

)Wjpahf )e;E}yhf;fj;jpd;Ngh+ gy topf*py; -j;+'og;G ey;fpa Njrpa fy;tp
epWtfj;jpd; jfty; njhopy;El;gg; gpup'tr; rhu;e;j cj;jpNahfj;ju;f*hd jp.. K. W. A. P. K.
,yul;d1 jp.. H. P .G. R. tpkyNrd1 jp.kjp. L. W. De. rpy;th, nry;tp. S. A. P. M. rkurp/;f
MfpNah.f;,k; 8d+ ed;wpf*;.

jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy; El;g Nr'tf;fhy Mrpupa MNyhrfu;f*;1 fy;tpg;
ngh+j;juhjug; gj;jpu cau;ju t,g;Gf;f*py; jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg;
ghlj;'jf; fw;gpf;,k; Mrpupau;f*; kw;Wk;; cau; juj;jpy; jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;
El;gg; ghlnewp'ag; gap2k; khztu;f*; MfpNah.f;,k; )e;E}y; ga&'lajha; 0'k9k; 8d
ek;Gfpd;Nwd;.

0e;j t'fapy; )e;E}'y cupa %'wapy; gad;g6j;jp gad;ngw 8d+ tho;j;+f;f'*j;
njuptpj;+f;nfh*;fpd;Nwd;.

S. rz;%fyp/;fk;1
rpNu<;l tpup'uah*u;1
jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg; gpup1
Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;1 k>ufk.




ii

MNyhr'd kw;Wk; topfhl;ly;@

jp.. M.F.S.P. ;atu;j;jd1
gpujpg; gzpg;gh*u; ehafk;1
tp:;:hd kw;Wk; njhopy;El;gg; g(lk;1
Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;.
k>ufk.

jp.. 3rpy; N. kh+tNf1
gzpg;gh*u;1
jfty; njhopy;El;gg; gpup1
Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;1
k>ufk.


nraw;wpl;l )'zg;gh*u;

jp.. S. rz;%fyp/;fk;1
rpNu<;l tpup'uah*u;1
jfty; njhopy;El;gg; gpup1
Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;1
k>ufk.


ghlj;+'wrhu; epGzj;+t topfhl;ly;f*; ;;

fyhepjp fhkpdp tp;atu;j;jd1
rpNu<;l tpup'uah*u;1
njhopy;+'w %fh'kj;+tg; g(lk;1
f*dpg; gy;f'yf;fofk;.

fyhepjp jkpj;j D f.zhul;d1
rpNu<;l tpup'uah*u;1
fzpdpf; fy;tpg; g(lk;;1
nfh7k;Gg; gy;f'yf;fofk;.

fyhepjp 3gh gu;dhe;+1
rpNu<;l tpup'uah*u;1
jfty; njhopy;El;gg; g(lk;1
nkhwl;6t gy;f'yf;fofk;.

















iii

87j;jhf;ff;; ,7
jp.. 0j;+y tpN;Nrfu A %fh'kah*u;1 tyaf; fzpdp t*ep'yak;1
>hyp8y.
jp.. S. K. N ?upa Muhr;rp – Mrpupau;1 fltj;j kj;jpa fy;2}up1 fltj;j.
jp.. H. P. U. S. )e;jpu,khu ngNuuh1fzpdp tpup'uah*u;1 tyaf; fzpdp t*
ep'yak;1 >d;,ud;nfj;j.
jp.. A. M. t=(u; A %fh'kah*u;1 tya fzpdpt* ep'yak;1 f>nfhy;'y1
jpaj;jyht.
jp.. H. M. T. S. P. N>uj;1 Mrpupau;1 +}a 0e;Njhdpau; kf*pu; fy;2}up1
fl;6f=;Njhl;l.

nkhopr; nrt;tpjhf;fk;@
jp.. S. gu3uhk;1 tpup'uah*u;1 Mrpupau; gapw;rpf; fyhrh'y1 nfhl;lf'y.





































iv


c*;*lf;fk;































Njur;rp B@ fzpdpapd; nraw;wpw'd 0jpfupg;gjw;, ep'dtf
%fh'kj;+tj;'jg; gad;g6j;+thu;.

"#
Nju;r;rp; C@ fzpdpapd; %7 0*tpyhd nraw;gh6f'* %fh'kj;+tk;
nra;tjw;, )af;f %'w'kf'* cgNahfpg;gu;.

"C
Nju;r;rp D@ nraw;wpw&ld;; (ntw;wpfukhf) ju %fh'kj;+tk;
nra;tjw;fhf juj;j*nkhd;'w t5t'kj;+ tp.j;jp nra;thu;.

!B
Nju;r;rp #!@ Nghl;5 ep'we;j re;'jf;,k; tpahghu epWtd/;fSf;,k;
jft2k; njhlu;ghly; njhopEl;g%k; gad;g6j;jf;E5a
tpj/;f'* Ma; nra;thu;.

D!
Nju;r;rp #F@ jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;lgj;jpd; Gjpa Nghf;,f'*9k;
8jpu;fhy topfhl;ly;f'*9k; Muha;tu;

D#

1

Nju;r;rp B@ fzpdpapd; nraw;wpw'd 0jpfupg;gjw;, ep'dtf
%fh'kj;+tj;'jg; gad;g6j;+thu;.

fw;wy; NgW@

B.!@ gy;NtWgl;l ep'dtf/;f'* t'fg;g6j;+thu; .
• gy;NtW ep'dtf/;f'*1 0Gfy;%'w1 0Gfy;Neuk;1
nfh*;** kw;Wk; fpuak;; 8d;gtw;Wld; -g;gp6thu;.

B.F@ fzpdpapd; nraw;wpw'd 0jpfupg;gjw;, ep'dtfj;'j -7/;,g6j;+thu;.
• ep'dtfg; g5ep'y'a tp*f;,thu;.
• +'z ep'dtf/;f'* guhkupg;gjd; %f;fpaj;+tj;'j
tp*f;,thu;.
• +'z ep'dtfg; guhkupg;gpd; Ngh+1 fhe;jj; jl;6f;f'*
ghtpj;jy;1 jl;6f;f'* gu(l;rpj;jy;1 +z;l/;f'* )'zj; jy;
Nghd;wtw;'w cgNahfpg;ghu;.

ep'dtf t'ff'* -g;gply;

ep'dtf
t'f
ng*j(f
0*
0Gfy; %'w nfh*;** tp'y
0Gfy;
Ntfk;
gjptf/;f*; kpfr;rpwpa+ Neu5/87khd rpwpa+ 0jpfk;
kpf
0jpfk;
g+f;,
ep'dtf/;f*;
kpfr;rpwpa+ Neu5/87khd rpwpa+ 0jpfk;
kpf
0jpfk;
87khd
0G,
ep'dtfk;
e6j;juk; Neu5/87khd e6ep'y rhjhuzk; 0jpfk;
g*pr;r(l;6
ep'dtfk;
e6j;juk; Neu5/87khd 0jpfk; ,'w ke;j fjp
+'z
ep'dtf/;f*;
ngup+ Neu5/87khd kpf 0jpfk; ,'w ke;j fjp
fhe;j
ehlhf;f*;
ngup+ njhlupay; kpf 0jpfk; ,'w
kpf ke;j
fjp

fzpdp ep'dtf -7/;f'kg;G
ep'dtfkhd+ fzpdpapd; kpf%f;fpa g,jpah,k;. ju1 epfo;r;rp (Program!
Nghd;wd Nrkpj;+ 'tf;fg;g6t+ ep'dtfj;jpyh,k;. fzpdpapy; fhzg;g6k;
ep'dtf t'ff*; rpy f(No jug;gl;6*;*d.
". gjptf/;f*; #Regi$er!
%. g+f;, ep'dtf/;f*; #&a'(e Memor)!
*. gpujhd ep'dtfk; #Main Memor)!
+. +'z ep'dtf/;f*;#Se'on,ar) Memor)!

ep'dtf/;f*+ )ay;Gf*;
gy;NtW ep'dtf/;f*+ nfh*;**'tf; fz;6nfh*;tjw;fhf ftdj;jpy;
nfh*;*g;glNtz;5a )ay;Gf*; t.khW@









2

ep'dtf t'ff*;
ep'dtf/;f*pd; nfh*;**'t9k; ju 0Gfy; Neuj;'j9k; nfhz;6 0tw;'w
f(o; fhl;lg;gl;6*;*thW -7/;,g6j;jyhk;.




gjptf/;f*;
Nk2*;* ep'dtf g5ep'yf;Nfw;g CPU tpd; gjptf/;f*; 0jpNtfkhd 0Gfy;
nfhz;ljhf ).g;g+ld;1 juf'*9k;1 0wpWj;jy;f'*9k; jw;fhypfkhf
Nrkpj;+ 'tg;gjw;, gad;g6j;jg;g6fpwd. )tw;wpy; ju gjpjy; 0y;y+
thrpj;jy; -. f5fhur;3ow;rp ('lo'k ')'le) Hyk; e'lngWfpw+.

g+f;, ep'dtfk; (&a'(e Memor))
fzpdpapd; gpujhd ep'dtfj;jpw;,k; kj;jpa nraw;ghl;lyfpw;,k; )'lapy;
0'ke;jp.f;,k; )e;ep'dtfk; nfh*;**tpy; gpujhd ep'dtfj;'j tpl
,'wthdjhf ).g;g+ld; 0Gfy; Ntfk; gpujhd ep'dtfj;'jtpl
E5ajh,k;. g+f;, ep'dtfk; kj;jpa nraw;ghl;6 0yfpw;,*; 0y;y+
nt*papy; ).f;fyhk;. )e;ep'dtfk; caupa nraw;wpw&'la fzpdpf*pd; -.
%f;fpa g,jpah,k;;. Ez;nraypf;,*; 0'ke;jp.f;,k; )t;t'f ep'dtfj;'j
c*;*f g+f;, ep'dtfk; 8d;Wk; Ez;nraypf;, nt*pNa 0'ke;jp.g;g'j
nt*paf g+f;, ep'dtfk; 8d;Wk; 0'og;gu;.





3

nka;epfu; ep'dtfk; (Virtual Memory)
fzpdpapd; gpujhd ep'dtfkhd (RAM) )d; nfh*;** fzpdpapy;
ngh.j;jg;gl;6*;* ep'dtf 0l;'lf*pd; nfh*;***tpw;,
kl;6g;g6j;jg;g6fpd;w+. 0jpf 8z;zpf;'fapyhd epfo;r;rpf'* -Nu Neuj;jpy;
)af;,k; Ngh+ ep'dtfj;jpd; nfh*;** gw;whf;,'wahd re;ju;g;g/;f*py;
ep'dtfj;jpd;; gw;whf;,'w'a czu;j;+k; nra;jp fp'lg;g+ld; epfo;r;rpf*;
=;jk;gpj ep'y'a 0'layhk;. )jw;,j; j(u;thf )uz;lhe;ju Nrkpg;gfj;jpy;
,wpg;gpl;l* )lk; jw;fhypf ep'dtfkhf ghtpf;fg;g6fpd;w+. )t;thW
)uz;lhe;ju Nrkpg;gfj;jpyp.e;+ cgNahfpf;fg;g6k; ep'dtfk; “nka;epfu;
ep'dtfk;” 8dg;g6k;. nka;epfu; ep'dtfj;jpd; Hyk; fzpdpapd; ep'dtf
0Gfy; )lk; tpupthf;fg;gl;6 fzpdpapd; ep'dtff; nfh*; **
0jpfupf;fg;g6k;.
8dp&k;1 td;jl;5d; ju 0Gfy; Ntfk; gpujhd ep'dtf 0Gfy; Ntfj;'j
tpl kpff; ,'wthff; fhzg;g6tjhy;1 nka;epfu; ep'dtfj; jp2*;* ju
gad;g6j;jg;g6k; Ngh+ gpujhd ep'dtfj;jpw;, k(z;6k; glkply; (Mapping)
nra;ag;g6fpd;w+.
gpujhd ep'dtfj;jpw;,k; )uz;lhe;ju Nrkpg;gfj;jpw;,k; )'lapy; e'lngWk;
)j;ju gupkhw;wkhd+1 Ez;nrayp gpujhd ep'dtfj;jpyp.e;+ Neu5ahf
ju 0Gf2f;, 86f;,k; Neuj;'jtpl kpf 0jpfkh,k;. MfNt1 nka;epfu;
ep'dtfk; 0jpf*tpy; ghtpf;fg;g6k; Ngh+ fzpdpapd; nraw;g6 Ntfk;
,'wt'l9k;.
nka;epfu; ep'dtfj;jpd; Hyk; gpujhd ep'dtfj;jpd; 0Gfy; 0*
0jpfupf;fg;g6k; Ngh+1 nka;epfu; ep'dtfj;jpd; )lj;jpw;,g; glkplg;g6k;
(Mapping) %'w f(No fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+.



















nka;epfu; ep'dtfj;jpd; nraw;ghl;'l )y,thf tp*f;,tjhapd;1 fzpdpapd;
gpujhd ep'dtfj;jpd; nfh*;**'t tpl 0jpfkhf gy;NtW epfo;r;rpf*; -Nu
jl'tapy; 'fah*g;glNtz;5a ?o;ep'yapy;1 fzpdp jhdhfNt gpujhd
ep'dtfj;jpy; e(z;l Neuk; ghtpf;fg;glhky; ).f;,k; ju't clNd nka;epfu;
ep'dtfj;jpw;, efu;j;jp gpujhd ep'dtf )lj;'j ngw;Wf; nfh*;Sk;. )r;
nray; gf;fkhf;fy; (paging) 8dg;g6k;.







4

fhe;j tl;6 nrk;'k nra;jy; (Disk Cleanup)
fzpdp ght'dapd; Ngh+1 0t;tg;Ngh+ ju jw;fhypfkhf Nrkpj;+
'tg;gjw;fhf jw;fhypf Nfhg;Gf*; c.thf;fg;g6k;. )f;Nfhg;Gf*; %'wahf
%fh'k nra;ag;glhj Ngh+10't td;jl;5d; gue;j )lg;gug;gpy; 0/;,kp/;,k;
fhzg;glyhk;. )t;thwhd Nfhg;Gf'* gh+fhg;ghd %'wapy; e(f;fp tp6tjw;,
gad;g6j;jg;g6k; -. f.tpahf Disk Cleanup nraw;;g6fpd;w+. )f;f.tp Hyk;
fzpdpap2*;* Nj'taw;w Nfhg;Gf'* g,g;gha; nra;+ Nk2k; Nj'tg;glhj
ntt;NtW t'fahd Nfhg;Gf'* njup nra;+ gh+fhg;ghf e(f;fg;g6fpd;w+.
0t;t'fahd rpy Nfhg;Gf*; f(No jug;gl;6*;*d.
• ne.f;fg;gl;l (Compressed) g'oa Nfhg;Gf*;.
• jw;fhypf )'zaf; Nfhg;Gf*;.
• )af;f %'w'kf;,upa jw;fhypf Nfhg;Gf*;.
• gjptpwf;fk; nra;ag;gl;l epfo;r;rpf*;.
• e(f;fg;gl;l gpd; k(*;3ow;rpj; njhl;5apy; Nj/;fp9*;*'t.
• nefpo; Neu (off line) Nfhg;Gf*;
)af;f %'w'kapy; fhzg;g6k; )f;f.tp'a cgNahfpg;gjd; Hyk; td;jl;5y;
Nrkpf;fg;gl;6*;* Nj'taw;w Nfhg;GfSf;fhf cgNahfg;g6j;jg;gl;5.e;j )lf;
nfh*;**'t k(z;6k; gad;g6j;jyhk;. )f;fl;l'*9ld; gy;NtW 0*.f;fSk;;
(Parameters) Nru;e;+ nraw;g6j;+tjd; Hyk;kw;Wk; gy ,'wgh6f'*9k; rup
nra;+ nfh*;*yhk;.

-./;f'kj;jy; (Defragmentation)
ehk; gad;g6j;+k; fzpdpapd; td;jl;5y; (Hard Disk) 05f;f5 Gjpa
Nfhg;Gf'* Nrkpj;j2k;1 ).f;,k; Nfhg;Gf'* e(f;,j2k; e'lngWfpw+.
gy;NtW nkd;ngh.*;f'* epWj'y9k; 4w;fdNt epWtg;gl;l
nkd;ngh.*;f'* e(f;,j'y9k; )jw;, cjhuzkhff; fhl;lyhk;.
)r;nraw;ghl;5d; Ngh+ epWty; e(f;fg;gl;l 0y;y+ e(f;fg;gl;l Nfhg;GfSf;,
-+f;fg;gl;5.e;j )lk; Gjpjhf Nru;f;fg;g6k; Nfhg;Gf*pd; 0*tpw;, 0y;y+
epWtg;g6k; nkd;ngh.*;f*pd; 0*tpw;, ngh.e;jf;E5a )lkhf ).f;,k; 8df;
Ew %5ah+. MfNt Gjpa nkd;ngh.*; epWtg;g6k; Ngh+ 0y;y+ ju
Nrkpf;fg;g6k; Ngh+ e(f;fg;gl;l Nfhg;Gf*pd; )lj;'j epug;gy; e'lngWtjpy;'y.
)t;thwhd )'lnt*pf*; td;jl;6 %7+k; fhzg;g6khapd; epWk; Gjpa
Nfhg;GfSf;, 0tw;'wg; gad;g6j;+t+ f5dkhfyhk;.
0jpf nfh*;**'la Nfhg;nghd;W td;jl;5y; Nrkpf;;fg;g6k; Ngh+
rhjhuzkhf e'lngWtjht+1 )f;Nfhg;G gy g,jpf*hf gpupf;fg;gl;6
0g;g,jpf*; td;jl;5y; gy;NtW )l/;f*py; gjpag;g6jyh,k;. gpd;du;1
)f;Nfhg;Gf*; 0trpakhdNgh+ )af;f%'w'kapdhy;;; 0j;+z; l/;f*;
0g;g,jpf'* 0wpaf;E5a ,wpa(6f*;; Hyk; 0'lah*k; fhzg;gl;6 njhlu;
%'wapy; thrpf;fg;g6k;. ).g;gp&k; Nfhg;gpd;; +z;l/; f*; td;jl;5d;
06j;j6j;j jl/;f*p2k; fyd;f*p2k; fhzg;glhky; gue;+ fhzg;g6k; Ngh+
Nfhg;'g thrpg;gjw;, 86f;,k; Neuk; 0jpfkh,k;.
)f;,'wg;ghl;'l eptu;j;jp nra;tjw;, td;jl;6 -./;f'kg;G
nra;ag;g6fpd;w+. )t;thW gy;NtW g,jpf*py; gue;+ fhzg;g6k; Nfhg;Gj;
+z;l/;f*;; gf;fj;+ )l/;fSf;, efu;j;jg;gl;6 -./;f'kf;fg;g6k;. )+Nt
td;jl;6 -./;f'kj;jy; M,k;. )jd; Hyk; Nrkpg;gfj;jpd; nfh*;**'t rpwe;j
%'wapy; gad;g6j;jf; E5ajh9*;*+ld; ju 0Gfy; Ntf%k;
0jpfupf;fpd;w+.








5


rhjd nr2j;jpf*; (Device Drivers)
fzpdp9ld; ngh.j;jg;g6k; rhjd/;f'* nraw;g6j;+tjw;, 0t;tr;
rhjd/;fSf;,upa tpN<l nkd;ngh.n*hd;W fzpdpapy; epWtg;gl Ntz;6k;.
)t;thW rhjd/;f'* nraw;g6j;+tjw;fhf jahupf;fg;gl;6*; * nkd;ngh.*;f*;
rhjd nr2j;jpf*; 8dg;g6k;. -t;nth. )af;f %'w'k9k; fzpdp9ld;
ngh.j;jg;gl;6*;* rhjd/;fSld; nraw;g6tjw;, 0t;tpaf;f %'w'kf;,g;
ngh.j;jkhd rhjd nr2j;jpf'*f; nfhz;5.f;f Ntz;6k;. fzpdp9ld;
ngh.j;jg;g6k; rhjd/;f'* jahupf;,k; epWtd/;f*;; ,wpj;j rhjdj;jpw;,upa
nr2j;jp'a gy;NtW )af;f %'w'kfSf;,k; ngh.e;jf;E5a t'fapy;
jahupj;+ rhjdj;+ld; nr2j;jp'a9k; to/;,fpd;wd.
ng*j(f u(jpapy; fzpdp9ld; Gjpanjh. rhjdk; ngh.j;jg; gl;l+k;
fzpdpapyp.f;,k; )af;f %'w'kf;, ngh.j;jkhd rhjd nr2j;jp fzpdpapy;
epWtg;gly; Ntz;6k;. )jd; Hyk; )af;f %'w'k 0r;rhjdj; 'j
%fh'kj;+tk; nra;+ gad;g6j;jf; E5ajhf 0'kfpd;w+. cjhuzkhf
4Nj&k; -. nraw;ghl;5d; Ngh+ 0r;3g;nghwp'a gad;g6j; j Ntz;6khdhy;; ,
0r;3g;nghwp'a 0Gff;E5a nra;jp gupkhw;wk; )e;j rhjd nr2j;jp
nkd;ngh.*; IlhfNt e'lngWfpd;w+. )jd; Hyk; 8k+ Nj't'a GJu;j;jp
nra;a %5fpd;w+.
fzpdpfSf;, gutyhf ngh.j;jg;g6k; 0Nefkhd rhjd/;f*pd; nr2j;jpf*;
)af;f %'w'k9ld; )'zf;fg;gl;6*;*'k et(d )af;f %'w'kf*pd;
)ay;nghd;wh,k;. et(d )af;f %'w'k9ld; )a/;,k; fzpdpf*py;
ngh.j;jg;g6fpd;w rhjdj;'j )d/;fz;6 0jw;,upa nr2j;jp'a jhdhf
epWtpf; nfhz;6 gad;g6 jahu; ep'yf;, nfhz;6 t.k; 0k; rk;
fhzg;g6fpd;w+.
































6

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; C@ fzpdpapd; %7 0*tpyhd nraw;gh6f'* %fh'kj;+tk;
nra;tjw;, )af;f %'w'kf'* cgNahfpg;ghu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; C.#@ fzpdp )af;f %'w'kf'* t'ua'w nra;t+ld;
fzpdpapy; 0tw;wpd; Nj'tf'*f; fz;lha;thu;.
fw;wy; NgW@A
• )af;f %'w'knahd;wpd; Nj't'a tp*f;,thu;.
• )af;f %'w'knahd;wpd; ,wpf;Nfh'*9k; nray;f'*9k;
nj*pg6j;+thu;.
• )af;f %'w'knahd;wpd; gupzhkj;jp'd jpwk;gl tp*f;,thu;.
• )af;f %'w'kf'* t'fg;g6j;+thu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk;; C.!@ fzpdpap2*;* Nfhg;GfSk; 0'lfSk;; )af;f
%'w'kapdhy; 8t;thW %fh'k nra;ag;g6fpd;w+
8d;g'jf; fz;lha;thu;.
fw;wy; NgW@A
• jutp'd %'wahfk; -7/;f'kf;fg;gl;l t'fap2k; Nrkpj;jypd;
%f;fpaj;+tj;'j tp*f;,thu;.
• Nfhg;Gf'* t'fg;g6j;+thu;.
• Nfhg;Gf'* %fh'kj;+tk; nra;thu;.
• 0'lf'* (folder) %fh'kj;+tk; nra;thu;.
• Nfhg;Gf'* gh+fhf;,k; %'wf'* tp*f;,thu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; C.F@ )af;f%'w'kapdhy; fzpdpapy; )a/;,k; epfo;r;rpnahd;wpd;
nray;f'* %fh'kj;+tk; nra;9k; tpjj;'j Muha;thu;.
fw;wy; NgW@
• gw;gzp1 gy;epuy'kg;G %'w'kf*pd; gz;Gf'* tp*f;,thu;.
• nray;f*pd; ep'yf'* (Status) ngaup6thu;.
• nray;ep'yf'*9k; 0't khWg6k; tpjj;'j9k; tp*f;,thu;.
• )af;f %'w'kahd+ nray;f'* -7/;f'kj;jy; Hyk;
%fh'kj;+tk; nra;9k; tpjj;'j tp*f;,thu;.
• %7 nrad;%'w'a9k; %fh'kj;+tk; nra;tjw;, 0j'd
rpWg,jpf*hf NtWg6j;+thu;.
• cr;r nraw;wpw'd ngWtjw;, Neuj;'j %fh'kj;+tk; nra;thu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; C.$@ )af;f %'w'kahd+ c*;*(61 nt*pa(61ep'dtfk;
8d;gtw;'w %fh'kj;+tk; nra;9k; tpjj;'j Muha;thu;.
fw;wy; NgW@
• fzpdp ep'dtfj;'j %fh'kj;+tk; nra;tjw;,upa 05g;g'l
0k;r/;f'* ngaup6thu;.
• fzpdp ep'dtfk; %fh'kj;+tk; nra;ag;g6k; tpjj;'j
tp*f;,thu;.
• c*;*(l;61 nt*pa(l;6 f.tpf*pd+ %fh'kj;+tj;'j1 td;ngh.*;
nkd;ngh.*; 8d;gtw;wpw;fp'lNaahd )'lj;njhlu;'g
05g;g'lahff;nfhz;6 tp*f;,thu;.
• 4jhtnjh. nraw;ghl;5d; Ngh+ 0jd; Ntfj;'j 0jpfupg;gjw;,
gy;NtW cgha/;f'*f; 'fah*;thu;.
• %7r; nraw;ghl;'l9k; njhlu;r;rpahf Nkw;nfh*;tjw;, 0j&ld;
njhlu;G'la +'zr; nraw;gh6f*; rfytw;'w9k; )a/;,
ep'yapy; 'tj;+f;nfh*;thu;.



7

)af;f %'w'k 8d;g+ ah+K
fzpdp )af;f %'w'k 8d;g+ %'w'k nkd;ngh.n*hd;wh,k;. )+
epuyhf;fg;gl;l gy;NtW Nfh'tf*pd; -d;wp'zg;ght+ld; )jd; Hyk;
fzpdpnahd;wpd; t*g;gad;ghl;5w;,j; Nj'tahd 05g;g'lf; fl;l'*f'*9k;
0tw;'w ep'wNtw;wj; Nj'tahd ?o'y9k; c.thf;,fpd;w+. )jd; Hyk;
fzpdpapd; cl;fl;l'kg;'g9k; 0jd; njhopy;gh6f'*9k;; gw;wpa 0wp
)y;yhj gad.f;,k; fzdpapy; fhzg;g6k; t*/;f'* jk+ Nj'tf*pd;
05g;g'lapy; gad;g6j;jpf;nfh*;* %5fpd;w+. )af;f %'w'k Hyk;
fzpdpapd; rfy t*/;fSk; %fh'kj;+tk; nra;ag;g6fpd;w+.

)af;f %'w'knahd;wpd; 0trpak;
fzpdp gad;ghl;5d; Ngh+ 0j&ld; njhlu;G'la gy;NtW t*/;f'*9k;
gadupd; Nj'tf;Nfw;wthW gadupdhy; 'fah*f;E5ajhf*;*+. Mdhy;
)t;t*/;f*pdhy; to/;fg;g6fpd;w fl;l'*f*; rpf;fyhdjhf ).g;g+ld;1
)t;t*/;f'* Neu5ahf topelj;+tjw;, )t;t*/;f'*g; gw;wp9k; 0tw;wpf;,
to/;fg;g6k; fl;l'*f*; gw;wp9k; ed;, 0wpe;jp.j;jy; Ntz;6k;. 8dp&k; -.
gad.f;, )+ rpukkhd fhupakh,k;. Mdhy;1 fzpdp )af;f %'w'kahd+
gadu; )t;t*/;f'*g; gad;g6j;+tjp2*;* rpuk/;f'* e(f;fp 0tw;'w
)y,thfg; gad;g6j;jf;E5a ?oy; c.thf;fg;g6fpd;w+.
fzpdp %'w'knahd;wpd; rfy ng*j(f ghf/;f'*9k;1 0tw;wpdhy;
Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6k; nray;f'*9k; topelj;+tjw;, c.thf;fg;gl;6*;*
nkd;ngh.N* “)af;f %'w'k” 8dg;g6fpw+. )af;f %'w'kahd+
%'w'k nkd;ngh.*; t'ff;,*; 0l/;,k; gpujhd -. Ewh,k; .





fzpdpnahd;wpy; td;ngh.*;1 nkd;ngh.*; 8d;gdtw;wpw;fp'lapyhd njhlu;G
Nk7*;* glj;jpd; Hyk; fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+.
)af;f %'w'k Hyk; fzpdpnahd;wp&*; gpd;t.k; tpla/;f*;
Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6fpd;wd.

gad'u9k;; fzpdp'a9k; njhlu;Gg6j;+k; )'l%fk; -d;'w c.thf;fy;
fzpdp jahu; ep'yf;, te;j+k; )af;f %'w'k Hyk; to/;,k;;
)'l%fj;jp&}lhf gadu; fzpdpap2*;* td;ngh.*;1 nkd;ngh.*; 8d;gtw;wpd;
rpf;fyhd nraw;gh6f'*g; gw;wpa 0wp )y;yhj Ngh+k; El1 0tw;'w
0Gff;E5a ngh.j;jkhd )'l%f/;f*; fp'lf;fpd;wd.



Operating
System
Mouse
Printer
Monitor
Appi!ations
"ar# $is%
&ey'oar#
(

epfo;r;rp epuyhf;fy;
epuyh*.f;, epfo;r;rp'a epuyhf;fk; nra;tjw;,k;1 Nj'tahd njh,g;Gf;f'*
()#iting* Nkw;nfh*;tjw;,k; kw;Wk; jtW e(f;fy; +#e'ugging* nra;jy; Nghd;w
gy;NtW nray;f'* nra;+ nfh*;tjw;,j; Nj'tahd ?o'y9k; trjp'a9k;
nra;+ nfh6f;fpd;w+.

epfo;r;rpf'* )af;fy;
nkd;ngh.*;f'* )af;,k;Ngh+ fzpdp9*; gy;NtW nraw;gh6f*; e'lngw
Ntz;6k;. cjhuzkhf1 juf'*9k; 0wpWj;jy;f'*9k; gpujhd
ep'dtfj;jpw;, 4w;wy;1 c*;*(l;61 nt*pa(l;6f; f.tpf'*9k; 0tw;wpw;,upa
Nfh'tf'*9k; Nj'tf;Nfw;g epfo;r;rp9ld; njhlu;Gg6j;jy;1 4'da
t*/;f'* jahu;g6j;jy; Nghd;wtw;'wf; ,wpg;gplyhk;. )t;thwhd nraw;gh6f*;
)af;f %'w'k Hyk; Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6fpd;w+.

c*;*(l;6 nt*pa(l;6f; f.tpf'* 0Gfy;
gy;NtW c*;*(l;6/nt*pa(l;6 rhjd/;f*pd+k; fl;6g;ghl;5w;,upa rpf;fyhd
0wpWj;jy;f*; gad.f;, k'wf;fg;gl;6 87jy;1 thrpj;jy; Nghd;w 8*pa
0wpWj;jy;f*; Hyk; 0r;rhjd/;f*; gad;g6j;jf;E5a re;ju;g;gj;'j gad.f;,
to/;fy; )af;f%'w'k Hyk; Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6fpd;w+.

Nfhg;G %fh'kj;+tk;
ju %fh'kj;+tk; 0tw;wpd; fl;l'kg;G 8d;gtw;'wf; fz; lwptjp2k;1
gy;gadu; %'w'k njhlu;ghd Nfhg;Gf*pd; gh+fhg;'g9k; Nkw;nfh*;t+
Nfhg;G %fh'kj;+tkh,k;.

%'w'kg; gpuNtrk;
ngh+thf El;6 0y;y+ ngh+%'w'kf'*9k;; 0tw;wpd; t*/;f'*9k;
0G,t'j )af;f %'w'k fl;6g;g6j;+fpw+. )jd; Hyk; %'waw;w
0Gfy;f*pyp.e;+ t*/;f'*9k; Nfh'tf'*9k; gh+fhg;g+ld; t*/;f'*
g/;fpl;6f; nfh*;tjpy; 4w;g6k; rpf;fy;fSk; jtpu;f;fg;g6fpd;wd.

jtWf'*f; fz;6gp5j;j2k; gjpy*pj;j2k;
fzpdp'a nraw;g6j;+k; Ngh+ gy;NtW t'fahd gpur;rp'df*;; Njhd;wf;E6k;.
0jht+1 ep'dtf 0y;y+ rhjd/;f*py; gpur;rp'df*;1 c*; kw;Wk; nt*papy;
ngh.j;jg;gl;6*;* rhjd/;f*py; gpur;rp'df*;1 0Gf'yj; jtpu;j;jy;1
0j;+k(wpa ep'dtfg;gpuNtrk;1 8z;fzpj kp'ftopjy; (Ari$(me$i' -.er/low)
kw;Wk; gy;NtW nkd;ngh.*; rpf;fy;f*; Nghd;wtw;'wf; ,wpg;gplyhk;.
)t;thwhd gpur;rp'df'* )d/;fz;6 0tw;'w eptu;j;jp nra;9k;
nray;f'*9k; )af;f %'w'k Nkw;nfh*;fpw+.

fzpj;jy;
gupGJuz )af;f %'w'knahd;wpd; Hyk; 0jht+1 gy;NtW t*/;f*pd;
gad;gh6 njhlu;ghd gjpf'* 'tj;jy;1 gjpy*pg;Gf; fhy #Re0one Time!
nray;fhl;5f*pd; Nkw;ghu;'t Nghd;w nray;f*; Hyk; fzpdp'a Nkk;g6j;jp
0jd; nraw;wpw'd cr;rep'yapy; 'tj;+f;nfh*;Sk;.

gadupd; Nj'tf;Nfw;g t* %fh'kj;+tk; nra;jy;
fzpdp 8d;g+ juf'* Nrkpj;jy;;1 %'wtopg;g6j;jy;1 kw; Wk;
0r;nray;fSf;,j; Nj'tahd 4'da nray;f'*f; fl;lg;g6j;+tjw;,j;
Nj'tg;g6k; t*j;njh,jpnahd;wh,k;. (Se$ o/ reo1r'e). )af;f %'w'kahd+
Nkw;,wpj;j )t;t'dj;+ nraw;gh6f'*9k; %fh'kj;+tk; nra;fpd;w+. )af;f
%'w'kahd+ fzpdpapd; td;ngh.*;fSf;, kpff; fpl;5a+k;
0t;td;ngh.*;fSf;, fl;l'* to/;,tjw;fhf c.thf;fg;gl;6*;* -.
epfo;r;rp epuyh,k;. 8dp&k;1 4'da nkd;ngh.*;f'*g; Nghyd;wp )af;f
%'w'kahd+1 4'da t*g; gad;ghl;6f;fhd ?o'y to/;,t+ld; 1 4'da
nkd;ngh.*;f'* )af;,tjw;, Ed;nraypapw;,j; Nj'tahd fl;l'*f'*9k;
to/;,fpd;w+.
,


c.@ )af;f %'w'kapd; 06f;,f*;.

)af;f %'w'kapd; gupzhkk;.

njhlu;%'w %'wtopg;g6j;jy; (Serial Processing)
%jyhk; j'y%'wf; fzpdpfSf;, )af;f %'w'kapd; 0trpak;
).f;ftpy;'y. 4nddpy; fzpdpapd; rfy nraw;gh6fSk; )ae;jpu nkhop Hyk;
fl;6g;g6j;jg;gl;l+ld; 4uh*khd M*pf'*f; nfhz;5.e;j'kahy; M*pf'*
Nj'tf;Nfw;g -7/;, nra;+ fl;l'*f*; to/;fg;gl;ld.



c.@ %jyhk; j'y%'wf; fzpdpnahd;wpw;, 0wpWj;jy; to/;,jy;

gpd;du; +'*0l;'l thrpg;ghd; Hyk; fl;l'*f'* c.thf;ff; E5athwhd
fzpdpf*; c.thf;fg;gl;ld. 0j;+ld; ju %'wtopg;g6j;jypd; gpd;
ngWNgwhd+ 0r;3g;nghwp Hyk; ngw;Wf; nfh*;*f; E5ajhap.e;j+.









1-




















)t;thW 0'kf;fg;gl;l fzpdpapy;1-. jl'tapy; -. nra'y khj;jpuNk
Nkw;nfh*;*f; E5ajhap.e;j+ld;1 gy nray;f'* nra;a Ntz;5a
re;ju;g;g/;f*py; 0tw;'w Nj'tapd; 05g;g'lapy; tup'rg;g6j;jp -d;wd;gpd;
-d;whf Nkw;nfh*;* Ntz;5ap.e;j+. )t;thW -7/;f'kf;fg;gl;l nraw;gh6f*;
“njhlu;ep'y %'wtopahf;fk; ” 8dg;gl;l+.

Nkw;Ewg;gl;l %'wapy; )uz;6 gpujpEy/;f*; fhzg;gl;ld.

1. fhy 0l;lt'z Nj't. (Scheduling)
gadu; jk+ Nt'y'a nra;+nfh*;tjw;,j; Nj'tahd fzpdp Neuj;'j
%d;El;5Na -+f;f Ntz;5ap.e;j+. -+f;fpf; nfh*;*g;gl;l Neuj;jpw;,
%d;Ng ,wpg;gpl;l nraw;gh6 ep'wNtw;wg;gl;lhy;1 8:;rpa Neuk;
tpuakhf;fg;g6fpw+. 0NjNghd;W1 nraw;gh6 %5t'la %d;Ng Neuk;
%5e;+tpl;lhy;1 0r;nraw;ghl;'l %w;whf epWj;jptpl;6 (Kill) k(z;6k;
Muk;gpf;f Neupl;l+.

!. 0jpf epW Neuk;
-. nra'y fzpdpf;, to/;,k;Ngh+ 0jw;fhd epuy;f'* #Program!
ep'dtfj;jpw;, 4w;w2k;1 0j'd ep'wNtw;wj; Nj'tahd ?o'y
jahu;g6j;jy; Nghd;w nraw;gh6f'* Nkw;nfh*;* Ntz;59*; *+. )jw;,
0jpf Neuk; nrytplg;g6fpd;w+.

• 8*pa njh,jp %'w'k ( Simple Batch System)
)uz;lhk; j'y%'wf; fzpdpf*; Njhd;w Muk;gpj;j+k;1 nray;f'* njh,jp;
njh,jpahd nray;epuy;f*hf Ntwhf;fp fzpdpf;, to/;ff;E5a t'fapyhd
)af;f %'w'kf*; c.thfpd. )'jj; njhlu;e;+ fzpdpapd; gad;gh6k;
0jpfupf;fj; Muk;gkhfpa+. +'*0l;'l 0y;y+ fhe;j ehlhf;f*pd; Hyk;
fzpdpf;, ju to/;ff; E5a t'fapy; njhopEl;g%k; %d;Ndw;wk'le;j+.
fzpdp td;ngh.*; njhlu;ghd tp*f;fk; )y;yhk2k;El fzpdp'a
'fahStjw;, )jd; Hyk; topt,f;fg;gl;l+.







+'*0l;'l thrpg;ghd;
+'*0l;'l
11

• gy;epuyhf;fg;gl;l njh,jp %'w'k ( Multiprogrammed Batch System)
)'znthj;j jd;'k9'la fzpdpf*; Njhd;wpajd; tp'*thf gy;NtW
t'fahd fzpdpfSf;,k; -Nu t'fahd )af;f %'w'k ghtpf;ff; E5a
ep'y 4w;gl;l+. 0NjNghd;W1 fzpj;jy; nray;fSf;fhf -./;fp'zf;fg;gl;l
3w;Wf* #I&! gad;g6j;jg;gl;ld. -./;fp'zf;fg;gl;l 3w;Wf*; gad;g6j;jg;gl;l
%jyht+ fzpdp ./M36- M,k;. )jw;, OS036- 8&k; -./;,Nru;g;G
#Aem2l)! nkhopahy; c.thd kpfk; rpf;fyhd )af;f %'w'knahd;W
gad;g6j;jg;gl;l+.
njh,jpthupahf epuyh*u; Hyk; fzpdpf;, 0wpWj;jy;f'* to/;,tjw;,
gjpyhf )af;f %'w'kapd; Hyk; jd;dpaf;f %'wapy; Nj'tahd epuy;f*;
fzpdpf;, to/;fg;gl;l+. )jd; Hyk;1njh,jpj; njh,jpahf nray;f*;
to/;fg;g6tjw;, gjpyhf gy nray;f'* njh,jpf*hfg; gpupj;+ -Nu
jl'tapy; nraw;g6j;+k; jpwd; fzpdpf;, fp'lj;j+. )j'd gy;epuyhf;fy;
8d 0'of;fg;g6fpw+.

• Neug;gfpu; %'w'kf*; (Time Sharing Systems)
Nkw;,wpg;gpl;l gy;epuyhf;fypy; Ez;nraypapd; Neuk; gy nray;fSf;,k;
-+f;fpf;nfh*;*f;E5a jpw'kkpf;f )af;f %'w'kapd; Hyk;
Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6fpd;w+. )t;thw;wy; nfhz;l )af;f %'w'kf*; “Neug;gfpu;
)af;f %'w'kf*; ” 8d 0'of;fg;g6fpd;wd.

ju Nrkpg;gfk;
Nrkpg;gfnkhd;wpy; ju Nrkpg;gp'd nrk;'kahfr; nra;jy; )af;f
%'w'knahd;wpd; %f;fpa nrayh,k;. Nrkpg;ghd+ Nrkpg;gfj;jpd;
fl;l'kg;gpw;,g; ngh.j;jkhd t'fapy; )yf;f%'w juj; +z;l/;f*hf
Nrkpf;fg;g6fpd;wd. )jd; Ngh+ caupa nrayhw;Wj;jpw&ld; ju Nrkpg;'g
Nkw;nfh*;*y; )af;f %'w'k Hyk; Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6fpd;w+. cjhuzkhf1
fzpdpapy; nkd;ngh.n*hd;W epWtg;g6k; Ngh+ 0j&ld; njhlu;G'la rfy
Nfhg;Gf*;1 0'lf*;1 cg0'lf*; Mfpa 0'dj;+k; rupahd -7/;fpy;
Nrkpf;fg;g6t+ )af;f %'w'k Hyk; %fh'kj;+tk; nra;ag;g6fpw+.










c.@ td;jl;nlhd;wpy; ju Nrkpf;fg;g6k; fl;l'kg;G

12


)af;f %'w'kf'* t'fg;g6j;jy;
)af;f %'w'kf'* gy;NtW jd;'kf*pd; 05g;g'lapy; t'fg;g6j;jyhk;.
gutyhfg; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;w 05g;g'lf*; 0l/;fpa t'fg6j;jy; f(No
fhzg;g6fpd;w+.
• epfo;Neu )af;f %'w'k +1ea 2ime OS*
• jdp gadu; jdp gzp )af;f %'w'k +Singe User Singe 2as% OS*
• jdp gadu; gw;gzp )af;f %'w'k +Singe User Muti 2as% OS*
• gw;gadu; gw;gzp )af;f %'w'k +Muti User Muti 2as% OS*

epfo;Neu )af;f %'w'k
)t;tpaf;f %'w'k Hyk; Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6fpd;w rfy nray;fSk; ,wpj;j fhy
t'ua'uf;,*; GJu;j;jp nra;ag;gly; Ntz;6k;. 0Nefkhf1 )t;t'fahd )af;f
%'w'kf*; cl;nghjpe;j #3m2e,,e,! %'w'kf*h,k;. 0jht+1
)t;t'fahd )af;f %'w'kf*; td;jl;6f*py; epWtg;glkhl;lh+. )'t
-./;fp'ze;j 3w;Wf*py; gjp nra;ag;gl;5.f;,k;. )t;t'fahd )af;f
%'w'kf*; epfo;Neu nray;fSf;, gad;g6j;jg;g6t+ld;1 )'t jdpgzp
0y;y+ gw;gzpfSf;, gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;wd. t/;fpf*py; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;w
jd;dpaf;f nrhy;yp )ae;jpuk; ATM )jw;nfh. cjhuzkh,k;.

jdp gadu; jdp gzp )af;f %'w'k
)t;tpaf;f %'w'k -Nu re;ju;g;gj;jpy; -. gad.f;, -.gzp khj;jpuk;
Nkw;nfh*;tjw;, )lk*pf;fpd;w+. cjhuzkhf1 4jht+ -. nra'y khj;jpuk;
-. Neuj;jpy; Nkw;nfh*;* %59k;.
cjhuzk;. MS3$OS4 Pam OS

jdp gadu; gw;gzp )af;f %'w'k
)t;tpaf;f %'w'k -Nu re;ju;g;gj;jpy; gadnuh.t.f;, -d;W 0y;y+ 0jw;,
Nkw;gl;l nray;f'* Nkw;nfh*;tjw;, )a2khd t'fapy;
c.thf;fg;gl;6*;*+. et(d jdpegu; fzpdpf*; )t;t'f )paf;f
%'w'kf'*f; nfhz;l'tah,k;. 8dNt1 )t;t'f )af;f %'w'kf*;
Hyk; 0jpE5a 0*tpyhd nray;f'* ,Wfpa Neuj;jpw;,*; nra;+ nfh*;*f;
E5ajh9*;*+. )jdhy; jdpegu; fzpdpf*; 0d;whl tho;tpy; nraw;wpw&*;*
t'fapy; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;wd.
cjhuzk;. 5in#o6s4 Ma! OS4 U'untu4 Fe#ora

gw;gadu; gw;gzp )af;f %'w'k
)t;tpaf;f %'w'k epWtg;gl;l fzpdpnahd;wpw;, %'za/;f*; #Terminal!
gytw;'w njhlu;Gg6j;j %59k;. )/;, 4f fhyj;jpy; gadu; fSf;, gy
nraw;gh6f'* Nkw;nfh*;* %59k;.
cjhuzk;@ kj;jpa fzpdp1 Nr'taff; fzpdp1 tp.e;Njhk;gy; fzpdp.

13

Nkw;,wpg;gpl;l )af;f %'w'kf*py; rhuhk;rk; t.khW.

)af;f %'w'k gpujhd )ay;Gf*; gpuNahfk;
epfo;Neu
• Ntfk; kpff; E5a+
• 0*tpy; rpwpa+
• epfo;Neu nraw;gh6fSf;,
Nj'tahd+
• Neha; 0wp,wpf'*f;
fhz;gjw;,
• ATM
• tp:;:hd
cgfuz/;f*;
• tpkhdr; r(l;6 -+f;fy;
jdp gadu; jdp
gzp
• -. gadu;
• -. Neuj;jpy; -. nray;
• kl;6g;g6j;jg;gl;l Nrkpg;gfk;
• 0jpE5a tp'ykjpg;G*;*
fzpdpf*; Nj'tapy;'y
• MS3$OS
• Pam OS
jdp gadu; gw;gzp
• -. gadu;
• gy nray;f'*
4ffhyj;jpy; nra;jy;
• gadupd; cr;r ga'd
0jpfupj;jy;
• fzpdpapd; cr;r ga'd
0jpfupj;jy;
• MS3 5in#o6s
• U'untu
• "ant7ana
gw;gadu; gw;gzp
• gw; gadu;
• 4ffhyj;jpy; gy
nray;f'* nra;jy;
• gadupd; cr;r ga'd
0jpfupj;jy
• Uni8
• 9MS
• Main:rame OS
Su!7 as M9S

gy; nray;epuy; %'w'kf*;
-Nu Neuj;jpy; gy epfo;r;rpf'* gpujhd ep'dtfj;jpy; 'tj;+f;nfhz;6
Ez;nraypapd; Neuj;'j )e;epfo;r;rpfSf;fp'lNa gfpu;e; + nfh*;*f;E5a
t'fapy; epuy;f'* nraw;g6j;+tjw;nfd c.thf;fg;gl;6*;* )af;f
%'w'kf*; gy; nray;epuy; %'w'kf*; 8dg;g6k;.
f(No fhl;lg;gl;6*;* t'uglj;jpd; Hyk; )j'd tp*f;fyhk;.





















14

gy;nray;epuy;fSf;f'ka f(o; fhzg;g6fpd;w nraw;gh6f*; )af;f %'w'k
Hyk; Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6fpd;w+.
• LNu Neuj;jpy;; gy nray;f'* ep'dtfj;jpy; 'tj;+f; nfh*;Sk;.
• ep'dtfj;jp2*;* nray;f'* 4jhtnjh. jpl;lj;jpw;f'ka -t;nthd;whf
nraw;g6j;jy;.
• gy;nray;epuy; )af;f %'w'kf*; Hyk; nraw;ghl;52*;* 0'dj;+
nray;f*;1 %'w'k t*/;f*; 8d;gd 0tjhdpf;fg;g6t+ld;1 “0y,
%fh'kj;+t epfo;r;rp” #4Uni$ Managemen$ Program5! Hyk;
ep'dtfj;jp2*;* 0'dj;+ nray;fSk; ep'wNtWk;t'u 0tw;'wg;
gh+fhf;,k; nghWg;'gf; nfhz;5.f;,k;.

ed;'kf*;
• cau; nraw;wpw&ld; Ez;nrayp ghtpf;fg;gly;.
• -Nu Neuj;jpy;; 0jpf 8z;zpf;'fahd epfo;r;rpf*; nraw; g6tjhf gadu;
czu;tu;.
j('kf*;
• Ez;nrayp fhy 0l;lt'zg;g6j;jg;gl Ntz;59*;*'k.
• 0jpf 8z;zpf;'fapyhd nray;fSf;, ep'dtfj;jpy; )ltrjp nra;+
nfh6g;gjw;, ep'dtf %fh'kj;+tk; Nj'tg;g6fpw+.

Neug;gfpu; %'w'kf*; #Time S(aring S)$em!
Ez;nraypapd; Neuj;'j gy epfo;r;rpfSf;, gfpu; nra;+ ghtpf;ff;E5a
t'fapy; c.thf;fg;gl;6*;* njhopy;El;gkh,k;. )j'd epunyhd;wpd; ju;f;f
e(5g;ghf fhl;l %59k;. Ez;nraypapd; Neuj;'j gy;gadu; fSf;fp'lapy;
gfpu;e;+nfh*;*f; E5a'k “Neug; gfpu;”+2ime S7aring* 8dg;g6fpw+.

Nfhg;Gf'* t'fg;g6j;jy;
juf;Nfhg;G 8d;g+1 )uz;lhe;ju Nrkpg;gfnkhd;wpy; ju Nrkpg;gjw;,k;1
Nrkpf;fg;gl;l juf'* k(z;6k; ngw;Wf; nfh*;tjw;,k; c.thf;fg;gl;l
f.j;+ep'y nghwp%'w #A2$ra'$ Me'(anim! M,k;. -t;nth. Nfh't'a9k;
jdpj;+tkhf 0'lah*/;fhz;gjw;Nfw;wthW ngauplg;gl Ntz; 6k;.
0NjNghd;W1 -t;nth. Nfhg;gpw;,k; ).g;gplk;1 t'f1 c.thf;fg;gl;l jpfjp1
Neuk; Nghd;w gz;Gf*; c*;*d. 0Nefkhd )af;f %'w'kf*py;
Nfhg;Gg;ngau; ). g,jpf'*f; nfhz;5.f;,k;. Nfhg;Gg;ngaupd; %jw;g,jp
gadupdhy; to/;fg;g6t+ld; %w;Wg; G*;*p'aj; njhlu;e;+ t.k; e(5g;G fzpdp
nkd;ngh.*; Hyk; to/;fg;g6fpw+. )e;e(5g;gpd; Hyk; Nfhg;gpd; t'f'a
0wpe;+ nfh*;*yhk;.
cjhuzk;@ M)/ile.,o' 8d;gjpy; M)/ile 8d;g'j Nfhg;gp'd c.thf;fpatupdhy;
to/;fg;gl;6*;*+ld; ,o' 8&k; e(5g;G )f;Nfhg;G c.thf;fg;gl;l nkd;ngh.*;
gw;wpa jft'yf; fhl;6fpd;w+.

Nfhg;G t'ff*;
Nfhg;nghd;wpy; ju Nrkpf;fg;gl;5.f;,k; tpjj;'j 05g; g'lahff; nfhz;6
0tw;'w f(7*;*thW t'fg;g6j;jyhk;.

a) ASC.. Nfhg;G
ASC.. Nfhg;Gj; juf'* rhjhuz ghlg; gjpg;gpnahd;wpd; #Te6$ 3,i$or! Hyk;
thrpj;jwpaf; E5a t'fapy; ,wpa(5ly; nra;ag;gl;6*;*+.

'* +tpj +/inary* Nfhg;G
ASC.. Nfhg;Gf'*g; Nghy; +tpj Nfhg;Gf'*j; jpwe;+ 0tw;wp2*; * ,wpa(6f'*
0Nj t5tpy; ghu;j;+ tp*/;fpf;nfh*;* %5ah+. tp*/;fpf; nfh*;* %5ahj
,wpa(6f*; rpytw;'w 0j&*; fhzyhk;.
15

Nfhg;G 0'lf*; (File Directories)
fzpdpapy; ).f;,k; Nfhg;Gf*; ju;f;f u(jpahf “Nfhg;Gr; Nru;g;G” %'wapy;
-7/;,g6j;+tjw;fhf 0'lf*; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;wd. 0'lnthd;wpd; Hyk;
nka;epfu; nfh*;fyd; -d;W c.thf;fg;g6fpw+. )f;nfh*;fyndhd;wpyp.f;,k;
0'dj;+ Nfhg;Gf*; gw;wpa tpgu/;f'*9k; Nrkpj;+ 'tj;+f; nfh*;tjw;,
)af;f %'w'k Hyk; Nfhg;nghd;W guhkupf;fg;g6fpd;w+.

Nfhg;G %fh'kj;+tk;
Nfhg;G njh,jpnahd;wpdh2k; 0'l fl;l'kg;gpdh2k; c.thdNj Nfhg;G
%'w'kah,k;. )+ )af;f %'w'kapy; fhzg;g6k; Nfhg;G %fh'kj;+t
nraw;ghl;5d; Hyk; fl;6g;g6j;jg;g6fpw+.
0'l fl;l'kg;G Hyk; )uz;lhe;ju Nrkpg;gfj;jpy; Nfhg; Gf*; Nrkpj;+
'tf;fg;gl;5.f;,k; %'w tpgupf;fg;gl;5.f;,k;;. 0'lnthd;wpy; fhzg;g6k;
rfy Nfhg;Gf*pd; tpgu/;fSk; 0j&*; c*;*lf;fg;gl;5.f;,k;.

















;inu8 )af;f %'w'kapy; 0'lk; Nfhg;G %'w'k 0l;lt'z9k;.


Nfhg;G gh+fhg;G
gadu+ juf*; Nrjk'ljy;1 njh'ye;+ Nghjy; 8d;gd gad.f;,*;*
gpur;rp'df*h,k;. )j'd jtpu;g;gjw;,1 0j;juf*; 0l/;fpa Nfhg;Gf'*
gh+fhf;f elt5f;'f Nkw;nfh*;* Ntz6k;.

ju ghjpg;gpw;,*;*hff; E5a re;ju;g;g/;f*;
• ,Wk;gu;fSk; 'tu3fSk;. # Ha'ker an, 7ir1e!
• )aw;'ffhuzpf*; A j(1 e(u; kw;Wk; capupd/;f*pdhy; 4w;g6k; ghjpg;Gf*;.
• td;ngh.*;1 nkd;ngh.*;1 t'ya'kg;G1 njhlu;ghly; 8d;gtw;wpy;
4w;g6k;gpur;rp'df*;;.
• khdpl ,'wgh6f*;A gp'oahd ju c*;*(61 gp'oahd ju c*;*(l;6f;
f.tpf*pd; gad;gh6 kw;Wk; f.tpf*; fhzhky; Nghjy;.

ju gh+fhg;G %'wf*;
• Nfhg;Gf'* jpwg;gjw;,k; jp.j;j/;f'*r; nra;tjw;,k; )ayhjthW
cup'kf'* khw;Wjy;. +Fie previages*
• gad.f;fhd 0/;f(fhukypj;jy; + User aut7enti!ation*
• flr; nrhy; gh+fhg;G + Pass6or# Prote!tion*

16

nray; -7/;f'kg;G #Pro'e S'(e,1ling!
nray; %fh'kj;+tj;jpd; 05g;g'l tplakhf nray; -7/;f'kg;G jpfo;fpw+.
)jd; Hyk; jahu; ep'yapy; ).f;,k; nray;f'* Ez;nraypapw;, 0&g;Gk;
tpj%k; nraypapy; nraw;gl;6f; nfhz;5.f;,k; nray;f'* 0g;Gwg;g6j;+k;
tpj%k; j(u;khdpf;fg;g6fpd;w+. nray; -7/;f'kg;G elt5f;'fahd+1 gw;gzp
)af;f %'w'knahd;wpd; kpf %f;fpa 0k;rkh,k;. )+ gw;wpa tpguk; #FMk;
ju Mrpupau; topfhl;5apy; ## njhlf;fk; #M t'uahd gf; f/;f*py; c*;*+.
8dNt1 nray; newp%'wg;g6j;jy; #Algori$(m! gw;wp khj;jpuk; )/;,
nj*pg;g6j;jg;g6fpd;w+.

nray; -7/;f'kg;G newp%'w #Pro'e S'(e,1ling Algori$(m!
nray;ghl;6f;fhd nray;f'* nraypf;, 0&g;Gk; -7/;f'kg;'g
fl;6g;g6j;+tjw;fhf c.thf;fg;gl;6*;* newp%'wf*; rpy f(No jug;gl;6*;*d.
• %jypy; t.gt.f;, %jypy; Nr't to/;fy; +First Come First Serve#3
FCFS*
• ,Wfpa Nt'y %jypy; +S7ortest <o' First3S<F*
• %d;&up'k 05g;g'l +Priority /ase*
• 1oun# 1o'in newp%'w
• gy;kl;l #m1l$i le.el! tup'rg;g6j;jy; -7/;f'kg;G

Nky; ,wpg;gpl;l rfy top%'wf'*9k; ). gpujhd %'wfSf;f'ka
gad;g6j;j %59k;.
• Pre3 emptive Pro!ess S!7e#ue – nraypf;, 4jhtnjh. nra'y
0&g;gpajd; gpd;1 0r;nray; %5t'la %d;Ng1 0j'd nraypapyp.e;+
0g;Gwg;g6j;j %59k;.
• =on Pre3 emptive Pro!ess S!7e#ue – nraypf;, 4jhtnjh. nray;
0&g;gg;gl;l+k;1 0r;nray; ep'w ngWk;t'u nraypapyp.e;+
0g;Gwg;g6j;jg;glkhl;lh+.
)t;thwhd newp%'wf'* -g;gp6tjw;fhf f(No fhl;lg;gl;6*;* 05g;g'lf'*
cgNahfpf;fyhk;.
• te;+ Nr.k; Neuk; +Arriva 2ime). nray; jahu; ep'yf;,l;g6k; Neuk;.
• nraw;g6 Neuk; +/urst 2ime). nra'y ep'wNtw;w nraypf;, 86f;,k;
Neuk;.
• fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk; +5aiting 2ime). nraypapd; Neuj;'j ngw;Wf;nfh*;*
8jpu;ghu;j;+ jahu; ep'yapy; ).f;,k; %7 Neuk;.
• k(*;t. Neuk; +2urnaroun# 2ime). nranyhd;W jahu; ep'yf;,l;g6k; Neuk;
%jy; nray; %5t'l9k; t'uahd Neuk;.
)/;, 0'dj;+ nray;fSk; nraypapd; Nj'ta5g;g'lapy; khj;jpuk;
0'ke;j't 8d;w 86NfhSf;f'kthd+ 8d f.jg;g6fpd;w+.















17


%jy; t.gtu; %jypy; Nr'tngwy; (First Come First Served - FCFS)
• t.k; -7/;fpw;Nfw;gNt nray;f*; Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6jy;.
• tp*/;fpf; nfh*;t+k; nray;g6j;+t+k; )y,th,k;.
• fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk; 0jpfkh'fahy; nraw;wpwd; ,'wth,k; .

nray;
te;+
Nr.k;
Neuk;
nray;g6
Neuk;
fhj;jp.f;,k;
Neuk;
nray;
GJu;j;jp
Neuk;
k(*;t.
Neuk;
P-
P1
P2
P3
-
1
2
3
5
3
(
6
-
4
6
13
5
(
16
22
5
7
14
1,





rfy nray;f*pd+k; fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk; f(7*;*thW 0'k9k;.

nray;
k(*;t. Neuk; A nray;g6 Neuk; 8 fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;
P- 5 3 5 > -
P1 7 3 3 > 4
P2 14 3 ( > 6
P3 1, 3 6 > 13

ruhrup fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk; > +-?4?6?13* 0 4 > 5.75










P- P1 P2 P3

P-
nray;g6 Neuk;
P1
fhj;jp.f;,k;
Neuk;

nray;g6
Neuk;
P2
fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;

nray;g6 Neuk;
P3
fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;

nray;g6 Neuk;
- 1 2 3 5 ( 16 22

- 5 ( 16 22

1(

,Wfpa Nt'y %jypy; (Shortest Job First-SJF)
• fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuj;'j Mff; ,'we;jjhf;fyhk;.
• nraw;g6j;j %5ah+.
• nray; ngwg;g6k; Neuj;'j nrayp %d;El;5Na 0wpe;+ nfh*;Sk;.

nray;
te;+ Nr.k;
Neuk;
nray;g6
Neuk;
fhj;jp.f;,k;
Neuk;
k(*;t.
Neuk;
P-
P1
P2
P3
-
1
2
3
5
3
(
6
-
4
6
13
5
7
2-
11





rfy nray;f*pd+k; fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk; f(7*;*thW 0'k9k;.

nray;
k(*;t. Neuk; A nray;g6 Neuk; 8 fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;
P- 5 3 5 > -
P1 7 3 3 > 4
P2 2- 3 ( > 12
P3 11 3 6 > 5

ruhrup fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk; > +-?4?12?5* 0 4 > 5.25








c




: 1 z
P-
nray;g6 Neuk;


P1
fhj;jp.f;,k;
Neuk;
nray;g6
Neuk;

P3
fhj;jp.f;,k;
Neuk;
nray;g6 Neuk;

P2
fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;
nray;g6 Neuk;

- 1 2 3 5 ( 14 22
- 5 ( 14
22
1,

%d;&up'k 05g;g'l newp%'w (Priority Base)
• -t;nth. nra2f;,k; 4w;fdNt j(u;khdpf;fg;gl;l %d;&up'kf*; c*;*d.
caupa %d;&up'k njhlf;fk; ,'we;j %d;&up'k t'u 8&k;
05g;g'lapy; nraw;g6j;jg;g6k;.
• rk %d;&up'k nfhz;l nray;f*; #9&9S! 05g;g'lapy;
nray;g6j;jg;g6k;.
• %d;&up'k to/;fg;g6t+ ep'dtfj; Nj't 0y;y+ Neu 0trpak;
0y;y+ NtW t*/;f*pd; Nj'tapd; 05g;g'lapyh,k;.

nray;
te;+ Nr.k;
Neuk;
nray;g6
Neuk;
%d;&up'k
k(*;t.
Neuk;
P-
P1
P2
P3
-
1
2
3
5
3
(
6
1
2
1
3
5
15
11
1,






rfy nray;f*pd+k; fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk; f(7*;*thW 0'k9k;.

nray;
k(*;t. Neuk; A nray;g6 Neuk; 8 fhj;jp.f;,k;
Neuk;
P- 5 3 5 > -
P1 15 3 3 > 12
P2 11 3 ( > 3
P3 1, 3 6 > 13

ruhrup fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk; >+-?12?3?13* 0 4 > 7.--



P- P2 P1 P3

P-
nray;g6 Neuk;

P1
fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;


nray;g6
Neuk;
P2
fhj;jp.f;,k;
Neuk;

nray;g6 Neuk;
P3
fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;

nray;g6 Neuk;
- 1 2 3 5 13 16 22
- 5 13 16
22
2-

Round Robin -7/;f'kg;G
• -t;nth. nra2f;,k; nraw;g6j;jg;g6tjw;,upa Neut'ua'wnahd;W
to/;fg;g6fpw+. 0+ 0* (:1an$1m) 8d 0'of;fg;g6fpd;w+.
#Pre;em0$i.e '(e,1ling!.
• nra2f;, -+f;fg;gl;l Neuk; %5t'le;j+k; 0j'd )'lepWj; jp tpl;6
06j;+*;* nra'y nraw;g6j;+k;. )t;thW rfy nray;f'*9k;
-+f;fg;gl;l Neuj;jpw;,*; khj;jpuk; nraw;g6j;+k;. )r;nray;f*; 3ow;rp
05g;g'lap;y; Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6k;. )'lepWj;jg;gl;l 8:;rpa g,jpf*;
06j;j6j;j 3w;Wf*py; nraw;g6j;jg;g6k;.
• 0'kg;G M*p'a (&on$e6$ Swi$'() nraw;g6j;+tjd; Hyk; -t;nth.
nraypd+k; ep'yf*; (S$a$1! gjp nra;+ nfh*;*g;g6k;.











Neu 0*(Quantum) 1

P- P1 P2 P3 P- P2 P3 P2



P-
nray;g6
Neuk;
fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;
nray;g6
Neuk;

P1
fhj;jp.f;,k;
Neuk;
nray;g6
Neuk;

P2
fhj;jp.f;,k;
Neuk;

nray;g6
Neuk;
fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;

nray;g6
Neuk;
fhj;jp.f;,k;
Neuk;

nray;g6
Neuk;
P3
fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;

nray;g6
Neuk;
fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;

nray;g6
Neuk;



rfy nray;f*pd+k; fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk; f(7*;*thW 0'k9k;.

nray; k(*;t. Neuk; A nray;g6 Neuk; 8 fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk;
P- 14 3 5 > ,
P1 5 3 3 > 2
P2 2- 3 ( > 12
P3 17 3 6 > 11

ruhrup fhj;jp.f;,k; Neuk; >+,?2?12?11* 0 4 > (.25

nray;
te;+ Nr.k;
Neuk;
nray;g6
Neuk;
k(*;t.
Neuk;
P-
P1
P2
P3
-
1
2
3
5
3
(
6
14
5
2-
17
- 3 6 , 12 14 17 2- 22

- 1 2 3 6 , 12 14 17 2- 22
21

gy;kl;l tup'rg; g6j;jy; -7/;f'kg;G
• nray;fSf;, gy;NtW tup'rg;g6j;jy;f*; Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6fpd;wd.
• -t;nth. tup'rf;,k; jdf;Nf9upa -7/;,g6j;jy; newp%'wnahd;W
c*;*+.
• -t;nth. tup'rf;,k; %d;&up'knahd;W to/;fg;gl;6*;*+.






















ep'dtf %fh'kj;+tk;
fzpdpap2*;* %f;fpakhd ep'dtfk; gpujhd ep'dtfkh,k;. ep'dtfj;'j
%fh'kj;+tk; nra;tjw;fhf )af;f %'w'kapy; “ep'dtf %fh'kah*u;”
(Memor) Manager) 8&k; g,jp nraw;g6fpw+. nray;f*pd; nraw;ghl;6f;,
Nj'tahd ep'dtfj;'jg; ngw;Wf; nfh6g;g+k; #Allo'a$e)1 0r;nray;f*;
GJu;j;jpahd+k; 0tw;wpw;, -+f;fg;gl;l ep'dtfj;'j tp6tpg;g+k; (De;allo'a$e)
)jd; gzpah,k;. )/;, ght'dap2*;* kw;Wk; ght'dapypy;yhj ep'dtfg;
g,jpf*; gw;wpa ,wpg;Gf*; )af;f %'w'k Hyk; Ngzg;g6fpw+.

ep'dtf %fh'kj;+tk; gpujhdkhf ). t'fg;g6k;.

#. ep'dtf khw;w2k; gf;fkpl2k; (Swapping and aging)
gy;epuy; )af;f %'w'kf*; Hyk; )uz;6 0y;y+ 0jw;, Nkw; gl;l
nray;f'* 4f fhyj;jpy; nraw;g6j;jg;g6k; Ngh+1 -. jl'tapy; -.
nraw;ghl;6f;;,upa nray;f*; ep'dtfj;jpw;, khw;wg;g6k;. 0+ GJu;j;jpahd+k;
06j;j nraw;ghl;6f;,upa nray;f*; ep'dtfj;jpw;, khw;wg;g6k;. )t;thW rfy
nraw;gh6fSk;; ep'w ngWk;t'u rfy nray;fSk; 0t;tg;Ngh+
ep'dtfj;jpw;, khw;wg;g6k;. GJu;j;jpahd nray;f'* k(z;6k; 0't ).e;j
+'z ep'dtfj;jpw;, khw;wg;g6k;. 0NjNt'* 06j;j nrayhd+ +'z
ep'dtfj;jpyp.e;+ gpujhd ep'dtfj;jpw;, khw;wg;g6k;. )Wjp nray; %59k;
t'u e'lngWk; )f;nraw;gh6 “ep'dtf khw;wk;” 8dg;g6k;.
nka;epfu; ep'dtfj;'jg; gad;g6j;+k; )af;f %'w'kf*py; ep'dtfj;'j
nraw;wpw&*;*thW gad;g6j;jpf;nfh*;tjw;, gf;fkply; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpw+.
)/;, +'z ep'dtfj;jp2*;* jutpw;, epfuhd 0*'la g,jpf*;1 gf;f
#Page) t5tpy; gpujhd ep'dtfj;jpd; nka;epfu; ep'dtf 0'wf; , (7ir$1al
Memor) S0a'e) gpujpaplg;g6fpw+. )g;gf;f/;f*; ng*j(f ep'dtfj;jpy; #P()i'al
Memor)! c*;* rkdhd 0*'lajhf fhzg;g6k; rl;lf/;fSld; #9rame)
)'lnjhlu;gh6'la nray;f*;
%'w'k nray;f*;
)'lnjhlu;gh6'la njh,g;Gr;
nray;f*;
njh,jpr; nray;f*;
gadu;; nray;f*;
,'we;j
E5a
22

gpujpepjpj;+tg;g6j;jg;g6t+ld; #Ma0! 0jp2*;* ju't kpf tp'uthf gpujhd
ep'dtfj;jpw;, ngw;Wf;nfh*;* %5fpw+.

!. ep'dtf khw;wy;1 gf;fkply; 8d;gd )y;yhj ep'dtf %fh'kj;+tk;
-. jl'tf;, -. nra'y khj;jpuk; ep'dtfj;jpw;, khw;wp 0r;nra2f;,
khj;jpuk; ep'dtfj;'j gad;g6j;jf;E5a 8*pa ep'dtf %fh'kj;+t
%'wnahd;wh,k;. )/;, ep'dtfkhd+1 -. jl'tapy; )af;f %'w'kf;,k;1
gadu; epfo;r;rpnahd;wpw;,kp'lapy; #Uer Program! gfpu;e;+ nfh*;*g;g6fpw+.




c.@ gf;fkply;










23

+z;lhf;f2k; (Fragmentation) fop Nrfupj;j2k; (!ar"age Collection)

nray;f'* nraw;g6j;+tjw;, gpujhd ep'dtfj;jpy; Nghjpa )lk;
Nj'tg;g6k;Ngh+1 0j'dg; ngw;Wf; nfh6j;jy; )af;f %'w'kapd;
nghWg;gh,k;. nraypf;, 0&g;gg;g6k; nray;fSf;,1 ep'dtfj;jpy; ghtpf;fh+
fhzg;g6k; ep'dtf g,jp'a ngw;Wf; nfh6f;,k; nraw;ghl; 5d; Ngh+1 gpujhd
ep'dtfj;jpy; ghtpf;fg;glh+*;* )l/;f*; ,'wt'le;+1 ghtpf;fg;gl;l g,jpf*;
ntw;W )l/;f*hf (Hole) 0/;,kp/;,k;; -7/;fpd;wp fhzg;glyhk;. )e;ep'y
ep'dtfk; +z;lhlg;gl;l ep'y 8dg;g6k;. gpujhd ep'dtfj;jpd; Hyk;
nray;f*; GJu;j;jp nra;ag;gl;l+k; 0r;nray;fSf;,upa ep'dtfg; gf;f/;f*;
njhlu;e;+k; 0trpag;glhky; fhzg;g6k; Ngh+1 0j;Nj'taw;w ep'dtfg;
g,jpf*; 0r;nray;fSldp.e;j njhlu;gpyp.e;+ tp6tpf;fg; g6t+ “fop
Nrfupj;jy;” 8dg;g6k;. )af;f %'w'kahd+1 )t;thW fop Nrfupj;jy; Hyk;
cupa ep'dtfr; rl;lf/;f'* NtW nray;fSf;, ghtpf;ff; E5a t'fapy;
trjp nra;+ nfh6f;fg;g6fpw+.
)jd; Hyk; ep'dtfg; gad;gh6 nraw;wpwd'lfpd;w+. )+ “gpujhd ep'dtf
ne.f;fyhf;fy; ” (Memor) &om0a'$ion) 8dg;g6k;.


c.@ ep'dtf +z;lhf;fg;gly;















24














c.@ ep'dtf +z;lhf;fg;gly; Hyk; nray;fSf;, )lg;gw;whf;,'w 4w;gly;

















c.@ ne.f;fkhf;fy;



25

Nju;r;rp D@ nraw;wpw&ld;; (ntw;wpfukhf) ju %fh'kj;+tk; nra;tjw;fhf
juj;j*nkhd;'w t5t'kj;+ tp.j;jp nra; thu;.

fw;wy; NgW@

D.!@ njhlu;Gep'yj; juj;j* khjpupf*pd; gpujhd ghf/;f'* tp*f;,thu;.
• njhlu;Gep'yj; juj;j*k; 8d;g'j tpgupg;ghu;.
• njhlu;G ep'yj; juj;j*k; -d;wpd; EWf'* tp*f;,thu;.
• )t;ntz;zf;f.f;f'* 0d;whl tho;tpd; Nj'tfSf;,g;
gad;g6j;+thu;.

D.F@ juj;j* %fh'kj;+t %'w'knahd;wp;d; EWf'* g,g;gha;
nra;thu;.
• ju 8d;g'j tp*f;,thu;.
• juj;j* %'w'knahd;'w tp*f;,thu;.
• juj;j* %'w'knahd;wpd; gpujhd EWf'* )d/;fhz;ghu;.
• njhlu;Gep'yj; juj;j* %'w'knahd;wp;d; %f;fpa EWf'*
tp*f;,thu;.
• )t;ntz;zf;f.f;f'* 0d;whl tho;tpd; Nj'tfSf;,
cgNahfpg;ghu;.

D.$@ juj;j* %fh'kj;+t %'w'knahd;wp;d; %f;fpa EWf'*
g,g;gha; nra;thu; .
• c.ngh.*; (3n$i$)) njhlu;Gep'y t'uG (3R Diagram) 8d;gtw;'w
tp*f;,thu;.
• c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'uGf*py; (3R Diagram) c*;*
EWf'*g; ngaup6thu;.
• c.ngh.*;f*; (3n$i$ie! )ay;Gf*; #Pro0er$ie/A$$ri21$e)
njhlu;Gep'y (rela$ion(i0), kw;Wk; 8z;0*'t #&ar,inali$))
8d;gtw;'w nj*pg6j;+thu;.
• c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y'a t'uG (3R Diagram) Hyk;
fhl;6thu;.

D.B@ juj;j*nkhd;wpd; ju; f;f 0'kg;G %'wf; ,wpg;'g t5t'kg;ghu;.
• juj;j* 0'kg;G %'wf;,wpg;'g t5t'kg;ghu;.
• njhlu;Gep'y 0'kg;G%'w (Rela$ional S'(ema) njhlu;Gep'y
86j;+f;fhl;6 (Rela$ional In$an'e) 8d;gtw;'w nj*pg6j;+thu;.
• njupep'y rhtp (&an,i,a$e Ke)!, %jd;'kr;rhtp #Primar) Ke)!,
0d;dpar;rhtp #9oreign Ke)!, fy'tr;rhtp ('om0oi$e Ke))1
khw;Wr;rhtp (Al$erna$i.e Ke)) 8d;gtw;'w tp*f;,thu;.
• njhlu;Gep'yj; ju -./;fp'zg;G (rela$ional Da$a In$egri$)!
8d;g'j Ma; nra;af;E5a topf'*f; fz;lwpthu;.
• M*;f*g; ngau; #Domain Name)1 Nkw;Nfh*; -./;fp'zg;G
(re/eren$ial In$egri$)), c.ngh.*; -./;fp'zg;G (3n$i$) In$egri$))
8&k; 8z;zf;f.f;f'* nj*pg6j;+thu;.

v.õ. c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'u'g ju;f;f 0'kg;G %'wf;, khw;Wthu;.
• “ju;f;f 0'kg;G %'w ,wpg;G” 8d;g'j tpgupg;ghu;.
• c.ngh.*; gupzhkk'le;j tpjj;'j tp*f;,thu;.
• gz;Gf*; gupzhkk'le;j tpjj;'j tp*f;,thu;.
• njhlu;G ep'yf*pd; gupzhkj;'j tp*f;,thu;.
26

v.¯. 0'l kl;lj;'j 0jpfupf;fr; nra;tjw;, juj;j* 0'kg;G %'w
t5t'kg;'g )ay;Gg6j;+thu;.
• )ay;Gg6j;jy; 8d;g'j tp*f;,thu;.
• juj;j* 0gptp.j;jpapd;Ngh+ 4w;g6k; gyt(d/;f'* 0wpe; +
nfh*;thu;.
• )ay;Gg6j;jy; Hd;wpd; g5ep'yf'* tpgupg;ghu;.
• )t;ntz;zf;f.f;f'* 0d;whl tho;tpd; Nj'tfSf;,g;
gad;g6j;+thu;.

v.·. juj;j*nkhd;wpy; 0l;lt'z (Ta"le) c.thf;,tjw;,k;
%fh'kj;+tk; nra;tjw;,k; fl;l'kg;G tpdty; nkhop (Structural
#uery $anguage) gad;g6j;+thu;.

• fl;l'kg;G tpdty; nkhop (S$r1'$1ral :1er) Lang1age) gw;wp9k;
0tw;wpd; t'ff*; gw;wp9k; tpgupg;ghu;.
• juj;j* c.thf;fk;1 Da$a De/ini$ion Lang1age #DDL! Hyk; 0y;y+
ju t'ua'w nkhop (Da$a De/ini$ion Lang1age) Hyk;
e'lngWt'j tp*f;,thu;.
• ju t'ua'w nkhop'ag; ( DDL; Da$a De/ini$ion Lang1age)
gpuNahfpj;+ 0l;lt'zf'*#Ta2le! epu;khdpg;ghu;.
• 0t;tl;lt'zf;, Gy/;f'* Nru;j;jy; kw;Wk; Gy/;f'* e(f; fy;
nraw;gh6f'* Nkw;nfh*;thu;.
• 0l;lt'znahd;'w e(f;,thu;.
• 0l;lt'zf;, %jd;'kr; rhtp'a jhgpg;ghu;;.
• %jd;'kr; rhtp'a e(f;,thu;.
• c.ngh.*;fSf;fp'lapyhd njhlu;Gep'yf'* c.thf;,thu;.

v.v. fl;l'kg;G tpdty; nkhop'a (Structural #uery $anguage) gad;g6j;jp
juj;j*nkhd;wpd; juf'*f; 'fah*;thu;.
• ju 'fahSk; nkhop'a (%ata Manipulate $anguage) tpgupg;ghu;.
• ju 'fahSk; nkhop'a gad;g6j;+tjd; Hyk; 0l;lt'zf;,
gjp (&ecord) c*;*(6 nra;thu;.
• 0l;lt'zf;, Nru;f;fg;gl;l 0'dj;+ epuy;f'*9k; fhl;rpg;g6j;+thu;.
0l;lt'zapyp.f;,k; epuy;f'* S'$'CT( F&)M( *+'&' kw;Wk;
,-%1 )& Nghd;wtw;'w cgNahfpj;+ Nj'tf;Nfw;g khw;w/;f'*r;
nra;+ Nj'tahd tpla/;f'* kl;6k; fhlrpg;g6j;+thu;.
• ju 'fahSk; nkhop'ag; ghtpj;+ juj;j*j;jpyp.f;,k; epuy;f'*
)w;'wg;g6j;jpf; nfh*;thu;.
• ju 'fahSk; nkhop'ag; ghtpj;+ juj;j*j;jpyp.f;,k; epuy;f'*
e(f;,thu;.












27

v.z. njhlu;G ep'yj; juj; j* khjpupf*pd; gpujhd ghf/;f'* tp*f;,thu; .

gpuNtrk;
• t,g;gpw;, rHfe;juhj khztu; -.tu+ jfty;f'* Nj5 ngw;W
0tu+ t(l;6ld; njhlu;Gf; nfh*;* Ntz;6nkdf;; Ewp1
0j;jfty;f'* ngw;Wf;nfh*;*f;E5a top%'wf'* khztu;fSld;
fye;+'uahly;.
• ngau; gjpNtl;5y; fhzg;g6k; Nru;tpyf;fj;'jg; gad;g6j;jp khztu;
njhlu;ghd jfty;f'*g; ngw %59nkdf; Ewy;
• Nk2k;1 trjpf;fl;lzk; nr2j;jy; njhlu;ghd jfty;f'* Nj6tjw;,
trjpf;fl;lzg; gjpNtl;5d; jfty;f'*g; ghu;j;jy; Nghd; w gy;NtW
Mtz/;f*; gad;g6j;jg;g6k; re;ju;g;g/;f*; gw;wp 0wpe; + nfh*;*
)lk*pf;fk;.
• )jd; Hyk; Mtzk; -d;Wld; -d;W njhlu;Gg6k; %'w'a
fz;6nfh*;* %59nkd;g'j nj*pg6j;jy;.
• )r;nray;%'w'a fzpdp gad;ghl;5d; Hyk; nraw;wpw&*;*
t'fap2k; )y,thfk; nray;g6j;j %59nkdf; Ewy;;.

fw;w2f;fhd cj;Njr MNyhr'df*;
• t,g;gp2*;* khztu;f'* Hd;W ,7f;f*hfg; gpupj;+ f(o;f;
fhzg;g6k; nraw;gh6f*py; N6g6j;jyhk;.
#. njhlu;Gep'yj; juj;j*k; (Rela$ion/Ta2le) 8d;g'j tp*f;fk;.
!. 0l;lt'znahd;wpd; gz;Gf*; #Pro0er$ie o/ rela$ion)
*. gjp /tup'r/epuy;1Gyk; /gz;Gf*; (re'or,/row/$10le,
/iel,/a$$ri21$e!
• jug;gl;6*;* thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;'j %7'kahfk;1 ckf;,upa g,jp'a
tpNrl ftdj;+l&k; thrpf;fk;;.
• ckf;,upa j'yg;gpd; tpNrl 0k;r/;f*; gw;wp ,7ld;
fye;jhNyhrpf;fk;.
• Lt;nth. j'yg;gp'd9k; ed;, tp*/;fpf; nfh*;*k;.
• j'yg;Gf;fSf;fp'lap2*;* njhlu;gp'd ,7tpy; fye;+'uahlk;.

thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuk;

njhlu;Gep'yj; juj;j*k; (Rela$ional Da$a2ae) 8d;g'j -d;Wld; -d;W
njhlu;G'la+k;1 -7/;f'kf;fg;gl;l+khd juj;j*nkhd;wpd; njh,g;G 8d
8*pjhf tp*f;f %59k;.

cjhuzkhf1 ghlrh'y khztu;f*pd; juj; j*nkhd;wpy; khztu;f*pd;
jdpg;gl;l tpgu/;f*;1 ghl/;f*;1 nt*pr;nraw;gh6f*;1 G*;*pf*; kw;Wk; Mrpupau+
tpgu/;f*; Nghd;wtw;'w Nrfupj;+ 'tf;fyhk;. 0j;jfty;f*; ntt;NtW
0l;lt'zf*py; -7/;f'kj;+ Nrfupj;+ 'tf;fg;g6t+ njhlu; Gep'yj;
juj;j*nkhd;wpy; Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6k; nraw;ghlh,k;. )jd; Hyk; kpf tp'uthf
juf'* 0Gff; E5ajhjhtp.f;,k;.

njhlu;Gep'yj; juj;j*nkhd;wpy; Hd;W g,jpf'* )d/;fhz %59k; .
#. 0l;lt'z(Ta2le)
!. gjp/tup'r (Re'or,/Row/T10le!
F. Gyk; (/iel,/A$$ri21$e)

0l;lt'z (Ta"le)
njhlu;Gep'yj; ju %fh'kj;+t %'w'knahd;wpd; -. g,jpahf
0l;lt'z fhzg;g6fpw+. )+ Gy/;f'*9k; tup'rf'*9k; nfhz;6
c.thf;fg;g6k;. ghlrh'ynahd;wpd; khztu;f*+ jfty;f'* jpul;6tjw;fhf
2(

juf; Nfhg;nghd;'w c.thf;,k; Ngh+ 0jw;,g; 0trpakhd jfty;f*;
gy;NtW 0l;lt'zf*py; -7/;f'kf;fg;gl;5.f;,k;;. 0t;thwhf 0'kf;fg;gl;l
0l;lt'znahd;W f(Nof; fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+.
• khztu;f*pd; jdpg;gl;l jfty;f*; 0l/;fpa 0l;lt'z
A ngau;1 gjpntz;1 gpwe;j jpfjp1 Mz; /ngz;
• tp'*ahl;6 0l;lt'z
A )yf;fk;1 ngau;1 nghWg;ghrpupau;1 )lk;


Student
S2.n#e8 =ame A##ree Cass
1-22 S.M.@.$. &umar =oA154 Pera#eniya 1#4 &an#y ( /
566 @.M.$ 1avi =oA144074 &atugast7ota 1#4 &an#y 11 C
,23 F.$.C.1aBa7 CSa#asiriD4Coom'o 1#4 Ma6anaaa 1-/







Gyk; (.ields)
Gyk; (9iel,/A$$ri21$e) 8d;g+ 0l;lt'znahd;wpd; epuyhf 0'kt+ld; )+
0l;lt'zapd; gz;nghd;whfk; c*;*+. -. Gyj;jpy; -Nu t'fahd juNt
gjpag;g6k;.

cjhuzkhf ghlrh'yapy; khztu;f*+ tpguf;Nfhg;gpy; )lk; ngWk; khztu;
ngau;1 Nru;tpyf;fk;1 gpwe;jjpfjp Nghd;wd khztu;f*+ tpguf;Nfhg;gpd;
Gy/;f*h,k;.


Stu#ent
S!"nde# $ame %ddress &lass
1-22 S.M.$.@. &umar =o. 154 Pera#eniya 1#4 &an#y ( /
566 @.M.$. 1avi =o. 144074 &atugast7ota 1#4 &an#y 11 C
,23 F.$.C. 1aBa7
ESan#asiriE 4 Coom'o 1#4
Ma6anaa
1- /



Sports


Participate



Gy/;f*;
2,

gjp (&ecord)
gjp (Re'or,/Row/T10le) 8d;g+ 0l;lt'zapy; tup'rnahd;'wf; ,wpf;,k;.
0jpy; -. tplak; njhlu;ghd -d;Wld; -d;W njhlu;Ggl;l gy;NtW juf*;
Nrkpf;fg;g6k;.
cjhuzkhf ghlrh'ynahd;wpd; khztu;f*+ jfty; jpul;lg;g6khapd;
khztnuh.tu+ Nru;tpyf;fk;1 gpwe;j jpfjp1 Mz; /ngz; Nghd;w tpgu/;f*;
0l/;,k;. )'t khztu; tpguf;Nfhg;gpd; gjpf*h,k;.














0l;lt'znahd;wpd; gz;Gf*; #roperties o. &elations)
f(7*;* 0l;lt'z'a 0tjhdpg;gjd;; Hyk; 0jd; %f;fpa 0/; f/;f'*
0wpe;+ nfh*;*yhk;.











Stu#ent
S!"nde# $ame %ddress &lass
1-22 S.M.$.@. &umar =o. 154 Pera#eniya 1#4 &an#y ( /
566 @.M.$. 1avi =o. 144074 &atugast7ota 1#4 &an#y 11 C
,23 F.$.C. 1aBa7 ESan#asiriE 4 Coom'o 1#4 Ma6anaa 1- /


Stu#ent
S!"nde# $ame %ddress &lass
1-22 S.M.$.@. &umar =o. 154 Pera#eniya 1#4 &an#y ( /
566 @.M.$. 1avi =o. 144074 &atugast7ota 1#4 &an#y 11 C
,23 F.$.C. 1aBa7 ESan#asiriE 4 Coom'o 1#4 Ma6anaa 1- /
gjpf*;
g
j
p

f
*
;
Gy/;f*;;
ep'y (Degree)
3-

0l;lt'znahd;wpd; kpf %f;fpa )ay;Gf*hf Hd;W tpla/;f'* 0'lah*/;
fhzyhk;.
#. ngau; (Name) jdpj;+tj;'j 0wpjy;.
!. ep'y #Degree) 0l;lt'znahd;wp2*;* Gy/;f*p;d; 8z;zpf;'f'af;
,wpf;,k;.
F. fzf;fply; ('ar,inali$)) 0l;lt'zapyp.f;,k; gjpf*pd;
8z;zpf;'f'af; ,wpf;,k;.
-. c.ngh.*py; e'lngWk; epfo;f*pd; 8z;zpf;'f kw;'wa
c.ngh.*pd; epfo;fSld; njhlu;Ggl;6 c.thf;fg;g6fpd;w
njhlu;Gf*pd; ep'yNa )+th,k;.

)j;njhlu;Gf'* Hd;W t'fahf tp*f;fyhk;.

:. Ld;W A -d;W (one to one) (# @ #)
c.ngh.n*hd;wpd; epfo;nthd;W )j&ld; njhlu;G'la 06j;j
c.ngh.*pd; -. epfo;ld; 4w;g6j;+k; njhlu;gh,k;.

: :



-. khzt&f;, -. fjp'u -+f;fg;gl;6*;*+ld; -. Nk'r -.
khzt&f;, -+f;fg;gl;6*;*+. )j;njhlu;'gf; f.j;jpy; nfh*;Sk; Ngh+
)+ -. -d;W A -d;W njhlu;G 8df;nfh*;*yhk;.

z. Ld;W A gy (one to many )(# @ M)

c.ngh.n*hd;wpd; epfo;nthd;W 0j&ld; njhlu;G'la )d;&nkh.
c.ngh.n*hd;wpd; gy epfo;fSld; )'ze;+ 4w;g6k; njhlu;gh,k;.






-. t,g;gpy; gy khztu; ).f;fyhk;. 8dp&k; -. khztd; -.
t,g;gpy; khj;jpuNk ).f;f%59k;.

1. gy– gy (many to many )- (M 0 -)

c.ngh.n*hd;wpd; gy epfo;f*; 0j&ld; njhlu;G'la Ntnwh.
c.ngh.*pd; gy epfo;fSld; )'ze;+ c.th,k; njhlu;gh,k;.





-. khztd; gy tp'*ahl;6f;f*py; fye;+ nfh*;* %59t+ld; -.
tp'*ahl;5y; gy khztu;f*; g/;, gw;wyhk;.







Nk'r khztd;
khztd;

t,g;G
1 M
khztd;

t,g;G
M =
31

0Gf;fl;6 (,tomicity)
juj;j*nkhd;wpd; 05g;g'lg; gz;ghf1 4jht+ nranyhd;'w Nkw;nfh*;Sk;
Ngh+ ,wpj;j nrayhd+1 nraw;glyhk; 0y;y+ nrw;glhjp.f; fyhk; 8&k; ).
%5f'* khj;jpuk; e'lngWtjhf fhl;lg;g6tjh,k;.

cjhuzk;@
epWtdnkhd;wpy; gapw;rp newpnahd;'w njhlu;tjw;, khztu; -.tu; gjp
nra;ag;g6k; Ngh+ 0e;epWtdj;jp&*; -. nray;%'wnahd;W c.thfpd;w+.
0jd; Ngh+ ,wpj;j khztd; ). re;ju;g;g/;fSf;, %fk; nfh6f;f
Ntz;5Naw;glyhk;.

#. khztu; fl;lzk; nr2j;jpg; gapw;rpnewpf;, gjp nra;a%59k;. 0y;y+
!. fl;lzk; nr2j;jhky; gapw;rpnewpf;, gjpthfhky; ).f;f%59k;.


v.1. juj;j* %'w'knahd;wpd; %f;fpa EWf'*g; g,g;gha;thu;.

fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; nraw;gh6@

gpuNtrk;@
02tyfnkhd;wpy;1 Nfhg;G1 02khup 8d;gd gad;g6j;jp jfty;f*;
'f%'wapy; guhkupf;fg;g6k; %'w'a ghlrh'y 02tyfj;jpw; ,r; nrd;W
0tjhdpj;jgpd; 0jd; ed;'k j('kf'* gw;wp fye;+'uahly; .

• )f;Nfhg;Gf'* guhkupg;gjw;, ,wpg;gpl;l* )ltrjp Nj't.
• jftnyhd;'wg; ngw;Wf;nfh*;tjw;, gy Nfhg;Gf'* jpwf;f
Ntz;5Naw;g6t+ld; Neu tpua%k; 4w;g6fpd;w+.

)r;nray;%'w'a fzpdp gad;ghl;5d; Hyk; nraw;wpw&*;*jhfk;
)y,thfk; nra;af;E5ajhf*;*+.

fw;w2f;fhd cj;Njr MNyhr'df*;;
t,g;gp2*;* khztu;f'* Hd;W ,7f;f*hfg; gpupj;+ -t;nth. ,7tpw;,k;
gpd;t.k; tpdhf;f'* gfpu;e;j*pf;fk;.

juj;j* %'w'k 8dg;g6t+ ah+K 0jd;EWf*; 8'tK
njhlu;Gep'yj; juj;j* %'w'k 8d;g+ ah+K 0jd; EWf*; 8'tK
njhlu;Gep'yj; juj;j* %'w'knahd;wpd; -./;fp'z't tpgupf;f.
gpd;t.k; nraw;gh6f*py; N6glr;nra;f.
• to/;fg;gl;6;*;* thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuj;'j %7'kahfk; ck+
j'yg;gpw;,upa g,jp'a E5a ftdj;+l&k; thrpj;jwpak;.
• ck+ j'yg;gpw;,upa tpNrl jd;'kf'* ,7tpd.ld;
fye;+'uahlk;.
• Lt;th. j'yg;gpd+k; ngh.*; tp*f;fj;'j tp*/;fpf;nfh*;*k;.
• j'yg;GfSf;fp'lNaahd njhlu;Gf'* ,7tpd.ld; fye;+'uahlk;.
• %d;'tg;gpw;, jahu;g6j;+f.

thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuk;
0d;whl tho;f;'fj; Nj'tfSf;, ju Nrkpj;+ 'tf;fg;g6k; re;ju;g;g/;f*;
gytw;'wf; fhzyhk;.

cjhuzk;@
#. -.tu+ Nj'tf;Nfw;g gyu+ njh'yNgrp )yf;f/;f'*9k;
%ftupf'*9k; Nrkpj;jy;.
32

!. ghlrh'ynahd;wpy; khztu;f*; Mrpupau;f*; Nt'yahl;f*; Nghd;Nwhupd;
jfty;f'* Nrfupj;+ 'tj;jy;.
)t;thW fhzg;g6k; ju gy;NtW Nj'tfSf;fhf gy;NtW re;ju;g;g/;f*py;
gad;g6j;jg;g6t'jf; fhzyhk;. 'f%'wapy; Nkw;nfh*;*g;gl;l juj;j*j;'j1
jw;fhyj;jpy; fzpdp gad;g6j;jypd; Hyk; kpfk; nraw; wpw&l&k;1 rupahfk;
nra;+ nfh*;*f;E5ajhf*;*+.

juk; jft2k;
ju1 jfty; 8d;gd 4Nj&k; nray;%'wfSf;, 4w;gNt NtWg6fpd;wd.
jftnyhd;'w c.thf;,tjw;, ju ahNj&k; nray;%'wfSf;,
cl;g6j;jg;glNtz;6k;. )r;nray;%'wfSf;, cl;g6j;jg;g6k; tpl/;f*; ju
8dg;g6k;. )r;nray;%'wapd; gpujpgydhf nt*paplg;g6g't jfty; 8dg;g6k;.
-. re;ju;g;gj;jpy; jftyhf ).f;,k; tplankhd;W Ntnwh. nray;%'wf;,
juthfk; cl;nr2j;jyhk;.

f(7*;* cjhuzj;jpd; Hyk; )j'd kpf )y,thf tp/;fpf;nfh*;*yhk;
epkyd;1 !B1 B$1 MO 8d fhl;lg;g6khapd;; )jpyp.e;+ 8e;jnth. nj*pthd
tp*f;fj;jp'd9k; ngw%5ah+. )j'd ju 8dyhk;.
khztu; ngau; A epkyd; A jkpo; !B1 fzpjk; B$1 tp:;:hk; MO 8d fhl;lg;g5d;
nj*pthd tp*f;fj;'jg; ngw%59k;. )+ -. nraw;ghl;5w;, cl;g6j;jg;gl;6
-7/;f'kf;fg;g6k; Ngh+ nj*pthd f.j;'jg; ngwg;g6fpd;w+.
Nkw;,wpg;gpl;l ghlg;G*;*pf*pd; ruhrup'ag; ngw;Wf;nfh*;Sk; Ngh+
Nkw;,wpgplg;gl;l't juthf 86f;fg;gl;6 nraw;ghl;5d;;; tp'*thff; fp'lf;,k;
ngWNgwh+1 epkyd; Nkw;Ewpa ghl/;f*py; ngw;w ruhrup 8df;fhl;l%59k;.
MfNt ju1 jfty; 8d;gtw;wpw;, nraw;ghl;5w;, 0'kthfNt tp*f;fk*pf;f
Ntz;6k;.
fzpdpapy; ).f;,k; juj;j*k; -d;wpy; c*;* ju't 0G,tjw;, gy;NtW
cgha/;f*; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;wd. )jpy; -d;W 3l;5 #In,e6) )6tjh,k;.

3l;5 (1nde2)
fzpdpkakhf;fg;gl;l juj;j*k; -d;wpy; ).f;,k; ju't nraw;wpw&ld;
ngw;Wf;nfh*;tjw;, 3l;5 gad;g6j;jg;g6t+ kpfk; rpwe; j %'wnahd;wh,k;.
)/;, juj; j*/;f'* tup'r -7/;fpy; c.thf;fg;g6k; Nj't 4w;glh+.
3l;5aplypdhy; juj;j*j;jpd; -t;nth. gjp't9k; )d/;fz;61 0jw;,upa
jur;3l;59ld; njhlu;Ggl;6 tp'uthf ju't 0Gff;E5a tha;g;Gf;
fp'lf;fpd;w+. )jd; Ngh+ juj;j*j;jpd; gpujpnahd;W Ngzg;g6t+ld;
Nkyjpfkhf rpwpa )lf;nfh*;** 3l;5f;fhfg; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;w+.



















33


Nk2*;* ). 0l;lt'zf'* Nehf;,k; Ngh+1 juj;j*j;jpd; ju 0Gfypd;
Ngh+ 3l;5 Nfhg;G (In,e6 9ile) 4Nj&k; -. %'wf;Nfw;g 0l;lt'zapd;
gjpfSld; njhlu;GWt'jf; fhzyhk;;. cjhuzj;jpw;Nfw;g 3l;5 Nfhg;G tup'r
-7/;,%'wf;f'ka juf'* -7/;,g6j;jp9*;*+ld; kpf tp'uthffk;
)y,thfk; ju't 0G,tjw;, re;ju;g;gk; fp'lf;fpd;w+. )/;, juj;
j*j;'j tup'r -7/;,%'wf;f'ka Ngzy; 0trpakpy;'y.
jw;fhyj;jpy; gutyhf fzpdp gad;g6j;jg;g6tjhy; epWtd nraaw;gh6f'*
nraw;wpw&l&k; Neu;j;jpahfk; rupahfk; tp'uthfk; nra;+ nfh*;tjw;,
juj;j*/;f*; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;wd.
)jd;Ngh+ juf*; gy;NtW nraw;gh6fSf;, cl;g6j;jg;g6fpd;wd.
fzpdpfSf;, ju c*;*(6 nra;jy;1 e(f;,jy;1 )w;'wg;g6j;jy; Nghd;w't rpy
nraw;gh6f*h,k;.
ju fzpdpf;, c*;*(6 nra;ag;g6k; Ngh+ 0+ fzpdpapy;
Nrkpf;fg;glhtpl;lhy; 0j'd k(z;6k; ngw;Wf;nfh*;* %5ah+. 8dNt
ju/jfty; Nghd;wtw;'w fzpdpapy; Nrkpj;+ 'tg;g+ 0trpakh,k;.
juf'* fzpdpapy; -7/;f'kj;+ Nrkpg;gjw;fhf juj;j*/; f*; (Da$a2ae)
gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;wd.

juj;j*/;f*; (%ata"ases)
juj;j*/;fSf;,upa ngh+thd tp*f;fkht+1 -d;Wlndhd;W njhlu;G'la
juf*pd; -d;WEly; 8d;gjh,k;. juj;j*k; 8&k; Ngh+ %jypy; f.jg;g6t+
fzpdpkag;g6j;jg;gl;l ('om01$eri<e,) juf*pd; -d;W Elyhf ).g;gp&k;
El1 0t;thwpy;yhky;1 -. epWtdnkhd;Nwh jdpegNuh 'f%'w 0'kg;gpy;
e'l%'wg;g6j;+k; juf; Nfhg;G %'w9k;; juj;j*khfNt f.jg;g6k;.
cjhuzkhf1 4Nj&k; -. epWtdj;jpy; fzf;,g;gjpf*; 'tf;fg;gl;5.f;,k;
Gj;jf/;f'*f; ftdj;jpy; nfh*;Nthkhapd;1 th/;fy;1 tpw;wy;1 t/;fpf;nfh6f;fy;
th/;fy;f*; Nghd;w gy;NtW elt5f;'ffSk; ntt;NtW ,wpg; Gf;f*hfg;
Ngzg;g6t'jf; fhzyhk;. 0t;thW Ngzg;g6k; juf*; 4jhtnjh. t'fapy;
njhlu;Ggl;5.g;g'jf; fhzyhk;. )t;thW fzpdpkaag;g6j;jg;glhj ju
Nrkpj;+ 'tf;,k; %'waht+1 Nfhg;G (/ile! t5tpy; Nrkpg;gjh,k;. 0t;thwhd
ju Nfhg;'g juj;j*nkhd;whf f.j %5ah+.
khztu;f*+ juf; Nfhg;Gf;f'* 'f%'wg;g5 Nkw;nfh*;Sk; Ngh+1 fl;lz
0wt(61 Nru;g; gjp1 jpdtu1 Neu 0l;lt'z1 ghl/;fSf; ,upa G*;*pf*;
Nghd;w't ntt;NtW Gj;jf/;f*hfg; gad;g6j;jg;g6t'jf; fhzyhk;. )t;thW
'f%'wapy; ju jpul;lg;gl;6 %fh'kj;+tk; nra;tjd; Hyk; epWtd
nraw;gh6f'* nraw;wpw&ld; Nkw;nfh*;Sk; re;ju;g;gk; fhzg;6fpd;w+. MfNt
Nfhg;gpw;, ju c*;*(6 nra;jy;1 e(f;,jy;1 0wpf;'f jahupj;jy; Nghd;w
nraw;gh6f'* nraw;wpw&l&k; Ntfkhfk; )y,thfk; nra;tjw;, rpwe;j
%fh'kj;+tk; ).f;f Ntz;6k;. )t;thwhd nray;f*; 'f%'wg;g5 fle;j
fhy/;f*py; Nkw;nfh*;*g;gl;l Ngh+k;1 jw;fhyj;jpy; )r;nray;fSf;fhf fzpdp
gad;g6j;jg;g6t'jf; fhzyhk;.
'tj;jpa f'yf*;1 ghupa tpahghu epWtd/;f*;1 0ur epWtd/;f*; 8d;gtw;wpy;
juf; Nfhg;Gf;f'* 'f%'wg;g5 %fh'kj;+tk; nra;jy; f5dkhd
nrayh,k;. ghupa 0*tpyhd ju ).f;,k; re;ju;g;gj;jpy; 0tw;'w
%fh'kj;+tk; nra;tjpy; gy;NtW j'lf*; 4w;g6tjdhy; ju1 %fh'kj;+tk;
nra;tjw;, tpNrl nkd;ngh.*; njh,jpnahd;W ('olle'$ion o/ Program) Nj't
8&k; f.j;+ 4w;gl;l+. )jw;f'ka juj;j* %fh'kj;+t %'w'k
(Da$a2ae Managemen$ S)$em = DBMS) njhlu;ghd f.j;+ %d;'tf;fg;gl;l+.
0jw;f'ka fzpdpapy; juj;j* nkd;ngh.*; epWtg;gl;6 ju %fh'kj;+tk;
nra;af; E5ajhf*;*+.





34


juj;j* %fh'kj;+t %'w'k (%ata"ase Management System 3 %BMS)
juj;j* %fh'kj;+t %'w'k 8dg;g6t+1 juj;j*nkhd;'w
%fh'kj;+tk; nra;af;E5thW tpNrlkhf c.thf;fg;gl;l nkd;ngh.*;
njh,jpah,k;. )k;nkd;ngh.*; Hyk; gadu;1 juj;j*k; 8d;gtw;wpf;fp'lapy;
njhlu;'g 4w;g6j;+t+ld; juj;j*k; NtW nkd;ngh.*;fSld; njhlu;Ggl;6
ju )d/;fhzy;1 g,g;gha; nra;jy; Nghd;wdk; e'lngWfpd;w+.

juj;j* %fh'kj;+t %'w'k nkd;ngh.*; tpNrlkhf juj;j*nkhd;'w
tp*f;,jy; #,e/ini$ion!, c.thf;,jy; #'rea$ion!, )w;'wg;g6j;jy; #10,a$e!
tpdty; #:1er)ing! juj;j* %fh'kj;+t epu;thfk; #A,mini$ra$ion o/
Da$a2ae! Nghd;wthwhd nraw;gh6f'* Nkw;nfh*;tjw;, cjk; Nehf; ,ld;
c.thf;fg;gl;ljh,k;. )t;thW juj;j*nkhd;'w c.thf;fp
e'l%'wg;g6j;+tjw;, gad;g6j;jg;g6k; nkd;ngh.*; njh,jpnahd;W
('olle'$ion o/ Progrmme) juj;j* %fh'kj;+t nkd;ngh.*; 8dg;g6k;.
jw;Ngh+ cyfyhtpa u(jpapy; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;w gpurpj;jpngw;w juj;j*
%fh'kj;+t %'wahf M)S:L, Mi'roo/$ S:L er.er, -ra'le Nghd;wtw;'wf;
,wpg;gplyhk;.
juj;j* %fh'kj;+t %'w'knahd;wpd; EWf*; epWtdj;jp;d; juf'*
%fh'kj;+tk; nra;tjw;, Neu5ahf cjfpd;w njhopEl;g f.tpf*hf
nraw;g6fpd;wd. )jd;Hyk; Mw;wf;E5a nray;f*; rpy f(No fhzg;g6fpd;wd.

• juj;j*nkhd;'w c.thf;,jy;
• c.thf;fg;gl;l juj;j*j;jp2*;* ju1 jfty; 8d;gtw;'w cgNahfpj;jy;1
0wpf;'f jahupj;jy;1 juj;j*j;'j r(u'kj;jy; Nghd;wd.


















juj;j*g; nghwp (%ata"ase 'ngine)
ju Nrkpj;jy;1 %'wtopg;g6jy;1 gh+fhj;jy; Nghd;w't )jd; %f;fpa
Nr'tf*h,k;. 4Nj&k; epWtdnkhd;wpy; ju gad;ghl;6j; Nj'tf'*g; GJu;j;jp
nra;+ nfh*;Sk; re;ju;g;g/;f*py; 0Gfy; fl;6g;gh6 (A''e &on$rol)1
tp'uthd nfh6f;fy;th/;fy;;f*; (Trana'$ion) Nghd;w Nr'tf'*g;
ngw;Wf;nfh*;*f; E5jhf*;*+. )jd;Hyk; ju Nrkpj;j2f; fhf #,a$a
S$oring)1 juj;j*k; c.thf;fy; #&rea$ion o/ ,a$a2ae) kw;Wk; NtW
ngh.l;f*hd #o2>e'$) 3l;5 c.thf;fy;1 gy;NtW t5tpy; ju'tf; fhl;ly;
(Da$a 7iew)1 gh+fhg;G (Se'1ri$)) %fh'kj;+tk; Nghd;w nray;f*;
Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6fpd;wd.
35





























juj;j* %fh'kj;+t %'w'knahd;wpd; EWf*; (components o. %BMS)
rpytw;'w )d/;fhzyhk;.

#. ju t'u'w nkhop #Da$a De/ini$ion Lang1age)
!. ju 'fahSk; nkhop #Da$a Mani01la$ion Lang1age)
*. ju 0fu%jyp (Da$a Di'$ionar)!

juj;j* %'w'knahd;wpy; gpujhd ehd;, EWf'*f; fhz%59k;.

#. ju
!. td;ngh.*;
F. nkd;;ngh.*;
$. gadu;

36

f(7*;* t'uglk; Hyk; juj;j* %fh'kj;+t %'w'knahd;wpd; EWf*;
gadu; Nj'tfSf;, 4w;g gd;g6j;jg;g6k; tpjk; fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+.





























v.|. juj;j* %'w'knahd;wpd; gpujhd EWf'*g; g,g;gha;thu;

fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; nraw;gh6

gpuNtrk;

t,g;gp2*;* khztu;fSf;, jj;jk+ 3atpgug;g5tnkhd;'w fl;5na7g;Gtjw;,
0wp'u to/;fk;. f(7*;* tpla/;f*; gw;wp ftdk; nr2j; jp nraw;ghl;5y;
N6glr; nra;ak;.
• -.tupd; 3a tpgug;g5tj;jp2*;* jfty;f*; 0e;egu; gw;wpajh,k;.
• )j;jfty;f*py; 0t.f;, khj;jpuk; cupj;+'la juf*; ).f;f
%59k;.
• egu; -.tu; )d;wp 3atpgug;g5tk; ).f;f %5ah+ 8d;g+.
• t,g;gp2*;* khztu; -.tu+ 3atpgug;g5tj;jp2*;* tpla/;f*; -.
gjp #Re'or,) 8df;nfh*;* %59nkd;g+.
• khztu; ngau;1 t,g;G1 tpyhrk; Nghd;w gz;Gf*; (A$$ri21$e!
0l;lt'znahd;wpd; epuy;f*pd; Gy/;f*hff; fhzg;g6k; 8dg+.






gpuNahf
nkd;ngh.*;
gpuNahf
nkd;ngh.*;
gadu;
t5t'kg;Gf; f.tpf*;
• 0l;t'z c.thf;fy;
f.tpf*;
• g5tk; c.thf;fy;
f.tpf*;
• tpdty; f.tpf*;
• 0wpf;'f c.thf;fy;
f.tpf*;
• fl;l'kg;G tpdty;
nkhop
• t5t'kg;gh*u;


)af;fep'y
• g5tk; c.thf;fy;
• tpdty;
• 0wpf;'f c.thf;fy;
• fl;l'kg;G tpdty;
nkhop
• gadu;

juj;
j*k;
87jy;
thrpj;jy;
0gptp.j;jp
37

fw;w2f;fhd cj;Njr MNyhr'df*;
• t,g;G khztu;f*plk; Nrfupj;j juf'*f;nfhz;6 0l;lt'z
-d;'w c.thf;fk;. )/;, khztu; 8d;g+ -. c.ngh.*h,k;
#3n$i$)! 8d;g'j9k;1 Nru;tpyf;fk;1 ngau;1 tpyhrk; 8d;gd gz;Gf*;
#A$$ri21$e! 8d;g'j9k; fhl;lk;.
• c.ngh.*;1 gz;Gf*; 8d;gtw;'w )d/;fhz;g+ 8t;thW 8d;g'j
nj*pg6j;jk;.
• c.ngh.*;1 gz;Gf*; 8d;gtw;'w tp*f;fp cjhuz/;f'*9k;
fhl;lk;.

Nju;r;rpkll;lk; D.$@ juj;j*nkhd;wpd; f.j;+.thf;f t5t'kg;'g
c.thf;,thu;.

Neuk;@ ghlNt'y "C
fw;wy; NgW@

• c.ngh.*; #en$i$)! njhlu;Gep'y t'ug;glk; #3R Diagram! 8d;g+
ah+ 8d;g'j tpgupg;ghu;.
• c.ngh.*; njhlu;G t'ug;glj;jp2*;* EWf'*g; ngaup6thu; .
• c.ngh.*;f*;; (en$i$ie) gz;Gf*; #Pro0er$ie/A$$ri21$e).
cw%'wf*; kw;Wk; 8z;0*'t (&ar,inali$)) 8d;gtw;wpdhy;
f.jg;g6t+ ah+ 8d;g'j tp*f;,thu;.
• c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'uglj;'j t'ue;+ fhl;6thu;.

fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; nraw;gh6f*;@

gpuNtrk;@

t,g;gp2*;* khztu;fSf;, jk+ 3atpgug; g5tnkhd;'w jahupg;gjw;,
0wpWj;jk;. f(o; fhzg;g6k; tpla/;f'* ftdj;jpy nfhz;6 nraw;ghl;'l
Nkw;nfh*;*k;.
• 3a tpgug;g5tj;'jg; GJuzg;g6j;j cgNahfpj;j jfty;f'*f; nfhz;6
egnuh.t'ug;gw;wp tpgupf;f%59k;.
• 0j;jfty;f*; cupa eg.f;, khj;jpuk; nrhe;jkhd jfty;f*hf
).f;,k;.
• egnuh.tupd;wp 3atpgug;g5tk; -d;W ).f;f%5ah+ 8d;g+.
• t,g;gp2*;* khztu; -.tu+ 3atpguj; juf*; Nrfupf;fg;g6k;;Ngh+
0+ -. gjpthf #re'or,! nfh*;*g;g6fpd;w+.
• khztu;f*pd; ngau;1 t,g;G 1 %ftup 8&k; gz;Gf*; (A$$ri21$e!
0l;lt'z -d;wpd; epuy;f*pd; j'yg;Gf*hf fhl;l%59k;; 8d;g+.
• t,g;gpd; rfy khztu;f*+ 3atpguj; juf'*9k; gjp9k;; Ngh+ -.
0l;lt'z (Ta2le) c.thfpd;w+ 8d;g+.

fw;w2f;fhd cj;Njr MNyhr'df*; ;@
• t,g;gp2*;* khztu;f*+ jutp'df;nfhz;6 0l;lt'znahd;'w
c.thf;fk;. )/;, khztu; 8d;g'j c.ngh.*; 8d;g'j9k;;1
khztu;f*+ Nru;ntz;1 ngau;1 %ftup Mfpad gz;Gf*h,k;
8d;g'j9k; ,wpg;gplk;.
• c.ngh.'*9k; gz;Gf'*9k; 8t;thW )d/;fhzyhk; 8d;g'j
nj*pg6j;jk;.
• c.ngh.*; kw;Wk; gz;Gf'* nj*pthf tp*f;fp1 cjhuz/;f'*
86j;+f;fhl;lk;.
• njhlu;G %'wf'*9k; 0tw;wpd; t'ff'*9k; 0wp%fg;g6j;jk;.
3(

• %'w'knahd;W c.ngh.*;f*h2k;; 0t;.ngh.*;fSf;fp'lapyhd
cw %'wf*; 8d;gtw;wpd; ngWNgw;wpdh2k;; c.thfp9*;*njdf;
fhl;lk;.
• %jd;'kr;rhtp #Primar) Ke)) 8d;g'j nj*pg6j;jk;.
• %jd;'kr;rhtp9ld; E5a c.ngh.n*hd;'w khztu;fSld;
fye;+'uah6tjd; Hyk; fl;5na7g;gk;.
• c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'uglj;jpy; 8z;0*'t (&ar,inali$))
gad;g6j;jg;g6k; tpjj;'j nj*pg6j;jk;.
• c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'ugl 8z;0*'t'a (&ar,inali$)!
khztu;fSld; fl;5na7g;Gk;.


thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuk;

D.$ @ c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'uglk; ('ntity &elationship %iagram)
juj;j*nkhd;'w 8z;zf;f. #&on'e0$1al Da$a Mo,el) u(jpapy; t5t'kf;,k;
Ngh+ gad;g6j;jg;g6k; njhopy;El;g cghakhf c.ngh.*; njhlu;G t'uglk;
#3RD! 0'kfpd;w+. c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'ugl cj;jpf'*g;
gad;g6j;jp c.thf;fg;g6fpd;w t'ugl/;f*; c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y
t'uglk; #3RD! 8d 0'of;fg;g6fpd;w+. 0jw;f'ka c.ngh.*;
njhlu;Gep'y t'uglj;jpy; #3RD! juj;j*nkhd;wpd; ju;f;f u(jpahd khjpup
t'uglnkhd;W c.thf;fg;g6fpd;w+.

c.ngh.*; njhlu;G t'uglj;jpy; ).f;,k; EWf*; (Components o. '&%)
(a) c.ngh.*; ('ntity)
c.ngh.*; 8d;g+ tpNrl ngh+g;nganuhd;whf f.jg;g6fpd; w+.
0jw;f'ka c.ngh.n*hd;W
-. egu; #Peron) 0y;y+ -. jahupg;G #Pro,1'$) 0y;y+
-. jpwd; kl;lk; (Skill Le.el) 0y;y+ -. epfo; (3.en$) 0y;y+
-. 8z;zkhf (I,ea) ).f;fyhk;.

c.ngh.*; ('ntity) gw;wp cjhuzk; Hyk; Muha;Nthk;.
ghlrh'ynahd;wpw;, jfty; %'w'knahd;wp'd c.thf;,k; Ngh+
STUD3NT, T3A&H3R, &-URS3, R--M, GRAD3, SP-RT Nghd;w't gw;wp ftdk;
nr2j;j Neup6k;. )'t -t;nthd;Wk; c.ngh.*; 8d 0'of;fg;g6k;.
c.ngh.*; -d;wpy; fhzg;g6k; tpNrl gz;ghd+1 0jd; ep'yj;jp.f;,k;
jd;'k M,k;. MfNt %'w'knahd;wpy; c.ngh.n*hd;W 8g;Ngh+k;
jdpahf ep'yj;jp.f;ff;E5a )a2'k'af; fhl;6k;. 0jw;Nfw;g1
c.ngh.n*hd;'w c.thf;,k; Ngh+ ftdpf;f Ntz;5a kpf %f; fpa
tplakhd+ 0jd; “3je;jpukhd ep'yj;jp.j;jy; ” M,k;.

(") njhlu;Gep'y %'w
). c.ngh.*;fSf;fp'lapy; fhzg;g6k; cw%'w njhlu;Gep'y
8dg;g6fpd;w+. cjhuzkhf1 ghlrh'y jfty; %'w'k -d;'w c.thf;,k;
Ngh+ STUD3NT, T3A&H3R, &-URS3, R--M, GRAD3, SP-RT Nghd;w c.
ngh.*;fSf;fp'lapyhd cw njhlu;Gep'y %'w 8dg;g6fpd;w+.
%'w'knahd;wpd; nraw;gh6 c.ngh.*;fSf;fp'lNa fhzg;g6k;
njhlu;Gep'y %'w Hyk; fhl;lg;g6t+ld; 0j;njhlu;Gep'y %'w
j'lg;g6khdhy; %'w'k nraypoe;+ Ngh,k;.




3,

c.ngh.*;fSf;fp'lapy; fhzg;g6k; njhlu;Gep'y %'w gpujhd ).
t'ff'*f; nfhz;l+.
#. 8z;0*'t njhlu;Gep'y %'w
!. tp.g;Gf;,upa (fl;lhaky;yhj) njhlu;Gep'y %'w

#. 8z;0*'t njhlu;G %'w
c.ngh.*;fSf;fp'lapy; ).f;fNtz;5a %f;fpa njhlu;Gep'y %'w 8z;
0*'tj; njhlu;Gep'y %'w 8dg;g6k;. )+ njhlu;Gf*py; ).f;ff;E5a
8z;zpf;'fapd; cr;r 0*'tg; gw;wp tpgupf;,k;.
cjhuzj;jpw;, STUD3NT, T3A&H3R, &-URS3, R--M, GRAD3, SP-RT Mfpa c.
ngh.*;fSf;fp'lapy; ).f;ff;E5a njhlu;Gep'y %'wf*htd1

-d;Wf;, -d;W
-d;Wf;,g; gy
gytpw;,g; gy

!. tp.g;Gf;,upa (fl;lhaky;yhj) njhlu;Gep'y %'w
)uz;6 c.ngh.*;fSf;fp'lapy; ).f;,k; %f;fpaky;yhj 4'da cw
%'wf*; tp.g;Gf;,upa (fl;lhaky;yhj) njhlu;Gep'y %'w 8dg;g6k;.
cjhuzk;@ STUD3NT )d; njhlu;Gep'y %'w'a 0wp9k; Ngh+ ghlrh'y
tp6jp'ag; ghtpg;ghuh )y;'yah 8d 0wpa %aw;rpf;fyhk;. )+ 8k+
juj;j*j;'j Neu5ahf ghjpf;fhj njhlu;Gep'yah,k;. 8dp&k;; k'w%fkhf
juj;j*j;+ld; njhlu;Gg6fpd;w+. )j'd tp.g;Gf;,upa (fl;lhaky;yhj)
njhlu;Gep'y %'wnad )d/;fhzyhk;.

(c ) . gz;Gf*; (roperties / ,ttri"utes):
c.ngh.n*hd;'w tp*f;,tjw;, gad;g6j;jg;g6k; jfty; gz; Gf*; 8dg;g6k;.
gz;G -d;wpy; fhzg;g6k; kpf%f;fpakhd tplakht+ 0+ )d; &nkhd;wpy;
j/;fpap.j;jyh,k;. 0jht+ gz;G -d;W jdpj;+ ).f;f%5ah+. 0+
)d;dnkh. c.ngh.Sld; 0y;y+ cw %'w9ld; njhlu;Ggl;5.g;g+ld;1
4jhtnjh. fhuzj;jhy; c.ngh.*; 0y;y+ cw%'w )y;yhj Ngh+
gz;ghd+ )ay;ghfNt nry;2g5aw;wjhfptp6k;.
)jw;f'ka gz;Gf*; c.ngh.*py; 0y;y+ njhlu;Gep'y %'wapy; fhzg;g6k;
8d;g'j cd;dpg;ghf f.j;jpy; nfh*;* Ntz;6k;. f(No9*;* cjhuz/;f'*
ftdpf;f@

cjhuzk; "#@
c.ngh.n*hd;wpw;fhd gz;Gf*;.
ghlrh'yf;fhf c.thf;fg;g6k; juj;j*j;jpy; $ea'(er 8d;g+
c.ngh.n*hd;wh,k;. 0jd; gz;Gf*hf $ea'(er?in,e6, name, a,,re
Nghd;wtw;'wf; fhl;lyhk;.

cjhuzk; "!@A
njhlu;G%'wnahd;wpw;fhd gz;Gf*;.
ghlrh'yj; juj;j*j;jpy; $1,en$, 0or$ Mfpa ). c.ngh.*;f*;
fhzg;g6tjhf; f.+Nthk;. )'t )uz;5w;fp'lahd njhlu;Gep'y %'w
0ar$i'i0a$e 8df; nfh*;Nthk;;. )j;njhlu;G %'wf;,upa gz;Gf*hf in'e
0y;y+ &a0$ain') 8d;g'jf;;; fhl;lyhk;.
0jw;f'ka1 participate 8&k;; njhlu;Gep'y %'wapd; gz;ghd Captaincy
t.lh t.lk; 4w;g6k; khw;wj;'j fhl;6k;. 0NjNghy; student Mdtu;
8g;Nghjp.e;+ tp'*ahl;5y; N6gl;6*;*hu; 8d;g'j since 8&k; gz;G
fhl;6fpd;w+.


4-

since, captaincy 8&k; ). gz;Gf*; njhlu;Gep'y %'wapy; gad;g6j;jh+1
c.ngh.*py; gad;g6j;jg;gl;lhy; j'y'kj;+tj;jpw;, njup nra;ag;glhj
khztu;f'* 0jw;, re;ju;g;gk*pf;f tha;g;Gf;fpl;lh+ Nght+ld;1 8t;t*
fhyk; tp'*ahl;5y; N6gl;6*;*hu; 8d;g'j 05f;f5 )w;'wg;g6j;jy;
f5dkhfptplf;E6k;.

%f;fpak;
gz;Gf*hd+ c.ngh.*; 0y;y+ njhlu;Gep'y %'wf*py;;
j/;fpap.g;gdth,k;. c.ngh.*; 0y;y+ njhlu;Gep'y %'w )d;wp
gz;nghd;W ep'yf;f%5ah+. 8dp&k;1 gz;nghd;W )y;yh+
c.ngh.n*hd;Nwh 0y;y+ njhlu;Gep'y %'wnahd;Nwh ).f;fyhk;. 8dp&k;
gjpf*; )y;yhj c.ngh.n*hd;wpdhy; %'w'kf;, 8t;tpj ga&kpy;'y.
)jw;,f; fhuzk; rfy jufSk;; gjpfSld; njhlu;Ggl;5.j;jyh,k;.

4. c.ngh.*; njhlu;G t'ugl ,wp;khdk; (-otation .or '& %iagrams)

#. c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'uglj;jpw;, gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;w ,wpa(6f*;
(sym"ols used in '&%)





c.ngh.*; +)ntity* gz;Gf*; +Attri'utes* njhlu;G %'w +1eations7ip*

,wpg;G@

• c.ngh.*; nrt;tfnkhd;wpdhy; fhl;lg;gl Ntz;6k;.
• gz;Gf*; e(*;tl;lj;jpy; #-.al! fhl;lg;gl Ntz;6k;.
• gz;ghd+1 0jw;,upa c.ngh.Sld; 0y;y+ njhlu;Gep'y %'w9ld;
4w;g6k; njhlu;'gf; fhl;l rha;r+u (,iamon,! t5thd c.'tg;
gad;g6j;j Ntz;6k;.

!. c.ngh.*; njhlu;G t'uglj;jpw;, gad;g6j;jg;g6k; ,wpa(6f*;
(Symbols used in ERD)
















• c.ngh.*; A nrt;tf t5tk;.
• gz;Gf*; A e(*;tl;lk; #-.al!.
• cw%'w – rha;r+uk; (diamond shape)
• )'zg;G – Neu;f;Nfh6.

cw%'w
Par$i'i0a$e
gz;G
&a0$ain')
gz;G
=ame

c.ngh.*;
Game

41


,wpg;G@

• c.ngh.*;f*; )uz;5w;fp'lapy; ).f;,k; njhlu;G %'w'a
rha;r+u(Diamond shape) t5tpy; fhl;lg;gly; Ntz;6k;.
• 0j&*; njhlu;Gep'y %'w 87jg;gly; Ntz;6k;.
• c.ngh.*; ).g;g+ Nghy; njhlu;Gep'y %'wnahd;wpw;,k; gz;Gf*;
).f;f %59k; 8d;g'j f.j;jpy; nfh*;*k;;.


4. c.ngh.*; gz;Gf*; 8d;gtw;wpd; njhlu;'g gpujpepjpj;+tk; nra;9k;
t'uf'y. (!raphical &epresentation ). 'ntity)














• c.ngh.*; A nrt;tfk;.
• gz;Gf*; A e(*;tl;lk;.

5. njhlu;Gep'y %'w'af; fl;5na7g;gy;. (Building &elationships)

• c.ngh.*; A Sport, Student.
• njhlu;Gep'y %'w - Participate.




S2.n#e8
/irt7#ay
A##ress
=ame
Stu#ent
42


B. %jd;'kr; rhtp@
c.ngh.n*hd;wpw;, ju c*;*(6 nra;9k; Ngh+ -Nu ju k( z;6k; k(z;6k;
c*;*(6 nra;ag;g6t'j jtpu;g;gjw;fhf 'fah*g;g6k; cghakhf %jd;'kr;
rhtp tp*/;,fpd;w+.

)jd; Hyk; c.ngh.n*hd;wpy; ).f;,k; gjpf*pd; jdpj;+tj;'j 0'lah*k;
fhz;gjw;, %jd;'kr; rhtp Nj'tg;g6fpd;w+.

%jd;'kr; rhtp 8g;Ngh+k; -d;W 0y;y+ -d;Wf;, Nkw;gl;l gz;Gf'*
c*;*lf;fpajhf ).g;g+ld;1 gz;Gf*pd; Hyk; gjpf*pd; jdpj;jd;'k
fhl;lf;E5ajhfk; ).f;,k;.

MfNt %jd;'kr; rhtp gad;g6j;+k; Ngh+ kpfg;ngh.j;jkhd jdpj;+tk;
Ngzf;E5a gz;G -d;'wNah 0y;y+ -d;wpw;, Nkw;gl;l gz;Gf'*Nah njup
nra;a Ntz;6k;.

Nk2*;* cjhuzj;jpy; Index 8d;g+ %jd;'kr;rhtpf;, kpfg;ngh.j;jkhf
0'kfpw+. -.tu+ 3l;nlz; (Index) )d;ndh.t.f;, ).f;f %5ah+.
4Nj&k; fhuzj;jpdhy; Name %jd;'kr;rhtpahf ghtpf;fg;g6khapd;1 -Nu
nga.*;* ).t.f;, )k; %'w'kap&*; )'ztjw;, re;ju;g;gk;
to/;fg;glkhl;lh+. )+ %'w''kapd; Njhy;tpf;, topt,f;,k;.

c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'ugl/;f*py; c.ngh.*pd; %jd;'kr;rhtp
nfhz;l gz;gpd; f(o; Nfh5l;6 fhl;lg;gly; Ntz;6k;.


C. njhlu;Gep'y %'wf*pd; 8z;z*'t (cardinality of relationship)

c.ngh.n*hd;W )d;&nkh. c.ngh.n*hd;Wld; njhlu;Gep'y %'w
fl;5na7g;gg;g6k; Ngh+ 0e;j c.ngh.Sf;fp'lapy; 0'k9k; njhlu;gpd;
)ay;G )/;, Muhag;g6fpd;w+. )'j Hd;W fhuzpf*pd;; 05g;g'lapy;
)d/;fhzyhk;.

#. Ld;Wf;, A -d;W (one - to - one) (1 : 1)

)t;w %'wapy; c.ngh.*;f*; )uz;5w;fp'lapy; ).f;,k; njhlu;G
-d;wpw;, -d;W 8&k; njhlu;gh,k;.







Nk2*;* t'uglj;jpy; fhl;lg;g6k; tplaj;'j )lkp.e;+ tykhf thrpf;,k;
Ngh+1 -. teacher )w;, -. IDcard khj;jpuk; cz;6. 0Nj Nghy; tykp.e;+
)lkhf EWk; Ngh+ -. IDcard -. teachcer )w;, khj;jpuk; cupa+.
)t;thwhd njhlu;G # @ # njhlu;G 8dg;g6k;.







2ea!7er
.$Car#
"as
1 1
43

!. Ld;Wf;, A gy (one- to -many (1 : M))

)r;re;ju;g;gj;jpd; Ngh+ njhlu;Gep'y %'wapd; jd;'k NtWg6fpd;w+.
f(7*;* t'uglj;'j 0tjhdpg;Nghk;.







)j'd )lkp.e;+ tykhf thrpf;,k; ;Ngh+ 'laroom -d;wpy; gy khztu;f*;
).f;fyhk;. 0Nj Nghy; tykp.e;+ )lkhf EWk; Ngh+ S$1,en$ -.t.f;,
-. t,g;Gj;jhd; -+f;fg;gl;5.f;,k;; 8d;gjh,k;. )j;njhlu;G Ld;Wf;, – gy
(# @ M) 8dg;g6k;.

F. gytpw;, A gy (Many – to - Many(M : M))

)r;re;ju;g;gj;jpy; njhlu;ghd+ gue;j jd;'k'af; nfhz; 5.f;,k;.







Nk2*;* t'uglj;'j )lkp.e;+ tykhf thrpf;,k; Ngh+ -. Tea'(er .ld;
gy S$1,en$ f*; njhlu;Ggl;5.f;fpd;wdu;. 0NjNghy; tykp.e;+ )lkhff;
thrpf;,k; Ngh+ -. $1,en$ gy Mrpupau;fSld; njhlu;Gg6fpwhu; 8d;gjh,k;.
)+ M : M njhlu;G 8dg;g6fpd;w+.

c.ngh.*;f*;1 gz;Gf*;1 njhlu;Gep'y %'wf*; 8d;gtw;'w nraw;ghl;5d;
Hyk; )d/;fhzyhk;.

g5%'w A"#
(f(7*;* fhl;rp'a (scenario) ftdkhf thrpf;fk;)

ghlrh'y -d;wp2*;* khztu;f*; gy;NtW tp'*ahl;6f;f*py; N6g6t+ld;
-t;nth. tp'*ahl;5w;,k; nghWg;ghd -. Mrpupa.k; -. )l%k; ).f;,k;.
)t;tp'*ahl;6f;f*py; g/;, nfh*;Sk; khztu;f*+ Nru;tpyf;fk;1 khztu;
ngau;1 t(l;6 %ftup1 t,g;G1 g/;,gw;Wk; tp'*ahl;61 tp'*ahl;6j; j'ytd;
Nghd;w't 0l/;fpa gjpnthd;'w e'l%'wg;g6j;+tjw;, 0jpgu;
jpl;lkpl;6*;*hu;. -. khztu; -d;Wf;, Nkw;gl;l tp'*ahl;6f;f*py; N6gl
%59k;. ,wpg;gpl;l -. tp'*ahl;5w;, -d;Wf;, Nkw;gl;l khztu;f*;
).f;fyhk;. -t;nth. khzt&k;; %d;dNu -. tp'*ahl;5w;fhf -+f;fg;gl;l
kzpj;jpahy/;f*pd;g5 fye;+ nfh*;*%59k;.










Cass 1oom
Stu#ent
Assign
1 M
2ea!7er
Stu#ent
Asso!iate
M M
44

g5%'w A"!
()/;, fhzg;g6k; c.ngh.*;1 gz;Gf*; 8d;gtw;'w 0wpe;+ nfh*;Nthk;)

nraw;gh6 "#
(f(7*;* ge;jpapy; ngh+g; ngau;r;nrhw;fSf;,f; f(No -. Nfh5lk;. tp'dr;
nrhw;fSf;,f; f(No )uz;6 Nfh6f*; )lk;.)

ghlrh'y -d;wp2*;* khztu;f*; gy;NtW tp'*ahl;6f;f*py; N6g6t+ld;
-t;nth. tp'*ahl;5w;,k; nghWg;ghd -. Mrpupa.k; -. )l%k; ).f;,k;.
)t;tp'*ahl;6f;f*py; g/;, nfh*;Sk; khztu;f*+ Nru;tpyf;fk;1 khztu;
ngau;1 t(l;6 %ftup1 t,g;G1 g/;,gw;Wk; tp'*ahl;61 tp'*ahl;6j;j'ytd;
Nghd;w't 0l/;fpa gjpnthd;'w e'l%'wg;g6j;+tjw;, 0jpgu;
jpl;lkpl;6*;*hu;. -. khztu; -d;Wf;, Nkw;gl;l tp'*ahl;6f;f*py; N6gl
%59k;. ,wpg;gpl;l -. tp'*ahl;5w;, -d;Wf;, Nkw;gl;l khztu;f*;
).f;fyhk;. -t;nth. khzt&k;; %d;dNu -. tp'*ahl;5w;fhf -+f;fg;gl;l
kzpj;jpahy/;f*pd;g5 fye;+ nfh*;*%59k;.

nraw;gh6 "!
Nfh5lg;gl;l nrhw;f*py; 8kf;,j; Nj'tahd ngh+g; ngau; r; nrhw;f'*9k;1
tp'dr; nrhw;f'*9k; Ntwhf;fpf; nfh*;*k;.
ngh+g; ngau;r;nrhw;f*;@ tp'*ahl;61 khztu;1 ghlrh'y1 )lk;1 Nru;tpyf;fk;1
khztu; ngau;1 t(l;6 %ftup1 t,g;G1 g/;,gw;Wk; tp'*ahl;61 tp'*ahl;6j;
j'ytd;1 nghWg;ghrpupau;;1 tp'*ah6k; kzpj;jpahy/;f*; .

tp'dr;nrhy;@ fye;+f;nfh*;*y;


ngh+g;ngau;
)k;%'w'kapy;
jdpj;+
).f;f%59kh
jdpj;+ ).f;f
%59nkdpd; 0+
).g;gjw;,j;
Nj'tahd
ngh+g;ngau; 0y;y+
ngh+g;ngau;f*;
ghlrh'y

khztu;

tp'*ahl;6

nghWg;ghrpupau; X tp'*ahl;6
Nru;tpyf;fk; X khztu;
khztu; ngau; X khztu;
t(l;6 %ftup X khztu;
t,g;G X khztu;
g/;,gw;Wk;
tp'*ahl;6
X khztu;1 tp'*ahl;6
tp'*ahl;6j;
j'ytd;
X khztu;1 tp'*ahl;6
tp'*ah6k;
kzpj;jpahy/;f*;
X khztu;1 tp'*ahl;6









45

g5%'w "F@A
()jpyp.f;,k; c.ngh.*; , gz;Gf*; 8d;gtw;'w 0wpe;+ nfh*;S/;f*;)
ngh+g; ngau;r;nrhw;f'* nfhz;6 c.ngh.*;f'*9k; gz;Gf'*9k; 0wpe;+
nfh*;*yhk;. tp'dr; nrhw;f*pd; Hyk; njhlu;Gep'y %'w'a 0wpayhk;.
ngh+g; ngau;r;nrhy; -d;wpy; j/;fpap.g;g't gz;Gf*ht+ld; 0g;ngh+g;
ngau;r;nrhy; c.ngh.*h,k;.

c.ngh.l;f*;@ khztu;1 tp'*ahl;61 ghlrh'y

gz;Gf*;@ Nru;tpyf;fk;1 tp'*ahl;5d; ngau;1 khztu; ngau;1 )lk;1
t(l;6 %ftup1 tp'*ahl;6j; j'ytd;1 nghWg;ghrpupau;1
t,g;G1 g/;,gw;Wk; tp'*ahl;6.

g5%'w "$@A
()g;Ngh+ njhlu;Gep'y %'w'a 0wpe;+ nfh*;*k;)
Nk2*;* fhl;rpapd; rhuhk;rkht+ khztu;f*; tp'*ahl;5y; fye;+
nfh*;tjh,k;. khztu;f*; tp'*ahl;5y; N6g6tjhy; khztu; , tp'*ahl;6
Mfpa ). c.ngh.*;fSk; -d;Wlndhd;W njhlu;Gg6fpd;wd.

khztu;f*; fye;+nfh*;fpd;wdu; tp'*ahl;5y;

)t;thwhd c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y1 t'uglk; Hyk; fhl;lg; g6k; %'w'a
Muha;Nthk;.
4. c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'uglk; ('R Diagram)c.thf;fk;

c.ngh.*;f'* 0wpe;+f; nfh*;Nthk;






njhlu;Gep'y %'w'a fl;5na7g;GNthk;.







khztu; (Student) c.ngh.Sf;fhd gz;Gf'*f; fhz;Nghk;.
















Stu#ent Sports
Stu#ent
Sports
Parti!ipate
M =
=ame A##ress
S2.n#e8
Cass
Stu#ent
sports
Parti!ipate
46

tp'*ahl;6 (Sports) c.ngh.Sf;,upa gz;Gf'* fhz;Nghk;.
















njhlu;G%'wf;fhd gz;Gf'*f; )d/;fhz;Nghk;



















)j;njhlu;G %'w'a 4w;g6j;+k; Ngh+ c.ngh.*;fSf;, khj; jpukpd;wp
njhlu;Gep'y %'wf;,k; gz;Gf*; c*;*dntd;g+ cWjp nra;ag;g6fpd;w+.








Captain!y
"ours
=ame 2ea!7er
SP.n
#e8
Pa!e
=ame A##ress
S2.n#e8
Cass
Stu#ent
Sports
Parti!ipate
=ame 2ea!7er
SP.n#e8
Pa!e
=ame A##ress
S2.n#e8
Cass
Stu#ent
Sports
Parti!ipate
Stu#ent
Sports
Parti!ipate
M =
47

%jd;'kr;rhtp'af; fhl;ly;


%jd;'kr;rhtp gad;g6j;jg;g6k; gz;'gf; fhl;6tjw;, %jd;'kr;rhtpf;,upa
gz;gpd; f(o; Nfh5l;6 fhl;lNtz;6k;.

D.B@ juj;j* 0'kg;G%'w ,wpg;Gj;jpl;lk; (DataBase Schema Design)
njhlu;GW juj;j*nkhd;W1 juj;j* 0l;lt'zf*hf gpupj;+ 0jd;
fl;l'kg;'g juj;j* %fh'kj;+t %'w'kf;, ngh.e;jf;E5athW
%'wahd nkhopnahd;wpdhy; tp*f;,jy; kw;Wk; juj;j*k; c.thfpap.f;,k;
tpjj;'j gpujpr;nra;jy; +/uePrint) 8d;gd juj;j*nkhd;wpd; 0'kg;G%'w
,wpg;Gj;jpl;lk; 8d 0'of;fg;g6k;. juj;j*nkhd;wpd; rupepfu;j;jd;'k'a9k;1
jdpep'yap'd9k; tp*f;,k; ?j;jpuj;njh,jp 8dk; )j'df; ,wpg;gplyhk;.

ehk; %d;G ftdj;jpy; nfhz;l c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y 0l; lt'z'a
ftdpg;Nghk;@
























Captain!y
"ours
=ame 2ea!7er
SP.n#e8
Pa!e
=ame A##ress
S2.n#e8
Cass
Stu#ent
Sports
Parti!ipate
4(

njhlu;Gep'y 0'kg;G %'w (Relational Schema)
juj;j*nkhd;wpd; 0l;lt'zfSf;fp'lapyhd njhlu;'gf; fhl;6tjw;,
t'uag;g6k; khjpup t'ugl/;f*; njhlu;G khjpupf*; 8dg; g6k;.
c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y ()1) t'uglj;jpy; gpujhd c.ngh.*;f*; njhlu;G
0'kg;G %'wapy; 0l;lt'zf*hf (1eation) c*;*+ld;;1 0jw;,upa gz;Gf*;
f(7*;*thW ,wpf;fg;g6k;. Nk2*;* juj;j*j;jpy; njhlu;Gep'y 0'kg;G %'w
gpd;t.khW fhl;lg;g6k;.

Student (ST 1nde2( -ame( address(Class)
Sport (S 1nde2( -ame( Teacher( lace)
articiapate (ST 1nde2( S 1nde2( Captaincy( +ours)

njhlu;GfSf;fhd epfo;f*; (Relational "nstances)
ju 0l;lt'zapy; -t;nth. Gyj;jpw;,%upa juj; njhlu;ghd+
epfo;nthd;whf f.jg;g6k;.
cjhuzk;@
S2.n#e8 8&k; Gyj;jpd; -t;nth. khzt.f;,%upa )yf;f/;f*; (#""#1 ##"!)
8d;Wk;1 =ame 8&k; Gyj;jpd; khztu; ngau; (Saman( )amala) 8d;Wk;1 %ddress
8&k; Gyj;jpy; +*+,( )ada-atha(F.* Nghd;Wk; &lass 8&k; Gyj;jpy; (*.-B( *+-&)
8d;Wk; fhzg;glyhk;.

%jd;'kr;rhtp (Primary )ey)
juj;j* 0l;lt'znahd;wpd; -. gjp't kw;'wa gjpf*pyp.e;+ jdpahf
0'lah*k; fhz;gjw;, gad;g6j;jg;g6k; Gyk; %jd;'kr;rhtpg; Gykh,k;.
)jd;Ngh+ )g;Gyj;jpd; ju gpujpaplg;g6t+ jtpu;f;fg;g6fpd;w+. 0NjNghd;W
)g;Gyk; ju )d;wp ntW'kahf ).f;f %5ah+.

cjhuzk;@
Stu#ent 0l;lt'zapy;1 S2.n#e8 )d; gjp'tf; nfhz;6 khztnuh.t'u
jdpj;+tkhf 0'lah*/; fhzyhk;. 0j;ju )g;Gyj;jpy; k(*;gjp nra;ag;gl
%5ah+. )t;thwhd gz;'gf;nfhz;l Gyk; %jd;'kr;rhtpf;, kpfk;
ngh.j;jkh,k;.

njupep'y rhtp (&andidate )ey)
juj;j* 0l;lt'znahd;wpd; 8'tNa&k; -. Gyk; jdpj;+tkhf
fz;lwpag;g6tjw;,upa gz;G nfhz;l epuy; 0y;y+ epuy;f*; rpytw;wpd;
njh,g;G njupep'y rhtp 8dg;g6k;. )tw;wpyp.e;+ njup nra;ag;g6k; -.
Gyk; tpNrl jd;'k9'la+ld; 0+Nt %jd;'kr;rhtpah,k;.

cjhuzk;@
Stu#ent 0l;lt'zapy;1 =ame4 A##ress Mfpa Gy/;f*; )uz;'l9k; )'zj;+
86f;,k;Ngh+ khztnuh.t'u jdpj;+tkhf 0'lah*/; fhzyhk; . 0Nj
Nghd;W =ame4 Cass Mfpa Gy/;f*; )uz;'l9k; )'zj;+ 86j;jh2k; )Nj
nray; e'lngWk;. (S2.n#e8 cld;)

0d;dpar;rhtp (Foreign )ey)
0l;lt'znahd;wpd; %jd;'kr;rhtp Ntnwh. 0l;lt'zapy; 0Nj Nghd;W
gpuNahfpf;fg;gl;5.g;gpd; 0+ )uz;lhk; 0l;lt'zf;, 0d; dpar;rhtpah,k;. )+
)uz;6 0y;y+ 0jw;, Nkw;gl;l 0l;lt'zf'* njhlu;Gg6j;+k; Ngh+
%f;fpaj;+tk; ngWfpd;w+.
+GCourse.$ Gyk;1 Courses 0l;lt'zapy; %jd;'kr;rhtpahf ).g;g+ld;;1
Stu#ents 0l;lt'zapy; )+ 0d;dpr;rhtpah,k;. (-. khztu; -. ghlnewp'a
khj;jpuk; gap2fpd;whnudpd; kl;6k; )t;tl;lt'z rhj;jpakh,k;)).
4,

cjhuzk;














khw;Wr;rhtp (%lternate )ey)
gpujpepjpj;+t rhtpf*py; -d;W %jd;'kr;rhtpahf 86f;fg;gl;l+k; 4'da
gpujpejpj;+t rhtpf*; 0'dj;+k; khw;Wr;rhtpf*hff; f.jg;g6k;.
cjhuzk;
Stu#ent 0l;lt'zapy;1=ame4 A##ress Mfpa Gy/;f*; )uz;'l9k; Nru;j;+
86f;,k; Ngh+ khztnuh.t'u jdpj;+tkhff; fhzyhk;.0NjNghd;W =ame4
Cass Mfpa )uz;'l9k; Nru;j;+ 86j;jh2/;El khztnuh.t'u jdpj;+tkhf
0'lah*/;fhzyhk;. 8dNt1 )g;Gy/;f*; )e;j 0l;lt'zapd; gpujpejpj;+t
rhtpf*h,k;. (S2.n#e8 jtpu;j;+) (-Nu t(l;5y; -Nu ngau; nfhz;l ).tu;
0y;y+ -. t,g;gpy; -Nu ngau;nfhz;l ).tu; )y;'y 8d;W f.+Nthk;)
fyg;Gr;rhtp (&omposit )ey)
%jd;'kr;rhtpahf -. Gyj;'j njup nra;a %5ahjtplj;+1 gjpf'*
0'lah*/;fhz;gjw;, gad;g6j;jg;g6k; )uz;6 0y;y+ 0jw;, Nkw;gl;l
8z;zpf;'ff*pd; Nru;g;G1 fyg;Gr;rhtp 8dg;g6k;.



























Student !able
&ourses !able
S2.n#e8
=ame
A##ress
Gy/;f*;
%jd;'kr;rhtp

khw;Wr;rhtp
(fyg;Gr;rhtpah,k;)

njupep'y rhtp
5-

r(u;'k )lu;gh6f*; ("ntergrity &onstraints)
njhlu;GW juj;j*nkhd;wpd; 0l;lt'zf*pyp.f;,k; juf*; rupahfk;
%uzw;wthWk; ).f;fpd;wjhntd fz;lwptjw;fhf gad;g6j;jg;g6k;
epakj;njh,g;gh,k;.
)+ gpujhdkhf Hd;W t'fg;g6k;.
M*;f* r(u;'k #Domain In$ergri$)!
Nkw;Nfh*; r(u;'k #Re/eren'eIn$ergri$)!
c.ngh.*; r(u;'k #3n$i$) In$ergri$)!

M*;f* r(u;'k
M*;f* r(u;'k 8d;g+1 4jhtnjh. Gynkhd;wpw;,upathW epfo;;r;rpf*;
#In$an'e! c*;*(6 nra;ag;gl;6*;*jhntd gu(l;rpg;gjh,k;. juj;j*nkhd;'w
c.thf;,k; Ngh+ -t;nth. gjptpw;,%upa f(o;j;jug;gl;6*;* ngWkhd/;f*;
to/;fg;gl Ntz;6k;. jut'f1 Gyj;jpd; 0fyk; (9iel, Si<e)1 ngWkhdk;1;
ngWkhdk; )d;wp fhzg;g6t+ 4w;G'lajh 8d;g+1 jdpj;+t ngWkhd/;f'*
khj;jpuk; ngWtjh Nghd;wd.
cjhuzkhf@
Stu#ent 0l;lt'zapy; rfy gz;GfSf;,k; ngh.j;jkhd epfo;r;rpf*; f(7*;*
ju t'ffSf;f'ka to/;fg;gl;5.f;fNtz;6k;.
S2U$)=2 1);A2.O=
- STIndex CHAR (data type), UNIQUE
- Name CHAR (!) ("en#$ or si%e)
- Address CHAR (&')
- C"ass CHAR(')
- (ender CHAR ()) *+, -,.,

Nkw;Nfh*; r(u;'k
ju 0l;lt'z )uz;5d+ Gy/;fSf;fp'lapy; r(u;'k Ngzg;gly; )jd; Hyk;
8jpu;ghu;f;fg;g6fpd;w+. 8dNt1 -. 0l;lt'zap2*;* ngWkhd/;f*; 06j;j
0l;lt'zapyp.f;,k; jufSld; njhlu;Gg6fpd;wjhntd )/;, Muhag;g6k;.
(f(7*;* glj;'jf; ftdpf;fk;) )r;r(u;'k'ag; NgGtjw;, gpujhd
0l;lt'zapd; %jd;'kr;rhtp )uz;lhk; 0l;lt'zapy; 0d;dpar;rhtpahf
0'kf;fg;gl;5.f;f Ntz;6k;.

c.ngh.*; r(u;'k
Gynkhd;wpd; -t;nth. juk; jdpj;jdpahf 0'lah*/; fhzg;glf;E5athW
ghtpf;fg;g6k; %jd;'kr; rhtpf;,upa Gyk; ntW'kahf ).f;f%5ahnjd;g+
)jd; Hyk; f.jg;g6fpd;w+. 0NjNghd;W1 0jd; gjp k(z;6nkh. %'w )lk;
ngwhjthW Ngzg;g6fpd;w+. )t;thwhd Gyk; ntW'kahf 0y;y+
k(*;gjp'lajhf fhzg;g5d; gjpnthd;'w jdpj;+tkhf 0wpe;+nfh*;t+
f5dkh,k;.















51

Nkw;Nfh*; r(u;'k9ld; E5a 0l;lt'zg;glk;




































gupe;+'u nra;ag;g6k; )'zaj; j*/;f*;
$ttp/00en12i3ipedia1or#02i3i04ata5ase6sc$ema
$ttp/00cir1dcs17ni-pannon1$70ci33e30Re"ationa"6Sc$ema64esi#n1pd8
$ttp/002221tec$opedia1com0de8inition0)0candidate-
3ey$ttp/00peop"e1cs1pitt1ed709c$an#0)!:0'd5desi#n1$tm"
$ttp/00docs1orac"e1com0cd0;)'!')6')0appde<1='0a=:!='0ad#'!it#1$tm
$ttp/002221nc5i1n"m1ni$1#o<0p75med0)=>=?@)













52

D.C@ c.ngh.*; njhlu;G t'uglj;'j1 ju;f;f 0'kg;Gf; ,wpg;ghf khw;Wthu;.

fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; nrad;%'wf*;

gpuNtrk;@
c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'uglk; 8d;why; 8d;dntd;g'j nj*pg6j;+thu;.
)+ juj;j* 8z;zf;f.f;f'ka c.thf;fg;gl;l+ 8d;g'jf; fhl;6thu;.

fw;w2f;fhd cj;Njr MNyhr'df*;
• c.ngh.*; njhlu;G t'uglk; -d;wpd; t'ff'* tp*f;fk;.
• c.ngh.*;1 gz;Gf*;1 njhlu;Gf*; 8d;gtw;'w NtWg6j;jpf; fhl;lk;.
• ju;f;f 0'kg;G%'w ,wpg;G 8d;why; 8d;d 8d;g'jj; nj*pg6j;jk;.
• c.ngh.*;f*; khw;wk'l9k; tpjj;'j tp*f;fk;.
• gz;Gf*; khw;wk'l9k; tpjj;'j tp*f;fk;.
• njhlu;Gf*; khw;wk'l9k; tpjj;'j tp*f;fk;.

thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuk;
juj; j*j;'j t5t'kj;jy; (%ata"ase %esign)
gadupd; Nj'tf*; GJu;j;jpa'laf;E5athW juj;j*nkhd;W t5t'kj;jy;1
GJuz tp*f;fk*pj;jy; Nghd;wd )jpy; e'lngWk; nraw;gh6f*h,k;. )jw;, F
g5%'wf*; 05g;g'lah9*;*d. 0'tahtd1

". f.j;+. ju khjpup #'on'e0$1al Da$a Mo,el!
%. ju;f;f 0'kg;G %'wf;,wpg;G #Logi'a Deign Mo,el!
F. ng*j(f t5t'kg;G khjpup #P(ii'al Deign Mo,el!

f.j;+. ju khjpup
)jd;Ngh+ nka;9yf rk;gtnkhd;wpd; Hyk; juj;j*k; c.thf;,tjw;,j;
Nj'tahd 05g;g'l 0k;r/;f'* ju;f;f 05g;g'lapy; Nfhg; gpl;6 'tj;jy;
e'lngWk;. )jw;,1 c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'uglk; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;w+.
)jd;Ngh+ gad.f;,j; Nj'tahd rfy gupkhw;w/;fSk; c*;*lf;fg;gl;6*;*jh
8d;g'j9k;1 0tw;wpd; nry;2g5j;jd;'k gw;wp9k; Muhag;g6k;. 06j;+
Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6k; nrayht+ c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'ugl/;f'* ju;f;f
0'kg;G %'w khjpupf*hf khw;wg;glyh,k;.

)jd;Ngh+ f.j;+ u(jpahf 0'kf;fg;gl;l t5t'kg;Gf;f*; jfty;
jpl;lnkhd;whf Nfhg;Gf;f*py; )lg;;g6k;. 0+ juj;j* %'w'knahd;wpy;
($/MS) Nrkpf;ff;E5athWk;1 Nj'tf;Nfw;g k(z;6k; ngw;Wf;nfh*;*f;E5ajhf
).f;,khWk; c.thf;fg;g6k;.
f.j;+. ju khjpup'a ju;f;f 0'kg;G%'w khjpupf;, khw; Wk; Ngh+
c.ngh.*;1 gz;Gf*;1 njhlu;Gf*; 8d;gd khw;wk'l9k; tp; jj;'j 06j;+
Muha;Nthk;.

c.ngh.*; gupzhkk;
c.ngh.*; njhlu;G t'ugl/;f*py; c.ngh.*;f*; nrt;tf t5tpdhy;
fhl;lg;g6k;.

cjhuzk;







Stu#ent
53


)j'd ju;f;f 0'kg;G %'wf;, khw;Wk; Ngh+ 0l;lt'znahd; wpd; Hyk;
fhl;lg;g6k;.

cjhuzk;
Stu#ent




gz;Gf*pd; gupzhkk;
c.ngh.*; njhlu;G t'ugl/;f*py; gz;Gf*; e(*;tl;l/;f*hy; fhl;lg;g6fpd;wd.
cjhuzk;














c.ngh.n*hd;'w ju;f;f 0'kg;G %'wnahd;Wf;, khw;Wk;Ngh+
0l;lt'znahd;whff; fhl;lg;g6t+ld; 0jd; gz;Gf*; Gy/;f*hf
0'kfpd;wd.






njhlu;Gg; gupzhkk;@
c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y t'uglj;jpy; )uz;6 c.ngh.*;fSf; fp'lNaahd
njhlu;G rha;r+uj;jpdhy; fhl;lg;g6k;. 0j;+ld; 0j;njhlu;gpd; nga.k;
,wpg;gplg;g6k;.

















st7dent
STIndex Name Address ;irt$day


Stu#net
=ame
A##ress
/irt7#ay
S2.n#e8
Stu#ent
Sports
Parti!ipate

54

c.ngh.*;1 ju;f;f 0'kg;G %'wahf khw;wk'l9k; Ngh+ ).
c.ngh.*;fSf;f'lapyhd njhlu;ghf khWfpd;w+. )uz;6
0l;lt'zfSf;f'lapy; ).f;,k; njhlu;G 0d;dpar;rhtp Hyk;
c.thf;fg;g6fpd;w+. 8z;0*'tf;Nfw;g 0d;dpar;rhtpaplg; g6k; Gyk; HyNkh
0y;y+ Ntnwh. 0l;lt'z c.thf;fg;g6tjd; HyNkh njhlu;G
c.thf;fg;g6fpd;w+.













cjhuzk;
g5%'w "# c.ngh.*; njhlu;Gep'y 0l;lt'z


g5%'w "! gupkhw;Wjy;

St7dent Participate Sports
STIndex Name Address C"ass STIndex Captain Ho7rs SPIndex (aName Teac$er P"ace STI
!& Saman Aandy )) !& Bes )! '') Cric3et Si"<a +(
!
&
!@ Nima" +atara )' !@ No )' '' C$ess Perera +H
!
@
!! Cima" +ata"e )) !! ND ) ''& TT Soi%a +H
!
!







st7dent
STIndex Name Address ;irt$day


sports
SPIndex Name Address ;irt$day STIndex


55


g5%'w "F ju;f;f 0'kg;G%'w t5t'kg;G

Parti!ipate
S2.n#e8 Captain "ours
253 Hes 15
254 =o 1-
255 =O 12

Parti!ipate
S2.n#e8 Captain "ours
253 Hes 15
254 =o 1-
255 =O 12

D.M@ 0'l kl;lj;'j 0jpfupg;gjw;, juj;j* 0'kg;G %'w t5t'kg;'g
)ay;ghf;,thu; .

fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; nray;%'w

gpuNtrk;
• re;'japy; tpw;fg;g6k; gy;NtW ngh.l;f*;1 gy;NtW epak/;fSf;, 0'ka
cw;gj;jp nra;ag;g6fpd;wnjd;g'j tp*f;fp 0jd; ed;'k j('kf'*
khztu;fSld; fye;+'uahly;.

fw;w2f;fhd cj;Njr MNyhr'df*;
• t,g;gp2*;* khztu;f'* Hd;W ,7f;f*hf gpupj;+ f(7*;* nraw;gh6f*py;
N6glr;nra;ak;.
#. )ay;Gg6j;j'y t'ua'w nra;t+ld; 0jd; g5%'wf'* tpgupf; fr;
nra;jy;.
Stu#ent
S2.n#e8 =ame A##ress Cass
253 Saman &an#y 11
254 =ima Matara 1-
255 5ima Matae 11
56

!. )ay;ghf;fg;glhj 0l;lt'znahd;wpd; ,'wgh6f'*
)d/;fhzr;nra;jy;.

nraw;gh6f*;.
• jug;gl;6*;* thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuj;'j %7'kahfk; ckf;,upa g,jp'a
ftdkhfk; thrpf;fk;.
• ckf;,upa j'yg;gpd; tpNrl tpla/;f*; gw;wp ck+ ,7ld;
fye;+'uahlk;.
• -t;nth. j'yg;gpd+k; t'ua'wf'* ed;, tp*/;fpf;nfh*;*k;.
• j'yg;Gf;fSf;fp'lapy; ).f;,k; njhlu;gp'd ,7tpy;
fye;+'uahlk;.

thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuk;
nray; rhu;Gep'y #91n'$ional De0en,en')! 8d;g+ 4jhnjh. Gyk; jdpj;+tkhd
)d;&nkh. Gyj;+ld; 4w;g6j;+k; -. njhlu;gh,k;;.

cjhuzk;
ghlrh'yj; juj;j*nkhd;wpy; khztu; tpguk; 8&k; 0l;lt'zapy; khztu;
ngau; +=ame) 8&k; Gyj;jpdhy; kl;6k; khzt'u rupahf 0'lah*k; fhz;g+
f5dkh,k;. fhuzk;1 -Nu ngau; nfhz;l khztu;f*; gyu; t,g;gpy;
).f;fyhk;. khzt'u rupahf )d/; fhz;gjw;, khztu; )yf; fNk
ngh.j;jkhd+ 8d;g+ Gydhfpd;w+. )jdhy;jhd; khztu; ngau; (=ame)
8&k; Gyk;1 khztu;; )yf;fk; (S2.n#e8) 8&k; Gyj;jpy; j/;fpap.f;fpd;w+.
)t;thwhd ep'y “nray; rhu;Gep'y” 8dg;g6k;.
S2.n#e8 =ame A##ress Cass


g,jp rhu;Gep'y
g,jp rhu;Gep'yahd+ +Partia $epen#en!y* nray; rhu;Gep'yapd; )d;&nkh.
t5tkh,k;. 0l;lt'znahd;wpy; %jd;'kr;rhtp k(Nj 4'da Gy/;f*;
j/;fpap.j;jy; Ntz;6k;. Mdhy; 0t;thwpd;wp rpy Gy/;f*; Ntnwh. Gyj;jpd;
k(+ j/;fpap.g;gpd; 0t;thwhd ep'y “g,jp rhu;Gep'y” 8dg;g6k;. )r;re;ju;g;gk;
)uz;lhk; )ay;ghf;fypd; Ngh+ e(f;fg;gly; Ntz;6k;.






















57

)ay;ghf;,jy; ($ormali/ation)
juj; j*nkhd;wpy; ).f;,k; juf*; %'wahf -7/;f'kf;fg;g6jy;
)ay;ghf;fy; 8dg;g6k;. )jd; Ngh+ 0l;lt'zf*; gytw;wpf;fp'lapy; njhlu;G
c.thf;fg;g6k; Ngh+ newp%'wf*; gytw;'w gpd;gw;Wjy; gw;wpf; ftdk;
nr2j;jg;g6fpd;w+. )jd; Hyk; ju k(*;gjp (Da$a Re,1n,an')) kw;Wk; ju
%uz;gh6f*; (Annomalie) 8d;gd )a2khdt'u ,'wf;fg;gl;6 juj;
j*j;jpy; 4w;glf;E5a -t;th'kf'* e(f;f%59k;.

• ju kp'f'k (Data Redundancy)
0l;lt'znahd;wpd; gjp (Re'or,) -d;wpy; ).f;,k; -. epfo;thd+
(.nstan!e) 0Nj 0l;lt'zapy; k(z;6k; k(z;6k; fhzg;g6jy; ju kp'f'k
8dg;g6k;.

ju %uz;gh6f*; (Data %nomalies)
0l;lt'znahd;wpf;, ju c*;*(6 nra;9k; Ngh+ 4w;glf;E5a gpur;rp'df*;
ju %uz;gh6f*; 8d 0'of;fg;g6k;. )'t Hd;W 05g;g'lf'*f;
nfhz;l'tah,k;.
#. 0l;lt'z'a )w;'wg;g6j;j %5ah'k. (Up#ate Anomaies)
2. 0l;lt'zapyp.e;+ ju't e(f;f%5ah'k. ($eetion Anomaies*
F. 0l;lt'zf;, jutp'd Nru;f;f %5ah'k. (.nsertion Anomaies)

)ay;ghf;fy; Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6tjw;, 'fah*f;E5a cgha/;f*; gy c*;*d.
0tw;wpy; rpy t.khW@
• %jy; )ay;G t5tk; (9ir$ Normal9orm)
• )uz;lhk; )ay;G t5tk; (Se'on, Normal 9orm)
• Hd;whk; )ay;G t5tk; (T(ir, Normal 9orm)

%jy; )ay;G t5tk; (First $ormal Form)
0l;lt'z -d;W c.thf;,k; Ngh+1
• -Nu khjpupahd Gy/;f*; (9iel,) k(z;6k; k(z;6k; cNahfg;g6j;jy;
jtpu;f;fg;gly;.
• Ld;Nwhnlhd;W njhlu;G'la Gy/;f'*f; nfhz;6 Ntnwh. 0l;lt'z
c.thf;,jy;.
• Ld;Nwhnlhd;W njhlu;G'la Gy/;f'* %jd;'kr;rhtp Hyk;
0'lah*k; fhz %59k; 8d;g'j cWjpr;nra;jy;.

Nkw;Ewpa tpla/;f*; gw;wp )t;tpay;ghf;fy; %'wapy; ftd:;
nr2j;jg;g6fpd;w+.

)uz;lhk; )ay;G t5tk; (Second $ormal Form)
0l;lt'z c.thf;,k; Ngh+
• Ld;Nwhnlhd;W njhlu;G'la Gy/;f'*f; nfhz;l 0l;lt'zf'*
Ntwhf;fpf; nfhz;ljd; gpd;1 -Nu Gyk; k(z;6k; k(z;6k; 0l;lt'zapy;
ghtpf;fg;g6t+ jtpu;f;fg;g6k;.
• c.thf;fg;gl;l 0l;lt'zfSf;fp'lapy; 0d;dpar;rhtp gad; g6j;jg;gl;6
njhlu;'g jhgpj;jy;.
Nkw;Ewpa tpla/;f*; gw;wp )t;tpay;ghf;fy; %'wapd; Ngh+ ftd:;
nr2j;jg;g6fpd;w+.





5(

Hd;whk; )ay;G t5tk; (!hird $ormal Form)
0l;lt'z c.thf;,k; Ngh+1
• 0l;lt'zapy; fhzg;g6k; rfy Gy/;fSk; %jd;'kr;rhtp k(+
nraw;g6fpd;wjh 8d;g'j fz;lwpt+k; 0t;thwy;yhj't ).f; ,nkdpd;
0tw;'w e(f;fy;.
Nkw;Ewpa tpla/;f*; gw;wp )t;tpay;ghf;fy; %'wapd; Ngh+ ftd:;
nr2j;jg;g6fpd;w+.

0l;lt'znahd;'w )ay;ghf;fy;
cjhuzk;@
Student
S2.n#e8 S=ame Cass2 @ra#e Coa!71 Coa!72 Coa!73
?)' Saman Siva C2- 11A 2125 2127 213-
515 =ima Perera C25 12/ 2127 2125 213-
712 Su#at7 ;e%am C2- 11A 213- 2125 2127

-Nu ju c*;*(6 nra;ag;g6tjw;fhf 0l;lt'znahd;wp&*; gy Gy/;f*;
fhzg;glf;Elh+. )/;, khztu;f*+ jfty;f*; c*;*(6 nra;ag;g6k;
0l;lt'zapy; khztu;f*; njhlu;Gf;nfh*;Sk; tp'*ahl;6g; nghWg;ghrpupau;f*;
gy'u fhl;6tjw;, c.thf;fg;gl;l 0l;lt'z NkNy fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+.

• %jy; )ay;G t5tk; (First $ormal Form)
-Nu ju k(z;6k; k(z;6k; gjpj'yj; jtpu;j;jy;.
)/;, &oa'(", &oa'(%, 'oa'(* 8d;wthW Gy/;f'* NtW Ntwhfg; gad;g6j;jh+
0tw;wpw;,upa ju't -. Gyj;jpy; Nru;j;+f; nfh*;*y; Ntz;6k;.
0jw;f'ka NkNy fhl;lg;gl;l 0l;lt'z %jy; )ay;G t5tj;jpw;Nfw;g
r(u;nra;ag;g6k; Ngh+ gpd;t.khW 0'k9k;.

Student
S2.n#e8 S=ame
Cass2
@ra#e Coa!7
?)' Saman Siva C2- 11A 2125
?)' Saman Siva C2- 11A 2127
?)' Saman Siva C2- 11A 213-
515 =imaPerera C25 12/ 2127
515 =imaPerera C25 12/ 2125
515 =imaPerera C25 12/ 213-
712 Su#at7;e%am C2- 11A 213-
712 Su#at7;e%am C2- 11A 2125
712 Su#at7;e%am C2- 11A 2127

)t;tl;lt'zapy; Gy/;f*; gytw;wpy; fhzg;gl;l ju -. Gyj;jpw;,
Nru;f;fg;gl;5.g;gjdhy; gjp kp'f'k (Re,1n,an')) fhzg;g6fpd;w+.

• )uz;lhk; )ay;G t5tk; (Second $ormal Form)
ju kp'f'k'a jtpu;j;jy;.
)/;, ju kp'f'k'aj; jtpu;j;+f;nfh*;tjw;, )uz;6 0l;lt'zf*;
c.thf;fg;gly; Ntz;6k;. )jd; Hyk; Nk2*;* 0l;lt'zapy; fhzg;g6k;
kp'f'kap'd e(f;fpf; nfh*;* %59k;. 0t;thW r(u;nra;ag;gl;l )uz;6
0l;lt'zf*; f(No fhzg;g6fpd;wd.



5,

Student0Details
S2.n#e8 S=ame
Cass2
@ra#e
?)' Saman Siva C2- 11A
515 =imaPerera C25 12/
712 Su#at7;e%am C2- 11A

Student0!eacher
S2.n#e8 Coa!7
?)' 2125
?)' 2127
?)' 213-
515 2127
515 2125
515 213-
712 213-
712 2125
712 2127

0j;+ld; )t;tl;lt'zf*; )uz;6f;fp'lapy; 0d;dpar;rhtp c.thf;,jypd;
0trpak; gw;wp9k; )r;re;ju;g;gj;jpy; ftd:;nr2j;jg;gly; Ntz;6k;.

• Hd;whk; )ay;G t5tk; (!hird $ormal Form)
%jd;'kr;rhtp k(+ j/;fpap.f;fhj Gy/;f'* Ntwhf;fy;.
f(7*;* 0l;lt'zapy; fhzg;g6k; ryf Gy/;fSk; %jd;'kr;rhtp k(+
nraw;g6fpd;wdth 8d;g'jf; fz;lwpa Ntz;6k;. 4Nj&k; Gy/;f*;
%jd;'kr;rhtpapd; nry;thf;fpd;wp )d/;fhzg;g6khapd; 0tw;'w Ntwhf;fp
0j;juf'*g; gjptjw;fhf Gjpa 0l;lt'znahd;W c.thf;fg; gly; Ntz;6k;.

Student0Detail
S2.n#e8 S=ame
Cass2
@ra#e
?)' Saman Siva C2- 11A
515 =imaPerera C25 12/
712 Su#at7;e%am C2- 11A

Nk2*;* cjhuzj;jpy; &laT 8&k; Gyj;jpd; Hyk; Gra,e 8&k; Gyj;'j
)d/;fhz %5t+ld; 0jw;, %jd;'kr;rhtpapd; nry;thf;, fhzg;gltpy;'y.
MfNt )e;ep'y'a eptu;j;jp nra;tjw;, )t;tl;lt'z'a k(z;6k; ).
0l;lt'zf*hf NtWg6j;jpf;nfh*;* Ntz;6k;.

Student0&lass! Student01rade
S2.n#e8
Cass2
S=ame
?)' C2- Saman Siva
515 C25 =imaPerera
712 C2- Su#at7;e%am




Cass2
@ra#e
C2- 11A
C25 12/
C2- 11A
6-

2345 juj;j*nkhd;wpd; 0l;lt'z c.thf;,tjw;,k; %fh'kj;+tk;
nra;tjw;,k; fl;l'kg;G tpdty; nkhop'a (SQ6) gad;g6j;+thu;.

)f;fw;wy; topfhl;5ahd+ MySI; nkhop'ag; gad;g6j;jp c.thf;fg;gl;6*;*+.
rfy cjhuz/;fSk; MySI; B. B. !$ gjpg;gp'd 'kakhff;nfhz;l+.

fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; nray;%'w

gpuNtrk;
fl;l'kg;G tpdty; nkhop Hyk; c.thf;fg;gl;l juj;j*nkhd;'wf;
fhz;gpj;+ f(7*;* tpla/;f*; k(+ ftdk; nr2j;jk;.
• juj;j*j;'j c.thf;,jy; $$; ($ata $e:inition ;anguage* Hyk; DDL
8d;g+. juj;j*k; c.thf;,tjw;, jahupf;fg;gl;6*;* -. nkhop
8d;g+.
• )j'df; nfhz;6 0l;lt'z jahupj;jy;1 gjpg;gpj;jy; (khw;w/;f*;
nra;jy;) kw;Wk; e(f;fk; nra;jy; Nghd;w't Nkw;nfh*;* %59nkd;g+.

fw;w2f;fhd cj;Njr MNyhr'df*;
fl;l'kg;G tpdty; nkhop (SI;) nkd;ngh.'* epWtk;.
Nkw;g5 nkd;ngh.'* epWtjw;, gy %'wf*; c*;*d 8d;g'j
nj*pg6j;+f.
0tw;W*; -d;whd MySI; nkd;ngh.'* )ytrkhf )'zaj;jpyp.e;+
gjptpwf;fk; nra;tjw;, topfhl;lk;.
7ttpA00#ev.mysJ.!om 8&k; %ftupapyp.e;+ gjptpwf;fyhk; 8d;g'jf; fhl;lk;
0y;y+ 7ttpA00666.6ampserver.!om0en0 )'zg;'gg; ghtpj;+ wam0er.er P
epWtjw;, 0wp'u to/;fk;.
to/;fg;gl;6*;* thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuj;'j gad;g6j;jp khztu;f'* nraw;gh6f*py;
N6g6j;jk;.

thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuk;
MySI; nkd;ngh.'* cgNahfpf;fj; njhl/;,k; Ngh+ fl;l'*f*; +Comman#s*
gw;wpa tp*f;fj;j'jg; ngw;Wf;nfh*;* nkd;ngh.*p&}lhfNt cjtp +"ep*
ngw;Wf; nfh*;*%59k;. 0jw;, "ep 8&k; fl;l'*'ag; gad;g6j;jk;.

7elp



















61

Nk2k; tp*f;f/;f'*g; ngw;Wf;nfh*;* f(o;f;fhzg;g6k; 7ep 'on$en$ fl;l'*'a
gad;g6j;jk;.

7elp contents



Nky; fhl;lg;gl;l cjtpf*py; -. g,jpf;,*; nrd;W Nk2k; njupe;+
nfh*;tjw;, f(o;f; fhl;lg;gl;6*;*thW fl;l'*'a to/;fk;.

cjhuzk;@

help 8 content9
7elp data type


)t;thwhf MySI; ght'd njhlu;ghd cjtpf'*g; ngw;Wf;nfh*;*yhk;.

62

• juj;j*k; 0'kj;jy; (&reate Database)
juj;j*nkhd;'w c.thf;,tjw;, 0j;juj;j*j;jpw;fhd nga.ld; fl;l'*
to/;fg;gly; Ntz;6k;.

C1)A2) $A2A/AS) K$ata'aseL=ameM
cjhuzk;@
C1)A2) $A2)/AS) stu#entL#etais

NkNy to/;fg;gl;l fl;l'*f;fhd gpujpgyd; f(7*;* glj;jpy; fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+.
)jd;Hyk; stu#entL$etais 8&k; ngaupy; juj;j*k; c.thf;fg;gl;l'j
cWjpnra;t+f; nfh*;*yhk;.



• c.thf;fg;gl;l juj; j*j;'j 0Gfy;
juj; j*j;j'j c.thf;fpa gpd; 0j'd gad;g6j;jNtz;6k;. )jw;fhf
Use 8&k; fl;l'* gad;g6j;jg;gly; Nz;6k;.

Use K $ata'ase3 =ame M
cjhuzk;A
Use Stu#ent N$etai

fl;l'* rupahd %'wapy; to/;fg;gl;5.e;jhy; juj;j*k;
0Gfg;gl;6*;*'j gpd;t.khW 0wpayhk;.





• 0l;lt'z -d;'w c.thf;,jy;.
0l;lt'znahd;'w c.thf;,tjw;fhd fl;l'* f(No fhzg;g6fpd;w+.

CREATE TABLE <table_name> (<column_name
Data_type(lenth) reference definition>);

Nk2*;* fl;l'*apy; K2A/;)3=AM)M 8&k; )lj;jpy; 0l;lt'zf;,
to/;fg;g6k; ngau; 87jg;gly; Ntz;6k;.
KCoumnL=ameM 8&k; )lj;jpy; Gyj;jpd; nga'u9k;1 K$ata2ypeM 8&k;
)lj;jpy; ju t'f'a9k; ,wpg;gply; Ntz;6k;.
gpd;t.k; cjhuzj;jpy; 0l;lt'zapd; ngau; Stu#ent 8dk;1 0jpy;
%jyht+ Gykhf S2.n#e8 8dk; 0jd; jut'f int 8dk;
fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+. int 8d;g+ %78z; #in$eger! 8d;g'j9k; (O) 8d;g+
ghtpf;f j(u;khdpf;fg;gl;l 0jpE5a ngWkhdk;1 O )yf;f/;f'*f; nfhz;l+
8d;g'j9k; ,wpf;,k;. 0Nj Nghd;W not nu 8d;w thrfk; ghtpf;fg;g5d;
)g;Gyj;'j jutpd;wp ntw;wplkhf 'tf;f %5ah+ 8d;g'jf; ,wpf;,k;.
)t;thW )t;tl;lt'zf;,upa rfy Gy/;fSk; jdpj;jdpahf fl;l'*apd;
Hyk; c.thf;fg;gly; Ntz;6k;.





63

cjhuzk;@

CREATE TABLE student (STIndex int(8) not null, name
varchar(60) not null, address varchar(60)not null,
class varchar(3)not null);

• c.thf;fpa 0l;lt'z gw;wpa tpgu/;f'* 0wpjy; (Describe !able)
0l;lt'z c.thf;fpagpd; 0jd; tpgu/;f'* ghu;g;gjw;, gpd;t.khW
fl;l'* to/;f Ntz;6k;.
DESCRIBE <table_name>;

cjhuzk@;

$)SC1./) Stu#entO
)jw;,upa gpujpgyd; gpd;t.khW 0'k9k;.











%jd;'kr;rhtp c.thf;fy; (&reate "nde#)
0l;lt'zf;, %jd;'kr;rhtpap6tjd; Hyk; ju k(*;gjp 0y;y+
efyhf;fy; e'lngWt'jj; jtpu;j;+f;nfh*;*yhk;.
%jd;'kr;rhtp c.thf;fg;g6tjw;, )uz;6 re;ju;g;g/;f*; c*;*d.

#. 0l;lt'z c.thf;,k; Ngh+
!. 0l;lt'z c.thf;fk; GJu;j;jpa'le;j gpd;

#. 0l;lt'z c.thf;fg;g6k; Ngh+
0l;lt'z c.thf;fg;g6k; Ngh+ 0jw;,upa Gy/;f'*9k; jut'f1
)lg;g.kd; Nghd;wtw;'w to/;fpa+ Nghd;W1 %jd;'kr;rhtp 8g;Gyj;jpw;,
gpuNahfpf;fgly; Ntz;6Nkh 0j'd gpd;t.khW to/;fg;gly; Ntz;6k;.
Kprimary%ey+!oumnL =ame*M
CREATE TABLE <table_name><column_name
Data_type(lenth) reference definition> <primary
key (column_name)>;

cjhuzk;@
Sports 8&k; c.ngh.Sf;, %jd;'kr;rhtp9'la 0l;lt'znahd;W
c.thf;fg;g6k; %'w f(No fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+.
CREATE TABLE sports(SPIndex int(10) not null,
GaName varchar(60) not null,Teacher
varchar(60)not null, Place varchar(20) not null,
STIndex int(8),primary key (SPIndex));

64


0l;lt'z c.thf;fg;gl;l'k'a gpd;t.khW 0wpa fhzyhk;.







)t;thW c.thf;fg;gl;l Sports 0l;lt'z gw;wpa tpgu/;f'* S"O5
fl;l'* Hyk; 0wpa %59k;.

cjhuzk; :-
SHOW CREATE TABLE sports;









)/;,1 0l;lt'zapy; %jd;'kr;rhtp c.thf;fg;gl;6*;* %'w'a
nj*pthff; fhzyhk;.

!. 0l;lt'z c.thf;fg;gl;l gpd;
c.thf;fg;gl;l 0l;lt'znahd;wpw;, %jd;'kr;rhtpap'd A;2)1 8&k;
fl;l'* Hyk; c.thf;fyhk;.

ALTER TABLE <table_name>ADD PRIMARY KEY
<column_name>;

)f;fl;l'* Hyk; K2a'e =ameM 8d;w )lj;jpy; %jd;'kr;rhtpaplg;gl
Ntz;5a 0l;lt'zg; nga'u ,wpg;g+ld; KCoumn =ameM 8&k;
g,jpapy; %jd;'kr;rhtpaplg;gl Ntz;5a Gyj;jpd; nga'uf; ,wpg;gpl
Ntz;6k;. )t;thW khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;l ngwg;gl;l fl;l'* gpd;t.khW
0'k9k;. %d;dNu c.thf;fg;ggl;l S$1,en$ 0l;lt'zf;,
%jd;'kr;rhtpaplg;gl;l %'w )/;, fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+.

cjhuzk;@
ALTER TABLE StudentADD PRIMARY KEY(STIndex);





Stu#ent 0l;lt'zf;, %jd;'kr;rhtp Nru;f;fg;gl;6*;* %'w'a SH-W
fl;l'* Hyk; 0wpayhk;.

cjhuzk;@
show create table student;


65












0d;dpar;rhtp c.thf;fy; (Foreign )ey)
0d;dpar;;rhtp c.thf;,k; re;ju;g;g/;f*; )uz;6 c*;*d.

#. 0l;lt'z c.thf;,k; Ngh+
!. 0l;lt'z GJuzkhf c.thf;fg;gl;l gpd;

#. 0l;lt'z c.thf;,k; Ngh+ 0d;dpar;rhtpaply;

CREATE TABLE <table_name><column_name Data_type(lenth)
reference definition><primary key
(column_name)>,<column_name int FOREIGN KEY REFERENCES
second_table_name (column_name)>;

CREATE TABLE sport(SPIndex int(10) NOT NULL, GaName
varchar(60)NOT NULL,Teacher varchar(60) NOT NULL,
Place varchar(20) NOT NULL, STIndex int(8) NOT
NULL,PRIMARY KEY (STIndex),FOREIGN KEY (STIndex)
REFERENCES student(STIndex));

cjhuzk;@

CREATE TABLE sport(SPIndex int(10) NOT NULL, GaName
varchar(60)NOT NULL,Teacher varchar(60) NOT NULL,
Place varchar(20) NOT NULL, STIndex int(8) NOT
NULL,PRIMARY KEY (STIndex),FOREIGN KEY (STIndex)
REFERENCES student(STIndex));

)+t'u )uz;6 0l;lt'zf'* c.thf;fp9*;*jhy;1 Stu#ent
0l;lt'df;,k; Spots 0l;lt'df;,kp'lapy; 0d;dpar;rhtpap6k;
)uz;lhk; %'w'a gpd;t.khW 0'k9k;.

!. 0l;lt'z GJuzkhf c.thf;fg;gl;lgpd; Gwj;+r;rhtp c.thf;fy;

ALTER TABLE <table_name>ADD FOREIGN
KEY(column_name)REFERENCES <second_table_name>
(column_name);

Lu; 0l;lt'zapd; %jd;'kr;rhtpg; Gyk; )d;&nkh. 0l;lt'z9ld;
njhlu;Gg6k; Ngh+ )uz;lhk; 0l;lt'zapy; 0Nj Gyk;
0d;dpar;rhtpg;Gykhf 0'kfpd;w+. 8k+ cjhuzj;jpw;, 0'ka Stu#ent
0l;l'zapy; S2.n#e8 8&k; Gyk; Sports 8&k; 0l;lt'zapy; St.n#e8
8&k; Gyj;+ld; njhlu;Gg6k; Ngh+ 0d;dpar;rhtpah,k; %'w'a
0tjhdpg;gpd;1 )/;, Sports 8&k; 0ll;t'zapy; c.thf;fg;g6k;
66

S2.n#e8 Gyk; 0d;dpar;rhtpg;Gykh,k;. )g;Gyk; Stu#ent
0l;lt'zapyp.f;,k; %jd;'kr;rhtp'a Nkw;Nfh*; (1e:eren!e)
fhl;6fpd;w+.

cjhuzk;@
ALTER TABLE sports ADD FOREIGN KEY (STIndex)REFERENCES
student(STIndex);






0d;dpar;rhtp c.thf;fg;gl;l gpd; 0+ rupahf c.thf;fg;gl;6*;*jh
8d;g'jf; fz;lwpa S"O5 fl;l'* ghtpj;jy; Ntz;6k;.
SHOW CREATE TABLE <table Name>;
sports 0l;lt'zahd+ c.thf;fg;gl;6*;* %'wahd+ gpd;t.khW
0'k9k;.










)/;, %jd;'kr;rhtp c.thf;fg;gl;6*;* %'w fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+ld;
fl;6g;gh6fSk; +!onstraints* Nru;f;fg;gl;6*;*'jf; fhzyhk;.
0d;dpar;rhtp'a jdpj;+tkhf 0wpe;+ nfh*;tjw;, tpNrl ,wpaply;
%'w gad;g6j;jg;gl;6*;*+. )f;fl;6g;ghl;6f;,wp +!onstraint*
0d;dpar;rhtp'a e(f;,tjw;, 0j;jpahtrpakh,k;.

0l;lt'znahd;wpy; Gy/;f'*r; Nruj;jy; (%dding $e- &olumns)
0l;lt'znahd;wpw;, Gjpjhf Gynkhd;'wr; Nru;g;gjw;, gpd;t.khW fl;l'*
to/;fNtz;6k;.

ALTER TABLE <table_name> ADD <column_name><Data_Type>;

cjhuzk;@
ALTER TABLE student ADD contact int(10);
)jw;f'ka stu#ent 0l;lt'zf;, !onta!t 8&k; Gyk; Nru;f;fg;gl;6*;*'jf;
fhzyhk;.




$)SC)./) fl;l'*'ag; gad;g6j;jp )/;, c.thf;fg;gl;l't e'lngw; W*;*jh
8d;g'jf; fz;lwpayhk;.




67


cjhuzk;@
$)SC)./) stu#entO









Nk2*;* glj;jpd; Hyk; 0l;lt'zf;, Gjpjhf !onta!t 8&k; Gyk;
Nru;f;fg;gl;6*;*'k cWjpg;g6j;jg;g6fpd;w+.

0l;lt'znahd;wpyp.e;+ Gynkhd;'w e(f;fy;
0l;lt'znahd;wpyp.e;+ Gynkhd;'w e(f;,k; %'w.

cjhuzk;@
ALTER TABLE <table_name> DROP <column_name>;

stu#ent 0l;lt'zapy; Nru;f;fg;gl;l !onta!t 8&k; Gyk; e(f;fg;g6k; %'wahd+
gpd;t.k; cjhuzk; Hyk; fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+.

ALTER TABLE studentDROP contact;





$)SC1./) fl;l'*'ag; gad;g6j;jp 0l;lt'zapyp.e;+ )g;Gyk;
e(f;fg;gl;6*;*jh 8d;g'jf; fz;lwpayhk;;.











)/;, !onta!t 8&k; Gyk; e(f;fg;gl;6*;*'j 0tjhdpf;fyhk;. )jd; Hyk;
)r;nray;f*; ntw;wpfukhf e'lngw;W*;*'j cWjpg;g6j;jpf;nfh*;* %59k;.

• 0d;dpar;rhtp e(f;fk; (Remo:ing foreign )ey)
4w;fdNt c.thf;fg;gl;6*;* 0d;dpar;rhtp'a gpd;t.k; %'wapy; 0fw;w
%59k;.
ALTER TABLE <table_name>DROP FOREIGN KEY
<column_name>;

0jw;f'ka stu#ent 0l;lt'zf;,k; sport 0l;lt'zf;,kp'lapyhd
njhlu;gpd; Ngh+ c.thf;fg;gl;l 0d;dpar;rhtp'a 0fw;Wk; %Pw'a
gpd;t.k; cjhuzj;jpd; Hyk; 0wpayhk;.
6(


cjhuzk;@

ALTER TABLE sports DROP FOREIGN KEY STIndex;





)jd;Ngh+ Nk2*;* glj;jpy; fhl;5athwhd gp'o nra;jpnahd;W
ngwg;gl;6*;*+. )jw;,f; fhuzk; ehk; fl;6g;gh6 +!onstraint)
to/;fpajh,k;. 8dNt fl;6g;ghl;6ld; E5a 0d;dpar;rhtp'a gpd;t.khW
0fw;wy; Ntz;6k;.

ALTER TABLE <table_name> DROP FOREIGN KEY
<constraint>;

fl;6g;gh6 (!onstraint* 8d;dntd;g'j 0wpe;+ nfh*;tjw;, s7o6
fl;l'*'ag; gad;g6j;jp sports 0l;lt'zapd; tpgu/;f'* 0wpayhk;.









0d;dpar;rhtpapd; fl;6g;gh6 sports-ibf;A#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Pg; gad;g6j;jp cjhuzk;
GJuzg;g6j;jg;g6khapd;1

cjhuzk;@
ALTER TABLE sports DROP FOREIGN KEY sports_ibfk_1;





)g;Ngh+ S7o6 fl;l'* Hyk; )j'd cWjp nra;+ nfh*;*yhk;.

SHOW CREATE TABLE sports;









0d;dpar;r;rhtp e(f;fg;gl;6*;*jhy; 0+ njhlu;ghd tpgu/;f*;
fhzg;glhj'j 0tjhdpf;fyhk;.



6,

• %jd;'kr;rhtp'a e(f;fy; (Remo:e Primary )ey)
4w;fdNt c.thf;fg;gl;6*;* %jd'kr;rhtpnahd;'w e(f;,k; %'w.
ALTER TABLE <table_name> DROP PRIMARY KEY;
f(7*;* cjhuzj;jpd; Hyk; stu#ent 8&k; 0l;lt'zapy;
c.thf;fg;gl;6*;* %jd;'kr;rhtp'a e(f;,k; %'wahd+ gpd;t.khW
0'k9k;.

cjhuzk;@
ALTER TABLE student DROP PRIMARY KEY;





%jd;'kr;rhtp e(f;fk; rupahf e'kngw;W*;*jh 8d;g'j $)SC1./)
0y;y+ S"O5 fl;l'*f'*g; ghtpj;+ cWjpnra;+ nfh*;*%59k;.

• 0l;lt'znahd;'w e(f;fk; nra;jy;; (Deleting !able)
0l;lt'znahd;'w %w;whf e(f;,tjw;, gpd;t.khW fl;l'*'a
to/;fyhk;.
$1OP 2A/;)Kta'eLnameMO
)jw;f'ka gpd;t.k; cjhuzj;jpd; Hyk; c.thf;fg;gl;l stu#ent 8&k;
0l;lt'z'a 0fw;Wk; %'w'a 0tjhdpf;fyhk;.
cjhuzk;@
DROP TABLE student;




S"O5 fl;l'*'ag; ghtpj;+ 0l;lt'z e(;f;fg;gl;6*;*jhntd
0tjhdpf;fyhk;.
• juj;j*j;'j e(f;fk; nra;jy;; (Deleting Data base)
juj;j*nkhd;'w %w;whf e(f;,tjw;, gpd;t.khW fl;l'*'a to/;fyhk;.
$1OP $A2A/AS) K#ata'aseLnameMO
)f;fl;l'*'af;nfhz;6 ehk; c.thf;fpa Stu#ent3$etais 8&k;
juj;j*j;'j 0fw;wyhd+ gpd;t.khW 0'k9k;.
DROP DATABASEstudent_Details;





)r;nray; rupahf e'lngw;W*;*jh 8d gu(l;rpg;gjw;,; s7o6 fl;l'*'a
ghtpf;fyhk;. Nr'taff; fzpdpapyp.f;,k; rfy juj;j*/; f'*9k;
ghu;g;gjw;,upa fl;l'* )+th,k;.
S"O5 $A2A/AS)SO






7-

2325 fl;l'kg;G tpdh nkhop (Structural Query 6anguage) juj;j*nkhd;wpd;
juf'* 'fahSthu;.

fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; nrad;%'w

gpuNtrk;
ju 'fah*y; nkhop $M; +$ata Manipuation ;anguage* 8d;why; 8d;d 8d;g'j
tp*f;fk;.
SI; nkhop'ag; gad;g6j;jp c.thf;fg;gl;l tpdt2f;, Nj'tahd Gy/;f'*
nt*pa(lhf ngw;Wf;nfh*;tjw;, gpd;t.k; tpla/;f*pd; k(+ ftdk; nr2j;+k;
t'fapy; fye;+'uahly; -d;'w Nkw;nfh*;*k;.
#. SI; nkhop'ag; gad;g6j;jp 0l;lt'znahd;wpw;, gjpf'*
Nru;f;fyhk; (insert) 8d;g+.
!. SI; nkhop'ag; gad;g6j;jp 0l;lt'z'a )w;'wg;g6j;jpf;
nfh*;*yhk; 8d;g+.
F. SI; nkhop'ag; gad;g6j;jp 0l;lt'zap2*;* gjpf'* e(f;f
%59k; ($eete) 8d;g+.
$. SI; nkhop'ag; gad;g6j;jp 0l;lt'zap2*;* gjpf'* k(z;6k;
ngw;Wf;nfh*;*yhk; 8d;g+.

fw;w2f;fhd cj;Njr MNyhr'df*;
• ckf;, jug;gl;6*;* thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuj;'j %7'kahfk;1 nj*pthfk;
thrpj;+ 0wpak;.

thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuk;
0l;lt'znahd;wpw;, ju c*;*(6 nra;jy; (.nsert Iuery).
ehk; c.thf;fpa 0l;lt'zfSf;, ju c*;*(6 nra;tjw;, ).t'fahd
fl;l'*f'*g; ghtpf;fyhk;. 0'tahtd.

%jyht+ %'w
.=S)12 .=2O fl;l'*'ag; ghtpj;jy;

INSERT INTO <table_name>VALUES <(value1, value2,
value3,...)>;

gpd;t.k; cjhuzk; stu#ent 0l;lt'zf;, gjpf*; Nru;j;j'y fhl;6fpd;w+.
)/;, (S2.n#e84 name4 a##ress4 !ass) Gy/;f*hf fhl;lg;g6t+ld;1
0g;Gy/;fSf;, Nru;f;fNtz;5a ngWkhd/;f*; 9A;U)S(""!BF1‘Saman’, ‘Kandy’,10)
8df; fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+. 0jw;f'ka ‘""!BF’ St.n#e8 Gyj;jpw;,k;1 ‘Saman’ name
8&k; Gyj;jpw;,k; 1‘&an#y”1 a##ress 8&k; Gyj;jpw;,k;1 #" 1 !ass 8&k;
Gyj;jpw;,k; ngWkhd/;f*hf to/;fg;gl;6*;*d. )g;Gy/;f'*9k; 0tw;wpd;
ngWkhd/;f'*9k; NtWg6j;+tjw;, ‘ ’ gad;g6j;jg;gl;6*;*'jf;
0tjhdpf;fyhk;.

cjhuzk;@
INSERT INTO student (STIndex, name, address, Class)
VALUES(00253,'SamanHerath','Kandy', 10);






71

)uz;lh+ %'w S'T fl;l'* ghtpj;jy;
INSERT INTO table_name SET column1=value,
column2=value2;
%jyht+ %'wapy; ntt;Ntwhf Gy/;fSf;, ngWkhd/;f*;
to/;fg;gl;l'kf;, gjpyhf1 )k;%'wapy; Gyj;jpd; nga'uj; njhlu;e;+ rkd;
0'lah*kpl;6 njhlu;e+ 0jw;,upa ngWkhdj;'jf;,wp;g;gp; l Ntz;6k;.

cjhuzk;@
INSERT INTO student SETSTIndex=256,name=’Nirmala
Perera’,address=’Colombo’,Class=10;





)k;%'w'af; nfhz;6 Stu#ent 0l;lt'zf;, rpy gjpf'* gpd;t.khW
Nru;f;f%59k;.









0NjNghd;W Sports 0l;lt'zf;,k; juf*; Nru;f;f%59k;.
cjhuzk;@
INSERT INTO sports (SPIndex, GaName, Teacher, Place,
STIndex) VALUES(001,'Cricket','Linal Ratnayake','Main
Ground',00253);






0y;y+

INSERT INTO sports SET (SPIndex=00253,
GaName='Cricket', Teacher='Linal Ratnayake',
Place='Main Ground', STIndex=00253);

)t;thW Nk2k; rpy gjpf'* Nru;f;f.











72

0l;lt'zap2*;* juf'* k(*g;gnwy; (Select Query)
0l;lt'zapyp.f;,k; juf'* gy;NtW topf*py; k(*g;ngwyhd+ juj;
j*j;jpy; fhzg;g6k; tpNrl 0k;rkh,k;. 0NjNghd;W 0l;lt'zapyp.f;,k;
ju k(z;6k; k(z;6k; ngWk; juf*hd+ 0l;lt'z t5tpNyNa
fhl;rpg;g6j;jg;g6k;.
0l;lt'zap2*;* rfy juf'*9k; %7'kahf fhl;rpg6j;+tjw; ,
gpd;t.khW fl;l'*'a to/;fNtz;6k;.
S);)C2 G F1OM Kta'eLnameMO
)/;, (G) 0'lah*k; rfy (A) 8&k; f.j;'jf; ,wpf;fpw+.

cjhuzk;@
S);)C2 G F1OM stu#entO
)f;fl;l'* Hyk; stu#ent 0l;lt'zap2*;* rfy juf'*9k;
fhl;rpg;g6j;jyhk;.









sports 0l;lt'zapd; juf'* fhl;rpg;g6j;jy;.

cjhuzk;@
S);)C2 G F1OM sportsO









0l;lt'zap2*;* juf*py; njup nra;ag;gl;l Gy/;fSf;,upa juf'*
kl;6k; fhl;rpg6j;j %59k;.
f(No 0l;lt'zapyp.f;,k; Gy/;f*; rpytw;wpd; juf'* khj;jpuk;
ngw;Wf;nfh*;Sk; %'w fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+.
SELECT <column_name>,<column_name>FROM <table_name>;
gpd;t.k; cjhuzj;jpy; stu#ent 0l;lt'apy; ).f;,k; Gy/;f*hd name4 !ass
Mfpa ). Gy/;f*pd; juf'* khj;jpuk; fhl;rpg6j;+k; %'w
fhl;lg;gl;6*;*+.
cjhuzk;@
SELECT name,class FROM student;








73

0t;thNw 0or$ 0l;lt'zapd; Gy/;f*hd GaName, Tea'(er Mfpatw;wpd;
juf'* gpd;t.khW fhl;rpg;g6j;jyhk;.

cjhuzk;@
SELECT GaName,Teacher FROM sports;









Nk2k;1 njupnra;ag;gl;l gjpnthd;wpd; ju't 'kakhff; nfhz;6
nt*pa(6f'* ngw;Wf;nfh*;*k; %59k;.
)jw;fhf 5")1) 8&k; gjk; ghtpf;fg;g6fpd;w+.
gjp -d;wpy; fhzg;g6k; rfy juf'*9k; -Nu jl'tapy; nt*pa(lhfg;
ngw;Wf;nfh*;* Ntz;6khapd;1
SELECT*FROM<table_name>WHERE<column_nameEoperator
value>;

cjhuzk;@
S);)C2 G F1OM stu#ent 5")1) name > P Saman "erat7Q O
)t;jhuzj;jpw;f'ka stu#ent 0l;lt'zapyp.f;,k; name Gyj;jpy; ).f;,k;
PSaman "erat7Q 8&k; ngWkhdj;jpw;,upa rfy jufSk; fhl;rpg;g6j;jg;g6k;.


Nk2k;1 Gynkhd;wpy; fhzg;g6k; junthd;wp'd 'kakhff;nfhz;61
0j;jufSld; njhlu;G'la njupnra;ag;gl;l Gy/;fSf;,upa juf'*
fhl;rpg;g6j;j %59k;.
SELECT <column_name, column_name>FROM <table_name>
WHERE <column_name operator value>;

cjhuzk;@
SELECT * FROM student WHERE Name='SamanHerath';







gpd;t.k;; cjhuzj;jpd; Hyk; stu#ent 0l;lt'zapy; ).f;,k; “Saman "erat7”
8&k; ngWkhdj;jpw;,upa A##ress4 !ass Mfpa Gy/;fSf;,upa juf'*
nt*pa(lhfg; ngw;Wf;nfh*;*%59k;.



74

SELECT Address,class FROM student WHERE
Name='SamanHerath';







)uz;6 Gy/;fSf;fhd ngWkhd/;f'*f; nfh6j;+ 0jw;Nfw;w nt*pa(6f'*g;
ngw;Wf;nfh*;Sk; %'w.
)jw;fhf A=$ ghtpf;fg;g6fpd;w+.
(%$D ght'd)
An# cgNahfpj;+ to/;fg;g6k; ngWkhd/;f*; )uz;'l9k; nfhz; l gjpf'*
nt*pa(lhfg; ngw;Wf;nfh*;tjw;,
SELECT * FROM <table_name>WHERE <column_name
operator value>AND <column_name operator value>;
gpd;t.k; cjhuzj;jpy; name Gyj;jpd; ngWkhdk; P=ima PereraQ 8dk;
Address Gyj;jpd; ngWkhdk; ‘Coom'o’ 8dk; nfhz;l rfy juf'*9k;
nt*pa(lhff; fhl;6tjh,k;.

cjhuzk;@
SELECT * FROM studentWHERE Name='Nimal Perera'AND
address='Katugastota';







<R ght'd
O1 ghtpg;gjd; Hyk; to/;fg;g6k; ngWkhd/;f*py; -d;Nw&k; cz;'kah,k;
re;ju;g;gj;jpy; nt*pa(l;'l ngWtjh,k;.
SELECT * FROM <table_name>WHERE <column_name
operator value>OR<column_name operator value>;
)t;jhuzj;jpd; Hyk; $1,en$ 0l;lt'zpapyp.f;,k; name ngWkhdk;
“Saman Hera$(5 Mf 1 0y;y+ 'la ngWkhdk; #" w;, rkdhfk; c*;*
rfy gjpfSk; nt*pa(lhf ngwg;g6fpd;w+.

cjhuzk;@
SELECT * FROM studentWHERE Name='SamanHerath'OR
class = 10;









75

,-%( )& Mfpa )uz;'l9k; ghtpj;jy;
)+ t'u AND, -R Mfpa )uz;6k; jdpj;jdpahf cgNahfpf;fg;gl;ld.
jw;Ngh+ )'t )uz;6k; -Nu fl;l'*apy; cgNahfpf;fg;g6k; %'w ftdj;jpy;
nfh*;*g;g6fpd;w+.
SELECT * FROM <table_name>WHERE <column_name
operator value>AND <column_name operator value>OR
<column_name operator value>;
gpd;t.k; cjhuzj;jpy; Name, @Saman Hera$(’ 8dk; A,,re AKan,)@ 0y;y+
‘&olom2o@ 8df; nfhz;l gjpf'* nt*pa(lhfg; ngwg;g6k;.
cjhuzk;
SELECT * FROM student WHERE name='SamanHerath' AND
address='Kandy' OR address='Colombo';










0l;lt'znahd;wpd; Gy/;f'* )w;'wg;g6j;jy; (=pdate Query)
UPDATE<table_name> SET < column1 = value1,column2 =
value2>

)jd; Hyk; 0l;lt'znahd;wp2*;* Gy/;f*py; Nkw;nfh*;*g; gl;l rfy
khw;w/;fSk; )w;'wg;g6j;jg;g6k;.

cjhuzk;@
UPDATE student SET STIndex=0253, name='D Saman
Herath', address='kandy City’, Class=11;

6pdate fl;l'*9ld; where ghtpj;jy;
UPDATE<table_name> SET <column1=value1,
column2=value2> WHERE <some_column=some_value>;

0l;lt'znahd;wpd; Gyk; -d;wpw;, gjpag;gl;l ju k(z;6k; khw;wg;gl
Ntz;6nkdpd; )j'dg; gad;g6j;j Ntz;6k;. 0jht+ $1,n$ 0l;lt'zapd;
name Gyj;jpd; “Saman Hera$(“ 8&k; nga'u ‘Saman Ban,ara@ 8d khw;w
Ntz;6nkdpd;1 gpd;t.k; cjhuzj;jpy; S3T )'dj; njhlu;e;+ t.k; “Saman
Ban,ara Hera$(“ 8d;g+ Gjpa ngauhf ).g;g+ld; .WH3R3 name ASaman
Hera$(@ 8d;g+ %d;dNu fhzg;gl;l ngauh,k;.

cjhuzk;@

UPDATE studentSET name='Saman Bandara Herath',
address='kandy'WHERE name='Saman Herath';
76












gjpf'* 0fw;wy; (Deleting Record>Delete Query )
DELETE FROM <table_name> WHERE <some_column
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DELETE FROM student WHERE name='Saman Bandara
Herath';

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g5%'w #
DELETE FROM sports WHERE STIndex='253';







77

g5%'w !
DELETE FROM student WHERE name='Saman Bandara
Herath';





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c.tpd; Hyk; fhzyhk;.
















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g5%'w #
0l;lt'dnahd;W Stu#ent# 8d;w ngaupy; c.thf;,jy;
CREATE TABLE student1 (STIndex int(8) not null
REFERENCES sports1(STIndex), name varchar(60) not
null, address varchar(60)not null, class varchar(3);







g5%'w !
Sports# 8d 0l;lt'z c.thf;fp O= $);)2) CASCA$) fl;l'* ghtpj;jy;.

CREATE TABLE sport1(SPIndex int(10) NOT NULL, GaName
varchar(60)NOT NULL,Teacher varchar(60) NOT NULL,
Place varchar(20) NOT NULL, STIndex int(8) NOT
NULL,PRIMARY KEY (SPIndex),FOREIGN KEY (STIndex)
REFERENCES student1(STIndex) ON DELETE CASCADE);
7(








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FOREIGN KEY (STIndex) REFERENCES student(STIndex) ON
DELETE CASCADE

g5%'w F
Stu#ent# 0l;lt'zf;, ju c*;*(6 nra;jy;
INSERT INTO student1 (STIndex, name, address, Class)
VALUES(00253,'SamanHerath','Kandy', 10);






g5%'w $
Sport# 0l;lt'zf;, ju c*;*(6 nra;jy;
INSERT INTO sport1(SPIndex, GaName, Teacher, Place,
STIndex) VALUES(001,'Cricket','Linal Ratnayake','Main
Ground',00253);






g5%'w B
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7,

g5%'w C
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Gy/;f*; nfhz;ljhf 0'kf;fk;.
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gjp nra;ak;.
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gjpak;.
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tp*f;fk;.
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fhzg;gl;ljw;fhd fhuzj;'j nj*pg6j;jk;.
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Mfpa Gy/;f'*f; nfhz;ljhf c.thf;fk;.
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nfhz;ljhf 0'kf;fk;.
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0d;dpar;rhtp'a c.thf;fk;.
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• .=S)12 S3T fl;l'* Hyk; stu#ent4 sports Mfpa 0l;lt'zfSf;,
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• e(u; tp.k;gpa F emai %ftupf'* c*;*(6 nra;ak;.
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• e(u; c*;*(6 nra;j junthd;wpy; gp'o fhzg;g6tjhff; f.jp 0j'd rup
nra;9k; tpjj;'j Muhak;.
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E6jyhf 0'k9khW )w;'wg;g6j;+f.
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fhl;rpg;g6j;jk;.
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fhl;rpg;g6j;jk;.
• Gynkhd;wp2*;* #S$In,e6) ngWkhdj;jpd; 05g;g'lapy; 0jw;,upa gjp't
fhl;rpg;g6j;jk;.
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gad;g6j;jp juf'*f; fhl;rpg;g6j;jk;.
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• FP7re - C"ic3F, FP7re - ;ric3F, F;ric3s - C"ic3sF 8d;gtw;why; ,wpf;fg;g6k;
epWtd/;f'* tp*f;,thu;.
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n,a+¡¡±+a.
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¿o__,m+o +¡¬_ ¬a+a+m¿ ¸_ +anm+_ ¸oo¿ +..¬an n¡_
(Consortium) »,¬a++m_+_a. ¿a¬a+±+a j¬m+ +anm+_+_ ¸oo¿
_m¡n,+_+_ ¸a,+a¿ »¡n__+_+_ ,_+ a¡±_¡,+¬a ¸oo¿
a+±_0a+,+¬a 6n¡¿+6++aa a¬+6++a¿.m ¸a,+a¿ a-+
a¬o+¬an¬n ¸na___ 6+++qa ¿-++nn+.[.m+m _,q a¡¿a a¡0+++a
¿++a¡¬¡ ¿o_n[__qa a¬m__¡_¬.+_++ ¿+++6++aaqa _ç+m¡m.
• joa.o (a¡¬a ¸oo¿ a_,a¡)
• n.ç+o.o (Catalogue)
• 6++aamq +..¬a+.o,
• aaan,a 6++_o,
• 6++aaaa+a,+_+_a a¡n¬m++a,+_+_a a+_+a__o.
e -+¡¬_ n,_+m ¿_ 6++¡n+[+¬a+ 6++-[aa¿. ¸¬a++am.

:. _m_¬m+ 6++o+a (.ront end rocess)
6++aama+a, a¡n¬m++a,m a¬aa++o #Por$al! )yj;jpudpay;
ngau;g;gl;5ay;1 nfh*;tdgz;l Nrfupg;G tz;5 #&ar$! Nj6nghwp1 #Sear'(
3ngine!, nfh6g;gd E'othapy; #Pa)men$ Ga$ewa)! Nghd;wtw;wpd; Hyk;
)lk;ngWk; )'lr;nraw;gh6f*; %d;%'dr; nraw;gh6f*; M,k;.

7. gpd;%'dr;nray;f*;; (Bac8-end rocess)
nfh*;td nra;Nthuplkp.e;+ tpw;g'dah*u; Neu'y (-nline! Ilhf
fl;l'*f'* nghWg;Ngw;wy;1 0tw;'wg; GJuzg;g6j;jy;1 ngh.*;gl;5ay;
%fh'kj;+tk;1 to/;,du;f*plkp.e;+ nfh*;td nra;jy;1 nfh6g;gd
nray;%'w1 nghjpaply; kw;Wk; tpepNahfpj;jy; Nghd;w't gpd;%'dr;
nray;f*; M,k;.

3 ;a-+__a±+_+++m +o »_+,-±+a++ nma_ama¡¬¡+ +¡o+a.
www. eBay.com, www. Amazon .com.





(5

epWtd t'ff*; (Types o. )rgani9ations)
cyfpy; eh*he;j tpahghu elt5f;'ff*; %d;nd6f;fg;g6k; %'wf*pd;
05g;g'lapy; tpahghu epWtd/;f'* Hd;W t'fahfg; gpupf; fyhk;.
)1 P7re 5ric31
1 ;ric3 and c"ic31
F. P7re c"ic31

n0++ n,+ (Pure Brick)
P1re Bri'k D Mo$or :- ¿¡¡¿am±+a ¿¬-+__a___t.++ a++n+,
¡.aç+¬++¬a 0a¡6++aaa_o¬o. ¿¬a 6n+¿a++ 0¡,ç+ 6++[++o
a+±+o+¬a 6+++m¡m. ¸_+a¿ a+ç+¬+++a,+_a a¡0+++__,+_a
6na_+ a++n+, ¡¬o+±+_+_ 0¡,ç+++ 6+m¿ 6++[++o a+±+o+¬a
0a¡6++aa 0a-[a.

n,+a a¡¿a +a+a. (Bricks and clicks)
¸_ ¡¿ama+m¿ 0¡,ç+ 6++[++o a+±+o+¬a¡a a¡¿a 0¡,¬o _oa+m
6++[++oa+±+o ¡+¡q+¬a¡a 0a¡6++a_a ¸_ a++n+, a+_, ¿¿a+_a.
¿_¡_ 0ao_+a++ ¿++ _¬¡¡_¿ 6_+¬o0n+¡¸.+++ +¬.+_a
+..¬a+¬a++a¿ j¡¿ ¸a¡¬¡n ,¸,__ 6++¡a 6++o+_+_ a¡n¬m
¸_¿¬¡n¬nn 6n¿a a++n+, ¡¿am±+_a ¸.±_a.
+±+o_ 6_+., a++n+, a_+nm6a+m¿ ¸_m a+ç+¬+++a,+_+_
++0__6a+_ +¬a+o 0¡,ç++m a¡¿a 0¡,¬o _oa+m ¡¬._¬¡+¬an
nmn¡¡ 6n+_.+_+++m 6++aamq +..¬a+¬a ¸_nnqa _¡__
6n+_.+¬a »a_, +¬a+ao a[_¿+ 6+oo ¸oo¿ a[+ao a¡0+++++
a¬+ 6++a¿a n,+a a¡¿a +a+a a+_,+_ ¸_ +¡¡_ »_+,-a+_a.
0a_a ¿aa+_,+_ no a+¡¿ 0+,+¬++_a »aam.

n0++ +a+ ¸¬an,++a (Pure click organization)
6n+_.+¬a¡a 0a¬a+¬a¡a ¿¬-+__a___t.++ a.[a a¡±_a
¡¿am±+a ¿¬a++_a.
Ama%on, E-;ay, Tra<e"ocity and Air Asia ($ttp/002221airasia1 com0"30en0$ome1pa#e0)
0n+m¡m +o »_+,-±+a+_a.

¡_ a¡¿a +-++.[ a.+±+ao _+ao 6_+¡o ¿.n__m n,0+++±+a

+-++.[nn_q+a
6n_an+o+m ¡¿am±+a +..,_++m ¸oo¿ _¬¡++m +-+_+a a¡¿a
¸¡+¬++¬a a±+++a,+_+_a _++¬a_¿a__¡_a _m¬ann_¡_a,
¡+a+¡_ ¡_ ¡.aç+¬++¬a +.[nn[_¿a¡_a j¿a+m +-++.[ 6am6n+_a
6n+_+¬a ¬a___++m¡m. _+++ ¿,+.++__o +¡+¿ 6_+.++a a__aa
a¬,++m a++n+,±+am a+qa n,noa+m 6am6n+_a 6n+_ Sage
www.sage.co.uk ¿_a. ¿o±¬++o ¸,+ ¡¿am±+ao +-++.[n n_q
_¬¡+_+_ CIGAS ( computer integrated government accounting system) 8d;w
nkd;ngh.*; n+mn[__nn[+m¡¿. ¿¿ _++¬a 6++a_¡0+¿a+m
n_ao_+¬a¡a (Module) 6++-[aa¿. »_+,-a++ +anann.ç+o a¡¿a
+.m a+_ ¸a+±+a.
¸_ +-++.[ _¬¡+m n,_+m n__+a nma_a n_ao_+¬a+
6++-ç_+_a.
• n.ço.o (Invoicing)
• 6++aamqn n_0a[ ( Bought ledger/ trade creators)
• a¡n¬mnn_0a[ (Sales ledger)
• a±+ ¿-++++¡¿ (Bank reconciliation)
(6

• +++nn++++o a_, q +¡o+a (Cash flow forecasts)
• a¬,+nn.. +-+_+¬a¡a n,.¬+ a_¬+¡a _m¬a__o (Producing
draft accounts and trial balances)

+.m +.[nn+[
6n+¿a++ a++n+, ¡¿ama ¸m¿ j¬m+ a++n+, ¡¿am±+_+_ +.m
¸çnn¬.+o a¡n¬m 6++¡a 0n+¿ ¸oo¿ ¸a¡¡.a_¡¿ 6++aamq
6++¡a 0n+¿ +.m 6n¡¡a,+a.a_¡¿ 6n¡0a-ç+ 6_+¬+ a¡¿a +.m
6++[_0_+_+_ 6+___ 0a-ç+ 6_+¬+, ++oa ¿++m n¡¡ _¬¡++m¿a
6+a¬a++m¿a+m _+ao+¬an 0n_a¿ ¸a++a+_a.


a±++ 6++¡n+[+_a 6++[nnmq+_a
a++n+, ¡¿am±+a 0¡,++++m_¿.m ___a¿ a±+++-+_+¬a
n,0++__¿+ 6++aaqa , 6++[++0a-ç+ 6n¡0a-ç+ ¡__6_+¬++a
_¬¡0+ 6++[++nn.[aama+ ¸oo¿ 6n¡nn.[aama+ amn¬_ ¸¡¡¿
6++aaqa a¡¿a ___a+_ a¡±+nn.[aa a±+ 0ao_+nn¡¿ 6_+.,n+m
ao¬o+¬a ¡+++_¿+ 6++aaqa a¬+6+++++ç+a+¿ ¸¬a¡_
¿o__,m+o a±++6++¡n+[+a _oa no ¡m¬a+¬an 6n¡¿+6++a+m¡m.
6n,+aao+m 6aa¡+.[+ 6++[++oa+±+a+¬a a+ a¬,a++qa
n+¿++nn++qa 0¡,¬o (online) a±++6++¡n+[+a _oa 0a¡6++aao+a .
6++[nnmq+_++++ n+mn[__nn[a ¸.¬. a++nn+m aça__o
»aa¿a ». 6+___ a[++++ç+¿a+m +.m.¬., 6+oa.¬. 0n+m¡
a¡n¬m+m 0n+¿ ¡+¿a ¿o__,m+o ¡_nn,a+¡¡a (EFTPOS - Electronic
Funds Transfer at Point of Sale) ¸¬ma_+_a n,.++a+m_+_a. ¿a_¬¡+o+m
¡_nn,a+¡¡a n-__¬m ¬+++_a_o »aa ¡¬._¬¡nn,++¬m+_+_
_,a++¬aa¿.m a+qa a¬m__¡m a++¡_ 6++[nnmq _¬¡+++qa
»aa¿. 0a_a +¡+ a++n+, ¡¿am±+a +. ¿_6_+¡o ¿.n _¬¡¬+
n+mn[_¿+m¡m. ¿o_ao a[_¿+6+oo++ç+ EFTPOS »__+a _¡0n+¿
a[_+a a¡¿a a+.¬++++, 0n+m¡ 0+¬a+a_a n+mn[__nn[+m¡m.

am_ aa_a _+ao 6_+¡o ¿.n_a (Human Resource and IT)
_+ao 6_+¡o¿.nn ,,.++o j¡n.[aa ¸na___++m¿ no0a¿
0_¬a+¬a ¡¬¡0a¡¿a¿.m ¸¬m_¿ am_ ¡.aç+¬++a_a
a+nn+,+aao+m a+¡¡± +¬a j¡n[__¡aa¿. »o+n 6n+_a+_+,__m
a_¡_ ¸¿__±+a, ¸_+aa+m 0n+.ç__m¬a+¬a ¸_+oa++++6++aao,
a+___m¬a, a+¡ +¬+__,a 0n+m¡ ¡m¬a+am 6n+_.[ 6_+¡o ¡¿am±+a
a¡¿a ¡+[+a _+ao 6_+¡o¿.n_¬_ ¸_ _a,a++ n+mn[__
¡,nn¡_++nn[+m¡m.
_+ao 6_+¡o¿..n__m a_¬+++m¿, »o+a _¿a__a 0a¬o++a,_¿a
_¬¡, 6_+¡o¡__ 0_¬ann[a _¡m6_+__, 0a¬oa++n,+a a¡¿a
6n+_a+_+, _m0m¡¡a __o+a¡¡o a+___ a+¡¡±+_+_ a__.[aa¿.
_¡nn++ ¸na___+¬.¡¿ a_a ¡+[+_+_ _m6mn0n+¿aoo+_a+¿
a++n,+a _¡¡¿ a.nn.[aam. »o+ _+ao 6n+_a+_+,__¡_ 0_¬a+++m
6n+___a+m am_ aa±+¬a »_a++++ 6++aa¿_+m 0a¡nç a++n,+am
_+++ ¸a+a+_a.
¿¬. ¸¿+_nnç++_ 0a¬o+a 6_+.,no »o+o+a+ ,_+o n+,+
a+¡¡±+a ¡¿+m¡m. ¿__¬++ 6n_an+o+m 0a¬o+¬a 6_+¡o¿.na+m¿
aaa¬¡+¬¡ 6++¿aa¿.m ¸a¡¬¡ ¿. +_¡_,_¬.+ma++
a+¡¡+¬a_¿aa¿. _+ao 6_+¡o¿.n n-++a,+_+++m a++n,+a a¡¿a
¸a,+¬a 0a¬o++a,_¿a _¬¡ amnma¡¡o a+¡¡±+a
¡¡¡¿6++-ç_++m¡m.
(7

6_+¡o¿.n n-++a,+a »o+ aaa++ a+¡ a_a¿.m ¿¬. ¸¿+_nnç++_
0a¬o++a,+am 6n_++_a ++-nn[+m¡¿. »+,_, _¡_a o_+_a 6n¿a
_+ao 6_+¡o¿.n n-++a,+a 6aa0a¿ ¿.±+a_a 0a¬o6n¿a
++__+±+a ¡¬¡+ »-[. ¿m+o ¿__¬++ a++n,+a ¸_+n.+ 6_+¡o¿.n
0_,++¡¬.+ +.o +.¡_ 6aaaaa.o+a++0a ¸¬a¡¿a am. »o+ 0+aa
¡,ano _¬¡¬a _¡0n+¿ +ana_ _..±+¬a¡a _,a+mnn_+¡aa¿.
6_+¡o¿.n__o ¿¬.¡¬o+o »aa »o+ am_ aa +¡¬_+a
n,a++__++ a++n,++¬a a¡±_a¿.m ¿++ n+nn+ n,0_+±+_+_
_¡nn++ ¸na___+¬.¡¿a_a ¡+[+_+_ n+,+ +a+o+¡a ¸¬a¡¿aam.

»¡n__¡a _+ao 6_+¡o¿.n_a (Production and IT)
»o+ +¡¬_+o 0n+.ç+a ++,-a++ »¡n__+o +[n[a +anm+a z:a¿
¿t¡¡+-ço a_,q+¡ ¿+o+_a+¿ +¡¬__ _aano+¬a¡a
a+¡¡±+¬a+¬a¡a a_,6++a+m¡m. ¿__¬++ ¡¬o¬a+_+_ +[6++[_¿
+¡¬_ ¡¬o¬a+¬a_ _++¬a_¿+ 6++aa_¡_ 0a¡nç+ +anm+a _¡__
a+¡¡±+_+_ ¸¬aa++ _a¿ »¡n__ _¬¡+¬a¡a »¡n__+ 6+oq+¬a¡a
a¬m__¡_¬.+ _¬¡+o ¸¬a_¿+6++aa¿ ¸a++a+_a. +¡¬_
a+¡¡±+_+_ j¡¡ a¬++o »¡n__+¬a aa0aan+[ 6++_o, »¡n__+
6+oq+¬a a¬m__¡_¬.+_++_a 6_+¡o¿.nn 6n+¡_¬¡ amnm 6n+¿a
0a-ç+_+¡aam. aa0aan+.[ »¡n__ _¬¡+m (Reconfigurable
manufacturing system -RMS) ¸a+± +a+am aa0aan+[ 6+++__++ ¿+¡_,±+a,
aa0aan+.[ +.[nn+..+a,+a a¡¿a _¬¡++m aça¬ann¡__ 0_¬a++m
a¡_¬¡ (methodology) ¿,_ a_q¸..o ¿++m ¿¡_ »¡n__ a¬+
a+_,+am ¸ç__aa+_a.

+¡¬_nn[___a _+ao 6_+¡o¿.n_a (marketing and IT)
_+ao 6_+¡o¿.na, +¡¬_nn[__o 6++¡n+.ç_a no0a¿ a¡+ao _+++a
a¬aa++m¡¿. »¬¡n¬n+ 0+a_¿ +¡¡_ 0+¬a¬+ a¡±+ a¬+6+++m¡¿.
j¬m+¬a _¡¿a _¿_+m ,_+ »¡n__+¬a¡a ,_+ ¸¬an,
aça±+¬a¡a 0_+¡¿a++m¡m. ¿m_a +o +¡¬__ 6_+¡¡n+[+¬a ¿,_a++
0aan[__ ¸a¡¡m _-+a+±+ao a+¡¡±+¬a j¡n[_¿+m¡m.
6n+_6+++nn.. ¿+,0a+, 6n+_.+a 6_+¡o¿¬¡+o (Consumer Packaged
Goods Industry) _¡0n+¿ j¡n.[ a_a a+¡¡a ¿_¡_ ¸_ »_+,-a+_a.
+¡¬_6++m¿+_ +¬.++++ç+ 6_+.,+++¡¡ _+ao+¬a¡a
6n¡++ç+_++qaa¿. ¿aa+¿ _,q+_a 6_+¡o¿.n_a ¿¬-++nn[a 0n+¿
+¡¬_+m a¬m__¡m, ¸¬an, a+¡¡±+a, ¸_++, a+¡¡±+a a¡¿a
a¡0+++ a+¡¡±+a __o+ma¡¬¡ ¸_+,++m¡¿. 6n+¿a++ _+ao
6_+¡o¿.na n+,+aao+m 6aa0a¿n.. 6n+_.+¬a 6aa0a¿ +¡¬_+_+_
n+,+ ¸aao a¡±+ ¸_ ¡¿am__¡_ a¬+ 6++a_m _oa++ +an,_++
»n++±+¬a¡a ao¬o+¬a¡a ¸,__a¡¡_+++¡aa¿.

a¡±+o +±+o _++¬a_¿aa (Supply Chain Management)
a¡±+o +±+o _++¬a_¿aa amnn[a¿ »¡n__¡a a¡0+++_a
6+aa0m ¡¬.6n¡ a¬+ 6++¡a a¡¿a a¡±_¡,+am ¡ç++nn.. 6n¿a+m+
+±+o_ 6_+.,o »aa.++nn.[aa +¿+¬a¡a, a+ç+¬+++a,+¬a¡a
6+m¡¬.¡a a¬,+o+m 6++o+¬a 6++¡¡¡_.m 0a¡6++a_a
6++m_¬¡++_a.
_+ao 6_+¡o¿.nn n+mn+[ ¿m¿ ++-nn[a +++o+m a¡0++++ +±+o+m
+.[nn+.ç¡_ a+ ¸a++a+m6_+m¡+++ +__nn[+m¡¿. a¡0++++ +±+o
_++¬a_¿a__m 0n+¿ _+ao 6_+¡o¿.nn n+mn+.ço j¡¿+6++aann..
a_n, +am__o 6++aann.+¬a++m¿ a¡0+++ ¡+¡q+am 0n+¿ ¸_¬m
a_nn[ 6++a_¡_,+ ¿+,0a+, a--+¬+¬+ a¬,+¬¡ 6+++m¡¿.
6n¿a+m++±+o+_+_n 6n+___a+m ¿,an 6++¡n+[+¬a n+_aa a¬++o
((

6++¡n[_¿a_¡_ _+ao 6_+¡o¿.na n+mn[__++ç+ _¬¡ +¿aa
»_am _oa aa++nn.[aa¿. ¿+_¡nnm ¿¿_+o _¡++nn.[aa
»++¿¬- z _ a++nn_m _oa www.walmar$.'om 0¡,ç+ +a_++6a+m¿
6n+___a+m a¡0++++ +±+o _++¬a_¿a 6++o _oa ¸¬.¡a
¡m¬a+¬a ¸¡¡¿+ 6++aao+a.


a++n+,_6_+.,n+._a _+ao 6_+¡o¿.n_a (Buisness Communication & IT)
_+ao 6_+.,n+.o 6_+¡o¿.na a¡¿a »o+o+a+ _+ao n,a+¡¡ _¬¡¡a
+.¡_ ¸_ ¿t¡+-[+_+_ 0ao++ aa,++ ¡¬o+o ¿,_a¬.¡¿aa¿. ¸0_
0a¬o 6na_+ 6_+¡o¿.na a¡¿a 6_+¡o ¿¬¡+_a aa,++ ¡¬o+o
nm_±+ao¬o.
_+ao 6_+¡o¿. na (IT) +_+,__ +_+__o a+_+++ n±¬+ a+++m¡¿.
¸¿ _¿ »o¬+¡a ¸_ »o++ +,+aa++ »_a+¡¡¡aa¿. »o+n
6n+_a+_+,a ¿++,¸,aa+m _+ao n,a+¡¡ _++¬a_¿a__o _±++_nn¿
¸_+,_¿ a_+m¡¿. »o+n 6n+_a+_+,__m »o+a+a++ +o
6++m _¬¡++m¿ a++n+, ¸¬an,++_+_ _+ao+am 6n¿a_¬+
_+++_¿ann[__¡aa¿.m no ,_+ a++n+, a++n,++¬a¡a
a¡±+¡aa¿.
¿m¿, _+ao 6_+¡o¿.na (IT) »o+o+a+ ,_+o a,__+ ¡.aç+¬++¬a
¿o_a++ _++¬a 6++¿6++aa__++ a¬++o ¸¬an ,++_+_ 0_¬a++m
6_+.,n+.o a¡¿a n_nn++q ++_¬+ a¡±+¡aa¿. a¡±_¡,+a,
a¡0+++a_,+a a¡¿a ¿+,0a+,+am »o+o+a+ a¬o+¬an¬n ¿¬-++,
»o+ _+ao _¬¡¬a6++m¬¡ ¸¬an,++a a___+ 6++¿aam. ¸__¬++
_+ao _¬¡ _oa +..¬a+a, a¡0+++a a¡¿a 6++[nnmq+a
__o+a¡¬¡ ¡+a _¿a¿a +-++-++ _ç+m¡¿. _+ao 6_+¡o¿.n__m
(IT) ¿m¬¡+ ¸na___+m+0o0+ ¿¿ ++__a++m¡¿.
n,¡_ 0¡+++o, _+ao 6_+¡o¿.na (IT) amn¿ _+ao+¬a 0+a++, aan6n¡,
¿+++ n+mn[a 6am6n+_a a¡¿a am6n+_a+a ¿++ ¿,-¬.¡a
(,

_¡++m¡¿. ¿++_¬¡¡_ a..__o ¿++_a _¬¡¡.m +ç+ 0+¬a++±+a
(servers) +¬.++m¡m. _,q__aa (database) a¡¿a a¬o+0+¬a 6am6n+_a
(web serving software) ¿++m ¿__¬++ 0+¬a++±+ao ¡¿ann.[aam. ¿¡_
0+¬a++±+a ¸m¿.m ¸m¿ ¿¬-++nn.[aa¿.m n+a¬m++a,+_+_
a¬onnmmo ».+..¬an,++a _oa ¿¬-n, 6+++nn.[aa¿. ¿¡_
0+¬a++±+¬a n+mn[_¿a n+a¬m++a,+a ¸a,+_+_,+ am6n+_a+a ,
¿++_a _¬¡+a , a¡¿a 6am6n+_a+a +_a+a ¿++a¡¬¡+ 6++-ç_nn, .

e – tpahghu nfh6f;fy;th/;fy; %'wf*; (Types of e –Business Transactions)
)j'd tp*f;,tjw;, %d;1 nghwp%'w Efu;Nthu;fSf;,k; rhjhuz
th5f;'fah*u;fSf;,kp'lapy; c*;* NtWghl;5'd 0wpjy; %f;fpakh,k;.
nghwp%'w Efu;Nthu; 8dg;g6gtu;1 tpahghu gz;l/;f'* 3a gad;ghl;5f;fhf
nfh*;td nra;gtu;f*htu;. th5f;'fah*u; 8dg;g6gtu; tpahghu
elt5f;'fapy; gz;l/;f'* 0y;y+ Nr'tf'* tp'y nfh6j;+
th/;,gtu;f*htu;. th5f;'fah*uhdtu; k(*;tpw;g'd 0y;y+ 3a Nj't
Nehf;fpy; tpahghu elt5f;'fapy; g/;,gw;wpatuhfk; ).f;fyhk;.

e – tpahghuj;jpd; gpujhd nfh6f;f*; th/;fy; t'ff*;
#. B2B – tzpfj;jpyp.e;+ tzpfj;jpw;, #B1ine $o B1ine!
!. B2C – tzpfj;jpyp.e;+ th5f;'fah*.f;, #B1ine $o &1$omer!
F. C2C – th5f;'fah*uplkp.e;+ th5f;'fah*.f;, #&1$omer $o &1$omer!
$. C2B – th5f;'fah*uplkp.e;+ tzpfj;jpw;, #&1$omer $o B1ine!
B. B2E – tzpfj;jpyp.e;+ Iopau;fSf;, #B1ine $o 3m0lo)ee!
C. G2C – 0urh/;fj;jplkp.e;+ th5f;'fah*.f;, #Go.ernmen$ $o &1$omer!

#. B2B – tzpfj;jpyp.e;+ tzpfj;jpw;, #B1ine $o B1ine!
epWtd/;fSf;fp'lapyhd nfh6f;fy; th/;fy;f*; )'tah,k;.
cjhuzk;@ e =tpepNahfj;ju;f*;1 e –nry N6nra;Nth.k;1 gupkhWgtu;fSk;.

!. B2C – tzpfj;jpyp.e;+ th5f;'fah*.f;, #B1ine $o &1$omer!
th5f;'fah*upd; trjpf;fhf )'zaj;jp&}lhf gz;l/;f'*9k;
Nr'tf'*9k; nfh6f;f*; th/;fy; nra;tjh,k;.
cjhuzk;@ e =rpy;y'u tpahghup (e –Tailer)1 c*;*lf;fk; to/;,du; (Content
Provider), nfh6f;f*; th/;fy; jufu; (Transaction Broker)1 Nr't to/;,du;
(Service Provider), re;'j c.thf;,gtu; #Marke$ &rea$or!, &omm1ni$)
Pro.i,er.

F. C2C – th5f;'fah*uplkp.e;+ th5f;'fah*.f;, #&1$omer $o &1$omer!
)'zaj;jp&}lhf th5f;'fah*nuh.tu; )d;&nkh. th5f;'fah*.ld;
Nkw;nfh*;Sk; tpahghukh,k;.

$. C2B – th5f;'fah*uplkp.e;+ tzpfj;jpw;, #&1$omer $o B1ine!
)/;, th5f;'fah*u; tzpfuhff; f.jg;g6t+ld; tzpfk;
th5f;'fah*uhf f.jg;gl;6 e'lngWk; nfh6f;f*; th/;fy;f*h,k;.
)t;thwhd elt5f;'ff'* If;,tpg;gjw;fhf rpy )'zaj;j*/; f*;
fhzg;g6fpd;wd.
cjhuzk;@ Planet Feed.com.

B. B2E – tzpfj;jpyp.e;+ Iopau;fSf;, #B1ine $o 3m0lo)ee!
tzpf epWtdk; jk+ epWtd Iopau;fSldhd gz;l 0y;y+ Nr't
nfh6f;f*; th/;f*;f*py; N6g6fpd;w+. epWtdk; jk+ Iopau;fSf;,
ngh.j;jkhd t'fapy; )'l%f/;f'* jk+ )'zaj;j* %jw;gf;fj;jpy;
c.thf;fpf;nfh6j;j'y )jw;, cjhuzkhf nfh*;*yhk;.

,-

C. G2C – 0urh/;fj;jplkp.e;+ th5f;'fah*.f;, #Go.ernmen$ $o &1$omer!
)/;, ngh+ kf;fSf;,j; Nj'tahd kpf %f;fpa jfty;f*;
0urh/;fj;jpdhy; to/;fg;g6fpw+.
cjhuzk;@ e –t'ythry;
http://www.srilanka.lk/index.php

Re8erences

(1). Re<erse A7ctions,
$ttp/002221re<ersea7ctions1com0re<erse6a7ctions6re#7"ar6a7ction1$tm", retrie<ed on
)?t$ G7ne ')@1
(2). Uni<ersity A""iance, Ca"mart/ Aeys to S7ccess87" S7pp"y C$ain +ana#ement,
a<ai"a5"e on"ine at $ttp/0022217san8ranon"ine1com0reso7rces0s7pp"y-c$ain-
mana#ement02a"mart-3eys-to-s7ccess87"-s7pp"y-c$ain-
mana#ement0H1U!6P)y$I+dU, retrie<ed on )? G7ne ')@





,1

Nju;r;rp #F@ jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy; El;lgj;jpd; Gjpa Nghf;,f'*9k;
8jpu;fhy topfhl;6jy;f'*f'*9k; Muha;thu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk;@ #F.#@ fzpj;jypd; Gjpa Nghf;,f'*9k; 8jpu;fhy topfhl;6jy;f'*9k;
Muha;tu;;

Neuk; @ ghlNt'*f*; "$

+¡¡o 0n¿ .

#F.#@ fzpj;jypd; Gjpa Nghf;,f'*9k; 8jpu;fhy topfhl; ly;f'*9k; Muha;thu;
• ep; cyf cjhuz/;f*; Hyk; 0wp't9k; czu;f'*9k; gw;wp
Nfhl;ghl;'l 0wpe;+ nfh*;thu;.
• 0wprhu; )ae;jpu tp:;:hdj;jpy; fhzg;g6k; (Ar$i/i'ial In$elligen'e)
nraw;'f Ez;kjp fdpzp epuyply; gw;wp Muha;thu;.
• fd;Nra; %'w'k (Kanei S)$em) fSk; czu;fSk; gw;wpa fdpzp
epuy;f'* Muha;thu;.
• 0wprhu; )ae;jpu tp:;:hdk;1 fd;nra; %'w'k 8d;gd )aw;'f
Ez;kjp /czu; gw;wp fdpzp epuy;f*ht+ld; 0't nraw;'f
Ez;kjp 0y;y+ czu; gw;wpahdnjd Ewkhl;lhu;.
• 8jpu;fhyj;jpy; 4w;glf;E5a kdpj/)ae;jpu cldp.j;jy; ('oe6i$en'e)
gw;wp tp*f;,thu;.

#F.! %ftu; njhopy;El;gj;jpd; EWf'*9k; gpuNahfj;'j9k; Muha;thu;.
• %ftu; nkd;ngh.*;f'* )d/;fhz;ghu;.
• %ftu; nkd;ngh.*;f'*9k; 0tw;wpd; gz;Gf'*9k; 0wpe;+
nfh*;thu;.
• gy; epuyu; %'w'kf*; gw;wp tprhupj;jwpthu;.

#F.F. gupzhkf; fzpj;jypd; Nfhl;gh6f'*9k; 0tw;wpd; ghupa
gpuNahf/;f'*9k; Ma; nra;thu;
• gupzhkf; fzpj;jy; gw;wp tprhupg;ghu;.
• capupay; tp:;:hd %'w'kf*py; fdpzpapd; g/;f*pg;'g Muha;thu;.
• kugpay; njhopy;El;g newp %'wf*pd; Nfhl;gh6f'* 0wpe; +
nfh*;thu;.
• gupzhkf; fzpj;jypd; gpuNahf/;f*; rpytw;'w 0wpe;+f; nfh*;thu;.

#F.$ tpahgpj;j fzpj;jypd; Nfhl;gh6f'* Ma; nra;thu; .
• tpahgpj;j fzpj;j'y tprhupj;jwpthu;.
• tpahgpj;j fzpj;j2f;, cgNahfpf;fg;g6k; njhopy;El;gj; 'j 0wpe;+
nfh*;thu;.
• tpahgpj;j fzpj;jy; gpuNahf/;f*; rpytw;'w Muha;tu;.

#F.B. fzpj;jypy; fhzg;g6k; khjpupf'* Muha;e;+ Gjpa khjpupf'*
%d;'tg;ghu;.
• 7on N1maan fzpj;j'y9k; 0jw;, 0g;gh2*;* khjpupf'*9k;
tprhupj;jwpthu;.
• )aw;'ff;, 0'kthf c*;* fzpj;j'y tprhupj;jwpthu;.
• :1an$1m fzpj;jypd; Nfhl;gh6f'* 0wpe;j nfh*;thu;.




,2

Nju;r;rp #F.# fdpzpapd; Gjpa Nghf;,f'*9k; 8jpu;fhy topfhly;f'*9k;
Muha;thu;
thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuk;

!# Mk; Ew;whz;5y; fdpzpapd; Gjpa Nghf;,
#. 0wp1 fw;wy;1 njhlu;ghly; kw;wk; cr;rg;gad; 0jpfupf;,k; t'fapy; kdpj
tu;f;fj;jpd; gpugy tpupthf;fkhf (36$enion) fdpzp 0'ke;+ t.fpd;w+.

!. fdpzpahd+1 8k+ tp.g;G ntWg;Gf;f'* 0wpe;+ nfh*;*f;E5a+k;
8k;'k tp*/;fpf; nfh*;*k; 8k;'kg; gw;wp fw;wwpaf; E5a c*;Szu;
0wpthw;w2'la+khd t'fapy; ).f;ff; E6k;.

F. fdpzp rpy;2f*;('(i0)1 8z;zk; %jy; 0wpthw;wy; t'u9khd1 c'lf*;
%jy; tp'*ahl;6g; ngh.l;f*; Nghd;w rfy tpla/;f*p2k;
fhzf;E5ajh9*;*+.

$. kdpj&f;, kpfr; rpwe;j t'fapy; Nghf;,tuj;+ %'w'k1 cz
cw;gj;jp Nghd;w 0j;jpatrpa cyfyhtpa %'wf'* (Glo2al S)$em)
fl;6g;g6j;+k;.


B. 8e;j )lj;jpyp.e;+k; Nj'tahd Neuj;jpy; Nj'tf;Nfw;w gpuNahf/;f'*
tl/;fSldhd )'zg;gpd;wp gjptpwf;,k; nra;af;E5a'k.

C. kdpju;fSf;,k; 4'da fdpzpfSf;,kp'lapy; Neu5 njhlu;G
4w;g6j;jf;E5a t'fapy;1 ,u'y )d/;fhzf;E5a1 ghu;f;ff; E5a1
thr'df'* 0wpe;+ nfh*;*f;E5a1 Nfl;ly; jpwd; 8d;gtw;'wf; nfhz;l
fdpzp t'ya'kg;Gf*; Njhd;wf;E6k;.


M. euk;G t'ya'kg;G kw;Wk; 4'da t'fapyhd nraw;'f Ez;kjp
nfhz;l kdpj'd tplk; rpy njhopy;fSf;, tp'dj;jpwd;kpf;f (mar$)
fdpzpf'* c.thf;fy;.

O. kdpj gupzhk%k;1 fdpzp gupzhk%k; -d;whfr; re;jpf;ff; E6k;.
nraw;'fahf c.thf;fg;g6k; 0wprhu;e;j 06j;j j'y%'wahd+1
kdpjd+ ep'y'a cau;j;jf;E6k;.


D. 0wptpy; fdpzp kdpj'd kp:;3tjhy;1 Gjpa 8z;zpay; rpwg;gpd%k;
(S0e'ie) fyhrhu%k; 8kf;, epfuhfg; gupzhkk; 0'l9k;.

Gjpa njhopy;El;lgk;

%-, fdpzpf*;
ghuk;gupa rpypf;fd; 05g;g'l njhopy; El;gj;jpw;,g; gjpyhf DNA capu;
)urhadtpay; (Bio &(emi$r)) kw;Wk; Hyf;EW capupay; (Molecular biology)
8d;gtw;wp&}lhf c.thf;fg;g6k; fdpzpf*pd; gad;gh6f*; gpd;t.khW.

0Gep'y fzpj;jy; (,utomic Computing)
capu; euk;gpay; %'w'k (Bio--eural)
)aw;'f Nu;g;Gf; fzpj;jy; (-ature 1nspired Computing)


,3

njhlu;gpay; ('onne'$ionim)1 rHf elj;'j (So'ial Be(a.io1r)1 nt*pg;gh6
(emergen'e! Nghd;w +'z nray;f*; -d;wp'zf;fg;gl;l +'wnahd;wh,k;.
)+ 0Nefkhf nraw;'f Ez;kjp9ld; ne./;fpa njhlu;nghd;'wf; fhl;6k;.
)+ capupay; tp:;:hdk;1 fdpzp tp:;:hdk; kw;Wk; fzpjk; Nghd;w
ghltpla/;fSld; njhlu;Ggl;5.f;,k;. 0jht+ )+ capupapy; epfo;f*pd;
khjpupapl2f;fhd fdpzp gpuNahfkhff; Ew%59k;.

#uantum fzpj;jy; Nfhl;gh6
:1an$1m njhopy;El;gg; gad;ghl;5y; nray;g6k; rhjd/;f*; gad; g6j;jg;g6fpd;w
fzpj;jy; %'w1 :1an$1m fzpj;jy; 8dg;g6fpd;w+. ,'wflj;jp
gad;g6j;jg;gl;6 c.thf;fg;gl;6*;* 8z;zpay; fdpzpf'* tpl tpj;jpahrkhd
fdpzpf*; c.thf;fg;g6fpd;wd. )f; fdpzpf*; 8z;zpay; fdpzp Nghd;w gpl;
05g;g'l'af; nfhz;6 nraw;g6tjpy;'y. gjpyhf )f;fdpzpf*; ju
gpujpepjpj;+tj;jpw;, :1an$1m gz;Gf*; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;wd. #Nyru; njhopy;
El;gj;jpd; gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;w P(o$on!

f.g;Gg;ngl;5 njhopy;El;gk; (Blac8"o2 Technology)
fdpzp nraw;gh6 gad.f;, k'wf;fg;gl;6 0tu+ Nj'tf'*
nra;+nfh6f;,k; njhoy;El;g epfo;f'* )jpy; ,wpg;glyhk;.

0ao_+ a++n,+++m ¿¬-+__a±+a.
$ttp/00#"o5a"87t7rist1com0a5o7t-i#80top-ten-trends0top-ten-comp7ter-trends-8or-t$e-)st-
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$ttp/005"o#s1ade"aide1ed71a70e"ecen#-anno7ncements0')&0)'0):0researc$-seminar-!t$-
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$ttp/002221s"ides$are1net0masscommdot0modern-tec$no"o#y-o8-comp7ters
$ttp/002221yo7t75e1com02atc$J<E:C8?IK6eL&>

Reference
T$e essentia"s o8 Comp7ter Dr#ani%ation and Arc$itect7re M T$ird Edition Kinda N7""-
G7"iaKo57r M pa#e!&=

¸¡a+,¡_¿a »-,q ,¸,aa+m¿a+m +-m (intelligent and emotional computing)

,__ ++¿,+a amn¿ ++¿?
no0a¿ ¡n,+a ¿_¬m no0a¿ a_a++ aa++¡aam,. ¸a¡¡¡+¬.+o a++
+,++m¿a 6n+___a+m¿a+m aa++6a+m¿ +0¡ ++-nn[+m¡¿.

1. ¸¡¬an 6n¡¿+ 6++aaqa 6n¡¿+ 6++-. ¸¡¬a +,++m _¬¡+o
n+mn[__++ç+ _¡m (acquire and apply knowledge)
z. am__¡_a ¡+++nn[___a (faculty of thought and reasoning)
3. am_o »+,¡_ ++_ (superior power of mind) a_a »a_-,q (intuition)

¿_+,_oa . http://www.thifreedichonary.com/intelleigence

• ,_+ +¡_,nn__¡0+¡n 6a¡¡+,a++ _+±6++[++++ç+ a¬++o ¿_+_a
¿¡¡o ¸¡q amnn[a.
• _+m a+¿a _¡¬o, 0_¬a++ma+¿ a¡¡.__++ç+ _¡m ¸¡q am¿a
aa++aa++nn.[aa¿.


,4

a+qa aa+ açao +¡m, ¸¡q amn¿ +¡_,nn__¡0+¡n n,++¬m+_+_ _,q
a¡±+++ç+ _¡m am aa++aa++ _ç¡a. ¿¿ a+m. a,++__¡_ a+__,am¡
¸0¡+ »+,m±+_+_ _a¿ a+¡a+_+,__¡_ 6n+_¡_++ç+ a¬++o
¿+¡¬+++++ +¬.+_a ¸_ aoo¬a++_a. am_a ¿aa+¿ ¿+on++
+¬.++++ç+ ¸¡¬a 6aa0a¿ 6++¡n+[+am _oa 0am0a_a a___ 6++¿
6++aa++ç+_++qa »aa¿. +¡¡om+_a ¸_na__+_a 6n¡nn[+m¡ ¸¡¬a
¿_¡_ »_+,-a+++ 6++aao+a.

+-__o +¬a, am_m +m- n+a¬m¡¸.++ ¡¬¡0a¡¡+6++aa_ ¿,an__q.m ,
+-m+_a j0_+ ¸, ¸aao ¸¡q »aa¿ a_a »-,q am__a 0_+m¡+¿.
++,-a am_m+o ¸_ _.¬a a¡±+nn.. +..¬a+_+_ j¡n 0_¬a++m
6n¿0n¡¡¬m, ¸++¡_,nn__¡_ a+__,am¡ nmm_a ¸¡¡n_+ 0++ ¸oo¿ 0a¿
¸_a_+0++ 6n¡¿+6++aa++ç+ _¡¬a »aa¿ a_a a--a am__a
0_+m¡+_+_a.

+m-+_,+ _¡m+a a¬,a++ a___+¬.¡a 0n+¿, ¸_¡_ am_m._aa
++0__a _¡¬a+¬a ,__¿a_¡_ _+¡++a 0a¡6++aann.[aam. _¬¡+.__
6_+¡o¿.n__¡_n n_o++ ¿+¡¬+++++ ++-nn[a ¡,a,++o±+a, a,n_
+o±+a, ¸__6_+¡o¿.na 0n+m¡ 6_+¡o¿.n±+¬a¡a n+mn[__++ç+
++__+±+¬a am_m ¿,++¡¿ 6++-ç_++m¡+m.

a+m. a0m+n+a_¿.m ¿m±++-o, aa++aa__o, 6++o_¬¡ a¡¿a
»_a+nn[__o 0n+m¡a¡¡¡++m _¬¡¬a+¬a¡a ¸a¡¡¡++m n+m+¬a¡a
n¡¡+ +¡¡¬o¡a ¸na___¬+¡a »-,q¬.+ +-m am+ +__ _ç¡a.
am_m¿ ama+o,+¬a ¸¡¡¿+6++-[ ¸_¡_ +,++m aa++aa_¿ ¸a¡¡¡_
6n+___a+m n_oa++++ç+ _¡¬m ¸¡_ ¿+¡_,±+_+_n 6n¡¿+6++[__o
¿_m _oa a_,n+,++nn[+m¡¿.

am_m ¿mm6a+_ am__¬.+ »-,q+¬a aa±++6++aa¿ 0n+m¿
¡n6,+_a,m ¡._¬_, _+n+a¬m, 6++o ¸m¿+++m ¸,__a 0n+m¡a¡¬¡ aa±++
6++aa++ç+ _¡¬a ¿+¡_,±+_+_ ¿_++0a-[a.

++6-+a +a,+ _oa _+n+a¬m »aa[ 6+++nn[a¿.m, ¸oa+±+ _oa
_,o »aa[ 6+++nn[a. 0a¿ »-,q+a _oa j¬m+ ».o ,_++m a+¡¡±+a
n¡¡+ _,q »aa+±+nn[a. ¿aq-,q_ _,a¬m ¿m±++-n_¡_ ¸a¡¬¡
aa±++ 6++aa++ç+ a¬++o+m _¬¡+¬m +.ç6+¿nn0a-ç¡aa¿. ¿¿
_,¬o ¿m±++-o, ¿+¡¬+ 6a+¡+¬a 6++o_¬¡nn[__o, _+_0_+¡¡__¬m
¿m±++-o 0n+m¡ no0a¿ ,o_-,q+¬a (modalities) 6++o_¬¡nn[__o,
¿+¡_,+ +¡¡o ¿.n±+a (machine learning techniques) _oa 6++¡n[__nn[a.
»_+,-a++, n_+¬.¡_ +¡_,nn__o ¸_ ¡n_¬.+ _,oo ++-nn[a ».o ++,¡_
_m¬a+¬a ¿m±++-n_m _oa ¸++¡_,nna n¡¡+ +__6_+m¬¡ 6aa+.
_ç¡a.

6++¡¬+ ¿-a_
+-m_ 6_+¡o¿.n__o, ¸¡a+¡¡_aa ¿+¡_,±+¬a¡a 6am6n+_.+¬a¡a
a___ 6++¡a ¿¬¡ 6++¡¬+ ¿--¡a¡_a ¸.±_a. am_¬mn 0n+m¿
¸¡q,¸,aa++ +¡__¿ _ç6a[++++ç+ _¡¬a +-m+_+ +¬.++m¡¿.
am__+_aa ¸¡a+¡¡o _¡¬a+¬a +-m+_n 6n¡¿+6++[__o ¿_m
0¡+++a+_a. ¿aa+¡¡¬o +-m+_n 6n¡¿+6++[___.m 6_+.,,¬.+ ¿¬¡++m¿,
6++¡¬+ ¿--¡q a_a 6n+,o _¡0n+¿ ¸na___ 6+++nn[+m¡¿. ¿_¬m
“¸¡a+¡¡_aa ¿+¡_, »¡n__ 6++¡a 6n+¡++o+a, a__+ma” amqa
¸¬¡++nn[+m¡¿. am_m+o »¡n__ 6+++nn[a ¿+¡_,±+a a¡_aa¡_
¸¡a+¡¡o »aa¬a amn¿ n¡¡ +o a__+m+a 0+aa+¬a a¿nn¡aam,.
,5

¸nnç+++m, am_m+o »_a+++nn[a ¿+¡_,±+a 6++¡n[a¿ am__+_aa
_¡¬a+¬a ¸çnn¬.+++ 6++-.¬a++¬+++o, ¿+¡_,±+_+_ am_m+o
a¡±+nn[a _¡¬a+_a ¿¡¡o+_a a+__,0a am a+_+[+m¡m,. ¸0_0n+m¿
++o ¿+¡_,±+_a 6aa+o_¡¿ a¡±+nn[a ++_ _o__o _±+¡aa¿a
¿+¡_,±+_+_aa ¸_ _¬¡n+.+_a. »-,am¬a¡a ¿+¡_,±+_+_aa am_
¿+o, _¬¡n+.ç¬m+ ++.[a_+_a. am__+_aa +a¬o, +¡0_++a, ¿0a+a
0n+m¡ »-,q+a ¿+¡_,±+_+_ ¿o¬o. ¿+0a, ¿+¡_,±+_+_ am_¬m
a_+ 6++¡n.++ç+ _¡¬a ¿o¬o amn¿a ¸a,+a¿ +___+_a.

+m0++ _¬¡¬a
a+ç+¬+++a,m a_n, 6a¿n,++¬a ¸¡¡¿ ¸a¡¡¡_n 6n+___a+m a¬++o
»¡n__+¬a¡a 0+¬a+¬a¡a a¡±_a ¿¡¡_¬.+ ¿+¡_,±+¬a »¡n__
6+++++ç+ _¡¬a ¿_¿¬¡+_a ¿+q+_.n[__nn[+m¡¿. a+ç+¬+++a,+am
a_n,, 6a¿nn¡0+¡n n-.±+a ¸oo¿ 0+¬a+a a¡± +o 0n+m¡ 6++o+am
0n+¿ 0¡,ç+++ +am__o 6++a__o ¿_m +___+_a. ¿¿ _nn+mo
¿,an++nn.., am_m+_aa +¡_¬m_ _¡m+a ¿+¡_,±+_+_ a¡±_a
6++¡¬+ ¿--¡q++, 6++¡n+6.+m¡+_a.
+m0++ a--++_ao »+,q+¬a ¿m±++-o no ++-nn[+m¡m.
1. +__¿nn_q a_a a--++_¬a +.ç6+¿n,_o (impression)
2. am++a,++ (emotion)
3. am_ »-,q+a (human sense)
4. am »-,++ (feeling)
5. »+,_¡m (sensitivity)
6. ».o a_,a¬m (physiological reaction)
7. »aa+o a_, a¬m (psychological reaction)

am_ ¿+¡_, ¸_±+¬-n, (Man Machine Co-Existence)
am_ ¿+¡_,±+¬a¡a +_a+¬a¡a »_a+++ ¸_m _oa _m¿
++,+±+¬a ¿o_a++ 6++¿ 6++a__o ¿_++oa 6_+.[ ++-nn[a
6++6o+m¡+_a. +-m ¿+¡_,a +-[nç++nn..¿a ¿+6++o+a 0a¿ _¬+
0¡++++ ¸na___+++ 6+o_+m¡¿.
_+ao 6_+¡o¿.na, 6_+.,n+.o 6_+¡o¿.na ¿++ ¿¬¡+am
_m0m¡¡_¿.m am_m¿ a+¡+¬+_¬¡ ,_+ n,0a+6a+m¬¡ 0¡++++_++
¸¬aa¬_ ++-o+a. »o+++,+aa, ¿¬-+a, amm_+o, +_+ ¿¬-+_
_a±+a 0n+m¡ ,_+ a--++_++a o.++ a+m. +_+a ¿¡¡am
a¡+a_t.++ n+-_¿+ 6++-ç_++m¡¿.
¿¿a¬, am_m+o »_a+++nn.. ¿¡¡am ¿+¡_,±+a am_¬mn 0n+o
¸__ 6++¡n+[+¬a+ 6+++++ç+ ¡¬o¬+ 0_+¡¡¡aa¿. 0,+0n+ 6_+¡o
¿.n _m0m¡¡_¿.m, no0a¿ ¿¬¡+ao 0,+0n+ ¿+¡_,±+a am__.m
6++on[a¬_ ++-++ç+_+qaa¿. am__+_ +çma+m ++,+±+a
am_m+o ¿o_ao 6¡_±+ _ç++_¿a ¿n__+m¿a+m 6++¡n+[+ao
+[n[a_¡_ 0,+0n+++a n+mn[__nn[+m¡m.
aa,+++¬.¡_ ¡+[+ao, +¡n,+ +¡¬_+a (supermarket), 6_+¡¡++¬o+a
0n+m¡ ¿.±+ao 0+¬a++¡¿a_¡_a, a,a¬o, +.oç, am6aa 0n+m¡
am_m+o ¿o_ao 6+m¡¬.+ _ç++_ +çma+m ¿.±+ao ¿,+++++¬a
0a¡6++aa_¡_a 0,+0n+++a n+mn[__nn[+m¡m.
+o a__+m+_a a¡¿a a__+m ,¬m +¬_+a_a 0,+0n+++a am_¬m
a_+ 6++on[a +¡_,nn±+a n¡¡ _a¿ a_,q+¡o+¬a 6aa+.[aam,.

n,¡¿¬,++nn.. ¿¬-+__a±+a
$ttp/00aitopics1or#0topic0ai-o<er<ie2
2221md5"1s8c13eio1ac1Np

,6

0_,++a..a :1.z _+a, 6_+¡o ¿.na+om _o++¿+¬a¡a
n,0+++±+¬a¡a ¿,++a,

»aa.++a.
• 6am6n+_a _+a,+a (software agent)
• no_+a, _¬¡¬a+a
• _+a, _¬¡¬a+am n,0+++a

a++n,n n__,a
_+a, _¬¡¬a+a (Agent system)
_+a, amnn[a¿ j_+a6_+_ _¡o_¡¿ ¸¿ »_a+++nn.. 0¡+++_¬_
¸¬.¡a a¬++o ¸+_¡oo _+m+±+++++ 6++¡n[a aoo¬a 6++-.
+-m _¬¡¬a ¸m¡+_a. _+a, ¸_a,m a0+. n-, ++a+++
6++on[a¿.m 6¡+¡q__m¬a¡.m n,_¡__¿aa 6++a_¡++m _m
0_¬a6++m¡++ ¸¬aa¿.m ¸_m _oa a_,n+,+_ +¡_,nn±+ao 6¡+¡q_
_m¬a¡.m n_¡ 6++o 6++a¬_ »¿_ 6+++¡¿.

_+a,+am a0+. n-,+a
:. _mm++++ 6++¡n+[. +_¡_,a+++ 6++¡n.++ç+¬a, ¸a¡¡m »aa+
¸¬annm ¸çnn¬.+o ¡_a+nn¬m+ ++.+nn[__o, Wor,, 36'el
0n+m¡ ¡+a n+mn[_¿a n,0+++ 6am6n+_.+a a¿qa _mm+++
_¬¡¬++ 6++-ç_++ao¬o. ¿mm+++__m¬a+m a¿_¬m n+m,+a
¿a,. ¸_a, _¿¬a++m _mm+++_¬.+a, amm +_+__m+o no0a¿
_¬.+a a_++nn..0n+__a ¿¿_+o ¸a_+_ 0_¬a6+m a_,n+,+_a
a.+_¬_+ 6_,q 6++a_¡_ ¸a,+o _ç¡a.

z. _¡6++¡n+[. 0¡+++__m a¿ ¸a_+ma 6+__¿a ¸oo¿
+am_6+__¿a ¿+o¬n 6aa+++.[a _m¬a 6++-.¿. _+a, ¸_a,
j_+a6_+_ 0¡+++__¬m _m¬a+_a 0n+¿ ¿¡0¡+++_¬_ ¸¬.a_¡_
_+¡+ 6++_¬o ¡+a a_,n+,++m0¡+a. ¿¿ j_+a6_+_ 6++6o+m¬¡
0a¡6++a_a a¬, 6++¡n.+ ¡¬o+o ¿_+_a 6n+_6a+m¡¡_
a_,a+¡+_+m_+_a.

1. a_, 6++on.o. +¸¡o a+¡¡±+_++¬aa+m n_¡6++¡ n.o+_a. ¿o+¬+
0¡+++ jann..¿a n_¡6++¡n.o 0n+m¡ ¡._¬_+_++¬.+o
»++n+_aa 6_+.,¬n +.ç+6++a_a _¬¡¬a6++m¬¡ 6++on[_¿a¿
+,aa+m ++,+a++ »aa¿.

|. +_+ ¿+_¬a. ¿¿ ¬n. n,a+¡¿ _¬¡+oo. a¡±+nn.. ¿o+¬+
¸¬.a_¡+++ 0a¿ _+a,+_.m ¿¬-¡¿ 6++o+¬a ¸m¡¬-_¿
6++on.++ç+ _¡¬a++_a. ¿nn,a+¡¡o ¸¡q a..__o 6++¡n[a.
¸_+a¿, ¸a6a+_ _+a_a _m¿ ¡an+¬+, ¿o+_, _..a ¿++a¡¬¡
a¡¡a,+_.m n,a+¡+6++a_a _¡m a_,n+,++nn[+¡¿.

¯. +_+,__o. _+a6,+_a_+_ ¿o__,m+o a¬o+¬ann_a +_+,+++
+ç+¬a.

õ. »-¬a__m¬a. _+a, 0a-[6am0¡ 6n++++m _+ao+¬a 6_+.,n+.o
6+++a+..+,.

¯. +_¬-¡aa¬a. n_¡6++o ¸m¿+6++m¿ _,-n.++ç+ 0¡+++±+a
_+a,.a ¿oo+_nç++o ¸a, _m+_ jann.. a.+±+¬a a+__,a
6++a_¡_ _+¡+nn+,.
,7

·. ¡+++__m¬a. 0¡+++__¬m ¸¬.a0_+m¡ ¸_¬m _¬. 6++a_¡++m
a¬++o 6++¡n[a_o¬o.

v. +¡¡o. _+a,+a ___a¿ ¿+_¬a+¬a ++o__¡0+¡n a___6++¿
6++aa,.
_+a, amn¿ j_+a6_+_ 0¡+++ ¸çnn¬.+o 6++¡n.+ç+a+¿
»_a+++nn.. +-m _¬¡¬a6++m¡+_a. ¿a_¬¡¬a+o a0+.a+m _+a,
6am6n+_6o+m¡m (So8t2are A#ent) Hyk; cupa nray; Nkw;nfh*;*g;g6fpw+.
)k;nkd;ngh.*; rhjhuz nkd;ngh.l;f*pyp.e;+ NtWg6t+1 0jpy; fhzg;g6k;
3Jo2f;Nfw;w czu;'lajhfk; jhdpa/;fpahfk; 0r;nraypy; N6gly;
Nghd;w tpNrl gz;Gf*pdhyh,k;.

»_+,-a. n__,¬+ ¡¿am6a+m¡m ¿¬-+__a__o_+_a _+a,
6am6n+_a+m¿, ¸¡_ ¿¬-+__a__o n+m,+am 6++¡n+[+_+0+¡n
¸a,+am 0_¬a+¬a aa±+ 0_¬a++m 6++_+¬a ++,+a+nn[__
n+m_+_ a¡±_+¡¿.

¿_¡_ ¡+,++ _+a,+am+o 6+++nn[+m¡ 6++o+_+0+¡n _+a, a¬++a
+o +0¡ _,nn.[aam.

• ¿-a_ _+a, (Intelligent Agent). +¡¡_a _,++___a 0n+m¡ 6++¡¬+
¿-a_¬+6++.ç j0__a 6++¡n+[+¬a 0a¡6++aa_¡_
»_a+++nn.. _+a,+a. An inte""i#ent a#ent in a society is a rationa" a#ent
2it$ t$e propoerties o8 proacti<ity, reacti<ity and socia" a5i"ity1

• n,an+ _+a,+a (Distributed Agent): 6na_+ ,_+o 6aa0a¡+++
++-nn[a +-m+ao 6++¡n[a _+a,+a.

• no_+a, _¬¡¬a+a (Multi Agent Systems). _m+++ 6++on.
¿+o+_nç++o ¸a6a+_a,++¬.+_a 6_+.,n+.¬o 0a¡6++a+m¡
n,an+ _+a,+a.

• ¡.a+[a _+a,+a (Mobile Agent) no0a¿ 6++o+a¡+¬.+o (Process)
_a¿ 6++¡n+.ç¬m ¿.a+¡¡a (Relocate) 6+++++ç+ _+a,+a.

%ftu;f*+ fl;l'kg;G
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nraw;wpw'dg; ngw;Wf; nfh*;tjw;, %aw;rpf;,k;.










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0t;thwhd re;ju;g;g/;f*py; nra;aNtz;5a nra'y 0wpe;+ nfh*;Sk;.
0r;nra'y njup nra;jjd; gpd; 0j'd ?oypd; k(jhd nraw;ghl;5w;,
cl;g6j;jg;g6tjw;fhf )af;fpfSf;, (e//e'$or) 0&g;gg;g6k;.





















;asic str7ct7re and pse7do-code o8 t$e str7ct7re OP1

gy;%ftu; %'w'k (Multi ,gent System)
4jht+ ?onyhd;wpy; nraw;g6k;1 0fr;nray; %ftu;f*; gy'uf; nfhz;6*;*
fzpdp %'w'k gy;%ftu; %'w'k 8dg;g6k;. jdp%ftnuh.tuhy;
j(u;f;%5ahj gpur;rp'df'* j(u;g;gjw;, )g;gy;%tfu; %'w'kf*;
gad;g6j;jg;g6fpd;wd.
,,









_+a6,+_a,m n-,+a
• n+m+o+_ ¸oo¿ 0a6¡+_ ¡+¡++++++ 6++¡n[n¬a.
• am_mm 0¡,ç ¿¬.a¡nnm¡ ¸a¡¡m »aa+ ¡¬o+a
6++¡n+[+a 0n+m¡a¡¡m+o +.[nn[__nn[a. ( Autonomy)
• _¡_+_ ¿¬+n++ ¸_m _oa 6++¡n.o. (Reactivity)
• 0_¬a+0+¡n 6++¡n[a _m¬a¡¬.+¬a (Pro-Active)
• jn0n+¿a 6++o¡¬o+o ++-nn[a (Persistence)

_+a, _¬¡¬a+m n,0+++a
¡_ a+¡+¬++m no0a¿ n__+ao _+a, _¬¡¬a+a n+a++nn[+m¡m.
»_+,-a.
• +-m a¬a++.[++a 0n+m¡ »_ann,0+++a.
• _¬,nn.±+ao.
• ¸_±+¬-++nn.. n+¿++n, _¬¡¬a+a. (Coordinated Defense System)
• ,a++o _+ao _¬¡¬a. (Geographical Information System)
• a¬o+¬ann+++_a ¡.a+[a 6_+¡o¿.n_a (NetWorking and Mobile
Technology) ¿+±_¡¬o n+,+a¡¬o (Dynamic Load Balancing) »+,+
¿oo+a 0_¬a++m ¿.±+_+_, ++_,q a¬onnmmo+_+ _. (Self
Healing)
¿_¡_ 0ao++ ¡am »o+m ¸m¡+. 6++¡n+[+¬an 0n+m¿ 0a¿
+¡_,nn±+a_a +. _+a, 6_+¡o¿..na n+mn[__nn[+m¡¿.
»_+,-a.
• 0¡+++a+am¿a a+¿ a¡_a,+am¿a 0¡++ _m¬a+¬a +-.¡¡¿
»,+ +++¬++a___a _m+-n,++_+_a.
• a[+ao a+nna,+am 6++¡n+[+¬a ¸a_+m_¿ ++_a_ 0+an,
¡.aç+¬+¬+ 0a¡6++aao.
• 0a++ +m-+o (cloud computing) aann±+[ 6++_o

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#F.F C7romosome an# @ene Stru!ture


1-2

kugpay; newp%'wf*pd; newp%'w
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1-5

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1-6

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1-7

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubiquitous_computing
http://www.wiziq.com/tutorial/8!"#-$merging-technologies-in-Ubiquitous-%omputing
http://www.academia.edu/!&#'("/Ubiquitous_%omputing_)pplications_%hallenges_and_*utu
re_+rends
http://www.media.mit.edu/
http://cooltown.hp.com/
http://portolano.cs.washington.edu/
http://computer.org/dsonline/
http://computer.org/per,asi,e
http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/computing/research/mpg/most/
www.wikipedia.com
http://www.rcet.org/ubicomp/what.htm


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Re/eren'e
)1 Coo"drid#e, +1 An introd7ction to +7"ti-A#ent Systems, nd Edition, c$apter 1
1 R7sse"" and Nor<i#, Arti8icia" Inte""i#ence, +odern Approac$, nd Edition1
&1 4ar2in, C1 Princip"e o8 Nat7ra" Se"ection,
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